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Sample records for juvenile gametophyte development

  1. Female gametophyte development in Adesmia latifolia (Spreng.) Vog. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moço,Maria C.C.; Mariath,Jorge E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The female gametophyte has a monosporic origin and a Polygonum type development. The female gametophyte growth consumes a large part of the neighboring nucellar cells and, in the micropylar region, part of the nucellar epidermis and internal integument. The mature gametophyte is composed of only four cells due to the ephemeral characteristic of the antipodals. The synergids are pear-shaped cells with the formation of filiform apparatus. Their nuclei lie in the micropylar region and large vacu...

  2. Development of the gametophyte of the fern Schizaea pusilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Swatzell, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Schizaea pusilla is a pteridophyte with several unique developmental characteristics. In contrast to most other fern species, S. pusilla gametophytes remain filamentous throughout their development, and the gametophytes are associated with an endophytic fungus which appears to be mycorrhizal. In terms of tropistic responses, apical filament cells of young gametophytes are negatively phototropic compared with germ filaments of other ferns which exhibit positive phototropism. Cryofixation (propane jet freezing and high-pressure freezing) in conjunction with freeze substitution electron microscopy was used to study young gametophytes. The results demonstrate that apical filament cells have a distinctive structural polarity and that rhizoids also can be successfully frozen by these methods. The cytoskeleton and endomembrane system were particularly well preserved in cryofixed cells. In addition, Schizaea gametophytes were used as a test system to evaluate potential artifacts of propane jet freezing and high pressure freezing. There was little apparent difference in ultrastructure between cells cryofixed by either freezing method. These gametophytes will be useful in determining the effectiveness of cryofixation techniques and as a model system in tip growth studies.

  3. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  4. Fern Gametophytes in Culture--A Simple System for Studying Plant Development and Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses fern life cycle and basic techniques for culturing fern gametophytes in the classroom. Also discusses investigations into the reproductive biology of ferns and into the early development of gametophytes. (JN)

  5. Microsporogenesis and Male Gametophyte Development of Euphorbar pulcherrima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhao; Wang Wei-wei; Li Chun-miao; Lv Xue; Wang Li-juan

    2012-01-01

    The microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development of Euphorbia pulcherrima were studied with paraffin section method. The results showed that the anther of Euphorbia pulcherrima had four chambers. The development of anther wall was dicotyledonous type; its wall consisted of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The mature male gametophyte development experienced seven major stages as the followings: archesporial cells, aporgenous cells, microspore mother cells, tetrads of microspores (tetrahedral), uninucleate microspores, 2-uncleate pollens and 2-celled pollen stage. The anther wall varied with the pollen development: the epidermis of anther ruptures at the anther mature stage; the middle layer disappears at tetrad stage; the endothelium became fibrous layer at the anther mature stage; the tapetum (glandular) was the most development at the microspore mother cells stage and disappeared at anther mature stage. The abnormal anther development was observed simultaneously.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. MALE GAMETOPHYTE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Khlebova; O. V. Bychkova

    2016-01-01

    The peculiarities of the development of the male gametophyte of Pinus silvestris L. in the urban environment were studied. Quality of pollen was evaluated by laboratory experiments through germination at the nutrient medium and by histochemical staining to determine the presence of redox enzymes. It was shown that pollen viability is closely linked to climatic and weather conditions during the period of microsporogenesis and mass pollination. Atmospheric pollution affected the pollen signific...

  7. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-06-01

    Overview of pollen development. Male gametophyte development of angiosperms is a complex process that requires coordinated activity of different cell types and tissues of both gametophytic and sporophytic origin and the appropriate specific gene expression. Pollen ontogeny is also an excellent model for the dissection of cellular networks that control cell growth, polarity, cellular differentiation and cell signaling. This article describes two sequential phases of angiosperm pollen ontogenesis-developmental phase leading to the formation of mature pollen grains, and a functional or progamic phase, beginning with the impact of the grains on the stigma surface and ending at double fertilization. Here we present an overview of important cellular processes in pollen development and explosive pollen tube growth stressing the importance of reserves accumulation and mobilization and also the mutual activation of pollen tube and pistil tissues, pollen tube guidance and the communication between male and female gametophytes. We further describe the recent advances in regulatory mechanisms involved such as posttranscriptional regulation (including mass transcript storage) and posttranslational modifications to modulate protein function, intracellular metabolic signaling, ionic gradients such as Ca(2+) and H(+) ions, cell wall synthesis, protein secretion and intercellular signaling within the reproductive tissues.

  8. Effects of blue light on gametophyte development of Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Laminaria gametophyte was greatly influenced by light in its growth and development. Using light-emitting diodes (LED) as blue and red light sources, we analyzed the light effect on gametophytes development of Laminaria japonica Aresch. The gametophytes were obtained from zoospores collected in April, May,July, 2003 and September, 2004. We found that the growth of gametophytes was stimulated by increasing intensity of blue light (BL) and red light (RL) illumination, of which BL was obviously stronger than that of RL. The fertilization of gametophytes depended largely on BL, and only sufficient BL illumination could take the reproductive effect. In addition, we noticed that there was a significant difference in light responses for gametophytes developed from zoospore collected in different times. For zoospores released in April, under BL1 (73.90 μmol sperms respectively, and further developed towards sporophytes. However, for gametophytes developed in May,July or September, they became multi-cellular and never formed oogonia or antheridia. It is believed that the Laminaria sporangium maturation stage could affect the gametophytes reaction to BL under laboratory culture conditions. Therefore, cryptochrome- or phototropin-like BL photoreceptors is probably involved in BL-induced development of Laminaria gametophytes.

  9. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  10. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of /micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from /1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in /micro-g compared to those developing on earth.

  11. Female gametophyte and embryo development in Helleborus bocconei Ten. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Felici, Cristiana; Ruffini Castiglione, Monica

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated cytohistochemistry, cycle progression, and relative DNA content of the female gametophyte cells of Helleborus bocconei Ten. before and after fertilization process. The early stages of embryo development were also investigated. H. bocconei possesses a monosporic seven-celled/eight-nucleate Polygonum type female gametophyte, characterized by a morpho-functional polarity. The cells of the embryo sac showed abundant reserves of polysaccharides, strongly increasing in the egg cell just before fertilization. With different timing in DNA replication during cell cycle progression, synergids, egg cells, and polar nuclei showed a haploid DNA content at the end of their differentiation, while antipodes underwent three DNA endoreduplication cycles. Programmed cell death symptoms were detectable in synergid and antipodal cells. After double fertilization, the central cell quickly underwent many mitotic cycles forming the endosperm, which exhibited a progressive increase in protein bodies and starch grains. Close to the developing embryo, the endosperm differentiated a well-defined region rich in a fibrillar carbohydrate matrix. The zygote, that does not start immediately to divide after double fertilization, developed in to an embryo that reached the heart stage at fruit maturation time. A weakly differentiated embryo at this time indicates a morpho-physiological dormancy of seeds, as a survival strategy imposed by the life cycle of this plant with seed dispersal in spring and their germination in the following winter.

  12. EXPORTIN1 Genes are Essential for Development and Function of the Gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recru...

  13. Developmental morphology of strap-shaped gametophytes of Colysis decurrens: a new look at meristem development and function in fern gametophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoko; Hashino, Mie; Kami, Chieko; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The gametophytes of most homosporous ferns are cordate–thalloid in shape. Some are strap- or ribbon-shaped and have been assumed to have evolved from terrestrial cordate shapes as an adaptation to epiphytic habitats. The aim of the present study was to clarify the morphological evolution of the strap-shaped gametophyte of microsoroids (Polypodiaceae) by precise analysis of their development. Methods Spores of Colysis decurrens collected in Kagoshima, Japan, were cultured and observed microscopically. Epi-illuminated micrographs of growing gametophytes were captured every 24 h, allowing analysis of the cell lineage of meristems. Light microscopy of resin-sections and scanning electron microscopy were also used. Key Results Contrary to previous assumptions that strap-shaped Colysis gametophytes have no organized meristem, three different types of meristems are formed during development: (1) apical-cell based – responsible for early growth; (2) marginal – further growth, including gametophyte branching; and (3) multicellular – formation of cushions with archegonia. The cushion is two or three layers thick and intermittent. The apical-cell and multicellular meristems are similar to those of cordate gametophytes of other ferns, but the marginal meristem is unique to the strap-shaped gametophyte of this fern. Conclusions The strap-shaped gametophytes of C. decurrens may have evolved from ancestors with a cordate shape by insertion of the marginal meristem phase between the first apical-cell-based meristem and subsequent multicellular meristem phases. Repeated retrieval of the marginal meristem at the multicellular meristem phase would result in indefinite prolongation of gametophyte growth, an ecological adaptation to epiphytic habitats. PMID:19812067

  14. Meiotic and Mitotic Cell Cycle Mutants Involved in Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Liu; Li-Jia Qu

    2008-01-01

    The alternation between diploid and haploid generations is fundamentalin the life cycles of both animals and plants.The meiotic cell cycle is common to both animals and plants gamete formation, but in animals the products of meiosis are gametes,whereas for most plants,subsequent mitotic cell cycles are needed for their formation. Clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of mitotic cell cycle progression during gametophyte development will help understanding of sexual reproduction in plants.Many mutants defective in gametophyte development and,in particular,many meiotic and mitotic cell cycle mutants in Arabidopsis male and female gametophyte development were identified through both forward and reverse genetics approaches.

  15. In vitro spore germination and gametophytic growth development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... Maximum spore germination rates (84%) were observed in. 70 g/L of sucrose and .... two weeks and gametophyte growth rates (length, width of ..... Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG. (2006).

  16. Gametophyte Morphology and Development of Six Species of Pteris ( Pteridaceae from Java Island Indonesia

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    Dwi Sunarti Puspitasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of sporophyte, the type of reproduction, and cytology of Pteris had been reported, while the gametophyte morphology of Pteris in Java island has not been studied yet. The objective of this study was to describe the gametophyte morphology and development of P. biaurita, P. ensiformis, P. exelsa, P. longipinnula, P.tripartita, and P. vittata in Java island. Spores were obtained from fertile leaves of Pteris plants originated from several locations in Java island. The number of spores per sporangium was counted from fresh fertile leaves with mature sporangia. As much as 0.002 g spores was sown in a transparent box with sterile medium contain of vermiculite, sphagnum moss, and perlite with ratio 2:2:1. The gametophyte development of each species was observed under a microscope every 7 days. The spores of P. ensiformis were germinated faster, ten days after sowing, while the spores of P. longipinnula were germinated slower, 18 days after sowing. The pattern of spore germination is Vittaria-type. The development of gametophyte is Ceratopteris-type in common, but in a few cases is the Adiantum-type. The gametophyte development of observed Pteris species is varied in six characters including the number of filament cell, germinated time, the formation time of notch and gametangia, margin shape, and development type.

  17. Abiotic environmental conditions for germination and development of gametophytes of Cyathea phalerata Mart. (Cyatheaceae

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    Catiuscia Marcon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to successfully establish themselves in their natural environment, ferns need habitats with abiotic conditions that are suitable for spore germination and gametophyte development. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of abiotic factors on the initial development of Cyathea phalerata cultivated in vitro. Spore germination and gametophyte development were assessed under varying conditions of surface sterilization, pH, temperature and photoperiod. Exogenous contamination was eliminated by sterilizing spores with 2.5 % NaClO for 15 min and sowing them into a culture medium supplemented with nystatin. Spores germinated at all pHs tested. Gametophytic development was faster in acidic pHs. Cultures at 25 °C exhibited the highest percentages of germination and laminar gametophytes. The species produced its highest percentages of gametophytes in cultures with photoperiods between 6 and 18 h. The optimal abiotic conditions found here for in vitro development of C. phalerata are similar to those found in its natural habitat. The southern limit of this species to north of the 30th parallel in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, may be because further south spores do not encounter the ideal combined conditions of temperature, pH and photoperiod determined in the laboratory.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of male gametophyte development in Nicotiana tabacum

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    Pavel Bokvaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, an extremely reduced bicellular or tricellular male reproductive structure of flowering plants, serves as a model for numerous studies covering wide range of developmental and physiological processes. The pollen development represents a fragile and vital phase of plant ontogenesis and pollen was among the first singular plant tissues thoroughly characterized at the transcriptomic level (Honys and Twell [5]. Arabidopsis pollen developmental transcriptome has been published over a decade ago (Honys and Twell, 2004 and transcriptomes of developing pollen of other species have followed (Rice, Deveshwar et al. [2]; Triticeae, Tran et al. [11]; upland cotton, Ma et al. [8]. However, the transcriptomic data describing the development of tobacco pollen, a bicellular model for cell biology studies, have been missing. Here we provide the transcriptomic data covering three stages (Tupý et al., 1983 of wild type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Samsun pollen development: uninucleate microspores (UNM, stage 1, early bicellular pollen (eBCP, stage 3 and late bicellular pollen (lBCP, stage 5 as a supplement to the mature pollen (MP, 4 h-pollen tube (PT4, 24 h-pollen tubes (PT24, leaf (LF and root (RT transcriptomic data presented in our previous studies (Hafidh et al., 2012a; Hafidh et al., 2012b. We characterized these transcriptomes to refine the knowledge base of male gametophyte-enriched genes as well as genes expressed preferentially at the individual stages of pollen development. Alongside updating the list of tissue-specific genes, we have investigated differentially expressed genes with respect to early expressed genes. Pollen tube growth and competition of pollen tubes in female pistil can be viewed as a race of the fittest. Accordingly, there is an apparent evolutionary trend among higher plants to store significant material reserves and nutrients during pollen maturation. This supply ensures that after pollen germination, the pollen tube

  19. Inhibition of Ageratina adenophora on Spore Germination and Gametophyte Development of Macrothelypteris torresiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Mei Zhang; Lei Shi; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Zhen-Yu Li

    2008-01-01

    Allalopathy of Ageratina adenophora plays an important role in its invasion. However, we have little knowledge of its allelpathic effects on ferns. In Petri dish bioassays, the inhibitory potential of aqueous leachates from roots, stems and leaves of A. adenophora was studied on the spore germination and gametophyte development of Macrothelypteris torresiana. All leachates Inhibited the spore germination and growth of the first rhizoid of M. torresiana and inhibitory effects Increased with increasing leachate concentrations. Root leachates proved most inhibitory. Gametophyte rhizoids of M. torresiana treated with stem and leaf leachates ofA. adenophora were erect, which was similar to those of the control. However, gametophyte rhizoids of M. torresiana treated with root leachates of A. adenophora were erect, but also curving or swollen. Moreover, curving and swollen rhizoids Increased with Increasing concentrations. As time went by, rhizoids treated with root leachates were not so curved and the swelling almost disappeared. Possible causes are discussed in the present study. The increasing concentrations of leaf leachates also delayed the stages of gametophyte development. With the treatment of root leachates, the delay was more obvious. Thus A. adenophora inhibited the spore germination and gametophyte development of M. torresiana and the root leachates were most inhibitory.

  20. Exportin1 genes are essential for development and function of the gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanvillain, Robert; Boavida, Leonor C; McCormick, Sheila; Ow, David W

    2008-11-01

    Gametes are produced in plants through mitotic divisions in the haploid gametophytes. We investigated the role of EXPORTIN1 (XPO1) genes during the development of both female and male gametophytes of Arabidopsis. Exportins exclude target proteins from the nucleus and are also part of a complex recruited at the kinetochores during mitosis. Here we show that double mutants in Arabidopsis XPO1A and XPO1B are gametophytic defective. In homozygous-heterozygous plants, 50% of the ovules were arrested at different stages according to the parental genotype. Double-mutant female gametophytes of xpo1a-3/+; xpo1b-1/xpo1b-1 plants failed to undergo all the mitotic divisions or failed to complete embryo sac maturation. Double-mutant female gametophytes of xpo1a-3/xpo1a-3; xpo1b-1/+ plants had normal mitotic divisions and fertilization occurred; in most of these embryo sacs the endosperm started to divide but an embryo failed to develop. Distortions in male transmission correlated with the occurrence of smaller pollen grains, poor pollen germination, and shorter pollen tubes. Our results show that mitotic divisions are possible without XPO1 during the haploid phase, but that XPO1 is crucial for the maternal-to-embryonic transition.

  1. GDP-D-mannose epimerase regulates male gametophyte development, plant growth and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Zhipeng; Fan, Meng; Chen, Yan; Tian, Haixia; Wu, Dewei; Gao, Hua; Ren, Chunmei; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2017-09-04

    Plant GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, a precursor of both L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and cell wall polysaccharides. However, the genetic functions of GME in Arabidopsis are unclear. In this study, we found that mutations in Arabidopsis GME affect pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, and transmission and development of the male gametophyte through analysis of the heterozygous GME/gme plants and the homozygous gme plants. Arabidopsis gme mutants also exhibit severe growth defects and early leaf senescence. Surprisingly, the defects in male gametophyte in the gme plants are not restored by L-ascorbate, boric acid or GDP-L-galactose, though boric acid rescues the growth defects of the mutants, indicating that GME may regulate male gametophyte development independent of L-ascorbate and GDP-L-galactose. These results reveal key roles for Arabidopsis GME in reproductive development, vegetative growth and leaf senescence, and suggest that GME regulates plant growth and controls male gametophyte development in different manners.

  2. Ovary and Gametophyte Development Are Coordinately Regulated by Auxin and Ethylene following Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. S.; O'Neill, S. D.

    1993-04-01

    The differentiation and development of ovules in orchid flowers are pollination dependent. To define the developmental signals and timing of critical events associated with ovule differentiation, we have examined factors that regulate the initial events in megasporogenesis and female gametophyte development and characterized its progression toward maturity and fertilization. Two days after pollination, ovary wall epidermal cells begin to elongate and form hair cells; this is the earliest visible morphological change, and it occurs at least 3 days prior to pollen germination, indicating that signals associated with pollination itself trigger these early events. The effects of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis on early morphological changes indicated that ethylene, in the presence of auxin, is required to initiate ovary development and, indirectly, subsequent ovule differentiation. Surprisingly, pollen germination and growth were also strongly inhibited by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that male gametophyte development is also regulated by ethylene. Detailed characterization of the development of both the female and male gametophyte in pollinated orchid flowers indicated that pollen tubes entered the ovary and grew along the ovary wall for 10 to 35 days, at which time growth was arrested. Approximately 40 days after pollination, coincident with ovule differentiation as indicated by the presence of a single archesporial cell, the direction of pollen tube growth became redirected toward the ovule, suggesting a chemical signaling between the developing ovule and male gametophyte. Taken together, these results indicate that both auxin and ethylene contribute to the regulation of both ovary and ovule development and to the coordination of development of male and female gametophytes.

  3. RWP-RK domain-containing transcription factors control cell differentiation during female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Francesca; Rizzo, Paride; Rutten, Twan; Altschmied, Lothar; Bäumlein, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    The formation of gametes is a prerequisite for any sexually reproducing organism in order to complete its life cycle. In plants, female gametes are formed in a multicellular tissue, the female gametophyte or embryo sac. Although the events leading to the formation of the female gametophyte have been morphologically characterized, the molecular control of embryo sac development remains elusive. We used single and double mutants as well as cell-specific marker lines to characterize a novel class of gene regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana, the RWP-RK domain-containing (RKD) transcription factors. Morphological and histological analyses were conducted using confocal laser scanning and differential interference contrast microscopy. Gene expression and transcriptome analyses were performed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and RNA sequencing, respectively. Our results showed that RKD genes are expressed during distinct stages of embryo sac development. Morphological analysis of the mutants revealed severe distortions in gametophyte polarity and cell differentiation. Transcriptome analysis revealed changes in the expression of several gametophyte-specific gene families (RKD2 and RKD3) and ovule development-specific genes (RKD3), and identified pleiotropic effects on phytohormone pathways (RKD5). Our data provide novel insight into the regulatory control of female gametophyte development. RKDs are involved in the control of cell differentiation and are required for normal gametophytic development. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Structure and Development of the Gametophytes of Philippine Cheilanthoid Ferns, III. Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon

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    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Cheilanthes concolor (Langsdorff et Fischer R. Tryon from the Philippines (Quezon City are no different in pattern of development and in morphology from those from India with one possible notable difference, which is, that the gametophytes under report (which were grown from spores produced from 32-sporate sporangia are apogamous while those from India (sporangial type of source was not stated are sexual.

  5. Compared gametophytic development of three species of Phebodium (Polypodiaceae, s.str.

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    Blanca Pérez-García

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the gametophytic development of Phlebodium araneosum, P. pseudoaureum and P. decumanum. Spores were collected from several Mexican localities ranging in altitude from 30 to 2300 m and sown on agar with mineral salts. Similarities in germination type and prothallial development were observed. Adult gametophytes are cordate-spathulate to cordate-reniform; gametangia are of the tipical type of the common leptosporangiate ferns. All three species share similar morphogenetic features of the gametophytes, and these do not lend additional characteristics to support the distinction of Phlebodium from Polypodium, Microgramma and Niphidium, as regard the sexual phase.Una comparación del desarrollo del gametofito de Phlebodium araneosum, P. pseudoaureum y P. decumanum fue hecha. Las esporas fueron sembradas en agar con sales minerales. Similitudes en el tipo de germinación y desarrollo protálico fueron observadas. Los gametofitos adultos fueron cordiforme-espatulados a cordiforme-reniformes; los gametangios son del tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados. Las tres especies muestran caracteristicas morfogenéticas del gametofito similares y no a aden características adicionales que apoyen la distinción entre Phlebodium, Polypodium, Microgramma y Niphidium, por lo que se refiere a la fase sexual.

  6. Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte of B. rossica Fedtsch. et Flerov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; DU Jinghong; HU Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    There were four microsporanges in the mature anther of B. rossica Fedtsc. et Flerov. The development of the anther wall belonged to dicotyledonous type. The tapetum cell was dichotypic. Simultaneous cytocinesis in the microspore mother cells formed tetrad by reduction division and the array of microspore tetrads was different. There were tetrahedron type and bilateral symmetry type. The male gametophyte was 2-cell. The mature pollen was global and tricolporate. All those results were investigated under both light microscope (LM) and electron microscope (EM).

  7. Maternal control of PIN1 is required for female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ceccato

    Full Text Available Land plants are characterised by haplo-diploid life cycles, and developing ovules are the organs in which the haploid and diploid generations coexist. Recently it has been shown that hormones such as auxin and cytokinins play important roles in ovule development and patterning. The establishment and regulation of auxin levels in cells is predominantly determined by the activity of the auxin efflux carrier proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN. To study the roles of PIN1 and PIN3 during ovule development we have used mutant alleles of both genes and also perturbed PIN1 and PIN3 expression using micro-RNAs controlled by the ovule specific DEFH9 (DEFIFICENS Homologue 9 promoter. PIN1 down-regulation and pin1-5 mutation severely affect female gametophyte development since embryo sacs arrest at the mono- and/or bi-nuclear stages (FG1 and FG3 stage. PIN3 function is not required for ovule development in wild-type or PIN1-silenced plants. We show that sporophytically expressed PIN1 is required for megagametogenesis, suggesting that sporophytic auxin flux might control the early stages of female gametophyte development, although auxin response is not visible in developing embryo sacs.

  8. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

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    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  9. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) female gametophyte and embryo pH changes during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Stage-specific measurements of female gametophyte (FG) and embryo pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were made through the sequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed development. The FG tissue from two open-pollinated trees showed similar pH profiles starting at 5.5 shortly after fertilization, increasing to about 6.1 at stage 7, levelling off at 6.3-6.5 towards the end of development and dropping to 6.0 just before cone opening. Measurements of the chalazal end were 0.05-0.2 pH units less than the micropylar end through early-to-mid-development. In contrast, embryo pH maintained a nearly constant value near 7.0 through development. Profiles of pH through seed development were similar whether portrayed by date or stage of embryo present in the seed. The pH profiles assisted in the development of improved embryogenic tissue initiation techniques. When post-autoclaving maturation medium pH was raised from about 5.3 in control medium to 5.7 or 5.5-5.7 with 2(n-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, cotyledonary embryo yields increased.

  10. Biological Features of Flowering and Development of Male Gametophyte in Anthurium andreanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing-shu; Zhu Xiao-qing; Li Feng-lan; Guo Hui-hong; Li Zhi-dan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to follow each development stage of inflorescence in order to understand the biological feature of flowering and the development of male gametophyte in Anthurium andreanum "Arizona" and to try to find the optimum conditions for its pollination. The methods of dissection and paraffin section were adopted to examine the structural characteristics of anthurium's tiny floret and the development of the microspore. All the florets of the anthurium arrange on the rhachis helically subtended by a colorful bract. Each tiny floret has one gynoecium, four tepals and four stamina. The bract and the florets show different colors during the whole blooming period. The ovary is bicarpellary and has two locules, each of which has one anatropous ovule. The placenta is of a central placentation type. The stylar canal cells not only can produce the secretory mucilage but also can release their own cytoplasm caused by their self-disintegration before the pistil reaches its maturity. The wall of the anther is composed of four layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The tapetal cells and the middle layers' cells degenerated completely during meiosis of microsporocytes. The pollen grains were 2-celled at the time of anther dehiscence. Early morning, when the inflorescences stay at their fifth development stage, is the optimum opportunity for pistil to get pollen grains. The pollen-collection should be done at the end of the seventh stage.

  11. Development and structure of the female gametophyte in Austrobaileya scandens (Austrobaileyaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Hiroshi; Kimoto, Yukitoshi; Prakash, Nallamilli

    2007-05-01

    Austrobaileyales, comprising the four families Austrobaileyaceae, Trimeniaceae, Schisandraceae, and Illiciaceae, are included in the basal angiosperms along with Amborellaceae and Nymphaeaceae. Here, we present the first developmental study of the female gametophyte in Austrobaileya scandens, the only species of Austrobaileyaceae, which are sister to the rest of the Austrobaileyales. Austrobaileya scandens has a four-celled/four-nucleate embryo sac as in the derived families of the order, e.g., Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae. It is monosporic, with the chalazal megaspore of a tetrad developing into the embryo sac composed of an egg cell, two synergids, and one polar nucleus. This mode of embryo sac formation was first reported in Schisandra over 40 years ago and should now be established as the Schisandra type. Its occurrence in A. scandens shows that the Schisandra-type embryo sac is likely common to the whole Austrobaileyales as well as to Nymphaeaceae. Amborellaceae were recently reported to have an eight-celled/nine-nucleate embryo sac, clarifying that none of the basal angiosperms has the seven-celled/eight-nucleate Polygonum-type embryo sac found in the majority of angiosperms, and that the Polygonum-type embryo sac represents a derived character state in angiosperms.

  12. The Arabidopsis Plant Intracellular Ras-group LRR (PIRL Family and the Value of Reverse Genetic Analysis for Identifying Genes that Function in Gametophyte Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy R. Forsthoefel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana has proven a powerful system for developmental genetics, but identification of gametophytic genes with developmental mutants can be complicated by factors such as gametophyte-lethality, functional redundancy, or poor penetrance. These issues are exemplified by the Plant Intracellular Ras-group LRR (PIRL genes, a family of nine genes encoding a class of leucine-rich repeat proteins structurally related to animal and fungal LRR proteins involved in developmental signaling. Previous analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants showed that two of these genes, PIRL1 and PIRL9, have an essential function in pollen formation but are functionally redundant. Here, we present evidence implicating three more PIRLs in gametophyte development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that disruption of either PIRL2 or PIRL3 results in a low frequency of pollen morphological abnormalities. In addition, molecular analysis of putative pirl6 insertion mutants indicated that knockout alleles of this gene are not represented in current Arabidopsis mutant populations, suggesting gametophyte lethality may hinder mutant recovery. Consistent with this, available microarray and RNA-seq data have documented strongest PIRL6 expression in developing pollen. Taken together, these results now implicate five PIRLs in gametophyte development. Systematic reverse genetic analysis of this novel LRR family has therefore identified gametophytically active genes that otherwise would likely be missed by forward genetic screens.

  13. An atlas of type I MADS box gene expression during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Heijmans, Klaas; Airoldi, Chiara; Davies, Brendan; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-09-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally characterized, which revealed important roles for these genes during female gametophyte and early seed development. The functions of the other genes are still unknown, despite the fact that the available single T-DNA insertion mutants have been largely investigated. The lack of mutant phenotypes is likely due to a considerable number of recent intrachromosomal duplications in the type I subfamily, resulting in nonfunctional genes in addition to a high level of redundancy. To enable a breakthrough in type I MADS box gene characterization, a framework needs to be established that allows the prediction of the functionality and redundancy of the type I genes. Here, we present a complete atlas of their expression patterns during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis, deduced from reporter lines containing translational fusions of the genes to green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase. All the expressed genes were revealed to be active in the female gametophyte or developing seed, indicating that the entire type I subfamily is involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, expression was predominantly observed in the central cell, antipodal cells, and chalazal endosperm. The combination of our expression results with phylogenetic and protein interaction data allows a better identification of putative redundantly acting genes and provides a useful tool for the functional characterization of the type I MADS box genes in Arabidopsis.

  14. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Heijmans, Klaas; Airoldi, Chiara; Davies, Brendan; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally characterized, which revealed important roles for these genes during female gametophyte and early seed development. The functions of the other genes are still unknown, despite the fact that the available single T-DNA insertion mutants have been largely investigated. The lack of mutant phenotypes is likely due to a considerable number of recent intrachromosomal duplications in the type I subfamily, resulting in nonfunctional genes in addition to a high level of redundancy. To enable a breakthrough in type I MADS box gene characterization, a framework needs to be established that allows the prediction of the functionality and redundancy of the type I genes. Here, we present a complete atlas of their expression patterns during female gametophyte and seed development in Arabidopsis, deduced from reporter lines containing translational fusions of the genes to green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase. All the expressed genes were revealed to be active in the female gametophyte or developing seed, indicating that the entire type I subfamily is involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, expression was predominantly observed in the central cell, antipodal cells, and chalazal endosperm. The combination of our expression results with phylogenetic and protein interaction data allows a better identification of putative redundantly acting genes and provides a useful tool for the functional characterization of the type I MADS box genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:20631316

  15. The ABNORMAL GAMETOPHYTES (AGM) gene product of Arabidopsis demonstrates a role in mitosis during gamete development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Kroeber, Sandra; Saedler, Heinz

    2004-07-01

    Screening a T-DNA mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for reduced seed set and segregation distortion led to the isolation of the ABNORMAL GAMETOPHYTES (AGM) mutant. Homozygous plants were never recovered, but heterozygous plants showed mitotic defects during gametogenesis resulting in approximately 50% abortion of both the male and female gametes. Isolation of the genomic sequence flanking the co-segregating T-DNA element led to the identification of a gene located on chromosome 5, predicted to encode a transmembrane protein. BLAST homology searches identified two homologous proteins that are not redundant, as is clear from the existence of the agm mutant. Unexpectedly, expression studies using the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene suggest that AGM and its closest Arabidopsis homolog are mostly expressed in cells undergoing mitosis. Thus, AGM is not a gametophytic gene as originally speculated on the basis of segregation distortion, but rather classified as an essential gene crucial to the process of mitosis in plants.

  16. In Vitro Development of Gametophyte and Sporophyte in Several Fern Species

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro differentiation of the gametophyte and sporophyte of Pteridophyta, conducted through the culture, on nutritive media, of the green, incompletely differentiated sporangia and spores, exhibits a variety of peculiarities. Whereas in the case of the spore culture, a single prothallus is usually obtained out of the spore, in the case of the green sporangia (sori) culture, a group (colony) is obtained out of a single explant, a group which is made up of numerous prothalli. The agarized...

  17. 野雉尾金粉蕨配子体发育及其系统学意义%Gametophyte development in Onychium japonicum and its systematic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晰朝

    2016-01-01

    than the top. It looked like a coin from the top and a chimney from the side. Its neck consisted of four rows of cells. When the archegonium was fully developed, sperm entered and fertilized the egg cell inside. Half a month later, a young embryo could be clearly seen. About 90 d after sowing,the spores developed into juvenile sporophytes which were visible to the naked eye. It could be concluded from the findings that O. japonicum shared similar characteristics with Pteris of Pteridaceae in terms of gametophyte development. Therefore, O. japonicum could be classified into the Pteridaceae family. The study would provide evidence for the phylogenetic study of O. japonicum from the perspective of gametophyte development.%野雉尾金粉蕨为中国蕨科金粉蕨属植物,而金粉蕨属的系统位置一直存在争议。该研究用原生境腐殖土和改良克诺普氏( Knop’ s)营养液对野雉尾金粉蕨的孢子进行培养,培养条件为温度25℃、光照强度2500 lx、光照12 h/d,在光学显微镜下观察记录其孢子萌发和配子体发育过程。结果表明:野雉尾金粉蕨的孢子为黄褐色,四面体型,三裂缝,赤道面观为扇形,具周壁,外壁表面具网状纹饰。孢子培养7d后开始萌发,孢子萌发类型为书带蕨型( Vittaria-type)。孢子萌发后,配子体原始细胞经多次横向分裂形成3~9个细胞的丝状体,丝状体细胞呈圆筒形,壁薄,侧壁向外鼓起,含有颗粒较大且数量较多的叶绿体。15 d左右发育为片状体,片状体多为匙状。25 d左右形成幼原叶体,幼原叶体不对称,配子体发育类型为水蕨型( Ceratopteris-type)。在原叶体发育过程中分枝丝状体非常发达,配子体呈丛状生长,整个发育过程没有毛状体产生。野雉尾金粉蕨的假根为单细胞管状,偶有分支,内无叶绿体。45 d左右精子器开始出现,精子器顶面观近圆形,侧面观为近椭圆形或短柱

  18. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  19. Sporophyte morphology and gametophyte development of the fern Blechnum sprucei (Pteridophyta: Blechnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Gabriel y Galán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fern Blechnum sprucei grows in Mesoamerica (Costa Rica and South America, from Colombia to Bolivia, SE and centre of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. It is a distinctive, somewhat vulnerable, mostly orophilous species. Fresh and dry herbarium material was used for this study. Herbarium material for anatomical studies comes from CTES, BA, LP, MA, SI and UC (Holmgren et al.1990. Selected representative specimens are additionally cited after taxonomic treatment of the species. Dry material was restored with aqueous 4:1 butil cellosolve. Pinnae were cleared with aqueous 6% NaOH, then coloured with aqueous 1 % TBO (Gurr 1966. Hand made transverse sections of young and adult stipes, and costae were done in fresh and restored herbarium material. Venation and epidermal patterns were analyzed in basal, apical and medium pinnae, but only the latter were illustrated. The size and density of stomata were measured in medium pinnae from all studied samples, values shown are the average of 25 measures per sample; sizes are expressed as minimum, media and maximum length x width, in µm, and density as minimum, media and maximum number of stomata / mm². Spores were studied with SEM, mounted on metal stubs with double sided tape, covered with gold under vacuum and photographed with a Jeol /EO JSM 6360 (15 KV SEM. Spores were also studied with light microscope, mounted in DePex (DePex mounting medium, Gurr, BDH Laboratory Supplies, Poole BH15 1TD, UK and measured using an ocular micrometer. Measurements are based on a minimum sample of 100 spores taken from different specimens. Sizes are expressed as the longest equatorial diameter/ polar diameter, in µm. Gametophytes were studied from material collected in the subtropical forest of Tucumán Province, Argentina. Spore samples for cultures were taken from single sporophytes kept dry at room temperature since the date plants were collected. Gametophytes were grown under fluorescent light. Multispore cultures

  20. Cytological Analyses on Development of Male and Female Gametophytes in an Interspecific Hybrid F1 from Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-dong; DAI Liang-fang; QIAN Chun-tao; CHEN Jin-feng

    2006-01-01

    An interspecific hybrid F1 of Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L. (NC4406) was used to establish the developmental sequence and to characterize the male and female gametophytes at cytological level for further understanding of the phylogenic relationship and the mechanism of fertility or sterility in the interspecific hybrid F1. The development of male and female gametophytes was studied through meiotic analysis and paraffin section observation technique, respectively.Meanwhile, the fertility level was assessed through hybrid F1 backcrossing to cultivated cucumber 4406. Variable chromosome confgurations were observed in the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of hybrid F1 at metaphase Ⅰ, e.g., univalents,bivalents, trivalents, quadravalents, etc. At anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ, chromosome lagging and bridges were frequently observed as well, which led to the formation of polyads and only a partial number of microspores could develop into fertile pollen grains (about 23.3%). Observations of the paraffin sections showed numerous degenerated and abnormal embryo sacs during the development of female gametophytes, and only 40% of the female gametophytes could develop into normal eight-nuclear megaspore. On an average, 22.8 and 6.3 seeds per fruit could be obtained from the reciprocal backcross. The interspecific hybrid F1 of C. hystrix × NC4406 was partially fertile; however, the meiotic behaviors of hybrid F1 showed a high level of intergenomic recombination between C. hystrix and C. sativus chromosomes, which indicated that it plays an important role for introgression of useful traits from C. hystrix into C. sativus.

  1. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  2. Systematic deletion of the ER lectin chaperone genes reveals their roles in vegetative growth and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kien Van; Nguyen, Ngoc Trinh; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Lee, Hojoung; Hong, Suk-Whan

    2017-03-01

    Calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) are homologous lectin chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that facilitate glycoprotein folding and retain folding intermediates to prevent their transit via the secretary pathway. The Arabidopsis genome has two CNX (CNX1 and CNX2) and three CRT (CRT1, CRT2 and CRT3) homologs. Despite growing evidence of the biological roles of CNXs and CRTs, little is understood about their function in Arabidopsis growth and development under normal conditions. Here, we report that the deletion of CNX1, but not of CNX2, in the crt1 crt2 crt3 triple mutation background had an adverse effect on pollen viability and pollen tube growth, leading to a significant reduction in fertility. The cnx1 crt1 crt2 crt3 quadruple mutation also conferred severe defects in growth and development, including a shortened primary root, increased root hair length and density, and reduced plant height. Disruption of all five members of the CNX/CRT family was revealed to be lethal. Finally, the abnormal phenotype of the cnx1 crt1 crt2 crt3 quadruple mutants was completely rescued by either the CNX1 or CNX2 cDNA under the control of the CNX1 promoter, suggesting functional redundancy between CNX1 and CNX2. Taken together, these results provide genetic evidence that CNX and CRT play essential and overlapping roles during vegetative growth and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 蝴蝶兰雄配子体发育观察%Development of male gametophytes in Phalaenopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍成厚

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The development of male gametophytes in Phalaenopsis was studied in order to collect and preserve Phalaenopsis hybrids. [Method]PoLlinia at different parts of scapes in Phalaenopsis were taken, fixed in FAA solution, stained in Ehrlich's haematoxylin, and then passed through a routine procedure of paraffin method. [Result]The microspore tetrads meiotically formed from pollen mother cell meiosis were tetrahedral, isobilateral, decussate, T-shaped and remained in massulae, which formed pollinia. The mitosis of the microspore was unequal and resulted in the formation of two unequal cells. The small one was the generative cell and the large one, the vegetative cell. With the development of pollen, the generative cell migrated into the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell. When the pollens were matured, the generative cell was spindle-shaped and the vegetative nucleus was crescentic. [Conclusion]The mature pollen grains of Phalaenopsis were 2-celled and pollinias of the basal buds were also very good source for pollination.%[目的]观察蝴蝶兰雄配子体的发育过程,探讨蝴蝶兰雄配子体发育规律,为蝴蝶兰种质资源的收集与保存和杂交育种提供参考依据.[方法]将蝴蝶兰花粉块用改良FAA固定,爱氏苏木精整体染色,常规石蜡切片用显微镜观察雄配子体的发育过程.[结果]蝴蝶兰小孢子母细胞减数分裂形成的小孢子四分体有四面体形、左右对称形、交叉形和T形等多种类型,小孢子四分体联结在一起形成花粉小块,并由花粉小块聚集成花粉块.小孢子进行不对称有丝分裂形成1个小的生殖细胞和1个大的营养细胞.随着花粉发育,生殖细胞进入营养细胞的细胞质中,花粉成熟时生殖细胞呈梭形,营养核呈新月形.[结论]蝴蝶兰为二细胞型花粉,花葶基部花蕾的花粉块可作为杂交育种授粉材料.

  4. Effects of Salinity on the Development of Hydroponically Grown Borage (Borago officinalis L. Male Gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh TORABI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of salinity on the development of anther in hydroponically-grown borage was studied. Plants grown on hydroponic media are rapidly and transiently stressed. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate the microscopic effects of salinity on the formation, development, and structure of anthers. Flowers, at different developmental stages, were removed, fixed in FAA, embedded in paraffin, and cut into 7-10 μm slices using a microtome. Staining was carried out with Hematoxylin-Eosine, and the developmental stages of the control and NaCl-treated plants were compared. In control plants young anther consisted of 4 pollen sacs. Anther wall development followed the typical dicotyledonous pattern and was composed of an epidermal layer, an endothecium layer, and the tapetum. Microspore tetrads were tetrahedral. Salinity caused certain abnormalities during pollen developmental processes, such as the destruction of the anther wall and both the degeneration and production of abnormal pollen grains. A decrease in plant fecundity, which involves aborting pollen, followed by a change in resource from reproductive activities to metabolic reactions is possibly a general response to the deleterious effects of salinity.

  5. Development of the gametophytes, flower, and floral vasculature in Dichorisandra thyrsiflora (Commelinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C R; Stevenson, D W; Kiss, H G

    2000-09-01

    The flowers of Dichorisandra thyrsiflora (Commelinaceae) are monosymmetric and composed of three sepals, three petals, six stamens, and three connate carpels. The anthers are poricidal and possess a wall of five cell layers (tapetum included). This type of anther wall, not previously observed in the Commelinaceae, is developmentally derived from the monocotyledonous type via an additional periclinal division and the persistence of the middle layers through anther dehiscence. Secondary endothecial thickenings develop in the cells of the two middle layers only. The tapetum is periplasmodial and contains raphides. Microsporogenesis is successive and yields both decussate and isobilateral tetrads. Pollen is shed as single binucleate grains. The gynoecium is differentiated into a globose ovary, hollow elongate style, and trilobed papillate stigma. Each locule contains six to eight hemianatropous to slightly campylotropous crassinucellar ovules with axile (submarginal) placentation. The ovules are bitegmic with a slightly zig-zag micropyle. Megagametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. The mature megagametophyte consists of an egg apparatus and fusion nucleus; the antipodals having degenerated. The floral vasculature is organized into an outer and inner system of bundles in the pedicel. The outer system becomes ventral carpellary bundles. All other floral vascular traces originate from the inner system.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of gametophyte development in Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lihong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression plays a pivotal role in controlling the development of multicellular plants. To explore the molecular mechanism of plant developmental-stage transition and cell-fate determination, a genome-wide analysis was undertaken of sequential developmental time-points and individual tissue types in the model moss Physcomitrella patens because of the short life cycle and relative structural simplicity of this plant. Results Gene expression was analyzed by digital gene expression tag profiling of samples taken from P. patens protonema at 3, 14 and 24 days, and from leafy shoot tissues at 30 days, after protoplast isolation, and from 14-day-old caulonemal and chloronemal tissues. In total, 4333 genes were identified as differentially displayed. Among these genes, 4129 were developmental-stage specific and 423 were preferentially expressed in either chloronemal or caulonemal tissues. Most of the differentially displayed genes were assigned to functions in organic substance and energy metabolism or macromolecule biosynthetic and catabolic processes based on gene ontology descriptions. In addition, some regulatory genes identified as candidates might be involved in controlling the developmental-stage transition and cell differentiation, namely MYB-like, HB-8, AL3, zinc finger family proteins, bHLH superfamily, GATA superfamily, GATA and bZIP transcription factors, protein kinases, genes related to protein/amino acid methylation, and auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin signaling pathways. Conclusions These genes that show highly dynamic changes in expression during development in P. patens are potential targets for further functional characterization and evolutionary developmental biology studies.

  7. Comparative expression profiling reveals gene functions in female meiosis and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; He, Jiangman; Cai, Hanyang; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Yanqiang; Liu, Renyi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Qin, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Megasporogenesis is essential for female fertility, and requires the accomplishment of meiosis and the formation of functional megaspores. The inaccessibility and low abundance of female meiocytes make it particularly difficult to elucidate the molecular basis underlying megasporogenesis. We used high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis to identify genes expressed in female meiocytes (FMs) by comparing gene expression profiles from wild-type ovules undergoing megasporogenesis with those from the spl mutant ovules, which lack megasporogenesis. A total of 862 genes were identified as FMs, with levels that are consistently reduced in spl ovules in two biological replicates. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting followed by RNA-seq analysis of DMC1:GFP-labeled female meiocytes confirmed that 90% of the FMs are indeed detected in the female meiocyte protoplast profiling. We performed reverse genetic analysis of 120 candidate genes and identified four FM genes with a function in female meiosis progression in Arabidopsis. We further revealed that KLU, a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is involved in chromosome pairing during female meiosis, most likely by affecting the normal expression pattern of DMC1 in ovules during female meiosis. Our studies provide valuable information for functional genomic analyses of plant germline development as well as insights into meiosis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  9. Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indicaljaponica Hybrids in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Zeng; Chao-Yue Hu; Yong-Gen Lu; Jin-Quan Li; Xiang-Dong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major masons for sterility in indicaljaponica hybrids In rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indicaljaponica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagamatogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucallus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  10. Effects of light intensity on the growth of gametophytes and on the growth of juvenile sporophytes of eisenia bicyclis and ecklonia cava (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Sekitanbai riyo jinko mosho no kaihatsu. Arame*kajime no haigutai oyobi yohoshitai no seicho ni taisuru koryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuo.

    1988-11-01

    In order to utilize the coal ashes from a coal fired power plant, the study of marine macrophyte beds creation using concrete blocks which were mixed with the coal ashes, was carried out. The reaction between the light intensity which is closely related to the depth of water and the growth of laminariacese macrophyte was clarified. Furthermore, the basic data for the marine macrophyte beds creation were studied. Gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava were cultured for 20 days under the conditions as follows: water temperature 20 {plus minus} 0.5{degree}C; light intensity 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1300 {mu}E/m{sup 2}/s (abbreviated to e{mu}E); photoperiod 12/12h. The gametophytes of the two species showed maximum growth at 100 {mu}E and growth rate reduced at more than 200 {mu}E. On the other hand, the sporophytes of the two species showed maximum growth at 400 {mu}E, indicating a greater light demand than that gametophytes. 12 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. NUCLEAR FUSION DEFECTIVE1 encodes the Arabidopsis RPL21M protein and is required for karyogamy during female gametophyte development and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portereiko, Michael F; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Lloyd, Alan; Dever, Chad A; Otsuga, Denichiro; Drews, Gary N

    2006-07-01

    Karyogamy, or nuclear fusion, is essential for sexual reproduction. In angiosperms, karyogamy occurs three times: twice during double fertilization of the egg cell and the central cell and once during female gametophyte development when the two polar nuclei fuse to form the diploid central cell nucleus. The molecular mechanisms controlling karyogamy are poorly understood. We have identified nine female gametophyte mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), nuclear fusion defective1 (nfd1) to nfd9, that are defective in fusion of the polar nuclei. In the nfd1 to nfd6 mutants, failure of fusion of the polar nuclei is the only defect detected during megagametogenesis. nfd1 is also affected in karyogamy during double fertilization. Using transmission electron microscopy, we showed that nfd1 nuclei fail to undergo fusion of the outer nuclear membranes. nfd1 contains a T-DNA insertion in RPL21M that is predicted to encode the mitochondrial 50S ribosomal subunit L21, and a wild-type copy of this gene rescues the mutant phenotype. Consistent with the predicted function of this gene, an NFD1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to mitochondria and the NFD1/RPL21M gene is expressed throughout the plant. The nfd3, nfd4, nfd5, and nfd6 mutants also contain T-DNA insertions in genes predicted to encode proteins that localize to mitochondria, suggesting a role for this organelle in nuclear fusion.

  12. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The development of gametophytes and its' antheridiogen system of Dryopteris erythrosora%红盖鳞毛蕨配子体发育及其成精子囊素系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力超; 刘沨; 曹建国; 戴锡玲

    2012-01-01

    The effects of light and darkness on spore germination percentage of the fern Dryopteris erythrosora are investigated. Moreover,the effects of antheridiogen of D. Erythrosora on its' spores germination and gametophyte development and on spores germination, gametophyte development of Ceratopteris thalictroides are investigated respectively. The results exhibit: ① The light illumination is not the prerequisite of spore germination of D. Erythrosora. However, the light can markedly promote the spore germination. ② In light condition, antheridiogen of D. Erythrosora promotes the spore germination and the development of the male gametophytes,but inhibits the development of the bisexual gametophytes. But in darkness,the antheridiogen does not promote the spore germination. ③ The antheridiogen of D. Erythrosora at different stage of gametophyte development exhibits no obvious effects on the spores germination and gametophyte development of Ceratopteris.%研究了光照和黑暗条件对红盖鳞毛蕨孢子萌发率的影响,同时研究了红盖鳞毛蕨成精子囊素对其孢子萌发和配子体发育的影响以及红盖鳞毛蕨成精子囊素对水蕨孢子萌发和配子体发育的影响.实验表明:①光照不是红盖鳞毛蕨孢子萌发的必要条件,但能显著促进其萌发;②在光照条件下,红盖鳞毛蕨成精子囊素可促进其孢子萌发和雄配子体发育;在黑暗条件下不能促进其孢子萌发;③红盖鳞毛蕨配子体各发育时期产生的成精子囊素对水蕨孢子萌发和配子体发育均无显著影响.

  14. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  15. Identification of transcription-factor genes expressed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Il-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the female gametophyte is typically a seven-celled structure with four cell types: the egg cell, the central cell, the synergid cells, and the antipodal cells. These cells perform essential functions required for double fertilization and early seed development. Differentiation of these distinct cell types likely involves coordinated changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors. Therefore, understanding female gametophyte cell differentiation and function will require dissection of the gene regulatory networks operating in each of the cell types. These efforts have been hampered because few transcription factor genes expressed in the female gametophyte have been identified. To identify such genes, we undertook a large-scale differential expression screen followed by promoter-fusion analysis to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Results Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, we analyzed 1,482 Arabidopsis transcription-factor genes and identified 26 genes exhibiting reduced mRNA levels in determinate infertile 1 mutant ovaries, which lack female gametophytes, relative to ovaries containing female gametophytes. Spatial patterns of gene transcription within the mature female gametophyte were identified for 17 transcription-factor genes using promoter-fusion analysis. Of these, ten genes were predominantly expressed in a single cell type of the female gametophyte including the egg cell, central cell and the antipodal cells whereas the remaining seven genes were expressed in two or more cell types. After fertilization, 12 genes were transcriptionally active in the developing embryo and/or endosperm. Conclusions We have shown that our quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR differential-expression screen is sufficiently sensitive to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the female gametophyte. Most of the genes identified in this

  16. Study on gametophyte vegetative growth of Undaria pinnatifida and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shao-Jun; Wu, Chao-Yuan

    1996-09-01

    When cultured under certain environmental conditions (25°C, light intensity 80 μmol/m2·s, LD 12/12, in enriched seawater medium with 7×10-4 mol/L NO3-N, 1.56×10-4 mol/L, PO4-P and supplements of other elements like Mn, Fe, I, etc.), male and female gametophytes of U. pinnatifida kept growing vegetatively and propagated fast at average daily fresh weight increase rate of about 20%. The empirical formula G m= G o·3m was established to estimate the output of vegetative gametophytes. Vigorous vegetative gametophyte cells began to form reproductive structures (oogonium and spermatangium, when the temperature was lower than 25°C and other environmental factors were kept optimal. The sufficient supply of gametophyte cells provided enough seeds for raising Undaria sporelings on production scale. Controlled cross-breeding experiments using selected male and female gametophyte clones which increase their cell number by mitosis instead of meiosis were also carried out in vitro. Juvenile sporophytes from the cross-breeding had almost the same length and width increase rates as those of the control. The fact that vegetative gametophytes can be purposely selected, propagated quickly, cross-bred, with the resulting sporophytes having almost the same characteristics leads to a new way to select desired Undaria strains for long time use without losing the desired economic characteristics.

  17. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  18. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  19. Comparative morphology of the gametophyte of some Thelypteroid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Tuhinsri

    1981-01-01

    A study of the development of the gametophytes of sixteen thelypteroid ferns reveals similarities and significant differences among them. Combinations of the diversified features of the prothalli appear to have a tremendous impact on identification and delimitation of the major taxa, and support the

  20. Female Gametophyte Development and Endangered Mechanism Research inIsoetes yunguiensis%云贵水韭雌配子体发育及其濒危机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玮; 谭桂娟; 刘子玥; 路靖; 刘保东

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the reproductive process and endangered reason ofIsoetes yunguiensis, its female gametophytes were obtained by artiifcial culture, the development of female gametophyte was observed by using semithin section technology. The results showed that the germination rate of megaspore was 26%. The female gametophyte was heterotrophic, and developed in megaspore wall throughout its lifetime. There were only two neck canal cells and no ventral canal cell in archegonium development ofI. yunguiensis. The main reasons led to reproductive endanger could be female gametophyte development stop in free nuclear stage, less neck wall cell or arranged disorders, neck canal cell abnormal, apoptosis of egg, and so on. Meanwhile, free nuclear is one of important steps in reproductive biology and systematics study ofIsoetes. The missing ventral canal cell might be a characteristic of simplicity evolution ofIsoetes.%为了解云贵水韭(Isoetes yunguiensis)的生殖过程和濒危原因,采用人工培养获得其雌配子体,用半薄切片法观察雌配子体发育过程。结果表明,云贵水韭的大孢子萌发率约为26%;雌配子体异养,终生都在大孢子细胞壁内发育;颈卵器发育只有2枚颈沟细胞而无腹沟细胞。雌配子体发育停止在游离核时期、颈壁细胞数量偏少或排列紊乱、颈沟细胞异常、卵细胞凋亡等可能是导致生殖濒危的原因。同时,游离核是水韭生殖生物学研究和系统学研究的重要环节之一;缺失腹沟细胞可能是水韭类简化性进化的特征之一。

  1. Microsporogenesis and the development of male gametophyte in Swertia bimaculata%獐牙菜小孢子发生及雄配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衡宇; 龙华; 易婷婷; 李鹂

    2010-01-01

    Microsporogenesis and the development of male gametophyte in Swertia bimaculata were studied by the method of paraffin section for the first time in the present paper. The main results can be concluded as follows:Anthers are tetrasporangiate, the development of anther walls conforms to the basic type and comprises of epidermis, endothecium,two middle layers and tapetum at mature stage. The tapetum has dual origin and belongs to the Glandular type. The degenerating tapetum nuclei in the middle of anther locules are from the tapetum cells,which undergo mitosis,then intrude into the anther locules and degenerate in situ at the early stage. Two middle layers are ephemeral;endothecium and epidermis persists and develops to become fibrous-thickening. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cell in meiosis is of the simultaneous type. Most of the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral and there are still a few other types,such as isobilateral,dilateral. Pollen grain is mainly 2-celled type when shed, occasionally 3-celled type,and it has three apertures.%用石蜡切片法对獐牙菜小孢子发生及雄配子体发育过程进行首次观察研究.主要结果如下:花药四室,药壁发育为基本型;绒毡层异型起源,属于腺质型绒毡层,药室内具有的退化绒毡层核是早期该层细胞有丝分裂凸入药室中央并原位退化形成的;中层细胞2层;药室内壁同表皮同时宿存,细胞柱状伸长,纤维状加厚.小孢子母细胞减数分裂为同时型,四分体排列方式主要为四面体形,少数为左右对称形和十字交叉形;成熟花粉多为2-缅胞类型,偶见3-细胞型,具三萌发孔.

  2. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Heijmans, K.; Airoldi, C.A.; Davies, B.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally cha

  3. Irregularities in the development of male and female gametophytes in the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophpllus L. cv. William Sim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zenkteler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that numerous teratological transformations of the pistils and stamens account for the complete or partial female and male sterility in D. caryaphyllus L. cv. William Sim. Moreover, the degeneration of generative organs was accompanied by irregularities in the development of macro-and microsporogenesis.

  4. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Heijmans, K.; Airoldi, C.A.; Davies, B.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally

  5. Studies on the Morphology of Gametophytes'Development of Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz .) Baill%五味子配子体发生的形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾军; 秦红艳; 王振兴; 刘迎雪; 范书田; 杨义明; 许培磊; 赵莹

    2013-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法对五味子配子体发育研究的结果表明,五味子的雄配子体发生经历一个较长的时期,从8月中下旬初生造孢细胞产生到第2年5月下旬成熟花粉粒形成(去除休眠期180d ),约经历90d左右的时间;从小孢子母细胞产生到成熟花粉粒形成,需经历30d左右的时间。雌配子体从8月中下旬胚珠原基分化开始至翌年的5月下旬胚囊分化完成(去除休眠期180d),需90d左右的时间;从大孢子母细胞形成到胚囊分化完成需经历15d左右的时间。%The development of gametophytes of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz .) Baill were observed using paraffin section technique ,the results showed:There was a long course of male gamete generation of about 90 days(except 180 days'dormant period ) from primary sporogenous cell born in mid and late August to formation of mature pollen grain in the last -ten-day of May next year .It required about 30 days from the gen-eration of microspore mother cell to the formation of mature pollen grain .For the female gamete generation ,it was about 90 days from the differ-entiation of ovular primordiun in mid and late August to the accomplishment of embryonic sac's differentiation in late May of next year (except 180 days'dormant period ) .15 days were needed from the formation of macrospore mother cell to the accomplishment of embryonic sac's differ-entiation .

  6. Development of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Treatment for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Naomi E. S.; Serico, Jennifer M.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Kalbeitzer, Rachel; Kemp, Kathleen; Lane, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders exhibit high levels of anger, relational aggression, and physical aggression, but the population has long been ignored in research and practice. No anger management treatments have been developed specifically for this population, and no established anger management treatments are empirically supported for use with…

  7. Development of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Treatment for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Naomi E. S.; Serico, Jennifer M.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Kalbeitzer, Rachel; Kemp, Kathleen; Lane, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders exhibit high levels of anger, relational aggression, and physical aggression, but the population has long been ignored in research and practice. No anger management treatments have been developed specifically for this population, and no established anger management treatments are empirically supported for use with…

  8. Building on Strength: Positive Youth Development in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton William H.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of an exploratory study of juvenile justice programs where managers and practitioners are attempting to build youth interventions with strength-based, positive youth development principles. Previous researchers have not adequately documented how such reforms take place, let alone whether they produce effective…

  9. Microsporogenesis and Male Gametophyte Development of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid%青阳参小孢子发生和雄配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定康; 孙桂芳; 翟书华; 赵铮; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Using traditional paraffin wax section, fluorescence microscopy, cytochemistry and TEM techniques, the microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid were observed in detail. The results showed that the anthers are 2-locular; the archesporium is hypodermal in origin and differentiates at two places; the archesporial cells divide periclinally to form a primary parietal layer and the primary spo-rogenous layer; the parietal layer then divides to form the tapetum; the tapetum is formed by 1 - 2 layers cells and is of the secretory type, it provides food materials to the developing microspores and the secretion to form the membrane of pollinium; the primary sporogenous cells function directly as the microspore mother cells; there are some starch grains, protein, endoplasm, chloroplast, lipocyte and vacuole existed in mature pollens; the membrane of pollen and pollinium contains protein and lipid; the nucleus of the microspore divides to produce the vegetative and generative nuclei; no true cell plate is formed but the cells are separated by a clear concave space; the generative cell is lenticular in outline and smaller in size than the vegetative cell.%利用常规石蜡制片技术、荧光显微技术、光镜细胞化学技术、电子显微镜技术对青阳参小孢子发生和雄配子体发育进行了详细观察.结果显示,小孢子孢原细胞起源于皮下组织并在两个地方分化;孢原细胞平周分裂形成初生壁层和初生造孢层,初生壁层细胞再经过平周分裂形成2层细胞,其中最内一层即为绒毡层,绒毡层为分泌型绒毡层,既为小孢子发育提供营养来源,又分泌分泌物形成包围花粉粒的膜;初生造孢层细胞直接行使小孢子母细胞的功能;成熟花粉粒中含有大量淀粉粒、蛋白质、内质网、叶绿体、脂体和大液泡;包围花粉粒的膜和花粉粒之间的膜含有蛋白质成分和脂类成分;小孢子细胞核分裂

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi modify element distribution in gametophytes and sporophytes of a fern Pellaeaviridis from metaliferous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnau, Katarzyna; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; Ryszka, Przemysław; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Anielska, Teresa; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the element distribution within mycothallic and nonmycothallic gametophytes and the early stages of sporophyte development of Pellaea viridis (Pteridaceae) were investigated. Gametophytes of this fern were collected from soil samples originating in the ultramafic area of the Agnes Mine near Barberton, South Africa. The gametophytes were grown on both the original soil and on a plant growth substratum obtained from the local botanical garden. Gametophytes and young sporophytes grown on substratum inoculated with Glomus tenue or non-inoculated were freeze-dried, and the distribution of elements was studied using micro-PIXE. The GeoPIXE II software package was used for quantitative elemental mapping complemented by data extracted from arbitrarily selected micro-areas. The obtained results suggest that although the fern itself avoids the uptake of large amounts of heavy metals, increased levels of Ni, Cr, Fe, Co and Ti were found in the part of the gametophyte that hosted the fungal endophyte. This finding suggests that the fungus might be active in the immobilisation of certain potentially toxic metals that are taken up from the soil by the plant, although other mechanisms cannot be excluded. For the first time, precise, quantitative measurements of the concentration of individual elements in the fern gametophytes and young sporophytes were obtained, along with their distribution within the plant parts.

  11. Morphological development of larvae and juveniles of Prochilodus argenteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irũ Menezes Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prochilodus argenteus is an endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin that is of high economic and environmental importance. The present study aimed to contribute with information to the taxonomic identification of larvae and juveniles of this species. Larvae , obtained from induced spawning of wild animals, were reared in ponds. Individuals were collected daily and classified into larval stages or juvenile phase. Morphological descriptions and morphometric measurements were performed, together with a piece wise linear regression analysis of the body proportions throughout the development process. Individuals in the preflexion stage had a standard length (SL of 4.48 to 6.64mm, long to moderate body (BH/SL, small to moderate head (HL/SL, and a small to moderate eye (ED/HL. In the flexion stage, the SL varied from 6.60 to 11.00mm, long to moderate body, moderate head, and small to moderate eye. Larvae in the postflexion stage presented SL of 10.54-19.93mm, moderate body, moderate to big head and small eye. The juvenile phase included specimens with a SL of 18.27 to 42.21mm which presented a moderate to high body, big head and small to moderate eye. Regression analysis showed significant moments of change in rate of increase of the body proportions, presenting a change in the growth pattern from allometry to isometry during the early development.

  12. Cross-talk between sporophyte and gametophyte generations is promoted by CHD3 chromatin remodelers in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, Benjamin; Henderson, James T.; Svedin, Elisabeth; Fiers, M.A.; McCarthy, Kyle; Smith, Amanda; Guo, Changhua; Bishop, Brett; Zhang, Heng; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Shockley, Allison; Dilkes, Brian P.; Boutilier, K.A.; Ogas, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Angiosperm reproduction requires the integrated development of multiple tissues with different genotypes. To achieve successful fertilization, the haploid female gametophytes and diploid ovary must coordinate their development, after which the male gametes must navigate through the maternal sporophy

  13. Decorin prevents the development of juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botfield, Hannah; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Skjolding, Anders Dæhli; Berry, Martin; McAllister, James Pat; Logan, Ann

    2013-09-01

    In post-haemorrhagic and other forms of communicating hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid flow and drainage is obstructed by subarachnoid fibrosis in which the potent fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β has been aetiologically implicated. Here, the hypothesis that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist decorin has therapeutic potential for reducing fibrosis and ventriculomegaly was tested using a rat model of juvenile communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was induced by a single basal cistern injection of kaolin in 3-week-old rats, immediately followed by 3 or 14 days of continuous intraventricular infusion of either human recombinant decorin or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle). Ventricular expansion was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at Day 14. Fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β/Smad2/3 activation and hydrocephalic brain pathology were evaluated at Day 14 and the inflammatory response at Days 3 and 14 by immunohistochemistry and basic histology. Analysis of ventricular size demonstrated the development of hydrocephalus in kaolin-injected rats but also revealed that continuous decorin infusion prevented ventricular enlargement, such that ventricle size remained similar to that in intact control rats. Decorin prevented the increase in transforming growth factor-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 levels throughout the ventricular system after kaolin injection and also inhibited the deposition of the extracellular matrix molecules, laminin and fibronectin in the subarachnoid space. In addition, decorin protected against hydrocephalic brain damage inferred from attenuation of glial and inflammatory reactions. Thus, we conclude that decorin prevented the development of hydrocephalus in juvenile rats by blocking transforming growth factor-β-induced subarachnoid fibrosis and protected against hydrocephalic brain damage. The results suggest that decorin is a potential clinical therapeutic for the treatment of juvenile post

  14. Novel sporophyte-like plants are regenerated from protoplasts fused between sporophytic and gametophytic protoplasts of Bryopsis plumosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takahiro; Hishinuma, Tasuku; Kataoka, Hironao

    2004-06-01

    Protoplasts of the marine coenocytic macrophyte Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh. [Caulerpales] can easily be obtained by cutting gametophytes or sporophytes with sharp scissors. When a protoplast isolated from a gametophyte was fused with a protoplast isolated from a sporophyte of this alga, it germinated and developed into either one of two completely different forms. One plant form, named Type G, appeared quite similar to a gametophyte, and the other, named Type S, looked similar to a sporophyte. While the Type G plant contained many small nuclei of gametophyte origin together with a single giant nucleus of sporophyte origin, the Type S plant contained many large nuclei of uniform size. These large nuclei in the Type S plant had metamorphosed from the gametophytic nuclei, and were not formed through division of the giant nucleus of sporophyte origin. Fragments of the Type S plant, each having such a large nucleus, developed into creeping filaments that look very similar to sporophytes. While cell walls of gametophytes and Type G plants were stained by Congo-red, those of the thalli of regenerated Type S plants and sporophytes were not stained by the dye. This indicated that the large nuclei of the Type S plant did not express genes for xylan synthesis, which are characteristic of gametophytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis revealed that most of the proteins synthesized in the Type S plant were identical to those of sporophytes. These results strongly suggest that in the Type S plant, the gametophytic nuclei are transformed into sporophyte-like nuclei by an unknown factor(s) produced by the giant nucleus of sporophyte origin and that the transformed nuclei express the set of genes characteristic of sporophytes. Despite morphological similarity, however, the regenerated Type S plant could not produce zoospores, because its large nuclei did not divide normally. The transformed large nuclei of gametophyte origin still seemed to be in the haploid

  15. The Study on Ovule Genesis and Development of Female Gametophyte of Carica papaya L.%番木瓜胚珠发生与雌配子体形成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛; 肖德兴; 田双; 潘平香

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to illuminate ovule genesis and development of female gametophyte of Carica papaya L., find out genetic background of Carica papaya L. and supply relative information for seed production. Parafin section and hematoxylin dyeing were used in the experiment. Experiment materials were made into permanent microscopic mount whose thickness was 10-12 μm. Finally, Nikon photomicroscope was used to photograph. The results found that the ovule was anatropous, bitegminous and crassinucellate, not forming micropyle. The single archesporial originated from cuticle of the nucellus. The megaspore tetrad arranged linearly. The megaspore near chalaza was the functioning megaspore. The development of embryo sac was the polygomum type. In the 8-nucleate embryo sac, 3 karyon near chalaza formed antipodal cells ahead of other karyon. Finally the female gametophyte consisted of one oocyte and one central cell. Before the oocyte was fertilized the two pole nucleus of central cell had comulated into a secondary karyon and the other cells disappeared. The study indicated that ovule genesis and development of female gametophyte of Carica papaya L. were in accord with universal law of angiosperm. However, there was some difference from other pursuer' s study. Complex genetic background of Carica papaya L. perhaps caused distinct difference of experiment material which leaded to different results.%本研究力求探明番木瓜胚珠发生与雌配子体形成的过程,为进一步了解其遗传背景和指导今后种子生产提供有关资料.实验采用石蜡制片法将材料制成永久制片,切片厚度10~12 μm,铁矶苏木精整染,Nikon摄影显微镜观察拍照.结果发现番木瓜胚珠倒生,双层珠被,不形成珠孔,厚珠心;单孢原细胞起源于珠心表皮细胞下,大孢子四分体呈直线形排列,合点端的大孢子为功能大孢子;胚囊发育类型为蓼型;八核胚囊中合点端有3个核优先形成反

  16. 阿月浑子大、小孢子的发生及雌、雄配子体发育%Megasporogenesis,Microsporogenesis and Development of Gametophytes of Pistacia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭新; 白志英; 路丙社; 庞曼; 王洁; 冯献宾; 董倩

    2011-01-01

    利用常规石蜡切片技术,对阿月浑子的大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育过程进行观察,探讨其发育过程中是否存在生殖障碍。结果表明:(1)花药壁由外向内分别为表皮、药室内壁、中层和绒毡层。绒毡层类型为腺质绒毡层。(2)小孢子母细胞减数分裂过程中的胞质分裂方式为同时型,小孢子四分体排列方式为左右对称型。(3)成熟花粉粒为2-细胞型,具有3个萌发孔。(4)子房具有1个胚珠,基生胎座,双珠被,厚珠心,倒生型;胚囊发育类型为蓼型。(5)雌配子体发育过程存在部分胚珠退化现象。%The microsporogenesis,megasporogenesis,and development of the male and female gametophytes of pistachio were observed by paraffin section technique to test whether there is any obstacle of reproduction in the process of sexual reproduction.The results showed:(1)The wall of anther consists of epidermis,endothecium,middle layers and tapetum from out to inside,tapetum cell is of glandular tapetum.(2)Cytokinesis during meiosis of the microspore mother cell was simultaneous type,and tetrads were isobilateral(.3)Mature pollen grain was 2-cell type with three germ pores(.4)There is an ovary that contains one ovule,ovules occur at the base of ovary.The ovule was anatropous,bitegmic and crassinucellate.The development of embryo sacs belonged to polygonum type.(5)Some of female gametophyte was abnormal.

  17. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE ON THE GAMETOPHYTE OF SOME PTERIDOPHYTE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of lead acetate on spore germination and gametophyte differentiation in the pteridophyte species Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana. The study was conducted to determine the lead tolerance level of these species.The experimental variants were: Control - Knop solution, V1-100 ppm lead acetate and V2-500 ppm lead acetate. The spores were cultivated in 50 ml of experimental solutions. The culture vessels were kept in the growth room in controlled conditions. The percentage of spore germination was determined after two weeks. Microscopic observations were performed on gametophyte development after 3, 7 and 15 weeks, respectively from the initiation of cultures. Lead acetate influenced both spore germination and gametophyte differentiation. As regards the germination process, Athyrium filix-femina was the least influenced by the lead acetate added to its culture medium. In addition to the decline in germination percentages, we also recorded a delay in the process of gametophyte differentiation and necrosis of prothallic cells. In the V2 variant we noticed the inhibition of cell division in the germinated spores; no further gametophyte differentiation occurred. Athyrium filix-femina is a more tolerant species to this substance as compared with Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana.

  18. Mycorrhizal-like interaction between gametophytes and young sporophytes of the fern Dryopteris muenchii (Filicales) and its fungal endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jaramillo, Irma; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Aquiahuatl-Ramos, Ma de los Angeles

    2008-09-01

    The morphology of a Glomus-like fungus-host interaction in chlorophyllous gametophytes and young apogamic sporophytes of Dryopteris muenchii A.R. Sm. was studied from ferns cultivated in laboratory, using soil as substrate. An aseptate fungus colonized the gametophytes' tissue through the rhizoids, developing vesicles. The fungus penetrated the young sporophytes primary roots by developing appressoria. It spread forming inter- and intra-cellular hyphae through the epidermis and the outermost cortical cell layers, where it formed vesicles, hyphal coils-like and arbuscules. The fungus hyphae never colonized the gametophyte-sporophyte cellular junction. The fungal structures observed on D. muenchii during this study, are rather similar to those reported for the plant host-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) interaction, where the AMF described belonged to Phylum Glomeromycota. Therefore, this study is a contribution to the scarce knowledgement of the association between AMF and chlorophyllous gametophytes and young apogamic sporophytes of ferns.

  19. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  20. Uncovering the post-embryonic functions of gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 500-1 000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes mutate to embryonic lethality. In addition, several hundred mutations have been identified that cause gametophytic lethality. Thus, a significant fraction of the ∼25,000 protein-coding genes in Arabidopsis are indispensable to the early stages of the diploid phase or to the haploid gametophytic phase. The expression patterns of many of these genes indicate that they also act later in development but, because the mutants die at such early stages, conventional methods limit the study of their roles in adult diploid plants. Here, we describe the toolset that allows researchers to assess the post-embryonic functions of plant genes for which only gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal alleles have been isolated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1982-01-01

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the m

  2. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the

  3. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1982-01-01

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the m

  4. Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of Gametophytes in the Rare Endangered  Plant Manglietia patungensis Hu%珍稀濒危植物巴东木莲胚胎学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发菊; 李凤兰; 梁宏伟; 姚露; 何正权

    2008-01-01

    对巴东木莲(Manglietia patungensis Hu)的花发育以及胚胎发育过程进行了系统研究.巴东木莲花顶生,花器官头年年底开始分化到第二年3月分化出花被、雌雄蕊群直至6月发育成熟.雌蕊成熟时胚珠倒生,双珠被,厚珠心,大孢子四分体线形排列,合点端发育成功能大孢子,珠孔端的3个退化,大孢子为单孢子发生型,胚囊发育方式属蓼型;雄蕊花药外侧壁玫瑰红色,内侧有4个白色花粉囊,绒毡层有1层多核细胞,小孢子四分体排列方式多为左右对称形和交叉形,四面体形,偶为T字形和线形,成熟花粉粒为二细胞型.在巴东木莲花发育和大、小孢子发生以及雌、雄配子体形成过程中未见异常现象,因此笔者认为该物种的花器官发育以及雌、雄配子体发育并不构成导致该物种濒危的因素.%A detailed morphological description of megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis, and develop-ment of the male and female gametophytes in the rare endangered plant Manglietia patungensis Hu is presented for the first time after three-year' s continuous investigation. The ovule is anatropous, biteg-mic, crassinucellate and with a obturator. No irregularities have been found in the process from the dif-ferentiation of archespofial cells to the tormation of megaspores. The megaspore mother cells undergo mi-osis and develop into a linear tetrad. The large one at chalazal end is functional megaspore and devel-oped into a polygonum type of embryo sac after the third mitotic division. Each anther of M. patungensis Hu with four sacs, a mature anther wall successively comprises an epidermis, endothecium, two-layered middle layer and one or two-layered glandular tapetum. The meioses of microspore mother cell is normal and cytokinesis is modified simultaneous type, and tetrads are tetrahedral, decussate and isoblateral, oc-cassionally linear. The pollen grains are monocolpate and two-celled at shedding and the pollen grains

  5. Bridging the generation gap: flowering plant gametophytes and animal germlines reveal unexpected similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hugh G; Grant-Downton, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Alternation of generations underpins all plant life histories and is held to possess important adaptive features. A wide range of data have accumulated over the past century which suggest that alternation from sporophyte to gametophyte in angiosperms includes a significant phase of 'informational reprogramming', leaving the founder cells of the gametophyte developmentally uncommitted. This review attempts to bring together results from these historic studies with more recent data on molecular and epigenetic events which accompany alternation, gametophyte development and gametogenesis in angiosperms. It is striking that most members of the other principal group of multicellular eukaryotes--the animals--have a completely different a life history: animals generate their gametes directly from diploid germlines, often set aside early in development. Nevertheless, a comparison between animal germlines and angiosperm gametophyte development reveals a number of surprising similarities at the cytological and molecular levels. This difference in life history but similarity in developmental process is reviewed in the context of the very different life strategies adopted by plants and animals, and particularly the fact that plants do not set aside diploid germlines early in development.

  6. 甜瓜花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体的细胞学研究%Cytological Studies on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells and Development of Male Gametophyte in Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永兵; 陈劲枫; 伊鸿平; 钱春桃; 吴明珠

    2011-01-01

    With improved staining and chromosome preparing method, thin and thick rind melon (Cucumis melo L. ) were used to study meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMC) and development of male gametophyte.The results indicated:(1)both types of melon have a simultaneous cytokinesis and a relative high synchronization in nuclear division. Nucleolus disappeared gradually from prophase Ⅰ to metaphase Ⅰ ,reappeared at prophase Ⅱ and then disappeared. With condensation of chromatins,chromosome became more and more identifiable from prophase Ⅰ to metaphase Ⅰ ,and illegible at telophase Ⅰ with de-helixation. Chromosomes were prominent again at both poles in PMC at prophase Ⅱ. (2)At diakinesis,most chromosome configurations were ring bivalents for all melons. (3)Two kinds division of chromosome were observed at anaphase Ⅱ , reciprocally vertical and parallel division. (4)Nucleolus number was more than other melons both at prophase Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Jiashi melon,which demonstrating the speciality of Jiashi melon. (5)During the development of male gametophyte, unicleate, bicleate and mature 3-celled pollen stage were observed in both types melon. It could be concluded that meiotic chromosome behaviors of PMC was accordant between two types melon in China,and the unique nucleolus number shown in Jiashi melon was relevant to ecological adaptability.%以薄皮和厚皮类型甜瓜为试材,采用改良的染色体制片方法,系统观察了甜瓜花粉母细胞的减数分裂及雄配子体发育的过程,结果表明:(1)甜瓜细胞核减数分裂的同步性较高,细胞质是同时型分裂,在细胞核分裂的过程中,核仁在前期Ⅰ到中期Ⅰ逐渐消失,在前期Ⅱ再次出现,随后消失,染色体在前期Ⅰ到中期Ⅰ逐渐收缩,变得清晰,至末期Ⅰ变得模糊,在前期Ⅱ再次清晰;(2)2种类型甜瓜终变期的染色体构型都以环状二价体为主;(3)在后期Ⅱ,观察到染色体的垂直和平行2种分离方式;(4)在前期Ⅰ和前期

  7. The Progress in Study on Development of Fern Gametophytes and Differentiation of Sex Organ%蕨类植物配子体发育及其性器官分化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建武; 刘宁

    2001-01-01

    作者概述了蕨类植物生活周期中不同发育阶段的特点,并着重介绍了光、植物生长调节物质、水和温度等因素对蕨类植物配子体发育的影响以及成精子囊素、光、钙离子和其它植物生长调节物质在性器官形成和分化过程中的作用。同时作者对蕨类植物性器官分化的不稳定性进行了探讨、并结合目前蕨类植物性器官分化的遗传学和分子生物学研究的最新进展,说明蕨类植物作为研究系统在植物生物学研究领域中的优势。%In this paper the authors reviewed the characteristics in the different phases in the life cycle of ferns. Special attentions were given to the effect of light, plant growth regulators, water and temperature on the fern gametophyte development, and the effect of antheridiogen, light, calcium and other plant growth regulator on the formation and differentiation of fern sex organ. The labile sex expression in ferns was also discussed. In the light of the latest genetic and molecular biological research, we concluded that the ferns are suitable subjects for the purpose of biological study on plants.

  8. Anatomical studies on microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte in pansy%三色堇小孢子发生和雄配子体发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 徐永清; 王莹; 胡宝忠

    2014-01-01

    运用石蜡切片法对三色堇(Viola tricolor L.)小孢子发生及雄配子体形成进行研究。结果表明,三色堇成熟的花药有4个小孢子囊,花药壁发育为基本型,共6~7层,从外至内依次是表皮、药室内壁、中层和绒毡层,绒毡层发育类型为腺质绒毡层。小孢子母细胞减数分裂为连续型,四分体呈四面体型排列。成熟花粉为2-细胞型或3-细胞型,在一个横切面上最多具有5个萌发孔。%The microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte of pansy (Viola tricolor L.) were studied with the method of general paraffin section technology. The results showed that the mature anther of pansy had four microsporanges. The growth of the anther wal with six or seven layers belonged to tetrahedron type. The layers from the inside out of anther wal were epiderm, endothecium, middle layer and secretory glandular tapetum of pansy successively. The cytokinesis division of the microspore mother cellwas successive type and the tetrad was tetrahedron type. Mature pol en was 2-celled or 3-celled which had five germinal pores.

  9. Addressing Trauma and Psychosocial Development in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth: A Synthesis of the Developmental Neuroscience, Juvenile Justice and Trauma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Evans-Chase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Youth incarcerated in the juvenile justice system are disproportionately exposed to traumas both in and outside of custody that are associated with poor social, behavioral, and developmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe one pathway through which trauma can impact a myriad of outcomes, including delinquency, violence, substance use, and other behaviors that are self-regulatory in nature. Relevant research from the developmental neuroscience, juvenile justice, and trauma literatures are drawn upon and synthesized to describe this pathway. Using a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the role that brain development and neural activity play in the relationship between trauma and associated behavioral outcomes could serve to inform juvenile justice policy decisions and intervention practice. Such application could increase the effectiveness with which juvenile justice systems work with one of the most vulnerable and traumatized populations of youth in today’s society: those incarcerated in our juvenile justice system.

  10. Arabidopsis female gametophyte gene expression map reveals similarities between plant and animal gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Samuel E; Vijverberg, Kitty; Schmidt, Anja; Weiss, Manuel; Gheyselinck, Jacqueline; Lohr, Miriam; Wellmer, Frank; Rahnenführer, Jörg; von Mering, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2010-03-23

    The development of multicellular organisms is controlled by differential gene expression whereby cells adopt distinct fates. A spatially resolved view of gene expression allows the elucidation of transcriptional networks that are linked to cellular identity and function. The haploid female gametophyte of flowering plants is a highly reduced organism: at maturity, it often consists of as few as three cell types derived from a common precursor [1, 2]. However, because of its inaccessibility and small size, we know little about the molecular basis of cell specification and differentiation in the female gametophyte. Here we report expression profiles of all cell types in the mature Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Differentially expressed posttranscriptional regulatory modules and metabolic pathways characterize the distinct cell types. Several transcription factor families are overrepresented in the female gametophyte in comparison to other plant tissues, e.g., type I MADS domain, RWP-RK, and reproductive meristem transcription factors. PAZ/Piwi-domain encoding genes are upregulated in the egg, indicating a role of epigenetic regulation through small RNA pathways-a feature paralleled in the germline of animals [3]. A comparison of human and Arabidopsis egg cells for enrichment of functional groups identified several similarities that may represent a consequence of coevolution or ancestral gametic features. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of radiolabeling method for natural juvenile hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Takashi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Kotaki, Toyomi [National Inst. of Sericultural and Entomological Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a new assay method for accurate determination of juvenile hormone (JH) using radioisotope. A new measuring method for JH was designed based on the principle of molecular competition. Namely, JH-binding protein in the insect was used to form a selective binding to JH. At first, corpus allatum was cultured in a medium containing {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C epoxyfarnesyldiazoacetate (EFDA), which is a photoaffinity labeling reagent and JH binding protein (JHBP) was purified using {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C labeled EFDA. Since several kinds of JH homologues different in the molecular structure have been known, it was needed to establish each labeling method appropriate to those homologues. Then, an assay method for micro-quantitative measurement of JH was established utilizing the competition between labeled natural JH and JHBP. Thus, the authors succeeded in the overexpression of the blood JHBA of kind of tabaco moth, H.virescens and also in cloning and overexpression of JHBP in the silk worm. It was confirmed that these JHBPs specifically bind to {sup 3}H labeled JH3, leading to stable supply of blood JHBP. Thus, accurate assay for JH concentration became possible by the use of the labeled JH with natural configuration and the blood JHBP. In the course of this study, several findings were obtained as follows: The JHBP of a sting bug was different from the previously reported ones. The regulation of JH synthesis in the corpus allatum was closely related to the control of diapause in several insects. The JHBP isolated from the cytosol of silk gland was a new protein in respect of amino acid sequence. (M.N.)

  12. Temporomandibular Involvement and Craniofacial Development in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Twilt (Marinka)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a generalised autoimmune disease, which starts in childhood. JIA is one of the most frequent occurring autoimmune diseases in childhood, and concerns approximately 1 in a 1000 children. JIA is a heterogeneous group of conditions divided into seve

  13. Educators in Puerto Rican Juvenile Correctional Institutions: Challenges and Professional Development Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto Santa Olmeda; Villafañe Santiago, Ángel A; Manuel Capella Casellas

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to report the experiences of teachers in juvenile correctional institutions, their challenges, and professional development needs. Research was conducted using a qualitative descriptive phenomenological methodology through a semi-structured interview applied to four teachers from the Juvenile Correctional Institutions Administration (AIJ) in Puerto Rico. The information was analyzed based on the systematic qualitative research procedures proposed b...

  14. The Megasporogenesis,Microsporogenesis,Female and Male Gametophyte Development of Machilus ichangensis%宜昌润楠大、小孢子发生及雌、雄配子体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩逸洋; 李利平; 陈发菊; 杨林森; 梁宏伟

    2014-01-01

    宜昌润楠(Machilus ichangensis)属樟科(Lauraceae)润楠属(Machilus)植物,常绿乔木,是中国传统的珍贵优质用材树种。对宜昌润楠的大、小孢子发生及雌、雄配子体发育过程进行了详细的细胞学观察。结果表明,宜昌润楠的雌蕊子房1室,单胚珠,倒生,双珠被,厚珠心。大孢子母细胞经减数分裂形成直线形排列的4个大孢子,合点端的发育成功能大孢子,其余3个退化,胚囊发育类型为蓼型。雄蕊花药多为二室,少三室、四室花药,变形绒毡层,小孢子四分体排列为四面体型,成熟花粉为二胞花粉。小孢子有少量败育及不育现象,雄性不育株绒毡层细胞延迟降解,使小孢子得不到营养而不能正常发育,最后败育。%Machilus ichangensis Rehd.et Wils is an unique high-quality timber species belonging to Lauraceae Machilus. The megasporogenesis,microsporogenesis and development of male and female gametophytes in the flower of Machilus ichangensis were observed at cellular level. The results showed that the ovary of Machilus ichangensi had 1-locules,with single ovule.The ovule was anatropous,bitegmic and crassinucellate with the endothelium.The megaspore mother cell formed a linear tetrad of 4 megaspores after meiosis. The chalazal megaspore developed the functional one and the other 3 at the micropylar pole were degraded. The development of embryo sac was of polygonum type. There were 2-locules,3-locules and 4-locules anther sac in flowers. The tapetum was amoeboid. The microspores tetrad was arranged in a tetrahedral. The mature pollen grains were of 2-celled types. There were little pollen abortion and male sterility since the tapetum of male sterile plants delayed degradation and the microspores could not obtain enough nutrition for normal development.

  15. Development of male gametophyte of Platycladus orientalis from dormant period to pollination%侧柏雄配子体休眠至传粉期间的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明; 邢世岩; 董章凯; 付茵茵

    2011-01-01

    Morphological indexes of microstrobilus of Platycladus orientalis (Linn. ) Franco from dormant period to pollination in Mountain Tai were studied using conventional paraffin slice. The results showed that; (1) Morphological changes; the front-end of the microstrobilus turned light brown, and the P. Orientalis entered into dormant period, which lasted from Oct. 22 to the middle of Feb. Next year. The dormant period was over on Feb. 27, and microsporangium developed in microstrobilus. On Mar. 11, the microstrobilus cracked and pollen dispersed. After pollination, the microstrobilus abscised. (2) Development of the male gametophyte: On Oct. 25, sporogenous cell produced microspore mother cell by mitosis in microsporangium. Meanwhile, microspore mother cell arranged densely. In dormant period, microspore mother cell produced microspore by meiosis. On Feb. 27, microspore developed into mononuclear pollen grain. On Mar. 11, mononuclcar pollen grain developed to matured pollen grain.%以泰山侧柏为研究对象,于2008年10月至2009年3月对其休眠期至传粉过程中的小孢子叶球进行形态指标测量和常规石蜡切片观察.结果表明:(1)10月22日,雄球花先端变为浅褐色,此时雄球花进入休眠,直至翌年2月中旬;2月27日,休眠结束,雄球花内小孢子囊发育;3月11日,雄球花开裂,花粉散发;传粉后,雄球花脱落.(2)10月25日,小孢子囊内由造孢细胞有丝分裂产生小孢子母细胞,此时小孢子母细胞排列紧密;休眠期内小孢子母细胞减数分裂形成小孢子;2月27日,小孢子发育形成单核花粉粒;3月11日,单核花粉粒发育为成熟花粉粒.

  16. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis.

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis: New Developments in Pathogenesis, Assessment and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare, potentially life-threatening systemic autoimmune disease primarily affecting muscle and skin. Recent advances in the recognition, standardised assessment and treatment of JDM have been greatly facilitated by large collaborative research networks. Through these networks, a number of immunogenetic risk factors have now been defined, as well as a number of potential pathways identified in the aetio-pathogenesis of JDM. Myositis-associated and myositis-sp...

  18. Juvenile animal studies for the development of paediatric medicines: a description and conclusions from a European Medicines Agency workshop on juvenile animal testing for nonclinical assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Due Theilade-Thomsen, Mette; Carleer, Jacqueline; Vidal, Jean-Marc; Tomasi, Paolo; Saint-Raymond, Agnes

    2010-12-01

    A workshop organised by the European Medicines Agency involved assessors and experts present in a Nonclinical Working Group evaluating juvenile animal studies for Paediatric Investigation Plans in collaboration with the Paediatric Committee and the Safety Working Party of the Committee for Human Medicinal Products. The objective of the workshop was to analyse which juvenile animal studies proposals were received and agreed by the Paediatric Committee, to check consistency and how to apply the existing European guideline on juvenile animal studies. A comparison of main organ system development in man vs. animal species was presented to guide the review and to support species selection and protocol design. An analysis of juvenile animal studies included in finalised PIP's was also presented. Out of 109 paediatric investigation plans finalised between November 2008 and March 2009, 43 included one or more juvenile animal studies. In most cases the preferred species was the rat; one species only was requested to be studied (20/22), but in a minority two species were required (2/22). When deciding on the characteristics of the juvenile animal studies, such as age of animals at study start, the age of the children targeted by the medicine was considered. It is expected that the increasing experience gained by Applicants and Regulators will allow further refining the criteria for these juvenile animal studies. Further research on this topic is highly encouraged in the European Regulatory framework.

  19. 薄皮甜瓜雄花小孢子发生与雄配子体发育的研究%Microsporogenesis and the Development of Male Gametophyte in Cucumis melo L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永清; 殷志明; 王晓磊; 温玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究薄皮甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)小孢子发生与雄配子体发育的规律.[方法]以薄皮甜瓜(龙甜四号)雄花为研究对象,利用传统石蜡切片技术对薄皮甜瓜雄花花芽分化和小孢子发生以及雄配子体发育进行了形态学观察.[结果]薄皮甜瓜雄蕊5枚,聚药雄蕊,花药折叠,花药壁发育为基本型.花药壁由3~4层细胞构成,药室内壁宿存.绒毡层属腺质绒毡层.花粉母细胞减数分裂为同时型.成熟花粉2-细胞型为主.成熟花粉粒一般呈近圆形和近三角形,花粉表面具3个萌发孔.[结论]该研究可为甜瓜性别分化研究奠定理论基础.%[ Objective ] To study the characteristics of the microsporogenesis and the male gametophyte in C. melo. [ Method ] Traditional paraffin-sectioning method was used to study the development of microsporgenesis and male ganurtophyle of C. melo. [ Result ] There were five stamens of C. melo, through synantherous stamen and anther folding, the anther wall development followed the basic type. The anther wall consisted of 3-4 layer cells with fibrous thickenings at the endothecium, and the tape of tapetum was glandular tapetum. The cytokinesis followed meiosis was si-multameus. Most pollen grains were 2- mature. The matured pollen was subround or triangle with 3 colporates. [Conclusion] The research lays theoretical foundation for the sex differentiation of C. melo.

  20. Megasporogenesis and Female Gametophyte Development in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge%丹参大孢子发生和雌配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉侠; 曹玉芳

    2011-01-01

    利用石蜡切片法对丹参不同时期花器官进行了解剖学研究.结果表明:丹参单珠被,薄珠心,倒生胚珠,有承珠盘结构.孢原细胞位于珠心一层表皮下,直接行使大孢子母细胞功能.大孢子母细胞减数分裂合点端或合点端第二个大孢子为功能大孢子,胚囊发育为蓼型.胚囊中卵细胞存在极性.助细胞在卵细胞产生极性分化前解体,即助细胞寿命较短.反足细胞在成熟胚囊中退化.极核在受精前融合,核中出现多个小核仁.%Using paraffin method to conduct the anatomical floral organ of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge in different periods , the results show that in S. Miltiorrhiza the ovary is anatropous, single integument, thin nucellus and has hypos tase. The archesporial cell under one layer of the nucellar cell, directly functions as megaspore mother cell. Megaspore mother cells undergoes meiosis and the chalazal end megaspore or the second megaspore near the chala-zal end functions, the development of the embryo sac is polygonum type. The egg cell in the embryo sac existing polarity, the synergid cell egg cell degradation before the egg cell possess polarity, means the synergid cells possess a short life. Antipodal cells degradation in mature embryo sac. Polar nuclei fusion before fertilization and a numerous small nucleoli appeared.

  1. Pollen Mother Cell Miosis and Male Gametophyte Development of Pumpkin%南瓜花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群香; 刘卫东; 王倩; 肖木珠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究南瓜花粉母细胞的减数分裂及其雄配子体发育过程,以期为南瓜花药培养等方面研究提供一定细胞学依据。[方法]采用爱氏苏木精染色-冬青油透明技术对南瓜”天虹”的花粉母细胞减数分裂及其雄配子体发育过程中细胞结构变化和染色体行为进行了观察研究。[结果]南瓜花粉母细胞在细胞核分裂过程中,核膜核仁于中期I消失,末期I重新出现,此时形成2个新月形的细胞核,两核之间出现成膜体,但未出现细胞壁,该成膜体在中期Ⅱ又逐渐消失,末期Ⅱ重新出现。第2次分裂纺锤体中央离心扩散的成膜体与第1次分裂两核相对的中央界面形成的成膜体相连,小孢子细胞壁向心产生。多数四分体中包含四个子细胞,少数还含有额外的小细胞。单核靠边期核仁由1个分解成2~3个或多个,进入有丝分裂前期,成熟花粉为二细胞型。1.0-2.0cm长花蕾中多数花粉细胞处于单核期,可以将其作为花药或小孢子培养的取材依据。[结论]该研究结果为南瓜细胞遗传学方面的研究奠定了基础。%[Objective] Pollen mother cell miosis and male gametophyte development of pumpkin were observed in this study, to provide some cytological basis for pumpkin anther or microspore culture. [Method] Ehrlich's hematoxylin staining-methyl salicylate clearing technique was used for observation and research of the variation of cell structure and chromosomal behavior during pollen mother cell miosis and male gametophyte development of ‘Tianhong' pumpkin. [Result] The meiosis in pollen moth- er cells of pumpkin was simultaneous cytokinesis. In the process of nuclear division, nuclear membrane and nucleolus of pumpkin pollen mother cells gradually disappeared in the metaphase I and reappeared in telophase I , phragmoplast formed between the two generated crescent-shaped nuclei without cell wall, the phragmoplast

  2. Do the shuffle: Changes in Symbiodinium consortia throughout juvenile coral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hannah G.; Robertson, Deborah L.; Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of symbiotic associations between scleractinians corals and Symbiodinium have demonstrated that the consortium of symbionts can change in response to environmental conditions. However, less is known about symbiont shuffling during early coral development, particularly in brooding species. This study examined whether Symbiodinium consortia (1) varied in Porites astreoides on shallow (10m) and upper mesophotic (30m) reefs, (2) changed during coral development, and (3) influenced growth of juveniles in different environments. Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences were amplified using universal primers and analyzed using phylotype-specific primers designed for phylotypes A, B, and C. Adults from both depths were found to host only phylotype A, phylotypes A and B, or phylotypes A, B, and C and the frequency of the phylotype composition did not vary with depth. However, phylotype A was the dominant symbiont that was vertically transmitted to the planulae. The presence of phylotypes B and C was detected in the majority of juveniles when transplanted onto the shallow and upper mesophotic reefs whereas only phylotype A was detected in the majority of juveniles reared in outdoor aquaria. In addition, growth of juvenile P. astreoides harboring different combinations of Symbiodinium phylotypes did not vary when transplanted to different reef zones. However, juveniles reared in in situ reef environments grew faster than those reared in ex situ outdoor aquaria. These results show that Symbiodinium consortia change during development of P. astreoides and are influenced by environmental conditions. PMID:28182684

  3. The development of juvenile plants of the hybrid orchid Bratonia after seed cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A S; Popova, E V; Nikishina, T V; Kolomeytseva, G L

    2004-01-01

    The development of juvenile plants of hybrid Bratonia orchid in vitro after seed storage in liquid nitrogen and the effect of nutrient medium composition on protocorm multiplication and plant regeneration were investigated. Cryopreservation did not inhibit the germination rate of seeds. Protocorms derived from cryopreserved seeds developed faster than protocorms from control (unfrozen) seeds during the first 45 days. But during further culturing, this tendency was not retained and finally protocorms from cryopreserved seeds had the same size as control ones. There were no significant differences in leaf number and shoot length between juvenile plants derived from unfrozen and cryopreserved seeds. We found that among four tested media liquid Morel medium was the most preferable for protocorm multiplication, and liquid ?S medium with half-strength macronutrients was the best one for the development of juvenile plants.

  4. Development Study on Some Digestive Enzymes of Takifugu rubripes Larvae and Juvenile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Zhenzhen; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei; CHEN Chao

    2004-01-01

    The activities of some digestive enzymes are studied for Takifugu rubripes larvae and juvenile from the first feeding to 27 d after hatching at selected stages of development. The homogenate of whole larvae body is used for enzymatic determination. Activity of acid protease decreases notably during the beginning days after the commencement of completely exogenous feeding and the days before the beginning of the juvenile stage. Alkaline protease specific activity also decreases at metamorphosis. The activities are associated with the morphology of the developing digestive tract. Amylase activity increases before the first feeding, followed by a decreasing and then a rather constant level. Lipase activity remains low during the larvae and juvenile periods. Alkaline phosphatase activity increases gradually. This reflects the development of brush border membranes of enterocytes.

  5. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  6. “金丝4号”枣大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育%Sporogenesis and gametophytes development in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv.‘jinsi No.4’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹锋; 袁德义; 段经华; 廖婷; 冯延芝; 高超

    2013-01-01

    为探明枣有性生殖过程中是否存在生殖障碍,以“金丝4号”枣为试材,采用石蜡切片技术,对其大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育过程进行了观察.结果表明:“金丝4号”枣花药为4室,花药壁4~5层,分别为表皮、1~2层药室内壁、中层和腺质绒毡层,花药壁的发育属于基本型;小孢子母细胞胞质分裂为同时型,四分体排列多为正四面体;花粉为三角形,具3个萌发孔,3沟,成熟花粉为2-细胞型;大孢子母细胞经减数分裂中期、后期、末期形成的四分体大孢子呈线型排列,合点端的功能大孢子经过3次有丝分裂,最后形成7细胞8核胚囊;倒生胚珠,双珠被,厚珠心,蓼型胚囊.%In order to test whether there was any obstacle of reproduction in the process of sexual reproduction,the microsporogenesis,megasporogensis and development of male and female gametophytes in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ were observed by paraffin section technique.The results show that each anther in Z.jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ has four cells,anther wall is from four to five layers,which are the epidermis,1-2 layers of endothecium,middle layer and glandular tapetum layers,and the development of anther wall is of basic type.The meiosis in the microspore mother cells is belonged to simultaneous type,and the most of the tetrads are arranged in a regular tetrahedron shape.The shape of pollen is triangular with three germination pores and three furrows,and the ripened pollen is of 2-cell type.The megaspores in tetrad are in a linear arrangement,which form from megaspore mother cell through middle period,later period and end period of meiosis.After three times mitosis,the functional megaspore at chalazal end forms a embryo sac with seven cells and eight nucleus.The ovule is anatropous,two integuments,crassinucellate.The development of embryo sac is belong to Polygonum type.

  7. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Eduardo A; Fransozo, Vivian; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia

    2014-03-01

    The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C), filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰), and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  8. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO A. BOLLA Jr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C, filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰, and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  9. Juvenile Offenders: Developing Motivation, Engagement, and Meaning-Making through Video Game Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Dana; Garcia de Hurtado, Belen; Watson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined juvenile offender experiences in Project Tech, a research-based educational pilot program to teach socially responsible serious game development at a major Midwest university's Games Lab. Using open-ended interviews, learner feedback surveys, and learner journaling during the program, the researchers examined…

  10. Ensuring Human Rights and the Development of Legal Awareness of Juvenile Offenders in Closed Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevtsova, Elena A.; Sapogov, Vladimir M.; Timofeev, Stanislav V.; Knyazeva, Elena Y.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need to study the negative effects of juvenile offenders placement in places of social exclusion, violations of their social and legal development and effective methods of formation of socio-legal competence of students of closed type institutions. In this regard, this article aims to…

  11. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.

  12. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  13. GAMETOPHYTE DEFECTIVE 1, a putative subunit of RNases P/MRP, is essential for female gametogenesis and male competence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Qi; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Long, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2012-01-01

    RNA biogenesis, including biosynthesis and maturation of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, is a fundamental process that is critical for cell growth, division and differentiation. Previous studies showed that mutations in components involved in RNA biogenesis resulted in abnormalities in gametophyte and leaf development in Arabidopsis. In eukaryotes, RNases P/MRP (RNase mitochondrial RNA processing) are important ribonucleases that are responsible for processing of tRNA, and transcription of small non-coding RNAs. Here we report that Gametophyte Defective 1 (GAF1), a gene encoding a predicted protein subunit of RNases P/MRP, AtRPP30, plays a role in female gametophyte development and male competence. Embryo sacs were arrested at stages ranging from FG1 to FG7 in gaf1 mutant, suggesting that the progression of the gametophytic division during female gametogenesis was impaired in gaf1 mutant. In contrast, pollen development was not affected in gaf1. However, the fitness of the mutant pollen tube was weaker than that of the wild-type, leading to reduced transmission through the male gametes. GAF1 is featured as a typical RPP30 domain protein and interacts physically with AtPOP5, a homologue of RNases P/MRP subunit POP5 of yeast. Together, our data suggest that components of the RNases P/MRP family, such as RPP30, play important roles in gametophyte development and function in plants.

  14. Histological development of the gonad in juvenile Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    As directed by the Food Quality Protection Act, the US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a screening program for endocrine disrupting compounds. The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a tier II test intended to identify and characterize the adver...

  15. Histological development of the gonad in juvenile Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    As directed by the Food Quality Protection Act, the US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a screening program for endocrine disrupting compounds. The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a tier II test intended to identify and characterize the adver...

  16. Predictive Factors of Development of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy for Patients with Juvenile Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Jarusaitiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to low incidence of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO among children, the manifestation is poorly analyzed, posing a risk to late identification of insidious disease. Purposes. To identify predictive factors that may influence the development of GO in pediatric and young patients with Graves’ disease (GD. Methods. A cross-sectional study of patients newly diagnosed with pediatric or juvenile GD during 2002–2012 was conducted at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Ocular evaluation was based on European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy survey. The ocular manifestations were analyzed in relation to demographic, environmental, and clinical factors. Results. In total, 130 patients with juvenile GD were included; 29.2% had GO. Median age at GD onset was 17 yrs (IQR 4–29. Main symptoms of GO were eyelids retraction (73.7%, proptosis (65.8%, injection of conjunctiva (42.1%, and eyeball motility disturbance (21.1%. Major significant and independent risk factors for GO development were high initial concentration of FT4 (OR = 5.963, TTHAb (OR = 6.358, stress (OR = 6.030, and smoking (OR = 7.098. Conclusion. The major factors that could influence GO development were smoking, stress, and increased levels of initial TRAb, FT4. Slight proptosis, retraction of eyelids, and conjunctive injection were found as predominant ophthalmological symptoms in juvenile GO.

  17. Otolith development in larval and juvenile Schizothorax davidi: ontogeny and growth increment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Taiming; Hu, Jiaxiang; Cai, Yueping; Xiong, Sen; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Xiongyan; He, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory-reared Schizothorax davidi larvae and juveniles were examined to assess the formation and characteristics of David's schizothoracin otoliths. Otolith development was observed and their formation period was verified by monitoring larvae and juveniles of known age. The results revealed that lapilli and sagittae developed before hatching, and the first otolith increment was identified at 2 days post hatching in both. The shape of lapilli was relatively stable during development compared with that of sagittae; however, growth of four sagittae and lapilli areas was consistent, but the posterior area grew faster than the anterior area and the ventral surface grew faster than the dorsal surface. Similarly, the sum length of the radius of the anterior and posterior areas on sagittae and lapilli were linearly and binomially related to total fish length, respectively. Moreover, daily deposition rates were validated by monitoring known-age larvae and juveniles. The increase in lapilli width was 1.88±0.080 0 μm at the ninth increment, which reached a maximum and the decreased gradually toward the otolith edge, whereas that of sagittae increased more slowly. These results illustrate the developmental biology of S. davidi, which will aid in population conservation and fish stock management.

  18. The myosin chaperone UNC45B is involved in lens development and autosomal dominant juvenile cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Comyn, Sophie; Mang, Yuan;

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles in this reg......Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles......-type embryos resulted in development of a phenotype similar to the steif mutant. The p.Arg805Trp alteration in the mammalian UNC45B gene suggests that developmental cataract may be caused by a defect in non-muscle myosin assembly during maturation of the lens fiber cells.European Journal of Human Genetics...

  19. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  20. Pubertal development in elite juvenile gymnasts. Effects of physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, C; Hagenfeldt, K; Ringertz, B M

    1994-03-01

    Twenty-two female teenagers engaged in elite gymnast training were prospectively studied during a five-year period and their pubertal development was recorded. Height and weight, as well as stage of development according to Tanner, were registered every six months. FSH, LH, TSH and prolactin were measured in girls who had not yet had their first menstrual period. Twenty-two healthy school girls in the same age group who were not actively engaged in physical exercise served as a control group. Pubertal development was completed during the observation period in all the gymnasts but one, who had primary amenorrhea at the age of eighteen. As a group, the gymnasts had a significantly delayed age of menarche compared to the control group and to normal Swedish girls. They also had significantly less body fat and were shorter and lighter than the control group. They grew much more slowly and did not have the distinct growth spurt seen in the controls. The final height of six of the gymnasts was less than the expected height. The frequency of injuries was high in the gymnasts, which might be a result of hard training combined with late menarche and low body fat.

  1. Photosynthesis in developing leaf of juveniles and adults of three Mediterranean species with different growth forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogiannis, Christos; Grammatikopoulos, George

    2016-12-01

    Leaf development is influenced by almost all the prevailing environmental conditions as well as from the conditions at the time of bud formation. Furthermore, the growth form of a plant determines the leaf longevity and subsequently the investment in biomass and the internal structure of the mesophyll. Therefore, photosynthetic traits of a growing leaf, though, partly predetermined, should also acclimate to temporal changes during developmental period. In addition, the age of the plant can affect photosynthesis of the growing leaf, yet, in the majority of studies, the age is associated to the size of the plant. To test if the reproductive status of the plant affects the time kinetics of the photosynthetic capacity of a growing leaf and the relative contribution of the plants' growth form to the whole procedure, field measurements were conducted in juveniles (prereproductive individuals) and adults (fully reproductive individuals) of an evergreen sclerophyllous shrub (Nerium oleander), a semi-deciduous dimorphic shrub (Phlomis fruticosa), and a winter deciduous tree with pre-leafing flowering (Cercis siliquastrum). PSII structural and functional integrity was progressively developed in all species, but already completed, only some days after leaf expansion in P. fruticosa. Developing leaf as well as fully developed leaf in adults of C. siliquastrum showed enhanced relative size of the pool of final PSI electron acceptors. Photosynthetic traits between juveniles and adults of P. fruticosa were similar, though the matured leaf of adults exhibited lower transpiration rates and improved water-use efficiency than that of juveniles. Adults of the evergreen shrub attained higher CO2 assimilation rate than juveniles in matured leaf which can be attributed to higher electron flow devoted to carboxylation, and lower photorespiration rate. The reproductive phase of the plant seemed to be involved in modifications of the PSII and PSI functions of the deciduous tree, in

  2. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Presslauer

    Full Text Available A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf, growth differentiation factor (Gdf9, and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75, all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329 were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a

  3. Manipulation of developing juvenile structures in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by morpholino injection into late stage larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heyland

    Full Text Available Sea urchins have been used as experimental organisms for developmental biology for over a century. Yet, as is the case for many other marine invertebrates, understanding the development of the juveniles and adults has lagged far behind that of their embryos and larvae. The reasons for this are, in large part, due to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating juvenile development. Here we develop and validate a technique for injecting compounds into juvenile rudiments of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We first document the distribution of rhodaminated dextran injected into different compartments of the juvenile rudiment of sea urchin larvae. Then, to test the potential of this technique to manipulate development, we injected Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton. Rudiments injected with these vMOs showed a delay in the growth of some juvenile skeletal elements relative to controls. These data provide the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins. We therefore propose that injection of vMOs into juvenile rudiments, as shown here, is a viable approach to testing hypotheses about gene function during development, including metamorphosis.

  4. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS ON GAMETOPHYTE DIFFERENTIATION IN TWO DRYOPTERIS SPECIES IN ROMANIA’S FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu; Liliana Cristina Soare; Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we aimed to study the influence of Zn, Cu and Pb compounds on spore germination and gametophyte development in the species Dryopteris affinis (Lowe) Fraser-Jenkins and Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. The following initial variants were prepared: V1Cu 140 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Zn 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Pb 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution. From these variants we considered V2 and V32 as the concentrations, respectively, 5 and 10 times higher than the initial ones. The percentage o...

  5. The development of myelin in the brain of the juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Noel; Mullins, Pamela

    2014-07-01

    The development process of myelination varies between region and species. Fully myelinated fibers are required if mammalian neural circuits are to function normally. Histology samples at staggered time points throughout the study were examined at days 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 17, 24, 37, and 44. We suggest that the development of myelin in the juvenile rodent brain can be conveniently separated into 3 phases. Evaluation of myelin basic protein-stained sections of the areas of brain that contain the elements of the developing limbic system over the sensitive period from postnatal day (PND) 14 to 34 may provide an insight into possible toxicity that may lead to cognition and learning issues in adults. We will hope to develop this notion further in the future. The precise chronology of the development of the blood-brain barrier in rats has yet to be established; thus, there is potential for significant exposure of the juvenile brain to chemicals that do not cross the blood-brain barrier in the adult. Thus, it is suggested that evaluation of myelin development should probably be extended to all new chemical entities intended for pediatric use, and not just those that are intended for central nervous system use.

  6. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  7. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  8. The Education of Juveniles in Detention: Policy Considerations and Infrastructure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Catherine Foley; Chapman, John F.; D'Amaddio, Amy H.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the state of affairs pertaining to educating juvenile justice-involved youth. It summarizes general observations regarding the schooling of juveniles in pre-trial and post-trial incarceration settings, as well as, juveniles on probation or in community settings. The article selectively presents relevant…

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Nodal- and BMP-associated genes during juvenile development of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Koop, Demian; Cisternas, Paula; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa; Wray, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the unusual radial body plan of echinoderms and its relationship to the bilateral plan of other deuterostomes remains a challenge. The molecular processes of embryonic and early larval development in sea urchins are well characterised, but those giving rise to the adult and its radial body remain poorly studied. We used the developmental transcriptome generated for Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that forms the juvenile soon after gastrulation, to investigate changes in gene expression underlying radial body development. As coelomogenesis is key to the development of pentamery and juvenile formation on the left side of the larva, we focussed on genes associated with the nodal and BMP2/4 network that pattern this asymmetry. We identified 46 genes associated with this Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling network, and determined their expression profiles from the gastrula, through to rudiment development, metamorphosis and the fully formed juvenile. Genes associated with Nodal signalling shared similar expression profiles, indicating that they may have a regulatory relationship in patterning morphogenesis of the juvenile sea urchin. Similarly, many genes associated with BMP2/4 signalling had similar expression profiles through juvenile development. Further examination of the roles of Nodal- and BMP2/4-associated genes is required to determine function and whether the gene expression profiles seen in H. erythrogramma are due to ongoing activity of gene networks established during early development, or to redeployment of regulatory cassettes to pattern the adult radial body plan.

  10. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  11. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  12. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  13. Hypoxia during embryonic development increases energy metabolism in normoxic juvenile chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Lara do; Scarpellini, Carolina da S; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2017-03-07

    Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed. To this end, we measured body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (V̇02) under acute hypoxia or different ambient temperatures (Ta) of 1 and 10day-old chicks that have been exposed to 21% O2 for entire incubation (Nx) or to 15% O2 in the last week of incubation (Hx). We also assessed the thermal preference under normoxia or acute hypoxia of the older chicks from both incubation groups in a thermocline. Hypoxia over incubation reduced growth but did not affect the cold-induced thermogenesis in hatchlings. Regarding the juvenile Hx, present data indicate a catch up growth with higher resting V̇02, a thermal preference for warmer Tas and a possible higher thermal conductance. In conclusion, our results show that hypoxia over the third week of incubation can affect the thermoregulation at least until 10days after hatch in chickens.

  14. Identification and bioinformatics analysis of microRNAs from the sporophyte and gametophyte of Pyropia haitanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiyou; Wang, Guangce

    2016-05-01

    Pyropia haitanensis (T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng) N. Kikuchi et M. Miyata ( Porphyra haitanensis) is an economically important genus that is cultured widely in China. P. haitanensis is cultured on a larger scale than Pyropia yezoensis, making up an important part of the total production of cultivated Pyropia in China. However, the majority of molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological processes of P. haitanensis remain unknown. P. haitanensis could utilize inorganic carbon and the sporophytes of P. haitanensis might possess a PCK-type C4-like carbon-fixation pathway. To identify microRNAs and their probable roles in sporophyte and gametophyte development, we constructed and sequenced small RNA libraries from sporophytes and gametophytes of P. haitanensis. Five microRNAs were identified that shared no sequence homology with known microRNAs. Our results indicated that P. haitanensis might posses a complex sRNA processing system in which the novel microRNAs act as important regulators of the development of different generations of P. haitanensis.

  15. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  16. Educators in Puerto Rican Juvenile Correctional Institutions: Challenges and Professional Development Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Santa Olmeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present research was to report the experiences of teachers in juvenile correctional institutions, their challenges, and professional development needs. Research was conducted using a qualitative descriptive phenomenological methodology through a semi-structured interview applied to four teachers from the Juvenile Correctional Institutions Administration (AIJ in Puerto Rico. The information was analyzed based on the systematic qualitative research procedures proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998, cited by Lucca and Berríos (2003: open, axial and selective coding, respectively. Teachers were greatly satisfied for providing educational services. A relevant finding is the lack of a curriculum that fits the needs of this youth population. The curriculum used is the same as the one used in public schools, which makes it unappealing to these students. These teachers face unusual challenges, including the institutions’ security system and the teaching and learning methodology. A lack of coordination is perceived in the educational services and a multidisciplinary team is needed to address the cognitive and emotional aspects of the population. Like teachers in any other educational system, respondents obtain some achievements and satisfactions that strengthen them spiritually and motivate them to continue working in these institutions for many years.

  17. INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS ON GAMETOPHYTE DIFFERENTIATION IN TWO DRYOPTERIS SPECIES IN ROMANIA’S FLORA

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    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to study the influence of Zn, Cu and Pb compounds on spore germination and gametophyte development in the species Dryopteris affinis (Lowe Fraser-Jenkins and Dryopteris filix-mas (L. Schott. The following initial variants were prepared: V1Cu 140 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Zn 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution, V1Pb 300 mg•L-1 Knop solution. From these variants we considered V2 and V32 as the concentrations, respectively, 5 and 10 times higher than the initial ones. The percentage of spores germinated was noted to decrease with the increase in the metal concentration in the solution so that there are significant differences between the control and metal variants; in some variants there was no germination reported: in V3Pb in both species and in V2Pb in the Dryopteris filix-mas. With regard to the gametophyte differentiation in very few variants, the stage of chordate prothallus was reached (C, V1Pb, V1Zn: in the two species. In V2 and V3, regardless of the species and metal, the spores and filaments turn to necrosis.

  18. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    M. Aminur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  19. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5°C (mean 25.0±0.05°C). The process of ovogenesis reached the ...

  20. Synthesizing research and education: Ecology and genetics of independent fern gametophytes and teaching science inquiry and content through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aaron M.

    Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation

  1. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Thomas; Tu, Meng-Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how traits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in insects. Here we review the manifold effects of JH, the most versatile animal hormone, with an emphasis on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an organism amenable to both genetics and endocrinology. JH affects a remarkable number of processes and traits in Drosophila development and life history, including metamorphosis, behavior, reproduction, diapause, stress resistance and aging. While many molecular details underlying JH signaling remain unknown, we argue that studying "hormonal pleiotropy" offers intriguing insights into phenotypic integration and the mechanisms underlying life history evolution. In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs.

  2. Low home cage social behaviors in BTBR T+tf/J mice during juvenile development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Brooke A; Yang, Mu; Berman, Robert F; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2013-04-10

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is a genetically homogenous inbred strain of mice that displays abnormal social behaviors, deficits in vocalizations, and high levels of repetitive behaviors, relevant to the three diagnostic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, leading to the use of this strain as a mouse model of autism. Comprehensive observations of BTBR social behaviors within the home cage during early stages of development have not been conducted. Here we evaluate the home cage behaviors of BTBR in two laboratory environments (NIMH, Bethesda, Maryland vs. UC Davis, Davis, California), starting from the day of weaning and continuing into adulthood. Extensive ethogram parameters were scored for BTBR in home cages that contained four BTBR conspecifics, versus home cages that contained four C57BL/6J (B6) conspecifics. BTBR were considerably less interactive than B6 in the home cage at both sites, as measured during the early dark stage of their circadian cycle. A novel home cage behavioral measure, frequency of long interactions, was found to be more frequent and of longer duration in B6 versus BTBR home cages across experimental sites. Significant strain differences in the occurrence of investigative and affiliative behaviors were also seen, however these findings were not fully consistent across the two testing sites. At the end of the 30-day home cage observation period, each seven-week old subject mouse was tested in the three-chambered social approach task. BTBR displayed lack of sociability and B6 displayed significant sociability, consistent with previous reports. Our findings reveal that BTBR engaged in lower levels of some components of spontaneous conspecific social interactions in the home cage environment throughout juvenile development, consistent with their deficits in juvenile and adult sociability as measured in specialized social tasks.

  3. Development of a Training Plan for DCW Juvenile Service Unit Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources Research Organization, Fort Knox, KY. Div. 2.

    A study was conducted to ascertain the job requirements and training needs of juvenile service unit workers. A training needs assessment inventory questionnaire was mailed to all juvenile service unit workers in the Kentucky Department of Child Welfare (DCW). Data from 146 questionnaires were analyzed to provide job descriptive information, which…

  4. Radiologic features in juvenile idiopathic arthritis - A first step in the development of a standardized assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, MAJ; Zwinderman, AH; Dijkmans, BAC; van Soesbergen, RM; Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAM; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Wulffraat, NM; Kuis, W; van Luijk, WHJ; Oostveen, JCM; Dijkstra, PF

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To describe radiologic features of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a standardized manner, to test the reliability and feasibility of this description, and to correlate these features with clinical signs as a first step in the development of a standardized assessment m

  5. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-12-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5°C (mean 25.0±0.05°C). The process of ovogenesis reached the two-cell stage in 50 minutes after fertilization. In 73 hours of fertilization the movement of the embryoid body became active state and the larvae began to hatch from the tail through the oolemma. Length of prelarvae were 6.33~6.50 mm long (mean 6.40±0.06 mm) just after hatching having yolk with their mouth not opened. After thirty eight days of hatching, juveniles were 30.6∼32.5 mm long (mean 31.5±0.65 mm). The color was dark yellowish brown throughout the entire body, and the number of caudal fin rays developed to thirty six perfectly.

  6. Rapid separation of Arabidopsis male gametophyte developmental stages using a Percoll gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupl'áková, Nikoleta; Dobrev, Petre I; Reňák, David; Honys, David

    2016-10-01

    Research investigating the dynamics of male gametophyte (MG) development has proven to be challenging for the plant science community. Here we describe our protocol for separating Arabidopsis MG developmental stages, which is based on the centrifugation of pollen through a discontinuous Percoll concentration gradient. This Percoll gradient can be formed using a pipette, and it does not require a gradient maker. The purity of the isolated developing spores is as high as 70%, and in most separations it is well above 80%. Using this protocol, we can separate four different stages of pollen development-uninucleate microspore (UNM), bicellular pollen (BCP), tricellular immature pollen (TCP) and mature pollen grain (MPG). The duration of the separation procedure, excluding the cutting of flower inflorescences, is 6 h. This is reduced to 4 h when using a vacuum cleaning method to remove the MPGs before the Percoll density separation.

  7. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G

    2007-03-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9-12h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation.

  8. The concretization of the term sustainable spatial development for the assessment of child and juvenile awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Zupančič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article is targeted at the comprehensive co-shaping of the conditions required for the active education on the effective and concrete contributions to sustainable development, with the emphasis based on the built environment or architecture. It defines the role of education on the built environment or architecture within the concept of sustainable development, determines the grounds for adjusting the methods of delivering architectural contents and defines the educational contents along with their presentations with regards to the developmental abilities of the public, which is targeted. It presents the deliberation on objectifying the term sustainable spatial development, for the assessment of child and juvenile awareness of “sustainable architecture” topics as well as determining childcare workers and teachers adequate qualifications to provide the knowledge in the field of the built environment, in relation to sustainable environment. Concretisation signifies the selection and visualisation of actual topical occurrences in physical space for a specific targeted public (the article provides representative models. It also contributes to the development of “cultural” dimension of spatial development sustainability. The efforts made to strive towards the lifelong learning of architecture and its influence on our everyday lives and our future.

  9. Transcriptomic evidence for the evolution of shoot meristem function in sporophyte-dominant land plants through concerted selection of ancestral gametophytic and sporophytic genetic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Margaret H; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Alternation of generations, in which the haploid and diploid stages of the life cycle are each represented by multicellular forms that differ in their morphology, is a defining feature of the land plants (embryophytes). Anciently derived lineages of embryophytes grow predominately in the haploid gametophytic generation from apical cells that give rise to the photosynthetic body of the plant. More recently evolved plant lineages have multicellular shoot apical meristems (SAMs), and photosynthetic shoot development is restricted to the sporophyte generation. The molecular genetic basis for this evolutionary shift from gametophyte-dominant to sporophyte-dominant life cycles remains a major question in the study of land plant evolution. We used laser microdissection and next generation RNA sequencing to address whether angiosperm meristem patterning genes expressed in the sporophytic SAM of Zea mays are expressed in the gametophytic apical cells, or in the determinate sporophytes, of the model bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens. A wealth of upregulated genes involved in stem cell maintenance and organogenesis are identified in the maize SAM and in both the gametophytic apical cell and sporophyte of moss, but not in Marchantia. Significantly, meiosis-specific genetic programs are expressed in bryophyte sporophytes, long before the onset of sporogenesis. Our data suggest that this upregulated accumulation of meiotic gene transcripts suppresses indeterminate cell fate in the Physcomitrella sporophyte, and overrides the observed accumulation of meristem patterning genes. A model for the evolution of indeterminate growth in the sporophytic generation through the concerted selection of ancestral meristem gene programs from gametophyte-dominant lineages is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

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    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  11. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  12. Endochondral ossification process of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) during embryonic and juvenile development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsa, S; Ornan, E Monsonego

    2007-03-01

    The long bones of the developing skeleton arise from the process of endochondral ossification, which begins during the embryonic stages and resumes later in the growth plates located at the extremities of the long bones. This process includes commitment of cells to the chondrocytic lineage and further differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which subsequently undergo apoptosis and are replaced by osteoblasts laying down the trabecular bone. In this study we characterize, for the first time, the endochondral bone development of the turkey during embryonic and juvenile stages. Turkey tibias were collected on embryonic d 11, 14, and 18; and at 3 and 7 d posthatching, alcian blue and Von Kossa staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, and in situ expression of collagen types II and X were studied in these samples. We showed that the principles of bone development in the turkey follow the known vertebrate pattern, and that the initiation of ossification is related to the perichondrium and compact bone. These results increase the knowledge about this process in the turkey, which is an important animal in the agricultural industries.

  13. Developing ocean ecosystem indicators for sea turtle bycatch and juvenile recruitment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The long-term variability of sea turtle populations remains poorly understood, limiting science and management. Although juveniles are the most numerous population...

  14. The impact of juvenile coxsackievirus infection on cardiac progenitor cells and postnatal heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jon; Puccini, Jenna M; Huang, Chengqun; Konstandin, Mathias H; Gilbert, Paul E; Sussman, Mark A; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Feuer, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is an enterovirus that most commonly causes a self-limited febrile illness in infants, but cases of severe infection can manifest in acute myocarditis. Chronic consequences of mild CVB infection are unknown, though there is an epidemiologic association between early subclinical infections and late heart failure, raising the possibility of subtle damage leading to late-onset dysfunction, or chronic ongoing injury due to inflammatory reactions during latent infection. Here we describe a mouse model of juvenile infection with a subclinical dose of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) which showed no evident symptoms, either immediately following infection or in adult mice. However following physiological or pharmacologically-induced cardiac stress, juvenile-infected adult mice underwent cardiac hypertrophy and dilation indicative of progression to heart failure. Evaluation of the vasculature in the hearts of adult mice subjected to cardiac stress showed a compensatory increase in CD31+ blood vessel formation, although this effect was suppressed in juvenile-infected mice. Moreover, CVB3 efficiently infected juvenile c-kit+ cells, and cardiac progenitor cell numbers were reduced in the hearts of juvenile-infected adult mice. These results suggest that the exhausted cardiac progenitor cell pool following juvenile CVB3 infection may impair the heart's ability to increase capillary density to adapt to increased load.

  15. Algorithm development for corticosteroid management in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis trial using consensus methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilowite Norman T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of background corticosteroid therapy in rheumatology clinical trials poses a major challenge. We describe the consensus methodology used to design an algorithm to standardize changes in corticosteroid dosing during the Randomized Placebo Phase Study of Rilonacept in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Trial (RAPPORT. Methods The 20 RAPPORT site principal investigators (PIs and 4 topic specialists constituted an expert panel that participated in the consensus process. The panel used a modified Delphi Method consisting of an on-line questionnaire, followed by a one day face-to-face consensus conference. Consensus was defined as ≥ 75% agreement. For items deemed essential but when consensus on critical values was not achieved, simple majority vote drove the final decision. Results The panel identified criteria for initiating or increasing corticosteroids. These included the presence or development of anemia, myocarditis, pericarditis, pleuritis, peritonitis, and either complete or incomplete macrophage activation syndrome (MAS. The panel also identified criteria for tapering corticosteroids which included absence of fever for ≥ 3 days in the previous week, absence of poor physical functioning, and seven laboratory criteria. A tapering schedule was also defined. Conclusion The expert panel established consensus regarding corticosteroid management and an algorithm for steroid dosing that was well accepted and used by RAPPORT investigators. Developed specifically for the RAPPORT trial, further study of the algorithm is needed before recommendation for more general clinical use.

  16. The effect of salinity on osmoregulation and development of the juvenile fat snook, Centropomus parallelus (POEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC. Sterzelecki

    Full Text Available Eurihaline fish support waters with different salt concentration. However, numerous studies have shown that salinity can affect fish development. Thus, the effect of salinity change from 20 to 5 and 35 on survival, weight, length, gill chloride cell ultrastructure and gill Na+, K+ ATPase activity was evaluated in Centropomus parallelus following short-term (6, 24 and 96 hours and long-term exposure (30 and 60 days. Salinity did not affect C. parallelus survival, final weight and length. The quantity of chloride cells increased visibly at salinities of 5 and 35, with the cells exhibiting the typical features of uptake and secretory cells, respectively. Na+, K+ ATPase activity in the gill of the C. parallelus was significantly greater at a salinity of 5 than at a salinity of 20 or 35 after 96 hours, but not after 30 or 60 days. These results indicate that salinity change from high to low salt water induces gill chloride cell and Na+, K+ ATPase activity adaptations after short-term exposure. However, after long-term exposure at salinity 5, gill Na+, K+ ATPase activity is no more necessary at high levels. The increase in salinity to 35 does not induce significant change in gills. Juveniles of C. parallelus may thus be capable of acclimating to salinities of 5 to 35 for 60 days without significant effects on development.

  17. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of desiccation tolerance in tropical fern gametophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James E; Mack, Michelle C; Sinclair, Thomas R; Mulkey, Stephen S

    2007-01-01

    Ferns have radiated into the same diverse environments as spermatophytes, and have done so with an independent gametophyte that is not protected by the parent plant. The degree and extent of desiccation tolerance (DT) in the gametophytes of tropical fern species was assessed to understand mechanisms that have allowed ferns to radiate into a diversity of habitats. Species from several functional groups were subjected to a series of desiccation events, including varying degrees of intensity and multiple desiccation cycles. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence were used to assess recovery ability and compared with species ecology and gametophyte morphology. It is shown that vegetative DT (rare in vascular plants) is widely exhibited in fern gametophytes and the degree of tolerance is linked to species habitat preference. It is proposed that gametophyte morphology influences water-holding capacity, a novel mechanism that may help to explain how ferns have radiated into drought-prone habitats. Fern gametophytes have often been portrayed as extreme mesophytes with little tolerance for desiccation. The discovery of DT in gametophytes holds potential for improving our understanding of both the controls on fern species distribution and their evolution. It also advances a new system with which to study the evolution of DT in vascular plants.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in cordate gametophytes of two ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Sakoda, Aki; Ebihara, Atsushi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is common among land plants including pteridophytes (monilophytes and lycophytes). In pteridophytes with diplohaplontic life cycle, mycorrhizal formations were mostly reported for sporophytes, but very few for gametophytes. To clarify the mycorrhizal association of photosynthetic gametophytes, field-collected gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiaceae, n = 52) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundaceae, n = 45) were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Collected gametophytes were mostly cut into two pieces. One piece was used for light and scanning microscopic observations, and the other for molecular identification of plant species (chloroplast rbcL sequences) and mycorrhizal fungi (small subunit rDNA sequences). Microscopic observations showed that 96 % (50/52) of Angiopteris and 95 % (41/43) of Osmunda gametophytes contained intracellular hyphae with arbuscules and/or vesicles and fungal colonization was limited to the inner tissue of the thick midribs (cushion). Fungal DNA analyses showed that 92 % (48/52) of Angiopteris and 92 % (35/38) of Osmunda have sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which were highly divergent but all belonged to Glomus group A. These results suggest that A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica gametophytes consistently form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal formation in wild fern gametophytes, based on large-scale sampling with molecular identification of host plant species, was demonstrated for the first time.

  19. Tolerance to the air exposition test of Hoplias lacerdae larvae and juvenile during its initial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of evaluation parameters for larvae and juvenile quality assessment is highly desirable. The experiment evaluated the Stress Resistance Rate (Re on Hoplias lacerdae larvae and juveniles. Larvae on the 13th, 16th, 19th, 23rd and 26th days of life were subjected to Re evaluation tests. Twenty animals were stoked in one liter beaker and kept at 27 to 28.5°C. The following treatments were applied: E3 -3 minutes; E5 - 5 minutes; E7 - 7 minutes; E10 - 10 minutes and E15 -15 minutes on drying paper. After 24 hours Re was evaluated. It was observed that Re values showed an increase from 13th to 19th day in all treatments indicating an increasing resistance related to larval development. High Re rates were observed during the whole experiment, with the lowest value (PO estabelecimento de parâmetros para avaliação da qualidade de larvas e juvenis produzidos intensivamente é altamente desejável. Nesse sentido, o experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar a Taxa de Resistência ao Estresse (Re em larvas e juvenis de trairão. Larvas foram submetidas a testes para a avaliação da Re no 13°, 16°, 19°, 23° e 26° dia de vida. Vinte animais foram separados em béqueres de um litro e mantidos em temperatura entre 27 e 28,5°C. Em seguida realizaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: E3. 3 minutos; E5. 5 minutos; E7. 7 minutos; E10. 10 minutos e E15. 15 minutos sobre o papel secante. Após 24 horas foi verificada a Re. Observou-se que a Re apresentou um aumento nos valores do 13° ao 19° dia em todos os tratamentos. Foram observadas elevadas Re durante todo o trabalho, sendo os menores valores (P<0,05 encontrados para E10 (67,7% no 13° dia e para E15 (41,25% no 26° dia. Concluiu-se que larvas e juvenis de trairão são resistentes à exposição ao ar sobre papel secante e que exposição superior a sete minutos é mais adequada para avaliação da Re de larvas e juvenis de trairão submetidos a diferentes condições de cultivo.

  20. Hox genes pattern the anterior-posterior axis of the juvenile but not the larva in a maximally indirect developing invertebrate, Micrura alaskensis (Nemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Laurel S; Maslakova, Svetlana A

    2015-04-11

    The pilidium larva is a novel body plan that arose within a single clade in the phylum Nemertea - the Pilidiophora. While the sister clade of the Pilidiophora and the basal nemerteans develop directly, pilidiophorans have a long-lived planktotrophic larva with a body plan distinctly different from that of the juvenile. Uniquely, the pilidiophoran juvenile develops inside the larva from several discrete rudiments. The orientation of the juvenile with respect to the larval body varies within the Pilidiophora, which suggests that the larval and juvenile anteroposterior (AP) axes are patterned differently. In order to gain insight into the evolutionary origins of the pilidium larva and the mechanisms underlying this implied axial uncoupling, we examined the expression of the Hox genes during development of the pilidiophoran Micrura alaskensis. We identified sequences of nine Hox genes and the ParaHox gene caudal through a combination of transcriptome analysis and molecular cloning, and determined their expression pattern during development using in situ hybridization in whole-mounted larvae. We found that Hox genes are first expressed long after the pilidium is fully formed and functional. The Hox genes are expressed in apparently overlapping domains along the AP axis of the developing juvenile in a subset of the rudiments that give rise to the juvenile trunk. Hox genes are not expressed in the larval body at any stage of development. While the Hox genes pattern the juvenile pilidiophoran, the pilidial body, which appears to be an evolutionary novelty, must be patterned by some mechanism other than the Hox genes. Although the pilidiophoran juvenile develops from separate rudiments with no obvious relationship to the embryonic formation of the larva, the Hox genes appear to exhibit canonical expression along the juvenile AP axis. This suggests that the Hox patterning system can maintain conserved function even when widely decoupled from early polarity established in the

  1. Leaf morphometric characteristics variability of different beech provenances in juvenile development stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of beech from the Balkan Peninsula is not yet clearly defined. There is no agreement among different authors about the morphological characteristics discriminating between the Balkan and European and/or Eastern beech. For most characteristics, the mean values are different but the ranges of variation overlap considerably. Provenance trial of beech established in Serbia, at the locality Debeli Lug, has provided an opportunity for research of interprovenance variability at the level of leaf morphometric characteristics in juvenile development stage. Research included 10 provenances originating from the Western Balkans (Serbian provenance 36 and 38; Croatian provenance 24 and 25; Bosnian provenance 30 and 32 and from Central Europe (German provenance 47 and 49; Austrian provenance 56 and Hungarian provenance 42, where following morphometric characteristics were analyzed: leaf length (Ll, leaf width (Lw, petiole lenght (Pl, leaf base width on 1 cm (Blw, number of veins - left (Vl, number of veins - right (Vr, distance between 3rd and 4th vein - left (Dv 3-4. The results of this research show existence of clear differentiation among provenances from the Western Balkan and from Central Europe, from the point of leaf dimensions, number of veins and leaf base width. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  2. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  3. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae: implications for developing aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Carter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11, avoidance (6 and others (12. Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  4. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  5. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terézia Horváthová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the temperature-size rule (TSR, ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2 and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium, and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber. Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment.

  6. Juvenile hormone signaling during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smykal, Vlastimil; Bajgar, Adam; Provaznik, Jan; Fexova, Silvie; Buricova, Marcela; Takaki, Keiko; Hodkova, Magdalena; Jindra, Marek; Dolezel, David

    2014-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the insect corpus allatum gland (CA), prevents metamorphosis in larvae and stimulates vitellogenesis in adult females. Whether the same JH signaling pathway regulates both processes is presently unknown. Here, we employ the robust JH response during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, to compare the function of key JH-signaling genes encoding the JH receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), its binding partner Taiman (Tai), and a JH-inducible protein, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1). RNA interference (RNAi) with Met or Tai, but not Kr-h1, blocked ovarian development and suppressed vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of females raised under reproduction-inducing conditions. Loss of Met and Tai matched the effects of CA ablation or the natural absence of JH during reproductive diapause. Stimulation of vitellogenesis by treatment of diapausing females with a JH mimic methoprene also required both Met and Tai in the fat body, whereas Kr-h1 RNAi had no effect. Therefore, the Met-Tai complex likely functions as a JH receptor during vitellogenesis. In contrast to Met and Kr-h1 that are both required for JH to prevent precocious metamorphosis in P. apterus larvae, removal of Tai disrupted larval ecdysis without causing premature adult development. Our results show that while Met operates during metamorphosis in larvae and reproduction in adult females, its partner Tai is only required for the latter. The diverse functions of JH thus likely rely on a common receptor whose actions are modulated by distinct components.

  7. THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME EXTRACTS OF FERN GAMETOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature freely offers us many resources for health and beauty. The ferns and their therapeutic properties are less exploit in Romania, except Lycopodium clavatum and Equisetum arvense. Some of the fern properties were demonstrated, like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelmintic properties. Plants are reasonable alternative to synthetic drugs, avoid the side effect and high cost of synthetic drugs production. Also, the drug resistance bacteria can be controlled using plant derived remedies. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts from three fern species were tested. The extracts were gained from gametophytic stage of ferns obtained in vitro. The most obvious effect was observed for Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum extract. The total polyphenols and flavonoids content were established, too.

  8. The myosin chaperone UNC45B is involved in lens development and autosomal dominant juvenile cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars; Comyn, Sophie; Mang, Yuan; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Myhre, Layne; Jean, Francesca; Eiberg, Hans; Tommerup, Niels; Rosenberg, Thomas; Pilgrim, David

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis, followed by targeted deep sequencing, in a Danish multigeneration family with juvenile cataract revealed a region of chromosome 17 co-segregating with the disease trait. Affected individuals were heterozygous for two potentially protein-disrupting alleles in this region, in ACACA and UNC45B. As alterations of the UNC45B protein have been shown to affect eye development in model organisms, effort was focused on the heterozygous UNC45B missense mutation. UNC45B encodes a myosin-specific chaperone that, together with the general heat shock protein HSP90, is involved in myosin assembly. The mutation changes p.Arg805 to Trp in the UCS domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved from yeast to human. UNC45B is strongly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue, but here we show expression in human embryo eye and zebrafish lens. The zebrafish mutant steif, carrying an unc45b nonsense mutation, has smaller eyes than wild-type embryos and shows accumulation of nuclei in the lens. Injection of RNA encoding the human wild-type UNC45B protein into the steif homozygous embryo reduced the nuclei accumulation and injection of human mutant UNC45B cDNA in wild-type embryos resulted in development of a phenotype similar to the steif mutant. The p.Arg805Trp alteration in the mammalian UNC45B gene suggests that developmental cataract may be caused by a defect in non-muscle myosin assembly during maturation of the lens fiber cells.

  9. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  10. Observation of Pollen Mother Cell Meiosis and Male Gametophyte Development in Brassica oleracea L.var.acephala DC.%羽衣甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体发育观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏跃; 赵桂华; 杨鹤同; 朱耀; 李玉进; 张蜀宁

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome preparation technique was adopted to examine the meiosis process of pollen mother cells and the development of the male gametophytes in kale from the cytological angle. The results indicated that the meiosis process of kale was as the same as the other Brassica species.the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were mainly tetrahedral or decussate types (There appeared nine bivalents in diakinesis and chromosome numbers could be counted in this period ;At metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there is a small number of chromosomes scattering outside their equa-torial plate. At anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared a very few lagged chromosomes; At tetrad stage a small number of abnormal tetrads with micronuclei were visible; The length of bud is about 2.0 to 2. 2 mm in side-placed nucleus period. Microspore was eventually developed to the three-cell pollen with three apertures,the abnormal pollens made up about 1.3% in matured pollens.%采用常规压片法对羽衣甘蓝花粉母细胞减数分裂及雄配子体发育进行了细胞学观察,结果显示:羽衣甘蓝减数分裂类似甘蓝种,细胞质分裂为同时型,四分体以正四面体型或十字交叉型为主;终变期有9个二价体,此时可进行染色体计数;中期Ⅰ和Ⅱ少数细胞中可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和Ⅱ存在落后染色体,四分体时期可观察到少量含微核的异常四分体;单棱靠边期时花蕾长度约为2.0~2.2 mm,小孢子经过发育最终成为3-细胞型花粉并具3个萌发孔,成熟花粉中败育花粉比率为1.3%.

  11. Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu) on the Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Hao YE; Guang-Ce WANG; Cheng-Kui TSENG

    2005-01-01

    Effects of various concentrations of two heavy metals, namely Cd and Cu, on gametophytes of Laminariajaponica Aresch were determined by recording morphological changes of gametophytes, determining pH values and the heavy metal content of the culture solution, calculating the germination rate of sporophytes, and observing heavy metal (Cd) distribution using a fluorescence microscope. The results showed that heavy metals damaged the gametophytes, and were even lethal, and that the higher the concentration of heavy metal ions, the greater the injury to gametophytes. Gametophytes could not survive in culture solutions containing more than 100 mg/L Cd and 50 mg/L Cu and were only able to survive in culture solution containing a mixture of Cd and Cu up to a concentration of 10 mg/L, which indicates that gametophytes have a higher tolerance to Cd than Cu and that multiple heavy metal ions in solution markedly aggravate the damage to gametophytes compared with individual heavy metal ions. With increases in the concentration of the heavy metal, the burgeoning rate of sporophytes decreased acutely, and solutions containing multiple heavy metal ions caused even more marked harm to sporophytes than solutions containing a single heavy metal ion, because most sporophytes died in mixed solutions. The pH value of the culture medium dropped immediately at the beginning (the first day) of treatment, increased over the following days, and then decreased again. The pH of culture media containing multiple heavy metal ions showed greater variation than media containing a single heavy metal ion, with the extent of the decrease in pH of culture media containing multiple ions being greatest during the last period of the experiment. With increases in the concentration of heavy metals, the capacity of gametophytes to accumulate these ions increased. The blue fluorescent light emitted by the Cd- and Cd-binding protein complex existing in gametophytes in media containing different

  12. Observations on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of the Male and Female Gametophytes of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla%异叶苦竹大小孢子及雌雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林树燕; 丁雨龙

    2013-01-01

    Embryological characters of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla were reported in this article.The anthers were tetrasporangiate in which the cytokinesis of microsporocyte in meiosis was successive type and the produced microspore tetrads were bilaterally symmetrical.The cells of tapetum layer with dense cytoplasm were secretory type,and they began to degenerate during meiosis division.The mature pollen was trinucleate.The single ovule with parietal placenta was anatropous,double integument and tenuinucellatae.The development of the embryo sac was polygonum type.Generally the florets close to the base of spikelets bloomed earlier than others,and development of both stamens and pistils within a spikelet was synchronized.

  13. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  14. Flower bud differentiation and development of male and female gametophytes in Camellia oleifera%油茶花芽分化及雌雄配子体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁德义; 邹锋; 谭晓风; 何春燕; 袁军; 范晓明

    2011-01-01

    Cytological observation on the development of female and male cells of Camellia oleifera ‘Xianglin No. 1’was carried out by the method of paraffin sectioning, and the correlation between flower bud differentiation and its external morphology was analyzed. The results show that: (1) The development of flower bud differentiation could be divided into 6 stages: pre-differentiation, sepal formation, petal formation, stamen and pistil formation, ovary and anther formation, and stamen and pistil maturation; (2) ‘XL No. 1’ had four ventricles in each anther; the development of the anther wall belonged to the basic type; glandular tapetum; the meiosis in the microspore mother cells belonged to the simultaneous type and the microspores were arranged in a tetrahedron shape in the tetrads; pollen matured in seven to nine days before blooming; The ripened pollen was of 2-cell type; (3) The ovule was anatropous ovule, nucellus thin, with a double integument; the megasporocyte underwent meiotic division, giving rise to two dyad cells,only the megaspore at chalazal end had biological function, forming 7 nuclear and 8 embryo sacs that underwent 3 mitosis as the onion-type embryo sac. (4) During the process of development, not only the formation of androecium and gynoecium had stable corresponding relations, but aslo they all corresponded with the external morphology. According to the corresponding relations in time sequence, the development process of the interior sexual cell could be identified by the external morphology.%以‘湘林1号'油茶为试材,运用石蜡切片法对其花芽分化及雌雄配子体发育进行解剖观察,并对其花芽发育与外部形态的相关性进行分析.结果表明:(1)‘湘林1号'花芽分化大致可以划分为6个时期:即前分化期、萼片形成期、花瓣形成期、雌雄蕊形成期、子房与花药形成期和雌雄蕊成熟期.(2)‘湘林1号'的花药为4室;药壁发育属于基本型;腺质绒毡层;小孢

  15. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  16. Cryopreservation of Gametophytes of Laminariajaponica (Phaeophyta) Using Encapsulation-Dehydration with Two-Step Cooling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10℃ and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10℃ and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40℃ or -60℃ for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40℃seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaC1 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  17. Study on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes in Galinsona parviflora Car.%牛膝菊大、小孢子发生和雌、雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡铁锋

    2012-01-01

    通过石蜡切片技术对牛膝菊大小孢子发生和雌雄配子体发育过程进行研究,结果表明,牛膝菊花药4室,花药壁发育为简化型。由表皮、药室内壁和绒毡层组成。绒毡层于小孢子四分体时期开始变形,其细胞原生质体向药室中移动为变形绒毡层。小孢子孢原为多细胞,小孢子母细胞减数分裂产生四面体型的小孢子四分体。四分体胞质分裂为连续型,偶见同时型。成熟花粉2-细胞型。子房1室,每室1个倒生胚珠,具单珠被,薄珠心。大孢子母细胞减数分裂形成的4个大孢子呈直线形排列,其中合点端的大孢子为功能大孢子,蓼型胚囊。%This paper studies the megasporogensis,microsporogenisis and development of female and male ga- metophyte by paraffin wax of the meiosis of megaspore and microspore mother cells and the developmental processes of Galinsona parviflora Cav. 1 The results indicates that the anther has four chambers. The develop- ment of anther wall is primitive type which is composed of epidermis, endothecium and amoeboid tapetum. The tapetum begins to vary at the stage of tetrad with the cytoplasm moving into the anther cell. The cytokinesis of microspore mother cell in meiosis is simultaneous and continuous, and the tetrad are tetrahedral. The mature pollen grain is 2-celled. The ovary has 1 locule and there is l anatropous ovule in each locule. The ovule is unitegmic and tenuinucellatae. The megaspore mother cells are developed cal cell which undergoes meitotic division and forms a linear tetrad. The directly by a hypodermal archcspori- embryo sac is of Polygonum type.

  18. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother. PMID:25949207

  19. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  20. 银杏雌配子体发育过程中淀粉和蛋白质的积累与代谢%Research on Starch and Protein Accumulation and Metabolism During the Development of the Ginkgo biloba Female Gametophyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆彦; 王莉; 潘烨; 陈鹏; 王頔; 谢燕; 金鑫鑫

    2011-01-01

    以20年生银杏核用品种'佛指'(Ginkgo biloba L.'Fozhi')为试材,通过树脂切片对雌配子体发育过程中淀粉和蛋白质形成与代谢进行显微和超微结构观察.结果表明:(1)雌配子体发育过程中,细胞内淀粉和蛋白质的积累呈现规律性变化.表现为受精作用发生前,套细胞、帐篷柱细胞和颈细胞内迅速积累大量淀粉粒,靠近颈卵器周围胚乳细胞中的淀粉粒逐渐被转移而减少.受精作用发生时,套细胞和帐篷柱细胞内淀粉粒代谢迅速,靠近颈卵器周围的胚乳细胞中淀粉粒全部消失,细胞壁呈现皱缩解体现象,颈细胞的细胞壁开始解体.受精作用完成后,套细胞、帐篷柱细胞、颈细胞和颈卵器周围胚乳组织出现相继解体现象;(2)雌配子体胚乳细胞内的淀粉和蛋白质积累可分为胚乳薄壁细胞增殖期、淀粉粒和蛋白质形成期、淀粉粒和蛋白质快速积累期和淀粉粒和蛋白质缓慢积累期;(3)淀粉体由造粉质体发育而来,每个造粉质体可含一到多个淀粉体,以芽孢或中间缢断的方式增殖.蛋白质体存在P1和P2两种形式,其中P1存在于内部的胚乳细胞中,P2存在于外围的糊粉层中.受精作用发生前套细胞、帐篷柱细胞内充满了大量的淀粉体和蛋白质体等营养物质,并分布有较多的线粒体、内质网和小泡等细胞器.%Twenty-year old Ginkgo biloba L. ‘Fozhi’ was used to investigate nutrient metabolism mechanisms during the development of the female gametophyte, using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that during development of the female gametophyte,accumulation of nutrients showed a consistent change. Before fertilization, the jacket cells, tentpole, and neck cells rapidly accumulated large amounts of nutrients, while nutrients in endosperm cells around the archegonia were transferred gradually. During fertilization, nutrient metabolism in jacket cells and

  1. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  2. Theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that there is no detectable auxin gradient in the angiosperm female gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lituiev, Dmytro S; Krohn, Nádia G; Müller, Bruno; Jackson, David; Hellriegel, Barbara; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2013-11-01

    The plant life cycle alternates between a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic generation. The female gametophyte (FG) of flowering plants is typically formed through three syncytial mitoses, followed by cellularisation that forms seven cells belonging to four cell types. The specification of cell fates in the FG has been suggested to depend on positional information provided by an intrinsic auxin concentration gradient. The goal of this study was to develop mathematical models that explain the formation of this gradient in a syncytium. Two factors were proposed to contribute to the maintenance of the auxin gradient in Arabidopsis FGs: polar influx at early stages and localised auxin synthesis at later stages. However, no gradient could be generated using classical, one-dimensional theoretical models under these assumptions. Thus, we tested other hypotheses, including spatial confinement by the large central vacuole, background efflux and localised degradation, and investigated the robustness of cell specification under different parameters and assumptions. None of the models led to the generation of an auxin gradient that was steep enough to allow sufficiently robust patterning. This led us to re-examine the response to an auxin gradient in developing FGs using various auxin reporters, including a novel degron-based reporter system. In agreement with the predictions of our models, auxin responses were not detectable within the FG of Arabidopsis or maize, suggesting that the effects of manipulating auxin production and response on cell fate determination might be indirect.

  3. GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1, Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing, Is Essential for Megagametogenesis and Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Liu; Li Yuan; Nai-You Liu; Dong-Qiao Shi; Jie Liu; Wei-Cai Yang

    2009-01-01

    RNA biogenesis is essential and vital for accurate expression of genes. It is obvious that cells cannot continue normal metabolism when RNA splicing is interfered with. sgt13018 is such a mutant, with partial loss of function of GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 (GFA1); a gene likely involved in RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. The mutant is featured in the phenotype of diminished female gametophyte development at stage FG5 and is associated with the arrest of early embryo development in Arabidopsis. Bioinformatics data showed that homoiogs of gene GFA1 in yeast and human encode putative U5 snRNPspecific proteins required for pre-mRNA splicing. Furthermore, the result of yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that GFA1 physically interacted with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8, the putative U5 snRNP components, of Arabidopsis. This investigation suggests that GFA1 is involved in mRNA biogenesis through interaction with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8 and functions in megagametogeneeis and embryogenesis in plant.

  4. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within

  5. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within

  6. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in field-collected terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns (Osmundaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Plagiogyriaceae, Cyatheaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Hirayama, Yumiko; Sakoda, Aki; Suzuki, Ayako; Ebihara, Atsushi; Morita, Nana; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status of pteridophyte gametophytes in diverse taxa, the mycorrhizal colonization of wild gametophytes was investigated in terrestrial cordate gametophytes of pre-polypod leptosporangiate ferns, i.e., one species of Osmundaceae (Osmunda banksiifolia), two species of Gleicheniaceae (Diplopterygium glaucum, Dicranopteris linearis), and four species of Cyatheales including tree ferns (Plagiogyriaceae: Plagiogyria japonica, Plagiogyria euphlebia; Cyatheaceae: Cyathea podophylla, Cyathea lepifera). Microscopic observations revealed that 58 to 97% of gametophytes in all species were colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Fungal colonization was limited to the multilayered midrib (cushion) tissue in all gametophytes examined. Molecular identification using fungal SSU rDNA sequences indicated that the AM fungi in gametophytes primarily belonged to the Glomeraceae, but also included the Claroideoglomeraceae, Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Archaeosporales. This study provides the first evidence for AM fungal colonization of wild gametophytes in the Plagiogyriaceae and Cyatheaceae. Taxonomically divergent photosynthetic gametophytes are similarly colonized by AM fungi, suggesting that mycorrhizal associations with AM fungi could widely occur in terrestrial pteridophyte gametophytes.

  8. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  9. Development of the movement of the epiglottis in infant and juvenile pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although backward folding of the epiglottis is one of the signal events of the mammalian adult swallow, the epiglottis does not fold during the infant swallow. How this functional change occurs is unknown, but we hypothesize that a change in swallow mechanism occurs with maturation, prior to weaning. Using videofluoroscopy, we found three characteristic patterns of swallowing movement at different ages in the pig: an infant swallow, a transitional swallow and a post-weaning (juvenile or adult...

  10. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  11. The Effects of Some Pesticides on Spore Germination and Gametophyte Differentiation in Athyrium filix-femina (L. Roth. and Polypodium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina SOARE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a fungicide (copper hydroxide with 50% metallic copper (Co and of an insecticide (bifenthrin 100 g/l (B on spore germination and gametophyte development in the fern species Athyrium filix-femina (L. Schott. and Polypodium vulgare L. The experimental variants were: V1Co: 0.1 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V2Co: 0.2 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V3Co: 3 gr fungicide/100 ml Knop solution, V1B: 0.01 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution, V2B: 0.02 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution, V3B: 0.04 ml insecticide/100 ml Knop solution and Control (C: 100 ml Knop solution. Co inhibited spore germination in all the experimental variants tested on the species Athyrium filix-femina. In the V3Co variant, after 24 days, no spore germinated. B also inhibited spore germination in all the experimental variants. In Polypodium vulgare, Co significantly inhibited spore germination. In the experimental variants containing B, only in the V3B variant the germination is significantly inhibited. Calculations showed a significant negative correlation between the germination percentage and the concentration of pesticides. The fungicide also affected gametophyte differentiation, which happened much more slowly in both species. The rhizoids of the gametophytes of Polypodium vulgare showed modifications in their differentiation and morphology that could also be related to alterations in their biochemical composition. The experimental variants with the highest concentration of insecticide resulted in the differentiation of abnormal gametophytes growing in a tridimensional cellular mass with callus morphology. The responses of plants to the induced stress produced during the testing period may be used as biomarkers of environmental pollution caused by pesticides.

  12. The development and validation of the Dormitory Observation Report: a behavioral rating instrument for juvenile delinquents in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; Veneziano, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In order to provide an objective measure of problematic behavioral patterns among juvenile delinquents in residential facilities, the Dormitory Observation Report (DOR) was developed. The DOR assesses 11 dimensions of problematic behavioral patterns (e.g., physical assaultiveness, manipulativeness), as well as three dimensions of desirable behavioral patterns expected in an institutional setting (e.g., independent functioning, personal hygiene, care of surroundings). Empirical study regarding the reliability and validity of the DOR are reported, and the results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications of this instrument.

  13. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  14. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  15. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  16. Differential responses of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) under solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Plastino, Estela M

    2016-06-01

    The effects of solar UV radiation on mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), growth, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, phycobiliproteins), soluble proteins (SP), and C and N content of Mazzaella laminarioides tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were investigated. Apical segments of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were exposed to solar radiation under three treatments (PAR [P], PAR+UVA [PA], and PAR+UVA+UVB [PAB]) during 18 d in spring 2009, Punta Arenas, Chile. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 12, and 18 d of solar radiation exposure. Most of the parameters assessed on M. laminarioides were significantly influenced by the radiation treatment, and both gametophytes and tetrasporophytes seemed to respond differently when exposed to high UV radiation. The two main effects promoted by UV radiation were: (i) higher synthesis of MAAs in gametophytes than tetrasporophytes at 2 d, and (ii) a decrease in phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and SPs, but an increase in MAA content in tetrasporophytes at 6 and 12 d of culture. Despite some changes that were observed in biochemical parameters in both tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of M. laminarioides when exposed to UVB radiation, these changes did not promote deleterious effects that might interfere with the growth in the long term (18 d). The tolerance and resistance of M. laminarioides to higher UV irradiance were expected, as this intertidal species is exposed to variation in solar radiation, especially during low tide.

  17. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  18. Development of the movement of the epiglottis in infant and juvenile pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Alfred W; German, Rebecca Z; Thexton, Allan J

    2008-01-01

    Although backward folding of the epiglottis is one of the signal events of the mammalian adult swallow, the epiglottis does not fold during the infant swallow. How this functional change occurs is unknown, but we hypothesize that a change in swallow mechanism occurs with maturation, prior to weaning. Using videofluoroscopy, we found three characteristic patterns of swallowing movement at different ages in the pig: an infant swallow, a transitional swallow and a post-weaning (juvenile or adult) swallow. In animals of all ages, the dorsal region of the epiglottis and larynx was held in an intranarial position by a muscular sphincter formed by the palatopharyngeal arch. In the infant swallow, increasing pressure in the oropharynx forced a liquid bolus through the piriform recesses on either side of a relatively stationary epiglottis into the esophagus. As the infant matured, the palatopharyngeal arch and the soft palate elevated at the beginning of the swallow, so exposing a larger area of the epiglottis to bolus pressure. In transitional swallows, the epiglottis was tilted backward relatively slowly by a combination of bolus pressure and squeezing of the epiglottis by closure of the palatopharyngeal sphincter. The bolus, however, traveled alongside but never over the tip of the epiglottis. In the juvenile swallow, the bolus always passed over the tip of the epiglottis. The tilting of the epiglottis resulted from several factors, including the action of the palatopharyngeal sphincter, higher bolus pressure exerted on the epiglottis and the allometry of increased size. In both transitional and juvenile swallows, the subsequent relaxation of the palatopharyngeal sphincter released the epiglottis, which sprang back to its original intranarial position.

  19. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junzeng; Liu, Yan; Cumberlidge, Neil; Wu, Huixian

    2013-05-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius, zoea, and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development. Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab. We described and compared the appendages of the head, thorax, and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S. yangtsekiense. Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile, no joint articulation, a slimmer appearance, and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab. These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development, and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move, feed, and respire. In marine crabs, the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  20. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura,Potamidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Junzeng; LIU Yan; Neil CUMBERLIDGE; WU Huixian

    2013-01-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius,zoea,and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development.Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab.We described and compared the appendages of the head,thorax,and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S.yangtsekiense.Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile,no joint articulation,a slimmer appearance,and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab.These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development,and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move,feed,and respire.In marine crabs,the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  1. Evolution of gametophytic apomixis in flowering plants: an alternative model from Maloid Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talent, Nadia

    2009-05-01

    Gametophytic apomixis, asexual reproduction involving megagametophytes, occurs in many flowering-plant families and as several variant mechanisms. Developmental destabilization of sexual reproduction as a result of hybridization and/or polyploidy appears to be a general trigger for its evolution, but the evidence is complicated by ploidy-level changes and hybridization occurring with facultative apomixis. The repeated origins of polyploid apomictic complexes in the palaeopolyploid Maloid Rosaceae suggest a new model of evolutionary transitions that may have wider applicability. Two conjectures are fundamental to this model: (1) that as previously suggested by Rutishauser, like many sexual flowering plants the polyploid apomicts require maternal-paternal balance in the second fertilization event that gives rise to the endosperm, and (2) that the observed variation in endosperm ploidy levels relates less to flexibility late in development than to the known variation in developmental origin of the megagametophyte between mechanisms loosely categorized as diplospory and apospory. The model suggests explanations for the relative frequencies of apospory and diplospory, and for the wide but incomplete associations of apospory with a pollination requirement (pseudogamy) and of diplospory with autonomous development of the endosperm. It is suggested that pollination from other taxa may provide some adaptive advantage to pseudogamous apospory.

  2. Study of pollen mother cell meiosis and male gametophyte development in autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage%普通白菜同源四倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂及其雄配子体发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群香; 王倩; 唐红艳; 韩长奎

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal meiotic behaviors and male gametophytes development of autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) derived from microspore culture were studied by using H33258 fluorescence staining technique. The results showed that tetraploid with cell division period and chromosomes morphological change was similar to the diploid; Four homologous chromosomes formed quadrivalent, bivalent (or paired bivalent) and few trivalent and univalent at metaphase Ⅰ ; There were different styles for the quadrivalent at diakinesis stage, such as rod style, ring style, or in the shape of V, L, U, S and Y et al. There were ten quadrivalents or paired bivalents appeared in majority cells at metaphase Ⅰ , while multivalent and univalent appeared in a few cells. The tetrads were mostly vertical or tetrahedral. The form of the cytokinesis of meiosis was simultaneous type. The mature pollen grains were three karyotype, including a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei, with four germinal furrow. Lagging chromosomes were observed during the whole division period from meiosis anaphase Ⅰ to telophase Ⅱ , and even at mitosis of microspore.%应用H33258荧光染色法研究普通白菜小孢子再生四倍体植株花粉母细胞减数分裂和雄配子体发育过程.结果表明:四倍体白菜花粉母细胞减数分裂过程及各时期染色体形态等变化与二倍体植株相似;4条同源染色体中期Ⅰ可出现四价体、二价体或配对二价体、少量三价体和单价体;终变期四价体呈棒状、环状、V形、L形、U形、S形、Y形等多种构型;中期Ⅰ多数细胞中出现10个四价体或配对二价体,个别细胞中出现多价体或单价体.四分体排列方式有垂直型和四面体型;花粉母细胞减数分裂的胞质分裂方式为同时型;成熟花粉粒为三核型,包括1个营养核和2个精核,具四萌发沟.从后期Ⅰ到末期Ⅱ,甚至小孢子有丝分裂,整个

  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  4. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  5. Assessment of Genetic Diversities of Selected Laminaria (Laminariales,Phaeophyta) Gametophytes by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Liang WANG; Chen-Lin LIU; Xiao-Jie LI; Yi-Zhou CONG; De-Lin DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to assess genetic diversity among 10pairs of male and female Laminaria gametophytes. A total of 58 amplification loci was obtained from 10selected ISSR primers, of which 34 revealed polymorphism among the gametophytes. Genetic distances were calculated with the Dice coefficient ranging from 0.006 to 0.223. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method arithmetic (UPGMA) average showed that most male and female gametophytes of the same species were clustered together and that 10 pairs of gametophytes were divided into four groups. This was generally consistent with the taxonomic categories. The main group consisted of six pairs of gametophytes, which were selected from Laminaria japonica Aresch. by intensive inbreeding through artificial hybridization. One specific marker was cloned, but was not converted successfully into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of applying ISSR markers to evaluate Laminaria germplasm diversities.

  6. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were &apos

  7. High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Tifeng; PANG Shaojun; LIU Feng; XU Na; ZHAO Xiaobo; GAO Suqin

    2012-01-01

    Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation.To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources,20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U.pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok,Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao,China.One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification.At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8,3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones,with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp.At other loci,3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus.The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones,respectively.The average gene diversity for Russian,Chinese,and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1,0.4,and 0.5,respectively.Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci.In cluster analysis,Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance.Overall,high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries.These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

  8. Not only in the temperate zone: independent gametophytes of two vittarioid ferns (Pteridaceae, Polypodiales) in East Asian subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Yaung; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Shinohara, Wataru; Ebihara, Atsushi; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Huang, Yao-Moan; Chiou, Wen-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Independent gametophyte ferns are unique among vascular plants because they are sporophyteless and reproduce asexually to maintain their populations in the gametophyte generation. Such ferns had been primarily discovered in temperate zone, and usually hypothesized with (sub)tropical origins and subsequent extinction of sporophyte due to climate change during glaciations. Presumably, independent fern gametophytes are unlikely to be distributed in tropics and subtropics because of relatively stable climates which are less affected by glaciations. Nonetheless, the current study presents cases of two independent gametophyte fern species in subtropic East Asia. In this study, we applied plastid DNA sequences (trnL-L-F and matK + ndhF + chlL datasets) and comprehensive sampling (~80%) of congeneric species for molecular identification and divergence time estimation of these independent fern gametophytes. The two independent gametophyte ferns were found belonging to genus Haplopteris (vittarioids, Pteridaceae) and no genetic identical sporophyte species in East Asia. For one species, divergence times between its populations imply recent oversea dispersal(s) by spores occurred during Pleistocene. By examining their ex situ and in situ fertility, prezygotic sterility was found in these two Haplopteris, in which gametangia were not or very seldom observed, and this prezygotic sterility might attribute to their lacks of functional sporophytes. Our field observation and survey on their habitats suggest microhabitat conditions might attribute to this prezygotic sterility. These findings point to consideration of whether recent climate change during the Pleistocene glaciation resulted in ecophysiological maladaptation of non-temperate independent gametophyte ferns. In addition, we provided a new definition to classify fern gametophyte independences at the population level. We expect that continued investigations into tropical and subtropical fern gametophyte floras will

  9. Neonatal inflammatory pain and systemic inflammatory responses as possible environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder of juvenile rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Espinera, Alyssa R.; Chen, DongDong; Choi, Ko-Eun; Caslin, Asha Yoshiko; Won, Soonmi; Pecoraro, Valentina; Xu, Guang-Yin; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects many children and juveniles. The pathogenesis of ASD is not well understood. Environmental factors may play important roles in the development of ASD. We examined a possible relationship of inflammatory pain in neonates and the development of ASD in juveniles. Methods Acute inflammation pain was induced by 5 % formalin (5 μl/day) subcutaneous injection into two hindpaws of postnatal day 3 to 5 (P3–P5) rat pups. Western blot, immunohistochemica...

  10. Development of a standardized method of assessment of radiographs and radiographic change in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: introduction of the Dijkstra composite score.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, M.A. van; Boers, M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Soesbergen, R.M. van; Wieringa, H.; Fiselier, T.J.W.; Franssen, M.J.A.M.; Cate, R. ten; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W. van; Wulffraat, N.M.; Luijk, W.H. van; Oostveen, J.C.; Kuis, W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity to change of a newly developed radiologic assessment tool, the Dijkstra score, and to develop a numeric composite score and progressor classification scheme to apply in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) trials. METHODS: A placebo-controlled trial of sulfasala

  11. Development of a standardized method of assessment of radiographs and radiographic change in juvenile idiopathic arthritis - Introduction of the Dijkstra composite score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, MAJ; Zwinderman, AH; van Soesbergen, RM; Wieringa, H; Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAM; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Wulffraat, NM; van Luijk, WHJ; Oostveen, JCM; Kuis, W; Dijkmans, BAC

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity to change of a newly developed radiologic assessment tool, the Dijkstra score, and to develop a numeric composite score and progressor classification scheme to apply in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) trials. Methods. A placebo-controlled trial of sulfasala

  12. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-21

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. This study focuses on the optimization of microbattery design based on Li/CFx chemistry. Through appropriate modifications, a steady high-rate pulse current with desirable life time has been achieved while the weight and volume of the battery is largely reduced. The impedance variation in as-designed microbatteries is systematically compared with that of currently used watch batteries in JSATS with an attempt to understand the intrinsic factors that control the performances of microbatteries under the real testing environments.

  13. Explosive development of pectoral muscle fibres in large juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, S; Fine, M L

    2015-11-01

    As part of an effort on scaling of pectoral spines and muscles, the basis for growth was examined in six pectoral muscles in juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, the largest catfish in North America. Fibre number increases slowly in fish from 13.0 to 26.4 cm in total length, doubles by 27.0 cm and remains stable in larger individuals. Simultaneously, mean fibre diameter decreases by half, caused by the addition of new small fibres, before increasing non-linearly in larger fish. The orders of magnitude disparity between the size at hatching and the size of large adults may have selected for rapid muscle fibre addition at a threshold size.

  14. Spawning Behavior, Egg Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology of Hyphessobrycon eques (Pisces: Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194

  15. Developing a provisional, international minimal dataset for Juvenile Dermatomyositis: for use in clinical practice to inform research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Arnold, Katie; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Huber, Adam M; Ravelli, Angelo; Beard, Laura; Beresford, Michael W; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but severe autoimmune inflammatory myositis of childhood. International collaboration is essential in order to undertake clinical trials, understand the disease and improve long-term outcome. The aim of this study was to propose from existing collaborative initiatives a preliminary minimal dataset for JDM. This will form the basis of the future development of an international consensus-approved minimum core dataset to be used both in clinical care and inform research, allowing integration of data between centres. A working group of internationally-representative JDM experts was formed to develop a provisional minimal dataset. Clinical and laboratory variables contained within current national and international collaborative databases of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were scrutinised. Judgements were informed by published literature and a more detailed analysis of the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Biomarker Study and Repository, UK and Ireland. A provisional minimal JDM dataset has been produced, with an associated glossary of definitions. The provisional minimal dataset will request information at time of patient diagnosis and during on-going prospective follow up. At time of patient diagnosis, information will be requested on patient demographics, diagnostic criteria and treatments given prior to diagnosis. During on-going prospective follow-up, variables will include the presence of active muscle or skin disease, major organ involvement or constitutional symptoms, investigations, treatment, physician global assessments and patient reported outcome measures. An internationally agreed minimal dataset has the potential to significantly enhance collaboration, allow effective communication between groups, provide a minimal standard of care and enable analysis of the largest possible number of JDM patients to provide a greater understanding of this disease. This preliminary dataset can now be developed into

  16. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird

  17. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird

  18. Effect of renal shock wave lithotripsy on the development of metabolic syndrome in a juvenile swine model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Rajash K; Liu, Ziyue; Connors, Bret A; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Basile, David P; Tune, Johnathan D; Sturek, Michael; Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E

    2015-04-01

    We performed a pilot study to assess whether renal shock wave lithotripsy influences metabolic syndrome onset and severity. Three-month-old juvenile female Ossabaw miniature pigs were treated with shock wave lithotripsy (2,000 shock waves at 24 kV with 120 shock waves per minute in 2) or sham shock wave lithotripsy (no shock waves in 2). Shock waves were targeted to the upper pole of the left kidney to model treatment that would also expose the pancreatic tail to shock waves. Pigs were then instrumented to directly measure arterial blood pressure via an implanted radiotelemetry device. They later received a hypercaloric atherogenic diet for about 7 months. Metabolic syndrome development was assessed by the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome progression and severity were similar in the sham treated and lithotripsy groups. The only exception arterial blood pressure, which remained relatively constant in sham treated pigs but began to increase at about 2 months towards hypertensive levels in lithotripsy treated pigs. Metabolic data on the 2 groups were pooled to provide a more complete assessment of metabolic syndrome development and progression in this juvenile pig model. The intravenous glucose tolerance test revealed substantial insulin resistance with impaired glucose tolerance within 2 months on the hypercaloric atherogenic diet with signs of further metabolic impairment at 7 months. These preliminary results suggest that renal shock wave lithotripsy is not a risk factor for worsening glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus onset. However, it appears to be a risk factor for early onset hypertension in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71-0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02-2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88-4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9-35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish.

  20. The population ecology of male gametophytes: the link between pollination and seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A; Richards, Shane A

    2016-05-01

    The fate of male gametophytes after pollen reaches stigmas links pollination to ovule fertilisation, governing subsequent siring success and seed production. Although male gametophyte performance primarily involves cellular processes, an ecological analogy may expose insights into the nature and implications of male gametophyte success. We elaborate this analogy theoretically and present empirical examples that illustrate associated insights. Specifically, we consider pollen loads on stigmas as localised populations subject to density-independent mortality and density-dependent processes as they traverse complex stylar environments. Different combinations of the timing of pollen-tube access to limiting stylar resources (simultaneous or sequential), the tube distribution among resources (repulsed or random) and the timing of density-independent mortality relative to competition (before or after) create signature relations of mean pollen-tube success and its variation among pistils to pollen receipt. Using novel nonlinear regression analyses (two-moment regression), we illustrate contrasting relations for two species, demonstrating that variety in these relations is a feature of reproductive diversity among angiosperms, rather than merely a theoretical curiosity. Thus, the details of male gametophyte ecology should shape sporophyte reproductive success and hence the dynamics and structure of angiosperm populations.

  1. From Custody to Community: Development of Assessment and Treatment for Juveniles Serving Sentences for Sex Offences in an Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Peter; Cherry, Joan; Swift, Aaron; Tallon, Mary; Doyle, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The Baseline Project provided an assessment package and treatment for juveniles (aged 16-21 years) serving sentences for sexual offences, and was the only such programme available in Ireland (ROI). It was a venture between the Northside Inter-Agency Project and the Psychology Department of the Irish Prison Service and worked with juveniles on a…

  2. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2001-10-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial

  3. High frequency of TP53 mutations in juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas indicates role of TP53 in the development of these tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, VM; Dirven, CMF; Verlind, E; Molenaar, WM; Mooij, JJA; Hofstra, RMW; Buys, CHCM; Dam, A.

    1999-01-01

    In adults, the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated in astrocytic brain tumors which is supposed to represent an early event in their development. In juvenile pilocytic and low-grade astrocytomas, however, TP53 mutations have until now been reported as rare, which has led to the suggesti

  4. Quantitative determination of the juvenile hormones in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during normal development and after implantation of corpora allata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse-Minderhoud, L.; Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van; Kerk-Van Hoof, A.C. van der; Biessels, H.W.A.; Salemink, C.A.; Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative determination of the three naturally occurring juvenile hormones in insects (JH-I, JH-II and JH-III) was performed on haemolymph samples of both normally developing locusts and locusts implanted with active corpora allata, using capillary gas chromatography with electron ca

  5. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  6. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  7. Characterization of bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expressed in male gametophyte of higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Tomoko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC is a critical enzyme catalyzing the β-carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP to oxaloacetate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate. PEPC typically exists as a Class-1 PEPC homotetramer composed of plant-type PEPC (PTPC polypeptides, and two of the subunits were reported to be monoubiquitinated in germinating castor oil seeds. By the large-scale purification of ubiquitin (Ub-related proteins from lily anther, two types of PEPCs, bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC and plant-type PEPC (PTPC, were identified in our study as candidate Ub-related proteins. Until now, there has been no information about the properties of the PEPCs expressed in male reproductive tissues of higher plants. Results Expression analyses showed that lily BTPC (LlBTPC and Arabidopsis BTPC (AtBTPC were significantly expressed in pollen. The fusion protein AtBTPC-Venus localized in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell (VC. Both LlBTPC and AtBTPC expression initiated after the last mitosis before pollen germination. Lily PTPC (LlPTPC and monoubiquitinated LlPTPC (Ub-LlPTPC remained at constant levels during pollen development. In late bicellular pollen of lily, LlBTPC forms a hetero-octameric Class-2 PEPC complex with LlPTPC to express PEPC activity. Conclusion Our results suggest that an LlBTPC:Ub-LlPTPC:LlPTPC complex is formed in the VC cytoplasm during late pollen development. Both LlBTPC and AtBTPC expression patterns are similar to the patterns of the appearance of storage organelles during pollen development in lily and Arabidopsis, respectively. Therefore, BTPC is thought to accelerate the metabolic flow for the synthesis of storage substances during pollen maturation. Our study provides the first characterization of BTPC in pollen, the male gametophyte of higher plants.

  8. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  9. Plant Development & the Fern Life Cycle: Using "Ceratopteris richardii."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaglia, Karen S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents laboratory activities focusing on the development of sexually mature gametophytes from single-celled spores. Includes techniques for culture and manipulation of gametophyte development from spores that are applicable for hands-on activities for students at all levels. (MKR)

  10. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  11. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  12. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  13. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.

    2006-01-01

    . Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  14. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic, M.; Heijstek, M.W.; Verkaaik, M.; Dijkhuizen, E.H. van; Armbrust, W.; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Kamphuis, S.; Kuis, W.; Egberts, T.C.; Sinnema, G.; Rademaker, C.M.A.; Wulffraat, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  15. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS)

  16. Mycorrhizal association in gametophytes and sporophytes of the fern Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae with Glomus intraradices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia E Martinez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferns, which are usually colonizing different environments and their roots frequently present mycorrhization, have two adult stages in their life cycle, the sporophytic and the gametophytic phase. This paper describes the experimental mycorrhizal association between Pteris vittata leptosporangiate fern and a strain of Glomus intraradices during the life cycle of the fern, from spore germination to the development of a mature sporophyte. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization pattern of in vitro cultures of G. intraradices along the fern life cycle with those found in nature. For this, mature spores were obtained from fertile P. vittata fronds growing in walls of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Roots were stained and observed under the light microscope for arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Approximately, 75 fern spores were cultured in each pot filled with a sterile substrate and G. intraradices (BAFC N° 51.331 as inoculum on the surface. After germination took place, samples were taken every 15 days until the fern cycle was completed. In order to determine colonization dynamics each sample was observed under optical and confocal microscope after staining. Gametophyte was classified as Adiantum type. Male and female gametangia were limited to the lower face, mycorrhizal colonization started when they were differentiated and took place through the rhizoids. Spores and vesicles were not found in this cycle stage. Paris-type mycorrhizal colonization was established in the midrib and in the embrionary foot. It was colonized by external mycelium. When the first root was developed soil inoculum colonized de novo this structure and Arum-type colonization was observed. This study proves that the type of colonization is determined by the structure of the host, not by the fungus. Both the gametophyte and embryo foot have determined growth and Paris-type colonization, while, sporophyte roots have undetermined growth and Arum

  17. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) from the Iberian coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Rull Lluch, Jordi; Barceló Martí, M. Carme; Ribera Siguan, M. Antonia

    2007-01-01

    The gametophytes of Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy have received little attention in literature. Both female and predominantly male monoecious gametophytes of P. pavonica are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed description of the morphology and the disposition of oogonia and antheridia is presented. In addition, a comparison with literature data on this and other Padina species is carried out.Los gametófitos de Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy han sido escasamente reseñados...

  18. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  19. Development of a versatile in vitro method for understanding the migration of Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Baird, Alan W; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that causes serious losses to livestock producers, and also zoonotic disease. The limitations of chemotherapy for the control of fasciolosis have led to significant interest in the development of vaccines to protect cattle and sheep from infection. However, relatively few studies have concentrated on the mechanisms of invasion of the gut by newly excysted juvenile liver flukes (NEJ) and the host response triggered by this event. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study invasion by NEJ, while also reducing the requirement for challenge infections of experimental animals. Fasciola hepatica metacercariae were excysted in vitro and placed into compartments containing rat distal jejunal sheets. Variations in incubation medium, chamber size and incubation temperature were used to identify optimal conditions for NEJ migration across the gut. Histological examination showed increased migration until 120 min post-incubation. The use of RPMI, without gassing at 39 °C, as the incubation medium was found to be optimal, with 40·5% of NEJ migrating after 150 min. This study describes a readily-reproducible method for studying the migration of F. hepatica NEJ within the definitive host. It will be useful for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets.

  20. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  1. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cao, Jianguo; Wu, Yuhuan; Wang, Quanxi; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-17

    Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O(2-)), reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  2. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O2−, reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  3. Cryopreservation of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin

    2008-02-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  4. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  5. LACHESIS restricts gametic cell fate in the female gametophyte of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gross-Hardt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, the egg and sperm cells form within haploid gametophytes. The female gametophyte of Arabidopsis consists of two gametic cells, the egg cell and the central cell, which are flanked by five accessory cells. Both gametic and accessory cells are vital for fertilization; however, the mechanisms that underlie the formation of accessory versus gametic cell fate are unknown. In a screen for regulators of egg cell fate, we isolated the lachesis (lis mutant which forms supernumerary egg cells. In lis mutants, accessory cells differentiate gametic cell fate, indicating that LIS is involved in a mechanism that prevents accessory cells from adopting gametic cell fate. The temporal and spatial pattern of LIS expression suggests that this mechanism is generated in gametic cells. LIS is homologous to the yeast splicing factor PRP4, indicating that components of the splice apparatus participate in cell fate decisions.

  6. Minocycline treatment suppresses juvenile development and growth by attenuating insulin/TOR signaling in Drosophila animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyun Myoung; Noh, Sujin; Hyun, Seogang

    2017-01-01

    Minocycline is a broad spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline analog that is used to treat bacterial infection. Recently, this drug has been receiving increasing attention for its non-antibiotic properties, including anti-inflammatory, tumor suppressive, and neuroprotective effects. Drosophila is a useful model organism for studying human metabolism and disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of minocycline on juvenile development and growth in Drosophila. Feeding minocycline to Drosophila larvae suppresses larval body growth and delays the timing of pupation in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the drug treatment decreased the activated form of Akt and S6K in peripheral tissues, which suggested that the insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling had been attenuated. Specifically enhancing TOR activity in the prothoracic gland (PG), the ecdysone-generating organ, attenuated the drug-induced developmental delay, which is consistent with the critical role of PG’s TOR signaling in determining pupation time. Our results reveal previously unrecognized effects of minocycline and offer a new potential therapeutic opportunity for various pathological conditions associated with insulin/TOR signaling. PMID:28317899

  7. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE ON THE GAMETOPHYTE OF SOME PTERIDOPHYTE SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina SOARE; Codruţa-Mihaela DOBRESCU; Camelia Georgiana DIACONESCU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lead acetate on spore germination and gametophyte differentiation in the pteridophyte species Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana. The study was conducted to determine the lead tolerance level of these species.The experimental variants were: Control - Knop solution, V1-100 ppm lead acetate and V2-500 ppm lead acetate. The spores were cultivated in 50 ml of experimental solutions. The culture vessels were k...

  8. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-07-14

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Urgent Work: Developing a Gender- Responsive Approach for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System / Trabajo urgente: desarrollando una respuesta con perspectiva de género para niñas en el Sistema de Justicia Juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawanda Ravoira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the prevalence of girls in the U.S. juvenile justice sys- tem, compares national and international incarceration rates, and reviews the profile needs of justice-involved girls. The authors offer their Model as an example of how to develop a gender-responsive approach to girls in the justice system, including a description of how the model was operationalized in a community in the United States. Critical developments and emerg- ing opportunities for each of the Model’s components: advocacy, model programming, public education, training and technical assistance, gender responsive tools, systems accountability, and evaluation are highlighted. Lessons learned are offered as a springboard for conversations about how the international community can individually assess their needs and resources and work together to improve the response to girls. The paper concludes with recommendations for choosing, evaluating, and implementing best- practice approaches for meaningful reform.

  10. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Buchanan, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Stage-specific analyses of starch and 18 sugars, including pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols, were made throughout seed development for zygotic embryo and female gametophyte (FG) tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tissue was most often analyzed in triplicate from two open-pollinated families grown in different locations and sampled in different years. Carbohydrates were analyzed by enzymatic assay, high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For all carbohydrates quantified, peak concentrations were higher in embryo tissue than in FG tissue. Significant changes in starch and sugar concentrations occurred over time, with both seed collections showing similar trends in temporal changes. Although concentrations were not always similar, embryo and FG tissues generally showed similar patterns of change in starch and sugar concentrations over time. Total starch concentration was highest during early seed development and decreased as development progressed. The major sugars contributing to osmotic potential during early seed development were D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. During mid-seed development, D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, melibiose and raffinose provided major contributions to the osmotic environment. During late seed development, sucrose, raffinose, melibiose, stachyose and fructose were the major contributors to osmotic potential. These data suggest stage-specific media composition for each step in the somatic embryogenesis protocol.

  11. The Cutaneous Assessment Tool : development and reliability in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, A. M.; Dugan, E. M.; Lachenbruch, P. A.; Feldman, B. M.; Perez, M. D.; Zemel, L. S.; Lindsley, C. B.; Rennebohm, R. M.; Wallace, C. A.; Passo, M. H.; Reed, A. M.; Bowyer, S. L.; Ballinger, S. H.; Miller, F. W.; Rider, L. G.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Clinical care and therapeutic trials in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) require accurate and consistent assessment of cutaneous involvement. The Cutaneous Assessment Tool (CAT) was designed to measure skin activity and damage in IIM. We describe the development and inter-rater r

  12. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  13. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  14. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic, M.; Heijstek, M.W.; Verkaaik, M.; Dijkhuizen, E.H. van; Armbrust, W.; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Kamphuis, S.; Kuis, W.; Egberts, T.C.; Sinnema, G.; Rademaker, C.M.A.; Wulffraat, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) que

  15. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) que

  16. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  17. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  18. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pi...

  19. Public Attitudes toward Juveniles Who Commit Crimes: The Relationship between Assessments of Adolescent Development and Attitudes toward Severity of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terrence T.; Trzcinski, Eileen; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors used a statewide survey to investigate the extent to which beliefs regarding the age at which youth reach maturity, the role of peer influences, and other factors, such as abuse during childhood, are associated with measures of how harshly juveniles should be treated by the justice system. The results of this study…

  20. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Report, February 1992-February 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; Gadomski, Dena M.

    1994-09-01

    This document is the 1992 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project No. 82-003 conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Oregon Cooperative Fishery Research Unit (OCFRU), and the Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (ICFWRU). The approach was to present the progress achieved during 1992 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. Reports 1, 2, and 4 consist of the Abstract only (journal papers were submitted in lieu of reports). This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for the seven articles in this report.

  1. Effect of estrone on somatic and female gametophyte cell division and differentiation in Arabidospis thaliana cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żabicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mammalian female sex hormone estrone on differentiation of somatic tissues and on induction of autonomous endosperm in culture of female gametophyte cells of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0. In culture, estrone-stimulated development of autonomous endosperm (AE occurred in 14.7% of unpollinated pistils. The AE represented development stages similar to those of young endosperm after fertilization and AE of fis mutants in vivo. In the majority of ovules the AE was in a few-nucleate young stage. Some ovules showed more advanced stages of AE development, with nuclei and cytoplasm forming characteristic nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs. Sporadically, AE was divided into regions characteristic for Arabidopsis endosperm formed after fertilization. Direct organogenesis (caulogenesis, rhizogenesis, callus proliferation and formation of trichome-like structures were observed during in vitro culture of hypocotyls and cotyledons of 3-day-old seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with estrone for 28 days. Histological analysis showed adventitious root formation and changes in explant anatomy caused by estrone.

  2. Endocrine systems in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Seasonal development and seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Kiilerich, P.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, S.D.; Stefansson, S.O.

    2008-01-01

    ??-HSD2 and MR mRNA levels increased after four days in SW in both strains, whereas only the anadromous strain maintained elevated gill GR and 11??-HSD2 mRNA levels after one month in SW. The results indicate that hormones and receptors of the GH and cortisol axes are present at significantly lower levels during spring development and SW acclimation in landlocked relative to anadromous salmon. These findings suggest that attenuation of GH and cortisol axes may, at least partially, result in reduced preparatory upregulation of key gill ion-secretory proteins, possibly a result of reduced selection pressure for marine adaptations in landlocked salmon. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of Both CB1 and CB2 Endocannabinoid Receptors Is Critical for Masculinization of the Developing Medial Amygdala and Juvenile Social Play Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, David J; Whitaker, Allison R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Juvenile social play behavior is a shared trait across a wide variety of mammalian species. When play is characterized by the frequency or duration of physical contact, males usually display more play relative to females. The endocannabinoid system contributes to the development of the sex difference in social play behavior in rats. Treating newborn pups with a nonspecific endocannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, masculinizes subsequent juvenile rough-and-tumble play behavior by females. Here we use specific drugs to target signaling through either the CB1 or CB2 endocannabinoid receptor (CB1R or CB2R) to determine which modulates the development of sex differences in play. Our data reveal that signaling through both CB1R and CB2R must be altered neonatally to modify development of neural circuitry regulating sex differences in play. Neonatal co-agonism of CB1R and CB2R masculinized play by females, whereas co-antagonism of these receptors feminized rates of male play. Because of a known role for the medial amygdala in the sexual differentiation of play, we reconstructed Golgi-impregnated neurons in the juvenile medial amygdala and used factor analysis to identify morphological parameters that were sexually differentiated and responsive to dual agonism of CB1R and CB2R during the early postnatal period. Our results suggest that sex differences in the medial amygdala are modulated by the endocannabinoid system during early development. Sex differences in play behavior are loosely correlated with differences in neuronal morphology. PMID:28144625

  4. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process.

  5. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  6. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  7. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  8. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  10. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  11. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  12. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  13. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae from the Iberian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Garreta, Amelia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Padina pavonica (L. Thivy have received little attention in literature. Both female and predominantly male monoecious gametophytes of P. pavonica are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed description of the morphology and the disposition of oogonia and antheridia is presented. In addition, a comparison with literature data on this and other Padina species is carried out.Los gametófitos de Padina pavonica (L. Thivy han sido escasamente reseñados en la bibliografía. En este trabajo se señala por primera vez en las costas de la Península Ibérica la presencia de gametófitos fértiles de P. pavonica, tanto femeninos como monoicos predominantemente masculinos. Se presenta una detallada descripción de la disposición y la morfología de los oogonios y anteridios. Asimismo, se realiza una comparación con los datos bibliográficos de esta especie y con los de otras especies de Padina

  14. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on survival, growth and skeletal development in the early benthic juvenile sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Co-occurring ocean warming, acidification and reduced carbonate mineral saturation have significant impacts on marine biota, especially calcifying organisms. The effects of these stressors on development and calcification in newly metamorphosed juveniles (ca. 0.5 mm test diameter) of the intertidal sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, an ecologically important species in temperate Australia, were investigated in context with present and projected future conditions. Habitat temperature and pH/pCO2 were documented to place experiments in a biologically and ecologically relevant context. These parameters fluctuated diurnally up to 10 °C and 0.45 pH units. The juveniles were exposed to three temperature (21, 23 and 25 °C) and four pH (8.1, 7.8, 7.6 and 7.4) treatments in all combinations, representing ambient sea surface conditions (21 °C, pH 8.1; pCO2 397; ΩCa 4.7; ΩAr 3.1), near-future projected change (+2-4 °C, -0.3-0.5 pH units; pCO2 400-1820; ΩCa 5.0-1.6; ΩAr 3.3-1.1), and extreme conditions experienced at low tide (+4 °C, -0.3-0.7 pH units; pCO2 2850-2967; ΩCa 1.1-1.0; ΩAr 0.7-0.6). The lowest pH treatment (pH 7.4) was used to assess tolerance levels. Juvenile survival and test growth were resilient to current and near-future warming and acidification. Spine development, however, was negatively affected by near-future increased temperature (+2-4 °C) and extreme acidification (pH 7.4), with a complex interaction between stressors. Near-future warming was the more significant stressor. Spine tips were dissolved in the pH 7.4 treatments. Adaptation to fluctuating temperature-pH conditions in the intertidal may convey resilience to juvenile H. erythrogramma to changing ocean conditions, however, ocean warming and acidification may shift baseline intertidal temperature and pH/pCO2 to levels that exceed tolerance limits. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  16. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  17. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  18. Early evolution of life cycles in embryophytes:A focus on the fossil evidence of gametophyte/sporophyte size and morphological complexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philippe GERRIENNE; Paul GONEZ

    2011-01-01

    Embryophytes (land plants) are distinguished from their green algal ancestors by diplobiontic life cycles,that is,alternation of multicellular gametophytic and sporophytic generations.The bryophyte sporophyte is small and matrotrophic on the dominant gametophyte; extant vascular plants have an independent,dominant sporophyte and a reduced gametophyte.The elaboration of the diplobiontic life cycle in embryophytes has been thoroughly discussed within the context of the Antithetic and the Homologous Theories.The Antithetic Theory proposes a green algal ancestor with a gametophyte-dominant haplobiontic life cycle.The Homologous Theory suggests a green algal ancestor with alternation of isomorphic generations.The shifts that led from haplobiontic to diplobiontic life cycles and from gametophytic to sporophytic dominance are most probably related with terrestrial habitats.Cladistic studies strongly support the Antithetic Theory in repeatedly identifying charophycean green algae as the closest relatives of land plants.In recent years,exceptionally well-preserved axial gametophytes have been described from the Rhynie chert (Lower Devonian,410 Ma),and the complete life cycle of several Rhynie chert plants has been reconstructed.All show an alternation of more or less isomorphic generations,which is currently accepted as the plesiomorphic condition among all early polysporangiophytes,including basal tracheophytes.Here we review the existing evidence for early embryophyte gametophytes.We also discuss some recently discovered plants preserved as compression fossils and interpreted as gametophytes.All the fossil evidence supports the Antithetic Theory and indicates that the gametophytic generation/sporophytic generation size and complexity ratios show a gradual decrease along the land plant phylogenetic tree.

  19. 大竹蛏胚胎发生及稚贝发育基本特征%Basic Characteristics of Embryogenesis and Juvenile Development of Solen grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨平; 陈爱华; 姚国兴; 张志伟; 张曹进; 张雨

    2012-01-01

    Under the artificial breeding conditions, the embryogenesis and juvenile development of Solen grandis were observed by light microscopy. The results indicated that the embryonic and larval development of S. Grandis included the following stages: zygote, embryo cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochosphere, d-larvae, and finally juvenile. After 20 - 24 hours of fertilization, D-larvae appeared at the average daily water temperature of 22. A°C . It took 5-7 days to develop to juvenile, and the juvenile became the adult shellfish after 38 days when the shell length-width ratio was 2. 60. The accumulated temperature from zygote to attachment was 3 088. 79-5 005. 19℃·h. After juvenile developed outlet pipe, its intake pipe appeared, and at last the two pipes transformed into one pipe with diplopore. The regression equation of shell length and shell height was y = 150. 37 e0.002 7χ,χ: shell height ( μm) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 =0.985 5, P <0.01. The regression equation of shell length and day old was y = 143. 38e0.0916χ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell length ( μm) , R2 = 0. 979 5 , P < 0. 01. The regression equation of shell height and day old was y = 33. 979 x - 15. 450 ,χ: day old (d) , γ. Shell height (μm) , R2 =0.987 3, P<0. 01.%在人工培育条件下,对大竹蛏(Solengrandis)胚胎发生及稚贝发育进行显微观察,探究大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育规律.结果表明,大竹蛏胚胎及幼虫发育过程为:受精卵、卵裂、囊胚期、原肠期、担轮幼虫、D形幼虫、稚贝.在日平均水温为22.4℃时,受精后20~24h发育成D形幼虫,5~7d变态为稚贝,38d稚贝已具备成贝形态,壳长壳高比为2.60.从受精卵到附着所需积温为3088.79~5005.19℃·h.稚贝先形成出水管,后形成进水管,最终形成“一管双孔”.壳长与壳高关系式为y=150.37e0.0027x,x为壳高(μm),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9855,P<0.01;壳长与日龄关系式为y=143.38e0.0916x,x为日龄(d),y为壳长(μm),R2=0.9795,P<0

  20. ZmES genes encode peptides with structural homology to defensins and are specifically expressed in the female gametophyte of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordts, S; Bantin, J; Wittich, P E; Kranz, E; Lörz, H; Dresselhaus, T

    2001-01-01

    All four members of a gene family, which are highly expressed in the cells of the female gametophyte (ZmES1--4: Zea mays embryo sac), were isolated from a cDNA library of maize egg cells. High expression of ZmES genes in the synergids around the micropylar region was detected in thin sections of maize ovaries. Single-cell RT--PCR analyses with the various cells of the female gametophyte confirmed the expression in synergids and also showed expression in the egg cell and central cell, and low expression in the antipodals. The expression of the whole gene family is suppressed after fertilization of the embryo sac, and expression in two-cell or later embryo stages or other tissues of maize could not be detected. In order to investigate ZmES mRNA gradients in the highly polarized and vacuolized cells of the maize embryo sac, a whole-mount in situ protocol with isolated single cells was developed: as for total RNA, ZmES transcripts are uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm of egg cell, synergids and central cell. ZmES genes encode small, cysteine-rich proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide, probably for translocation into the embryo sac cell wall. The four ZmES proteins display high sequence identity with each other, and the proposed tertiary structure of the mature peptides is similar to that of plant and animal defensins. The function of ZmES1-4 during the fertilization process is discussed.

  1. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  2. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  3. A Pediatric Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Developed 10 Years after Cord Blood Transplantation for Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nagasawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is a most powerful immunotherapy for hematological malignancies. However, the impact of immunological disturbances as a result of allo-HSCT is not understood well. We experienced an 11-year-old boy who presented with systemic lupus erythemathosus (SLE 10 years after unrelated cord blood transplantation of male origin for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML with monosomy 7. Bone marrow examination showed complete remission without monosomy 7. Genetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed mixed chimera with recipient cells consisting of <5% of T cells, 50–60% of B cells, 60–75% of NK cells, 70–80% of macrophages, and 50–60% of granulocytes. Significance of persistent mixed chimera as a cause of SLE is discussed.

  4. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk of developing an inflammatory eye problem (iritis or uveitis). Eye inflammation may persist independently of the arthritis. Because iritis usually does not cause symptoms, regular exams by ...

  5. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy – a useful tool for screening patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis at the risk of development of premature atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Górska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the vascular wall with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent activation of inflammatory immune response play pivotal roles in the early development of the atherosclerotic process not only in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but also in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. This hypothesis was supported by our findings from autopsy examination, revealing atherosclerosis lesions in about 30�0children with JIA. The established methods of assessing pre-clinical atherosclerosis include measurement of biochemical markers of endothelium impairment and ultrasonographic examination of vessels (FMD, IMT. The authors suggest that revealing structural and functional impairment of peripheral microvessels by means of static and dynamic videocapillaroscopy can give clinicians a chance to identify even younger patients with JIA/RA at high risk of atherosclerosis.

  6. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  7. Reduced expression of Pax6 in lens and cornea of mutant mice leads to failure of chamber angle development and juvenile glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeber, Markus; Davis, Noa; Holzmann, Silvia; Kritzenberger, Michaela; Shelah-Goraly, Michal; Ofri, Ron; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Tamm, Ernst R

    2010-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in PAX6 are causative for aniridia, a condition that is frequently associated with juvenile glaucoma. Defects in morphogenesis of the iridocorneal angle, such as lack of trabecular meshwork differentiation, absence of Schlemm's canal and blockage of the angle by iris tissue, have been described as likely causes for glaucoma, and comparable defects have been observed in heterozygous Pax6-deficient mice. Here, we employed Cre/loxP-mediated inactivation of a single Pax6 allele in either the lens/cornea or the distal optic cup to dissect in which tissues both alleles of Pax6 need to be expressed to control the development of the tissues in the iridocorneal angle. Somatic inactivation of one allele of Pax6 exclusively from epithelial cells of lens and cornea resulted in the disruption of trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal development as well as in an adhesion between iris periphery and cornea in juvenile eyes, which resulted in the complete closure of the iridocorneal angle in the adult eye. Structural changes in the iridocorneal angle presumably caused a continuous increase in intraocular pressure leading to degenerative changes in optic nerve axons and to glaucoma. In contrast, the inactivation of a single Pax6 allele in the distal optic cup did not cause obvious changes in iridocorneal angle formation. We conclude that the defects in iridocorneal angle formation are caused by non-autonomous mechanisms due to Pax6 haploinsufficiency in lens or corneal epithelial cells. Pax6 probably controls the expression of signaling molecules in lens cells that regulate the morphogenetic processes during iridocorneal angle formation.

  8. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1993-February 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1994-08-01

    This report addresses the problem of predator-prey interactions of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River. Six papers are included on selective predation and prey protection. Attention is focused on monitoring the movements, the distribution, and the behavior of juvenile chinook salmon and northern squawfish.

  9. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age

  10. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  11. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  12. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  13. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  14. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  15. The Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Ravelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) based on the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation juvenile DM core set of variables.......To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) based on the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation juvenile DM core set of variables....

  16. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline.

  17. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila ePittermann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have fo-cused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gameto-phyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water rela-tions, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and vari-ously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an oppor-tunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gameto-phyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic.

  19. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2011-07-01

    To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire was constructed, consisting of 5 domains: stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, sore mouth, and behavioral symptoms. The domains each consisted of 3 questions pertaining to the presence of a symptom upon, prior to (anticipatory), and when thinking of (associative) MTX intake. The MISS questionnaire was validated in 86 patients by determining its discriminative power between patients with and those without MTX intolerance, identified as such by a gold standard (physician's opinion). Using the MISS questionnaire, the prevalence of MTX intolerance was determined in 297 JIA patients. The MISS questionnaire discriminated well between MTX-intolerant and MTX-tolerant patients. A cutoff score of 6 yielded the best sensitivity (88%) and specificity (80%). MTX intolerance was found in 150 (50.5%) of 297 patients. Of 220 patients receiving oral MTX, 98 (44.5%) experienced MTX intolerance, whereas 67.5% of 77 patients receiving parenteral MTX experienced intolerance to the drug (P = 0.001). Our findings indicate that the MISS questionnaire is a highly sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of MTX intolerance, and that there is a high prevalence of MTX intolerance among JIA patients. The prevalence of intolerance in patients receiving parenteral MTX exceeds that in patients receiving oral MTX. The frequent occurrence of anticipatory and associative symptoms suggests that classic conditioning plays an important role in MTX intolerance. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Dynamics of asymmetrical hybridization in North American wood ferns: reconciling patterns of inheritance with gametophyte reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testo, Weston L; Watkins, James E; Barrington, David S

    2015-04-01

    Hybridization is an important evolutionary force in plants, but the mechanisms underlying it have not been well studied for many groups. In particular, the drivers of non-random patterns of interspecific gene flow (asymmetrical hybridization) remain poorly understood, especially in the seed-free vascular plants. Here, we examine patterns of asymmetrical hybridization in two widespread fern hybrids from eastern North America and study the role of gametophyte ecology in the determination of hybridization bias. We characterized the maternal parentage of > 140 hybrid sporophytes by sequencing a c. 350-bp region of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). To identify factors contributing to patterns of asymmetrical hybridization, we cultured gametophytes of the parental species and evaluated critical aspects of their reproductive biology. We found that asymmetrical hybridization was prevalent across the populations of both hybrids. Reproductive traits varied across species and suggest that selfing potential, antheridiogen responsiveness, sperm dispersal capacity and gamete size all contribute to the mediation of the direction of hybridization in this group. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical hybridization in ferns is driven by an array of reproductive traits. This study helps to sharpen and define a mechanistic understanding of patterns of hybridization in this group and demonstrates the importance of considering gametophyte biology when studying evolutionary processes in ferns.

  1. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  2. Soy promotes juvenile granulosa cell tumor development in mice and in the human granulosa cell tumor-derived COV434 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; James, Rebecca; Ligon, Alysse; Li, Xiaohui; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    Soy attracts attention for its health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol or preventing breast and colon cancer. Soybeans contain isoflavones, which act as phytoestrogens. Even though isoflavones have beneficial health effects, a role for isoflavones in the initiation and progression of diseases including cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. While data from rodent studies suggest that neonatal exposure to genistein (the predominant isoflavone in soy) disrupts normal reproductive function, its role in ovarian cancers, particularly granulosa cell tumors (GCT), is largely unknown. Our study aimed to define the contribution of a soy diet in GCT development using a genetically modified mouse model for juvenile GCTs (JGCT; Smad1 Smad5 conditional double knockout mice) as well as a human JGCT cell line (COV434). While dietary soy cannot initiate JGCT development in mice, we show that it has dramatic effects on GCT growth and tumor progression compared to a soy-free diet. Loss of Smad1 and Smad5 alters estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) expression in granulosa cells, perhaps sensitizing the cells to the effects of genistein. In addition, we found that genistein modulates estrogen receptor expression in the human JGCT cell line and positively promotes cell growth in part by suppressing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Combined, our work suggests that dietary soy consumption has deleterious effects on GCT development.

  3. Isolation of candidate genes for apomictic development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asexual reproduction through seeds, or apomixis, is a process that holds much promise for agricultural advances. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis are currently poorly understood. To identify genes related to female gametophyte development in apomictic ovaries of buffelgrass (P...

  4. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  5. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  6. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  7. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  8. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  9. Development of a study design and implementation plan to estimate juvenile salmon survival in Lookout Point Reservoir and other reservoirs of the Willamette Project, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Monzyk, Fred R.; Pope, Adam C.; Plumb, John M.

    2016-12-23

    Survival estimates for juvenile salmon and steelhead fry in reservoirs impounded by high head dams are coveted data by resource managers.  However, this information is difficult to obtain because these fish are too small for tagging using conventional methods such as passive-integrated transponders or radio or acoustic transmitters.  We developed a study design and implementation plan to conduct a pilot evaluation that would assess the performance of two models for estimating fry survival in a field setting.  The first model is a staggered-release recovery model that was described by Skalski and others (2009) and Skalski (2016).  The second model is a parentage-based tagging N-mixture model that was developed and described in this document.  Both models are conceptually and statistically sound, but neither has been evaluated in the field.  In this document we provide an overview of a proposed study for 2017 in Lookout Point Reservoir, Oregon, that will evaluate survival of Chinook salmon fry using both models.  This approach will allow us to test each model and compare survival estimates, to determine model performance and better understand these study designs using field-collected data.

  10. Near-future ocean acidification enhances the feeding rate and development of the herbivorous juveniles of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamya, Pamela Z.; Byrne, Maria; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2016-12-01

    Population outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline in coral reef across the Indo-Pacific. The success of A. planci and other reef species in a changing ocean will be influenced by juvenile performance because the naturally high mortality experienced at this sensitive life history stage maybe exacerbated by ocean warming and acidification. We investigated the effects of increased temperature and acidification on growth of newly metamorphosed juvenile A. planci and their feeding rates on crustose coralline algae (CCA) during the initial herbivorous phase of their life history. The juveniles were exposed to three temperature (26, 28, 30 °C) and three pH (NIST scale: 8.1, 7.8, 7.6) levels in a flow-through cross-factorial experiment. There were positive but independent effects of warming and acidification on juvenile growth and feeding. Early juveniles were highly tolerant to moderate increases in temperature (+2 °C above ambient) with the highest growth at 30 °C. Growth and feeding rates of A. planci on CCA were highest at pH 7.6. Thus, ocean warming and acidification may enhance the success of A. planci juveniles. In contrast to its coral prey, at this vulnerable developmental stage, A. planci appears to be highly resilient to future ocean change. Success of juveniles in a future ocean may have carry-over effects into the coral-eating life stage, increasing the threat to coral reef systems.

  11. Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

    2009-10-01

    Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced.

  12. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  13. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  14. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  15. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  16. Influence of cell density and phase variants of bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus spp.) on dauer juvenile recovery and development of biocontrol nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, A; Ehlers, R-U

    2009-08-01

    The rhabditid nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae are used in biological control of insect pests. Mass production is done in liquid culture media pre-incubated with their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii, respectively, before nematode dauer juveniles (DJs) are inoculated. As a response to food signals produced by the bacterial symbionts, the DJs exit from the developmentally arrested dauer stage (they recover development) and grow to adults, which produce DJ offspring. Variable DJ recovery after inoculation often causes process failure due to non-synchronous population development and low numbers of adult nematodes. This contribution investigated the influence of the bacterial cell density on DJ recovery and development to adults. At higher density of 10(10) bacterial cells ml(-1), a higher percentage of DJ recovery was induced, and adults occurred earlier in both Steinernema spp. than at lower density of 10(9) and 10(8) cells ml(-1). Xenorhabdus symbionts produce phase variants. Recovery in bacteria-free supernatants was lower than in supernatants containing bacterial cells for both primary and secondary phase Xenorhabdus spp. and lower in secondary than in primary phase supernatants or cell suspensions. In general, recovery was lower for Steinernema feltiae and the time at which 50% of the population had recovered after exposure to the food signal was longer (RT(50) = 17.1 h) than for Steinernema carpocapsae (RT(50) = 6.6 h). Whereas >90% S. carpocapsae DJs recovered in hemolymph serum of the lepidopteran insect Galleria mellonella, recovery of S. feltiae only reached 31%. Penetration into a host insect prior to exposure to the insect's food signal did not enhance DJ recovery. Consequences for liquid culture mass production of the nematodes and differences between species of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are discussed.

  17. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  18. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  19. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  20. Female Gametophyte Development in Cattleya%卡特兰雌配子的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝强; 王雁; 郭欣

    2015-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法观察了卡特兰雌配子的发育过程.结果表明:卡特兰在授粉前,胎座和胚珠并没有开始发育;在成功授粉后,胚珠原基开始发育;卡特兰的胚珠为倒生型,具薄珠心和2层珠被,成熟胚囊为8核;从授粉到胚囊成熟需要112d左右;外珠被的过早发育可能是造成胚败育的原因之一.

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana GEX1 has dual functions in gametophyte development and early embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEX1 is a plasma membrane protein conserved among plant species, and was previously shown to be expressed in sperm cells and some sporophytic tissues. Here we show that GEX1 is also expressed in the embryo sac before cellularization, in the egg cell after cellularization, in the zygote/embryo immedi...

  2. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  3. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  4. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  5. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  6. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  7. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  8. The megalopa and early juvenile development of Hepatus pudibundus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Aethroidea reared from neuston samples A megalopa e o desenvolvimento juvenil inicial de Hepatus pudibundus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Aethroidea criado a partir de amostras de neuston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Negreiros-Fransozo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst, 1785 is a crab commonly found in shallow waters of the Western Atlantic. Its larval and early post-larval morphology have already been described from laboratory hatched material. Around 200 megalopae of H. pudibundus were collected in neuston samples from the Ubatuba region, Brazil, during the summer of 2005-2006 and were successfully reared under laboratory conditions. The size of the megalopae obtained in the neuston was similar to those specimens previously described in the literature, except that the juvenile crab stages reared in the laboratory were slightly larger, probably due to the better feeding conditions in the laboratory. The duration of the juvenile stages was shorter in the present study than in previous attempts at laboratory rearing, even if conditions appeared to be similar. The main differences observed between studies were in megalopal morphology, which may be attributable to intraspecific variation but, possibly, also due to differences in levels of detail than previously performed.Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst, 1785 é um caranguejo comumente encontrado em águas rasas do Atlântico Ocidental. O desenvolvimento larval completo e a sua morfologia pós-larval já são conhecidos a partir de fêmeas ovígeras. Cerca de 200 megalopas de H. pudibundus foram coletadas no neuston durante o verão de 2005-2006, na região de Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil e criadas com sucesso sob condições de laboratório. O tamanho da megalopa obtida no neuston foi semelhante àquela dos exemplares descritos previamente na literatura, mas os estágios juvenis criados no laboratório foram ligeiramente maiores na fase inicial, provavelmente devido às melhores condições de alimentação no laboratório. A duração dos estágios juvenis foi menor na presente investigação, do que no estudo anterior, mesmo sob condições laboratoriais similares. As principais diferenças entre os estudos foram com relação à morfologia

  9. Cultural interpretations of juvenile rights%儿童权利的文化解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮艺军

    2007-01-01

    In China, the protection of juvenile rights has historically been a secondary consideration, which is often relegated to the status of "goal for the future". However, the value of juvenile rights and their protection lie not only in the morality of child protection, but also in the role that juvenile rights can play in the development of human fights as a whole. Publicity given to juvenile rights reminds us of the "adult society" standing in complementary opposition to the "juvenile society" that juvenile rights refer to. It is adult society to deal with juvenile rights, so any errors of understanding or failures of equality can lead to children being deprived of the rights. The rational underpinnings of juvenile rights are the weapons with which we can counter the influence of traditional, conservative thinking. These arguments will allow children to assume thei rrightful role as an independent group whose rights are academically and practically accepted and protected.

  10. Gestational exposure to variable stressors produces decrements in cognitive and neural development of juvenile male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    Gestational stress may have lasting deleterious effects on neuro-cognitive development of offspring. Progesterone (P), and its 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), maintain pregnancy, and can have effects on cognitive performance and/or neuronal integrity. However, whether some of the deleterious effects of gestational stress on cognitive and neural processes may be related to progestogen formation is not known. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to a regimen of variable stressors (including forced swim, restraint, fasting, social stress, and exposure to cold and light) on gestational days 17-21 or were minimally-handled controls. Male and female offspring were cross-fostered to non-manipulated dams and assessed for motor and cognitive performance between post-natal days 28 and 30. Although the motor behavior of gestationally-stressed offspring did not differ significantly from control offspring, their cognitive performance in an object recognition task was poorer. Irrespective of sex, dendritic spine density was reduced in dorsal hippocampus of stress-exposed offspring compared to control offspring. Formation of DHP was reduced in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and increased in hippocampus of stressed, compared to control offspring. Notably, there were sex differences wherein estradiol in mPFC, as well as P and DHP in diencephalon, were increased with stress among females but decreased with stress among males. These data suggest that exposure to variable stress during gestation can perturb cognitive performance, concomitant with dendrite development in hippocampus, and P's 5α-reduction in hippocampus and mPFC. Some sex differences in stress effects on progestogen formation may occur in diencephalon.

  11. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  12. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.

  13. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  15. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae,Rhodophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1 h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  16. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  17. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; W. Cossermelli

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  18. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  19. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  20. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  1. ZmES genes encode peptides with structural homology to defensins and are specifically expressed in the female gametophyte of maize.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordts, S.; Bantin, J.; Wittich, P.; Kranz, E.; Lorz, H.; Dresselhaus, T.

    2001-01-01

    All four members of a gene family, which are highly expressed in the cells of the female gametophyte (ZmES1--4: Zea mays embryo sac), were isolated from a cDNA library of maize egg cells. High expression of ZmES genes in the synergids around the micropylar region was detected in thin sections of

  2. Microsatellite DNA Variation of the Gametophyte Clones Isolated from Introduced Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) and L. Iongissima of China and Varieties Derived from them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Jun Li; Yuan-Yuan Shi; Guan-Pin Yang; Shi Che; Xiao-Jie Li; Yi-Zhou Cong

    2008-01-01

    The variation of 90 Laminaria gametophyte clones representing the introduced Laminariajaponica (Group 1) and Laminaria Iongissima (Group 2), the varieties of L. japonica (Group 3) and the varieties derived from interspecific hybrids (Group 4) was determined with 10 microsatellite markers. The allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 1 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 (2.9 vs. 1.8 and 0.414 vs. 0.161, respectively), demonstrating that the variation of the introduced L. japonica is richer than that of L. Iongiesima. Both allelic diversity and Nei's gene diversity of Group 3 were lower than those of Group 1, indicating that only a portion of variation of L. japonica was incorporated into the varieties of L. japonica. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between four groups and between female (Population 1) and male (Population 2) gametophyte clones in each group. The variation among groups accounted for 39.95%, while that among populations accounted for 21.65% of the total. The genetic distance between Group 1 and Group 4 was obviously longer than that between Group 2 and Group 4 (0.686 vs. 0.291), Indicating that maternal gametophyte clone contributed more variation to the hybrids than the paternal gametophyte clone did.

  3. 卵形鲳鲹胚后发育阶段鳃的分化和发育%Differentiation and development of the gill in Trachinotus ovatus during larval and juvenile development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 何永亮; 李加儿

    2012-01-01

    We documented the differentiation and development of the gill and the relationship between gill structure and function in Trachinotus ovatus using histology and scanning electron microscopy. Development of the gill was divided into three stages in the larvae and juveniles. Stage I included organ-primordium formation between 0-3 days after hatching (DAH). During this stage, gill-primordia were present but undifferentiated, there were no gill rakers, and respiration occurred primarily via the finfold, skin, and the microvascular surface of the yolk-sac. Stage II occurred between 4-17 DAH and was characterized by differentiation and development of gill filaments. Gill arches, filaments, secondary gill lamella, and gill rakers developed gradually and the basic structure and morphology of the gill were established. Stage III was initiated at 18 DAH, at which time the gill organs (e.g., arches, filaments, secondary gill lamella, and rakers) resembled the adult in terms of morphology and function. The total number of gill filaments increased with the increasing body weight and body length in larvae and juveniles. Thus, the single secondary gill lamella area and total respiratory area also increased with an increase of body weight. The differentiation and development of the gill was in accordance with growth, development, and function in larval and juvenile T. Ovatus.%采用组织学和扫描电镜等方法,研究了卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)胚后发育阶段鳃的分化和发育及其结构和功能的关系.观察发现,仔稚鱼鳃的早期发育可分为3个阶段:第1阶段(0~3日龄)为原基期,鳃原基形成但未分化,鳃耙未出现,仔鱼主要依靠鳍褶、皮肤和卵黄囊上的微血管进行呼吸;第2阶段(4~17日龄)为鳃丝分化、发育期,鳃弓、鳃丝、鳃小片、鳃耙逐渐形成,具备鳃的基本结构和形态特点;第3阶段(18日龄之后)为鳃器官生长发育完善期,鳃弓、鳃丝、鳃小片、鳃耙发育完

  4. Rapid effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on growth and development parameters and transcription of key fatty acid metabolism genes in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Michael J; Turchini, Giovanni M; Wade, Nicholas M; Glencross, Brett D

    2015-12-14

    Barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a catadromous teleost of significant and growing commercial importance, are reported to have limited fatty acid bioconversion capability and therefore require preformed long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) as dietary essential fatty acid (EFA). In this study, the response of juvenile barramundi (47·0 g/fish initial weight) fed isolipidic and isoenergetic diets with 8·2% added oil was tested. The experimental test diets were either devoid of fish oil (FO), and thus with no n-3 LC-PUFA (FO FREE diet), or with a low inclusion of FO (FO LOW diet). These were compared against a control diet containing only FO (FO CTRL diet) as the added lipid source, over an 8-week period. Interim samples and measurements were taken fortnightly during the trial in order to define the aetiology of the onset and progression of EFA deficiency. After 2 weeks, the fish fed the FO FREE and FO LOW diets had significantly lower live-weights, and after 8 weeks significant differences were detected for all performance parameters. The fish fed the FO FREE diet also had a significantly higher incidence of external abnormalities. The transcription of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was affected after 2 weeks of feeding, showing a rapid nutritional regulation. This experiment documents the aetiology of the onset and the progression of EFA deficiency in juvenile barramundi and demonstrates that such deficiencies can be detected within 2 weeks in juvenile fish.

  5. The Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Ravelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) based on the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation juvenile DM core set of variables....

  6. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonictinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tyshawytscha) using ELISA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A.; Grue, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) has been proposed as an alternative to carbaryl for controlling indigenous burrowing shrimp on commercial oyster beds in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington. A focus of concern over the use of this insecticide in an aquatic environment is the potential for adverse effects from exposure to non-target species residing in the Bay, such as juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). Federal registration and State permiting approval for the use of IMI will require confirmation that the compound does not adversely impact these salmonids following field applications. This will necessitate an environmental monitoring program for evaluating exposure in salmonids following the treatment of beds. Quantification of IMI residues in tissue can be used for determining salmonid exposure to the insecticide. Refinement of an existing protocol using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection would provide the low limits of quantification, given the relatively small tissue sample sizes, necessary for determining exposure in individual fish. Such an approach would not be viable for the environmental monitoring effort in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor due to the high costs associated with running multiple analyses, however. A new sample preparation protocol was developed for use with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IMI, thereby providing a low-cost alternative to LC-MS for environmental monitoring in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. Extraction of the analyte from the salmonid brain tissue was achieved by Dounce homogenization in 4.0 mL of 20.0 mM Triton X-100, followed by a 6 h incubation at 50–55 °C. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and reversed phase solid phase extraction were used for sample cleanup. The limit of quantification for an average 77.0 mg whole brain sample was calculated at 18.2 μg kg-1 (ppb) with an average

  7. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using ELISA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2012-03-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) has been proposed as an alternative to carbaryl for controlling indigenous burrowing shrimp on commercial oyster beds in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington. A focus of concern over the use of this insecticide in an aquatic environment is the potential for adverse effects from exposure to non-target species residing in the Bay, such as juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). Federal registration and State permiting approval for the use of IMI will require confirmation that the compound does not adversely impact these salmonids following field applications. This will necessitate an environmental monitoring program for evaluating exposure in salmonids following the treatment of beds. Quantification of IMI residues in tissue can be used for determining salmonid exposure to the insecticide. Refinement of an existing protocol using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection would provide the low limits of quantification, given the relatively small tissue sample sizes, necessary for determining exposure in individual fish. Such an approach would not be viable for the environmental monitoring effort in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor due to the high costs associated with running multiple analyses, however. A new sample preparation protocol was developed for use with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IMI, thereby providing a low-cost alternative to LC-MS for environmental monitoring in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. Extraction of the analyte from the salmonid brain tissue was achieved by Dounce homogenization in 4.0 mL of 20.0 mM Triton X-100, followed by a 6 h incubation at 50-55 °C. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and reversed phase solid phase extraction were used for sample cleanup. The limit of quantification for an average 77.0 mg whole brain sample was calculated at 18.2 μg kg(-1) (ppb) with an average

  8. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  9. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  10. Developing and Evaluating JIApp: Acceptability and Usability of a Smartphone App System to Improve Self-Management in Young People With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ran A; Beste, Dominik; Chaplin, Hema; Varakliotis, Socrates; Suffield, Linda; Josephs, Francesca; Sen, Debajit; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Ioannou, Yiannakis; Hailes, Stephen; Eleftheriou, Despina

    2017-08-15

    Flare-ups in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are characterized by joint pain and swelling and often accompanied with fatigue, negative emotions, and reduced participation in activities. To minimize the impact of JIA on the physical and psychosocial development and well-being of young people (YP), it is essential to regularly monitor disease activity and side effects, as well as to support self-management such as adherence to treatment plans and engagement in general health-promoting behaviors. Smartphone technology has the potential to engage YP with their health care through convenient self-monitoring and easy access to information. In addition, having a more accurate summary of self-reported fluctuations in symptoms, behaviors, and psychosocial problems can help both YP and health care professionals (HCPs) better understand the patient's condition, identify barriers to self-management, and assess treatment effectiveness and additional health care needs. No comprehensive smartphone app has yet been developed in collaboration with YP with JIA, their parents, and HCPs involved in their care. The objective of this study was to design, develop, and evaluate the acceptability and usability of JIApp, a self-management smartphone app system for YP with JIA and HCPs. We used a qualitative, user-centered design approach involving YP, parents, and HCPs from the rheumatology team. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) phase I focused on developing consensus on the features, content, and design of the app; (2) phase II was used for further refining and evaluating the app prototype; and (3) phase III focused on usability testing of the app. The interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A total of 29 YP (aged 10-23, median age 17) with JIA, 7 parents, and 21 HCPs were interviewed. Major themes identified as the ones that helped inform app development in phase I were: (1) remote monitoring of symptoms, well-being, and activities; (2

  11. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  12. Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-02-01

    Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure.

  13. Morphological observation on larval and juvenile development of Oncorhynchus mykiss%斑点鳟仔、稚、幼鱼的形态发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文; 高凤祥; 潘雷; 胡发文; 菅玉霞; 王雪; 张少春

    2012-01-01

    以斑点鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)发眼卵为材料,进行了发眼卵的人工孵化及仔鱼的人工培育研究.对斑点鳟仔稚鱼的形态发育进行了系统观察,描述了各发育期的形态特征,并测定生长参数.斑点鳟早期生活史的分期如下:初孵仔鱼全长14.25±0.45 mm,体重85±5 mg,肛门未开口,营内源性营养,脊柱末端向上弯曲;10 dph开始上浮,投喂卤虫;12 dph开口摄食,开始营内外源混合性营养;14 dph鳍膜消失,各鳍独立;16dph开始投喂配合饵料;24 dph卵黄囊吸收完毕,营完全外源性营养;34 dph,体侧形成8~9个幼鲑斑;44dph各鳍的鳍条发育健全;60 dph幼鱼外形为纺锤形,与成鱼相同.研究表明,斑点鳟早期生长发育过程中全长、肛门前长、水平眼径和头高的生长情况基本相同,0~ 16 dph生长速度较快,16~44dph生长速度较慢,44 dph后生长速度再次变快.%The paper reported the results of morphological observation on larval development of Oncorhynchus mykiss. The eyed eggs obtained from America were used in this study. Morphological development of fish larvae was systematically observed. The paper described the morphological characteristics of various developmental stages and measured growth parameters. The early life history of Oncorhynchus mykiss was: the total length of newly hatched larvae was 14.25 ±0.45 mm, the weight was 85 ±5 mg; the anus was not open, the larvae relied on their yolk for nourishment, the end of spine was upwarped; the larvae started floating at 10 dph, fed with artemia; the larval mouth opened at 12 dph; the fin membrance disappeared at 14 dph; the yolk was exhausted at 24 dph; 8 - 9 large black spots on the lateral formed at 34 dph; All fin rays and scales formed at 44 dph; the juvenile showed the appearence of small adults at 60 dph. The morphological development and changes of pigment pattern were observed. The development of head, dorsal spine, anal fin and caudal peduncle

  14. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  17. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the effects of sub-ambient atmospheric oxygen and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suhas; Behpouri, Ali; McElwain, Jennifer C; Ng, Carl K-Y

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that atmospheric O2 has played a key role in the development of life on Earth, as evident from the coincidence between the rise of atmospheric O2 concentrations in the Precambrian and biological evolution. Additionally, it has also been suggested that low atmospheric O2 is one of the major drivers for at least two of the five mass-extinction events in the Phanerozoic. At the molecular level, our understanding of the responses of plants to sub-ambient O2 concentrations is largely confined to studies of the responses of underground organs, e.g. roots to hypoxic conditions. Oxygen deprivation often results in elevated CO2 levels, particularly under waterlogged conditions, due to slower gas diffusion in water compared to air. In this study, changes in the transcriptome of gametophytes of the moss Physcomitrella patens arising from exposure to sub-ambient O2 of 13% (oxygen deprivation) and elevated CO2 (1500 ppmV) were examined to further our understanding of the responses of lower plants to changes in atmospheric gaseous composition. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of a large number of genes was affected under elevated CO2 (814 genes) and sub-ambient O2 conditions (576 genes). Intriguingly, the expression of comparatively fewer numbers of genes (411 genes) was affected under a combination of both sub-ambient O2 and elevated CO2 condition (low O2-high CO2). Overall, the results point towards the effects of atmospheric changes in CO2 and O2 on transcriptional reprogramming, photosynthetic regulation, carbon metabolism, and stress responses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the effects of sub-ambient atmospheric oxygen and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suhas; Behpouri, Ali; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Ng, Carl K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that atmospheric O2 has played a key role in the development of life on Earth, as evident from the coincidence between the rise of atmospheric O2 concentrations in the Precambrian and biological evolution. Additionally, it has also been suggested that low atmospheric O2 is one of the major drivers for at least two of the five mass-extinction events in the Phanerozoic. At the molecular level, our understanding of the responses of plants to sub-ambient O2 concentrations is largely confined to studies of the responses of underground organs, e.g. roots to hypoxic conditions. Oxygen deprivation often results in elevated CO2 levels, particularly under waterlogged conditions, due to slower gas diffusion in water compared to air. In this study, changes in the transcriptome of gametophytes of the moss Physcomitrella patens arising from exposure to sub-ambient O2 of 13% (oxygen deprivation) and elevated CO2 (1500 ppmV) were examined to further our understanding of the responses of lower plants to changes in atmospheric gaseous composition. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of a large number of genes was affected under elevated CO2 (814 genes) and sub-ambient O2 conditions (576 genes). Intriguingly, the expression of comparatively fewer numbers of genes (411 genes) was affected under a combination of both sub-ambient O2 and elevated CO2 condition (low O2–high CO2). Overall, the results point towards the effects of atmospheric changes in CO2 and O2 on transcriptional reprogramming, photosynthetic regulation, carbon metabolism, and stress responses. PMID:25948702

  19. Development of the larval amphibian growth and development assay: Effects of benzophenone-2 exposure in Xenopus laevis from embryo to juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is a globally harmonized chemical testing guideline developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with Japan’s Ministry of Environment to support risk assessment. The assay is employed as a ...

  20. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  1. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  2. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  3. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  4. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  5. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  6. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  7. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  8. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  9. Parentage Analysis of Dongfang No.2, a Hybrid of a Female Gametophyte Clone of Laminariajaponica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) and a Male Clone of L. longissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yuanyuan; YANG Guanpin; LIAO Meijie; LI Xiaojie; CONG Yizhou; QU Shancun; WANG Tongyong

    2008-01-01

    The cultivation of the first filial generation of monoploid gametophyte clones of different Laminaria species (hybrid Laminaria) is an effective way of utilizing heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A female gametophyte clone of L. japonica and a male gametophyte clone of L. longissima were hybridized, generating Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria. The parentage of this hybrid Laminaria was determined using AFLP of total DNA, SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit and microsatellite DNA variation at two loci. In addition to 167 AFLP bands shared by Dongfang No.2, L. japonica and L. longissima, Dongfang No.2 hybrid Laminaria shared another 70 and 55 bands with L. japonica and L. longissima, respectively, which were obviously more than 11 bands shared by L. japonica and L. longissima. Dongfang No.2 held both 'T' and 'C' at position 847 of the ITS region, while 'T' at this position was specific for L. japonica and 'C' for L. longissima, respectively. Dongfang No.2 also held the mierosatellite DNA alleles of two parents together at two microsatellite DNA marker loci. These observations dearly proved that Dongfang No.2 is a true hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissiuma. Unfortunately, the origin of the chloroplast of Dongfang No.2 was not determined based on the variation of RuBisCo spacer. More sequence variants of both ITS region and RuBisCo spacer were identified in Dongfang No.2 and most of them did not exist in either L. japonica or L. longissima. The unexpected variants may be due to the mutation of ga-metophyte clones occurring during their vegetative amplification.

  10. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  11. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  12. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  13. No association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and later risk of developing oligo- and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S.; Pipper, C.; Alberdi-Saugstrup, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Basic and epidemiological studies on rheumatic autoimmune diseases have suggested an association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and disease risk. The literature on vitamin D and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is scarce. We hypothesized that low levels of 25......-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] around time of birth would be associated with increased risk of oligo- or polyarticular JIA. Method: We conducted a case–cohort study of validated cases diagnosed with oligo- and polyarticular JIA (1993–2012) and controls matched on date of birth. Cases and controls were born...... in the period 1983–2010. Cases were diagnosed using international criteria. The concentration of 25(OH)D was assessed from neonatal dried blood spot (DBS) samples using high-sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using conditional logistic...

  14. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  15. Timing of changes from a primitive reflex to a voluntary behavior in infancy as a potential predictor of socio-psychological and physical development during juvenile stages among common marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Karino

    2015-07-01

    Consequently, we found that both subjects expressed climbing-up behavior in the initial early period, but only the female who developed typically later, switched to jumping-down behavior with pre-facing to ‘down’ direction. Meanwhile, the male who would have developmental delay later, clearly did not show the switching pattern. The results suggest that the switch timing from involuntary to voluntary movement may be a possible predictor of juvenile and adolescent physiological and psychological retardation. The results also suggest that the primate model allows more methods to be developed for early detection of developmental disabilities that could be utilized in humans to pave the way for interventions and possible psychological or psychiatric treatment.

  16. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  17. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  18. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  20. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  1. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis overview and involvement of the temporomandibular joint: prevalence, systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruy

    2015-02-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the many joints involved in the inflammatory arthritides. As imaging of joints has developed, so have the data regarding extent and prevalence of TMJ involvement in these diseases. TMJ disease is especially prevalent in juvenile arthritis. The adult and pediatric inflammatory arthritides share common pathophysiology but are still markedly different. The preponderance of TMJ arthritis research exists in juvenile arthritis. This article discusses classification, treatment, and TMJ involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  3. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  4. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  5. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  6. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  7. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  8. Fine Mapping of ui6.1, a Gametophytic Factor Controlling Pollen-Side Unilateral Incompatibility in Interspecific Solanum Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Royer, Suzanne; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a prezygotic reproductive barrier in plants that prevents fertilization by foreign (interspecific) pollen through the inhibition of pollen tube growth. Incompatibility occurs in one direction only, most often when the female is a self-incompatible species and the male is self-compatible (the “SI × SC rule”). Pistils of the wild tomato relative Solanum lycopersicoides (SI) reject pollen of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum, SC), but accept pollen of S. pennellii (SC accession). Expression of pistil-side UI is weakened in S. lycopersicum × S. lycopersicoides hybrids, as pollen tube rejection occurs lower in the style. Two gametophytic factors are sufficient for pollen compatibility on allotriploid hybrids: ui1.1 on chromosome 1 (near the S locus), and ui6.1 on chromosome 6. We report herein a fine-scale map of the ui6.1 region. Recombination around ui6.1 was suppressed in lines containing a short S. pennellii introgression, but less so in lines containing a longer introgression. More recombinants were obtained from female than male meioses. A high-resolution genetic map of this region delineated the location of ui6.1 to ∼0.128 MU, or 160 kb. Identification of the underlying gene should elucidate the mechanism of interspecific pollen rejection and its relationship to self-incompatibility. PMID:20439771

  9. Initial invasion of gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles in the absence of tight linkage between pollen and pistil S alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Satoki; Wakoh, Haluka

    2014-08-01

    In homomorphic self-incompatibility (SI) systems of plants, the loci controlling the pollen and pistil types are tightly linked, and this prevents the generation of compatible combinations of alleles expressing pollen and pistil types, which would result in self-fertilization. We modeled the initial invasion of the first pollen and pistil alleles in gametophytic SI to determine whether these alleles can stably coexist in a population without tight linkage. We assume pollen and pistil loci each carry an incompatibility allele S and an allele without an incompatibility function N. We assume that pollen with an S allele are incompatible with pistils carrying S alleles, whereas other crosses are compatible. Ovules in pistils carrying an S allele suffer viability costs because recognition consumes resources. We found that the cost of carrying a pistil S allele allows pollen and pistil S alleles to coexist in a stable equilibrium if linkage is partial. This occurs because parents that carry pistil S alleles but are homozygous for pollen N alleles cannot avoid self-fertilization; however, they suffer viability costs. Hence, pollen N alleles are selected again. When pollen and pistil S alleles can coexist in a polymorphic equilibrium, selection will favor tighter linkage.

  10. Assessment of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The number and the size of joints matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntson, Lillemor; Wernroth, Lisa; Fasth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA.......Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA....

  11. Proposed outcome measures for prospective clinical trials in juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Foeldvari, Ivan; Edelsten, Clive

    2012-01-01

    To develop a set of core outcome measures for use in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis.......To develop a set of core outcome measures for use in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis....

  12. Desenvolvimento de juvenis de lambari Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, sob diferentes densidades de estocagem em tanques-rede Development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 juveniles at different stocking densities in net ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmino Hayashi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento de juvenis de lambari (Astyanax bimaculatus, em tanques-rede, em sua fase inicial. Foram utilizados 300 peixes, com peso vivo inicial médio com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram utilizadas as densidades de 31, 62, 93 e 124 peixes/m3 . Os parâmetros físico-químicos foram tomados a cada três dias. Observou-se efeito quadrático (p 3 proporciona indivíduos maiores; não obstante podem-se utilizar 124 peixes/m3 no cultivo de juvenis de lambari em tanques-rede, resultando em maior biomassa total, apesar de resultarem indivíduos menoresThe influence of stocking density on the development of juveniles at the initial phase in experimental net ponds is analyzed. Three hundred individuals with 0.50 to 0.02g mean initial live weight were distributed into a totally randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions. The density rates of 31, 62, 93 and 124 animals/m3 were used. The physical and chemical parameters were verified every three days. Although a quadratic effect (p 3 is the most efficient for their development. On the other hand, the rate of 124 individuals/m3 for the breeding of juveniles in net ponds is also practicable, though resulting in smaller individuals

  13. Characteristics of spore germination and protonemal development in Hypnum pacleseens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shiliang; LI Min; ZHAO Jiancheng; ZHANG Yuanming; WANG Zhenjie

    2006-01-01

    The spore germination,protonemal development,and gametophyte differentiation of Hypnum pacleseens were observed in cultivation.Photomicrographs showed that spore germination of Hypnum pacleseens occured within the exospore.Its protonema is massive with filamentous chloronema formed inside.The terminal part of the chloronema differentiated into filamentous caulonema and its rhizoid was derived from the apical cell of the filamentous chloronema.The initial cell of gametophyte differentiated from chloronema and caulonema.Sporeling type of Hypnum pacleseens is developmentally similar to Glyphmitrium-type.

  14. Bt-maize (MON810 and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinni Gu

    Full Text Available Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles (fry fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810 expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize. One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level, with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile

  15. A novel reactive epitope-based antigen targeted by serum autoantibodies in oligoarticular and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and development of an electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Galber R; Fujimura, Patricia T; Vaz, Emília R; Silva, Tamiris A; Rodovalho, Vinícius R; Britto-Madurro, Ana Graci; Madurro, João M; Fonseca, João E; Silva, Carlos H M; Santos, Paula S; Mourão, Ana F; Canhão, Helena; Goulart, Luiz R; Gonçalves, João; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are no specific markers for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) diagnosis, which is based on clinical symptoms and some blood tests for diseases' exclusion. Aiming to select new epitope-based antigens (mimotopes) that could recognize circulating autoantibodies in most JIA forms, we screened a phage displayed random peptide library against IgG antibodies purified from serum of JIA patients. ELISA assay was carried out to confirm immunoreactivity of selected peptides against sera IgG antibodies from JIA patients, healthy children and patients with other autoimmune diseases. The mimotope PRF+1 fused to phage particles was able to efficiently discriminate JIA patients from controls, and for this reason was chosen to be chemically synthesized for validation in a larger sample size. The synthetic peptide was immobilized onto bioelectrodes' surface for antibody detection by electrochemical analyses through differential pulse voltammetry. The PRF+1 synthetic peptide has efficiently discriminated JIA patients from control groups (p0.84; sensitivity=61%; specificity=91%). The electrochemical platform proved to be fast, low cost and effective in detecting anti-PRF+1 antibodies from JIA patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.0049). Our study describes a novel and promising epitope-based biomarker for JIA diagnosis that can become a useful tool for screening tests, which was successfully incorporated onto an electrochemical biosensor and could be promptly used in field diagnostics.

  16. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  17. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  18. 人工养殖银鲳子代胚胎发育及仔稚幼鱼形态观察%Observation of embryonic,larval and juvenile development in Pampus argenteus offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兆鸿; 彭士明; 王建钢; 孙鹏; 尹飞

    2011-01-01

    采用人工培育的子代银鲳(Pampus argentus)为亲本,对银鲳的胚胎及胚后各发育阶段的形态特征进行观察测量,以期为今后苗种培育和繁殖生物学研究提供参考资料.银鲳成熟卵子为端黄卵,单个油球,卵径(1.417±0.063)mm,油球径(0.575±0.031)mm.在水温(20.0±0.5)℃、盐度24±1,pH8.0~8.5条件下,受精卵经36 h孵化出膜.初孵仔鱼在水温19.0~24.0℃、盐度 23±1,pH8.0~8.5、光照2 000~3 000 lx条件下,经60 d培育成幼鱼.银鲳早期发育分前期仔鱼、后期仔鱼、稚鱼和幼鱼,前期仔鱼以卵黄囊吸收消化为主要形态特征;后期仔鱼分化出侧囊、食道、胃、幽门育囊和肝脏等消化器官,外形特征是鱼体腹两侧星状黑色素及金黄色斑点明显,背鳍和臀鳍鳍条原基出现,13日龄仔鱼全长(5.586±0.479)mm,体高((1.068±0.087)mm;稚鱼期消化器官进一步完善,脊索末端向上曲屈,随后尾下骨出现并且尾下骨末端与体轴倾斜,至35日龄尾下骨与体轴垂直,45日龄体高明显增高,全长(25.560±3.870)mm,体高(11.157±1.266)mm.幼鱼期胸鳍前端呈尖形,尾鳍上下两侧生长加快形成深叉状,鳞片完全长成,60 d时全长为(引.000±3.300)mm,体高达(19.750±1.620)mm,此时体形与成鱼已无差别.此外,本研究还对仔稚幼鱼的划分、鲳属鱼类中主要品种胚胎与仔稚鱼发育的异同点以及育苗中容易出现死亡的关键时期进行了分析探讨.%The embryonic, larval and juvenile development of the offspring obtained from cultured silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) was observed, which contributed to the study of larvae rearing and breeding biology of pomfret.The eggs of silver pomfret were telolecithal, and had only one oil globule.The diameter of egg and oil globule were (1.417 ± 0.063) mm and (0.575 ± 0.031) mm, respectively.The hatching time was about 36 h after fertilization when the first larva was hatched at (20.0 ± 0.5) ℃, salinity 24 ± 1

  19. Development of the moss Pogonatum urnigerum (Hedw. P. Beauv. under in vitro culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Tijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonatum urnigerum (Polytrichaceae in vitro culture was established from spores collected in nature. Both protonema and gametophore stages of gametophyte development were obtained. Also, a stable callus culture was established using hormone-free nutrient medium. The best nutrient medium for development was half-strength Murashige- Skoog medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose. Auxin treatment enabled some gametophores to develop, but prolonged treatment induced early senescence. Tissues grown on cytokinin did not produce any gametophytes and did not survive prolonged treatment.

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J

    2000-02-01

    The chronic arthritides in childhood remain a poorly understood group of conditions. Their classification has been a source of much confusion over the years with differences in terminology between Europe and North America. A significant step forward in paediatric rheumatology has been the recent development of an internationally agreed classification system which uses the overall term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The various subtypes of JIA and their clinical features are described, together with an overview of their differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. An outline of current management strategies is given and potential future developments highlighted.

  2. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  3. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  4. Best Implementation Practices: Disseminating New Assessment Technologies in a Juvenile Justice Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Moline, Karl; Farrell, Jill; Bierie, David

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about advances in assessment technologies designed to aid decision making in the juvenile justice system. Adoption and implementation of this latest generation of actuarial tools, however, have lagged behind their development. Assessment in juvenile justice exemplifies the "science-practice gap" that…

  5. Best Implementation Practices: Disseminating New Assessment Technologies in a Juvenile Justice Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Moline, Karl; Farrell, Jill; Bierie, David

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about advances in assessment technologies designed to aid decision making in the juvenile justice system. Adoption and implementation of this latest generation of actuarial tools, however, have lagged behind their development. Assessment in juvenile justice exemplifies the "science-practice gap" that…

  6. Peculiarities of Students of Pedagogical Specialties Training in Preventive Work with Juveniles Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Maxim R.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Ozhiganova, Maria V.; Murzinova, Yana A.; Syssa, Daria O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under investigation is due to the high significance of preventive work with juvenile delinquents to society. The article aims to study the problems arising while developing students' competencies in professional activities for the prevention of the infringing behavior of juvenile delinquents, as well as the…

  7. Tissue-specific high expression of TFL1 correlates with citrus juvenility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early flowering is a desirable trait for many horticultural crops including citrus, which are woody trees that can have a juvenile phase from several to over 10 years. Research on floral organ development has identified genes critical to the regulation of juvenility/maturity. TFL1 is a negative regu...

  8. Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It notes that the program described can be implemented at the state, county, or local level. The introduction presents statistics on violent…

  9. Reading for Life and Adolescent Re-Arrest: Evaluating a Unique Juvenile Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroczynski, A. D.; Evans, William N.; Jobst, Amy D.; Horvath, Luke; Carozza, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an evaluation of Reading for Life (RFL), a diversion program for nonviolent juvenile offenders in a medium-sized Midwestern county. The unique program uses philosophical virtue theory, works of literature, and small mentoring groups to foster moral development in juvenile offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to RFL…

  10. PLC-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Pollen Tubes Regulates the Gametophytic Self-incompatibility of Pyrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haiyong; Guan, Yaqin; Wang, Yongzhang; Zhang, Shaolin

    2017-01-01

    Among the Rosaceae species, the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multi-allelic S locus, which is composed of the pistil-S and pollen-S genes. The pistil-S gene encodes a polymorphic ribonuclease (S-RNase), which is essential for identifying self-pollen. However, the S-RNase system has not been fully characterized. In this study, the self-S-RNase inhibited the Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity at pollen tube apices and the selectively decreased phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the plasma membrane of Pyrus pyrifolia pollen tubes. Self-S-RNase decreased the Ca(2+) influx through a PLC-mediated signaling pathway. Phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC has a 26-amino acid insertion in pollen tubes of the 'Jinzhuili' cultivar, which is a spontaneous self-compatible mutant of the 'Yali' cultivar. 'Yali' plants exhibit a typical S-RNase-based GSI. Upon self-pollination, PLC gene expression is significantly higher in 'Jinzhuili' pollen tubes than that in 'Yali' pollen tubes. Moreover, the PLC in pollen tubes can only interact with one of the two types of S-RNase from the style. In the Pyrus x bretschneideri Rehd, the PLC directly interacted with the S7-RNase in the pollen tube, but not with the S34-RNase. Collectively, our results reveal that the effects of S-RNase on PLC activity are required for S-specific pollen rejection, and that PLC-IP3 participates in the self-incompatibility reaction of Pyrus species.

  11. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  12. Morphological Development and Growth of Larvae and Juveniles of Fat Minnow Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii Dybosky in Liaohe River%辽河水系洛氏仔、稚鱼形态发育与生长特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培民; 金广海; 刘义新; 骆小年; 李军

    2014-01-01

    The morphological development and growth were observed and measured in larvae and juveniles of fat minnow Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii from Liaohe River at water temperature of 18.8 to 27.2℃. The newly hatching larvae had total length of (4.46± 0.43)mm, and posterior swim bladder anlage 3 days after hatching (DAH). The initial feeding was observed in the larvae at 5 DAH. The yolk sac was completely exhausted at 6 DAH, and the larvae showed appearance of the anterior swim bladder at 13 DAH. At 32 DAH, all fins were well developed in the larvae, and scales began to be differentiated at the back of the operculum at 36 DAH, when the larvae developed into juveniles with which scales were covered the entire body apart from the head at 58 DAH. In terms of mor-phological changes in yolk sac and scale, the post-embryonic development of fat minnow may be divided into 3 stages:the yolk-sac stage(0~5 DAH), postlarva stage(6~35 DAH) and juvenile stage(36~58 DAH). The relationship between yolk volume(v) and day after hatching(d) was expressed as the equation:V=0.0063d2-0.0870d+0.2863(R2=0.8167). The relationship between total length of the fish (LT) and day after hatching (d) was described as the equation:LT=0.0083d2+0.2351d+4.8759 (R2=0.9544), and the body weight(w) and day after hatching(d) was described as W=0.0006e0.1317d(R2=0.9719).%本文研究辽河水系洛氏 Phoxinus lagowskii lagowskii仔、稚鱼形态发育和早期生长。结果表明:在18.8~27.2℃下,洛氏初孵仔鱼全长为(4.46±0.43)mm,4日龄的仔鱼鳔一室,5日龄时开始摄食,6日龄卵黄囊完全吸收,13日龄时鳔二室,32日龄时各鳍发育完成;36日龄时开始出现鳞片;58日龄时除头部外全身被鳞,进入幼鱼期。根据卵黄囊、运动器官和鳞片的变化,洛氏早期发育可分为卵黄囊期(孵出0~5d)、后期仔鱼(6~35d)和稚鱼期(36~58d)。曲线拟合表明,卵黄囊体积(V)和全长(LT)与日龄(d)均呈

  13. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  14. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  15. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  16. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  17. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  18. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  19. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  20. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  1. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  2. Tocilizumab in the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Miho Murakami,1 Minako Tomiita,2,3 Norihiro Nishimoto11Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, 2Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 3Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is one of the common rheumatic diseases in childhood and characterized by spiking fever, evanescent skin rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and serositis, in addition to arthritis. Children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis often show growth retardation and developmental abnormality, as well as macrophage activation syndrome, a life-threatening complication. Overproduction of interleukin-6 is pathologically responsible for the systemic inflammatory manifestations and abnormal laboratory results with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thus, tocilizumab, a humanized antihuman interleukin-6 receptor antibody, has been developed as a therapeutic agent for the disease. A series of clinical studies have demonstrated the excellent efficacy and safety of tocilizumab for patients with active disease. Tocilizumab was approved for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Japan in 2008 and in the European Union and the United States in 2011.Keywords: systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, tocilizumab, antihuman interleukin-6 receptor antibody, biologics

  3. Inferring contemporary and historical genetic connectivity from juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Pierre; Berry, Oliver; Kyne, Peter M; Pillans, Richard D; Hillary, Richard M; Grewe, Peter M; Marthick, James R; Johnson, Grant; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Bax, Nicholas J; Bravington, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river shark found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Contemporary adult and juvenile shark movements, estimated with the spatial distribution of kin pairs across and within three river systems, was contrasted with historical long-term connectivity patterns, estimated from mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data. We found strong support for river fidelity in juveniles with the within-cohort relationship analysis. Male breeding movements were highlighted with the cross-cohort relationship analysis, and female reproductive philopatry to the river systems was revealed by the mitogenomic analysis. We show that accounting for juvenile river fidelity and female philopatry is important in population structure analysis and that targeted sampling in nurseries and juvenile aggregations should be included in the genomic toolbox of threatened species management.

  4. Psicología y nutrición en el desarrollo ontogenético en la edad infanto-juvenil Psychology and nutrition int the ontogenetic development in the infant-adolescence years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuillerat Alfonso

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La relación del desarrollo psíquico con el estado nutricional, desde la etapa fetal, hasta la adolescencia, es el objetivo central de este artículo. La importancia de la alimentación y la nutrición adecuada durante el embarazo, la preparación de la futura madre para la práctica de la lactancia materna, la consecuente aplicación del proceso de ablactación, y su relación con el desarrollo psicomotor y formación de la personalidad en las diferentes etapas del desarrollo psicológico, fisiológico y social del período infanto-juvenil. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en diversos estudios desarrollados dentro de un Servicio de Nutrición Clínica, sobre reinducción de la lactancia materna en niños menores de cuatro meses con desnutrición proteica energética, así como otras etapas de las edades infanto-juvenil, obesos y otras enfermedades crónicas y genéticas relacionadas con la alimentación y la nutrición (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística, en los que se fundamentan la estrecha relación entre la Psicología y la Nutrición, a partir de tratamientos psicoterapéuticos y educativos, basados en la aplicación de la psicología Clínica en la prevención, promoción y tratamiento de las alteraciones nutricionales, y de otras enfermedades crónicas y genéticas relacionadas con la alimentación y la nutrición. Se establecen aspectos relacionados con la caracterización psicológica, social y de la personalidad en formación, de estos enfermos y su entorno socio-familiar.The relation ship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby´s life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with

  5. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  6. Contrasting movement strategies among juvenile albatrosses and petrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grissac, Sophie; Börger, Luca; Guitteaud, Audrey; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-05-01

    Animal movement is a fundamental eco-evolutionary process yet the behaviour of juvenile animals is largely unknown for many species, especially for soaring seabirds which can range widely over the oceans at low cost. We present an unprecedented dataset of 98 juvenile albatrosses and petrels (nine species), tracked for the first three months after independence. There was a startling diversity within and among species in the type and scale of post-natal movement strategies, ranging from area-restricted to nomadic patterns. Spatial scales were clustered in three groups that ranged from 6000 km from the natal nest. In seven of the nine species, the orientation of flight paths and other movement statistics showed strong similarities between juveniles and adults, providing evidence for innate orientation abilities. Our results have implications for understanding the development of foraging behaviour in naïve individuals and the evolution of life history traits such as survival, lifespan and breeding strategy.

  7. Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Özge; Çakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocabaş, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Çaycı, Fatma Şemsa; Çelikel, Banu Acar

    2014-04-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment.

  8. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed.

  9. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  10. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed. PMID:26078691

  11. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  12. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  13. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  14. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  15. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  16. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  17. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  18. 从刑事诉讼法的修改看我国少年司法制度的发展和完善%Overview on the Development and Perfection of the Juvenile Judicial System in Our Country from the Perspective of the Amendment of the Criminal Procedure Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 张强

    2013-01-01

    我国的少年司法制度从产生至今已有近三十年的发展。[1]在这过程中,各地司法机关始终从国家未来、民族希望的高度,从促进未成年人健康成长出发,探索并建立了一系列独特的工作机制,为涉罪未成年人提供了有效的法律保护,体现了我国少年司法刑罚轻缓化的趋势和“教育、挽救”未成年犯罪人,促使其顺利实现再社会化的价值取向。修改后的《刑事诉讼法》对未成年人案件刑事诉讼程序的特别规定,使这些创新工作机制最终确立了下来,为完善具有中国特色的少年司法制度提供了法律保障。%The juvenile judicial system in our country has developed for approximately 30 years since its establishment. In the process, we have constantly targeted the prospect, national expectation and juveniles’ healthy growth to explore a series of unique working mechanisms so as to provide legal protection for the guilty juveniles. All this shows the gradual lenient penalty trend of our juvenile justice, desires to save juvenile criminals and stimulate them to readopt social values. The amended Criminal Procedure Law has special provisions for criminal trial procedure of cases involving minors, which has eventually established the innovative working mechanisms and offered legal guarantees for the perfection of juvenile judicial system with Chinese characteristics.

  19. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  20. Histochemical studies on reserve substances and enzymes in female gametophyte of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Malik, C P

    1976-01-01

    Cytochemical changes during the early development of maize caryopsis are reported. Changes in the localization of different reserve substances (e.g. polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids) and enzymes (acid phosphatase, esterase, lipase, phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase) have been studied in unfertilized and fertilized ovules. Before pollination very feeble enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase) was observed. Reserve substances were present in low amounts before pollination. Pollination stimulated the accumulation of several substances and enzymes in the tip of the nucellus, micropylar zone. Just prior to, during and after fertilization, the cells in the micropylar zone had strong reaction for several enzymes indicating temporary enhancement of metabolic activity in the micropylar zone. The role of antipodals in the storage of reserve food products and nutrition of embryo and early stages of endosperm development is discussed. The pattern of enzymatic changes within the embryo sac reflected the biochemical changes operative during quiescent and active stages. The nucellus of Zea mays contains many enzymes required for hydrolysis of reserved food substances. A role of acid phosphatase in autolysis of nucellar cells, after fertilization is suggested. Post-fertilization increase in the activity of enzymes and accumulation of reserve materials is interpreted as reflecting a presumed increase in the metabolic rate relative to growth and differentiation.

  1. A study on the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Hyun Soo; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). [Subjects and Methods] In total, 26 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. Using the physical fitness measurement instruments, the Inbody 720 and Quark b2, the elements of physical fitness that were assessed included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, lung capacity, and body composition. [Results] The results revealed significant differences in muscular strength, muscular endurance, lung capacity, body composition, functional ability, and health-related quality of life between the children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggested that children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) have inferior physical fitness when compared to healthy children. The present study was conducted to develop an accurate evaluation standard to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

  2. Juvenile sucker cohort tracking data summary and assessment of monitoring program, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hereford, Mark E.; Hoy, Marshal S.

    2016-09-22

    Populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, are experiencing long-term declines in abundance. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known adult spawning aggregations. Previous sampling for juvenile suckers indicated that most juvenile sucker mortality in Upper Klamath Lake likely occurs within the first year of life. The importance of juvenile sucker mortality to the dynamics of Clear Lake Reservoir populations is less clear, and factors other than juvenile mortality (such as access to spawning habitat) play a substantial role. For example, production of age-0 juvenile suckers, as determined by fin ray annuli and fin development, has not been detected since 2013 in Clear Lake Reservoir, whereas it is detected annually in Upper Klamath Lake.

  3. Desenvolvimento juvenil de Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst (Crustacea, Decapoda, Calappidae, em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebling Nilton José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatus pudibundus (Herbst, 1785 juvenile development was studied in laboratory, under the morphological and systematical stand points. The eight early juvenile stages were obtained from larvae hatched from eggs of two ovigerous females, collected at the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiments were carried out in a climatically controlled room at 25 ± 1°C, and steady saltness of 34?. The youngs were maintened individually and food consisted of Artemia sp. nauplii and fragments of fish muscle.The first juvenile stage were particulary drawn and described. For the remaining juvenile stages the most representative frameworks were picked out, which allowed the characterization of the first eight stages. According to juvenile morphology studies, it was noted that secondary sexual characters differentation begins from the third stage.

  4. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  5. Predictive validity of adult risk assessment tools with juveniles who offended sexually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Christopher A; Epperson, Douglas L

    2013-09-01

    An often-held assumption in the area of sexual recidivism risk assessment is that different tools should be used for adults and juveniles. This assumption is driven either by the observation that adolescents tend to be in a constant state of flux in the areas of development, education, and social structure or by the fact that the judicial system recognizes that juveniles and adults are different. Though the assumption is plausible, it is largely untested. The present study addressed this issue by scoring 2 adult sexual offender risk assessment tools, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised and the Static-99, on an exhaustive sample (N = 636) of juveniles who had sexually offended (JSOs) in Utah. For comparison, 2 tools designed for JSOs were also scored: the Juvenile-Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II and the Juvenile Risk Assessment Scale. Recidivism data were collected for 2 time periods: before age 18 (sexual, violent, any recidivism) and from age 18 to the year 2004 (sexual). The adult actuarial risk assessment tools predicted all types of juvenile recidivism significantly and at approximately the same level of accuracy as juvenile-specific tools. However, the accuracy of longer term predictions of adult sexual recidivism across all 4 tools was substantially lower than the accuracy achieved in predicting juvenile sexual recidivism, with 2 of the tools producing nonsignificant results, documenting the greater difficulty in making longer term predictions on the basis of adolescent behavior.

  6. THE MORPHOGENIC DEVELOPMENT OF GAMETOPHYTE AND MORPHOLOGY OF THE SPOROPHYTES OF CHEILANTHES BONARIENSIS (WILLD. PROCTOR (PTERIDACEAE-HELECHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Huerta-Zavala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la morfogénesis de los gametófitos deCheilanthes bonariensisa partir de esporas recolectadas en el municipio de Tlaxco, Tlaxcala, México. La siembra se realizó en vasos de unisel de 262 ml en dos sustratos naturales (maquique y tierra de hoja. Las esporas son triletes de forma esférica u ovalada. La germinación de tipoVittariase observó desde los 15 días en ambos sustratos. El desarrollo del prótalo corresponde al tipoAdiantum, el gametófito joven se presentó a los 31 días en tierra de hoja y a los 54 en maquique. Los gametófitos adultos se observaron desde los 44 días en tierra de hoja y 54 en maquique; no se apreció la formación de gametangios. Los esporófitos se desarrollaron a través de una yema apogámica a partir de los 54 días en tierra de hoja y a los 93 en maquique. A los 148 días los esporófitos se formaron a partir de prótalos viejos necrosados. El desarrollo del esporófito en maquique fue lento en relación al crecimiento en tierra de hoja y con base en los tiempos de desarrollo de los esporófitos de esta especie se sugiere que puede ser susceptible para una posible explotación comercial.

  7. Rapid improvement of calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis with alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Geoffrey R; Chaitow, Jeffrey; Rogers, Maureen; McDonald, David W; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    A 6-year-old boy with improving juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) developed severe and debilitating calcinosis, unresponsive to diltiazem and probenecid. Alendronate produced dramatic improvement within 1 month and by 12 months calcinosis had virtually resolved. The response was followed by bone mineral content measurements.

  8. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Noordam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A

  9. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  10. Effect of trace dioxin(TCDD) uptake on medaka juvenile spine development%一次性微量二恶英(TCDD)摄取对青鳉幼鱼脊椎发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永利; 魏素香; 董武

    2013-01-01

    The dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutants, its high residue and teratogenicity has attracted great attention in the world. Using medaka embryos as experimental animal model, the mechanism of TCDD toxicity on medaka embryo spine was explored from molecular level. The results showed that:TCDD caused a medaka juvenile spine formation disorder, and the spine number was negatively correlated with TCDD concentrations. TCDD also caused changes in embryonic cartilage development in medaka, and closely related with the decreased expression of Sox9b.%二恶英(TCDD)是一种持久性环境污染物质,它的高残留性、致畸性已经引起世界各国的重视.以青鳉胚胎作为试验动物模型,从分子水平探讨了TCDD对青鳉胚胎脊椎的毒性作用机制.结果表明:TCDD造成青鳉幼鱼脊椎生成障碍,脊椎生成数目与TCDD染毒浓度呈负相关.TCDD引起青鳉胚胎软骨发育的变化与Sox9b的表达降低密切相关.

  11. miR-200c affects the mRNA expression of E-cadherin by regulating the mRNA level of TCF8 during post-natal epididymal development in juvenile rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Wang; Kangcheng Ruan

    2010-01-01

    The unique temporal expression pattern of miR-200c in epididymis during post-natal development in juvenile rats was revealed by our home-made miRNA microarray in this paper.It was found that miR-200c expressed in the lowest level at Day 7 and then increased to the highest at Day 36 followed by a dramatic decrease.The pattern was exactly inverse to that of mRNA expression of transcrip tion factor 8(TCF8)revealed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR),providing an extra evidence that TCF8 is one degradation target of miR-200c even in epididymis.Moreover,the qRT-PCR study on expression of E-cadherin and interleukin-2 indicated that miR-200c does exert an obvious effect on the mRNA expression of E-cadherin by directly regulating the mRNA level of TCF8,although the effect on interleukin-2 is not obvious as on E-cadherin,which implicates that interleukin-2 may be also regulated by other factors besides TCF8 in rat epididymis.

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY GROWTH ON LARVAE AND JUVENILES OFHEMIBARBUS LABEOIN YALÜ RIVER%鸭绿江唇仔、稚鱼形态发育与早期生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培民; 骆小年; 金广海; 刘义新; 李敬伟; 李军

    2014-01-01

    通过观察、拍照和测量的方法对鸭绿江唇(Hemibarbus labeo)仔、稚鱼的形态发育和早期生长进行了研究。结果表明:在19.6-25.8℃的试验条件下,唇初孵化仔鱼全长为(7.92±0.29) mm,2日龄头部两侧出现感觉芽;3日龄鳔一室原基形成,5日龄红色的脾出现,且仔鱼开口;7日龄卵黄囊吸收完毕,9日龄脊索末端开始向上弯曲;10日龄鳔二室形成,14日龄脊索弯曲完成,尾鳍边缘开始内凹;32日龄鳞片开始出现在鳃盖后缘的体表,同时各鳍发育完全,个体发育进入稚鱼期,43日龄全身被鳞,个体发育进入幼鱼期。根据卵黄囊、脊索和鳞片的变化,唇胚后发育可细分为卵黄囊期(0-6日龄)、弯曲前期(7-9日龄)、弯曲期(10-14日龄)、弯曲后期(15-32日龄)和稚鱼期(33-43日龄)。试验期间,全长和体质量的特定生长率分别为3.32%和12.16%;卵黄囊体积(V)与日龄(d)的关系为V=0.0048d3-0.0309d2-0.1240d+0.8453(R2=0.8933);全长(LT)、体质量(W)与日龄均为指数函数关系,相关方程分别为: LT=8.3821e0.0329d(R2=0.9586),W=0.0048e0.0969d(R2=0.9463);头长(LH)、体高(HB)的生长方程分别为:LH =-6E-05d3+0.002d2+0.1733d +0.7862(R2=0.9577),HB=-5E-05d3+0.0039d2+0.017d +0.9389(R2=0.9621)。%We studied the morphological development and early growth of larval and juvenileHemibarbus labeo in Yalü River from hatching till 43 days. The newly hatched larvae were (7.92±0.29) mm under the temperature of 19.6-25.8℃. Sensor buds were differentiated on both sides of the head 2 days after hatching (DAH) and posterior swim bladder anlage appeared on Day 3 after hatching (AH). Initial feeding appeared on Day 5 AH along with the appearance of spleen and the complete absorption of yolk sphere on Day 7 AH. The caudal tip of the notochord started to curve upward on Day 9 AH, followed by the anterior swim bladder appearance on Day 10 AH. For 14-day-old larva, the caudal folk formed and the

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  14. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized......OBJECTIVE: To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. METHODS: Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated...... a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains...

  15. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  16. Effect of Stocking Density and Food Types on Survival, Growth and Development of Juvenile Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus%放养密度和饵料种类对中国大鲵幼苗存活与生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿; 殷梦光; 徐小茜; 高玉平; 曹宇

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stocking density and food species on survival rate, growth and development of juvenile giant salamander Andrias davidianus were studied. The survival, growth and development of the juvenile were observed from hatching to one year old. Results showed that the survival rate of 100% was found in the stocking rate of 10~20 per treated when the animals were reared in the u-nit area of 0.1 m2. However, the average survival rates, annual body length increment and weight gain of the juveniles had decreased significantly when the stocking rate was increased from 20 to 60 individuals per 0.1 m2. There were average annual survival rates of 100%, body length increment of 8.09 cm and weight gain of 25.97 g in the juveniles fed chironomid larvae, those of 90%, 5.45cm and 12.68 g in the juveniles fed pork, 95%, 5.28 cm, and 11.82 g in the juveniles fed beef, 85%, 4.57 cm and 10.86 g in the juveniles fed mutton, and 95%, 6.82 cm and 20.67 g in the juveniles fed small fish and shrimp. Therefore,the chironomid larvae, small fish and shrimp are appropriate food for breeding one old giant salamander juveniles.%研究了放养密度和饵料种类对幼中国大鲵(A ndrias davidianus)生长发育的影响,跟踪分析了自胚胎孵化至一龄幼鲵的存活与生长发育状况.结果表明,自胚胎孵化至一龄幼鲵的养殖密度为每0.1m2 10 ~ 20尾时,其成活率可达到100%,投放密度每0.1m2自20尾增加到60尾,平均存活率、年体长增加和年体重增加均显著降低.投喂摇蚊幼虫、猪肉、牛肉、羊肉和小鱼虾,幼苗的存活率分别为100%、90%、95%、85%和95%,体长增加分别为8.09cm、5.45cm、5.28cm、4.57cm、6.82cm,体重增加分别为25.97g、12.68g、11.82g、10.86g和20.67g.可见,摇蚊幼虫和小鱼虾是一龄幼大鲵的适宜饵料.

  17. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  18. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  19. Evidence for stage-specific modulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing components in zygotic embryo and female gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Thomas J; Wartell, Roger M; Cairney, John; Pullman, Gerald S

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate plant development, but have not been studied in gymnosperm seed tissues. The presence and characteristics of several miRNAs were examined in zygotic embryos (ZEs) and female gametophytes (FGs) of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Evidence for miRNAs was obtained using northern analyses and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) mediated with poly(A) polymerase. Partial sequences of two miRNAs were verified. Three regions of putative mRNA targets were analyzed by qRT-PCR to monitor the occurrence of stage-dependent miRNA-mediated cleavage. Five miRNAs were identified in ZEs and FGs along with partial sequences of Pta-miR166 and Pta-miR167. Both miRNAs showed differing degrees of tissue-specific and stage-specific modulation. Analysis of HB15L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR166 target) suggested miRNA-guided cleavage in ZEs and FGs. Analysis of ARF8L mRNA (a potential Pta-miR167 target) implied cleavage in ZEs but not in FGs. Argonaute9-like mRNA (ptAGO9L) showed stage-specific modulation of expression in ZEs that appeared to be inverted in the corresponding FGs. MicroRNAs and argonaute genes varied spatiotemporally during seed development. The peak levels of Pta-miR166 in FGs and ptAGO9L in embryos occurred at stage 9.1, a critical transition point during embryo development and a point where somatic embryo maturation often stops. MicroRNAs identified in FG tissue may play a role in embryogenesis.

  20. Spatial and begging behaviours of juvenile Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from fledging to independence under contrasting food conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Naundrup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    during the last 5 days before juvenile independence. Hence, juvenile Tawny Owls old enough to survive on their own invested heavily in begging, with no noticeable signs of increased hunting or exploration of potential settling areas outside the natal range, until they were no longer fed by their parents......The post-fledging dependency period (PFDP: from fledging to cessation of parental care) is a critical yet poorly studied life history transition phase during which juveniles mature and develop skills for independence. We studied the spatial and vocal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Tawny Owls...

  1. A Review of HIV Prevention Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021

  2. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  4. Effects of sulfasalazine treatment on serum immunoglobulin levels in children with juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, MAJ; Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAN; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Wulffraat, NM; van Luijk, WHJ; Oostveen, JCM; Kuis, W; Dijkmans, BAC; van Soesbergen, RM

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the effects of sulfasalazine (SSZ) treatment on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels in 6 children with oligoarticular- or polyarticular onset juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). None of the children who developed dysimmunoglobulinemia during treatment showed clinical symptoms of th

  5. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  6. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  7. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR to detect Parvicapsula minibicornis and comparison to histologically ranked infection of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), from the Klamath River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, K.; Purcell, M.K.; Foott, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Parvicapsula minibicornis is a myxosporean parasite that is associated with disease in Pacific salmon during their freshwater life history phase. This study reports the development of a quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to detect P. minibicornis DNA. The QPCR assay targets the 18S ribosomal subunit gene. A plasmid DNA control was developed to calibrate cycle threshold (CT) score to plasmid molecular equivalent (PME) units, a measure of gene copy number. Assay validation revealed that the QPCR was sensitive and able to detect 50 ag of plasmid DNA, which was equivalent to 12.5 PME. The QPCR assay could detect single P. minibicornis actinospores well above assay sensitivity, indicating a single spore contains at least 100 times the 18S DNA copies required for detection. The QPCR assay was repeatable and highly specific; no detectable amplification was observed using DNA from related myxozoan parasites. The method was validated using kidney tissues from 218 juvenile Chinook salmon sampled during the emigration period of March to July 2005 from the Klamath River. The QPCR assay was compared with histological examination. The QPCR assay detected P. minibicornis infection in 88.1% of the fish sampled, while histological examination detected infection in 71.1% of the fish sampled. Good concordance was found between the methods as 80% of the samples were in agreement. The majority of the disconcordant fish were positive by QPCR, with low levels of P. minibicornis DNA, but negative by histology. The majority of the fish rated histologically as having subclinical or clinical infections had high QPCR levels. The results of this study demonstrate that QPCR is a sensitive quantitative tool for evaluating P. minibicornis infection in fish health monitoring studies. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  9. Incompatibilidad gametofítica en las razas mexicanas de maíz Gametophytic incompatibility in Mexican maize breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Padilla García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La incompatibilidad esporofítica y gametofítica evitan la autofecundación o la fecundación cruzada, y es una forma de aislamiento reproductivo. Los genes de incompatibilidad-cruzada en maíz de los loci ga1 y tcb1, son causantes del reconocimiento o rechazo entre el estigma y el polen, y de ellos depende la presencia o ausencia de grano en la mazorca del maíz. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar alelos de incompatibilidad-cruzada de ga1 y tcb1 en colecciones representativas de grupos raciales de maíz de México. El trabajo se realizó en el Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Guadalajara, ubicado en Zapopan, Jalisco, México durante los ciclos agrícolas de primavera-verano 2007 a 2009. Se evaluaron, en condiciones de temporal, 184 accesiones de razas mexicanas de maíz con base en porcentaje de llenado de grano de mazorca en sus cruzas con probadores macho recesivos (sin factores de incompatibilidad y probadores hembra dominantes (con factores de incompatibilidad. En el análisis de varianza hubo diferencias altamente significativas tanto entre razas como entre accesiones dentro de razas para el locus ga1. Con relación al locus tcb1 sólo se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas entre razas. El alelo Ga1-S, responsable de la incompatibilidad no-recíproca, se detectó 53.8% de las accesiones, mientras que el alelo neutro Ga1-m y el alelo recesivo ga1 se identificaron 55.43 y 15.76%, respectivamente. El alelo Tcb1-S fue detectado en muy bajas proporciones, concentrado principalmente en las razas de Elotes-Occidentales y Maíz-Dulce.Sporophytic and gametophytic incompatibility avoids self-fecundation or cross-fertilization, and it is a form of reproductive isolation. The cross-incompatibility genes in maize from loci ga1 and tcb1, cause recognition or reject between stigma and pollen, and from them depends presence or absence of grain in maize ear. The aim of this study

  10. Galactorrhea associated with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of the role of prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Karen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case report is based on the clinical observation of a patient with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE who developed transient galactorrhea. The subsequent literature review documented an interesting association between prolactin and rheumatic diseases and in particular, hyperprolactinemia and SLE. The discussion that follows the case report explores this relationship and proposes a hypothesis regarding why this patient with juvenile SLE developed galactorrhea.

  11. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  12. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  13. Different positively selected sites at the gametophytic self-incompatibility pistil S-RNase gene in the Solanaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus, Pyrus, and Malus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jorge; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Santos, Raquel A M; Vieira, Cristina P

    2007-08-01

    In this work we perform a comparative study on the location of positively selected sites (those likely responsible for defining specificity differences) at the S-RNase gene, the pistil component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system. For Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus and Pyrus/Malus) this is the first study of this kind. A clear sign of positive selection was observed for 13, 17, and 27 amino acid sites in Solanaceae, Prunus, and Pyrus/Malus, respectively, using two different methodologies. In Plantaginaceae no clear positively selected sites were identified. Possible reasons for this result are discussed. Indirect experimental evidence suggests that the identified positively selected amino acid sites play a role in specificity determination. The percentage of positively selected sites is similar in Solanaceae and Rosaceae but the location of those sites is different.

  14. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  15. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  16. Paradoxical anxiogenic response of juvenile mice to fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-eun; Zupan, Bojana; Gross, Steven; Toth, Miklos

    2009-09-01

    Depression, anxiety, and conduct disorders are common in children and adolescents, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often used to treat these conditions. Fluoxetine (Prozac) is the first approved SSRI for the treatment of depression in this population. Although it is believed that overall, fluoxetine is effective in child and adolescent psychiatry, there have been reports of specific adverse drug effects, most prominently, suicidality and psychiatric symptoms such as agitation, worsening of depression, and anxiety. Chronic fluoxetine substantially increases brain extracellular 5-HT concentrations, and the juvenile developing brain may respond to supraphysiological 5-HT levels with specific adverse effects not seen or less prominent in adult brain. Using novelty-induced hypophagia, as well as open-field and elevated plus maze tests, we show that both Swiss Webster and C57Bl/6 mice, receiving fluoxetine in a clinically relevant dose and during their juvenile age corresponding to child-adolescent periods in humans, exhibit a paradoxical anxiogenic response. The adverse effects of juvenile fluoxetine disappeared upon drug discontinuation and no long-term behavioral consequences were apparent. No adverse effect to chronic fluoxetine was seen in adult mice and a dose-dependent anxiolytic effect developed. These data show that the age of the mice, independently of the strains and tests used in this study, is the determining factor of whether the response to chronic fluoxetine is anxiolytic or anxiogenic. Taken together, the response of the juvenile and adult brain to fluoxetine could be fundamentally different and the juvenile fluoxetine administration mouse model described here may help to identify the mechanism underlying this difference.

  17. Strengths and Limitations of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in Juvenile Delinquency Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Semel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights and discusses the usefulness of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments. Psychiatric disorders have high prevalence rates among youths in the juvenile justice system. The PIY was developed to evaluate a broad range of behavioral and psychological characteristics, which may make it useful in juvenile delinquency assessment contexts. Practical and psychometric strengths and limitations of the PIY in the juvenile delinquency assessment context are presented, with reference to relevant research literature. The effectiveness of this instrument in detecting response bias, particularly under-reporting, and for identifying problems associated with delinquency is discussed. The issue of item overlap and spurious influences on scale correlations, especially between the PIY Defensiveness and Delinquency scales, is also addressed. A comparison of findings with the PIY and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A in juvenile justice samples helps to identify broader considerations about how youths in juvenile justice settings respond to self-report psychological inventories. Finally, the author offers some practical considerations for evaluators when using the PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments, and suggestions for future research.

  18. Histologic Examination of an Assemblage of Psittacosaurus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) Juveniles From the Yixian Formation (Liaoning, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhao; Hedrick, Brandon P; Chunling, Gao; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R; Fengjiao, Zhang; Caizhi, Shen; Dodson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Psittacosaurus is one of the most abundant dinosaurs known, which allows for extensive study of its growth and form. Previous studies have evaluated growth trajectories of Psittacosaurus using bone histology. However, we present the first study of Psittacosaurus comparative juvenile histology and describe the histology of Psittacosaurus within its first year of life based on multiple sections taken from an exquisite monospecific assemblage of juveniles from the Yixian Formation in Liaoning, China. Specimens studied had femur lengths ranging from 30 to 36 mm. The five juveniles examined all have similar histologic patterns in the midshaft and epiphyseal regions showing that there is limited plasticity in bone development in juvenile Psittacosaurus and that all of the specimens in the assemblage were likely the same age. The microstructure patterns are compatible with the hypothesis that Psittacosaurus was precocial and that these juveniles were neonates. Based on comparisons with other juvenile ornithischians, juvenile Psittacosaurus had a growth rate similar to Orodromeus, slower than that of Maiasaura, Dysalotosaurus, or hadrosaurs consistent with small body size. Our results support previous studies that demonstrated that the orientation of vascular canals is likely not solely reflective of growth rate, but is also affected by underlying biomechanical, structural processes. The number of studies done on theropod and sauropodomorph histology dwarfs those of ornithischians. More studies of ornithischian histology are necessary in order to better establish phylogenetic trends in microstructure and to learn more about growth in this important clade.

  19. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  20. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  1. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  2. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  3. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  4. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  6. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  7. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  8. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  9. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  10. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  11. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  12. Development and evaluation of juvenile campus violence questionnaire%青少年校园暴力问卷编制及信、效度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支愧云; 陈永进; 夏薇; 游雅玲; 张林林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a questionnaire on campus violence for adolescents and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods A total of 4 215 students were asked to complete the questionnaire and the data was analyzed using item analysis, exploratory factorial analysis, confirmatory factorial analysis, and the test of reliability and validity. Results The questionnaire included domains of physical violence and psychological violence. Physical violence was composed of five dimensions,including bullying,physical violence,tools violence,suicide,and sexual abuse and phycho-logical violence was composed of four dimensions,including personal attacks,network violence,pressure building up,and verbal aggression. The total value of Cronbach a was 0.905;the values of Cronbach a for sub-questionnaires were above 0.82; the split-half reliability were 0. 38 - 0. 84 and the standard validity was significant (P < 0.01), indicating the questionnaire with high validity and reliability. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were consistent to psychometric features,indicating the questionnaire could be used in surveys on campus violence.%目的 初步编制青少年校园暴力问卷并评价其信、效度.方法 运用项目分析、探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析和信效度检验方法,对4215名青少年的身体暴力和心理暴力行为进行分析,验证问卷结构的合理性.结果 青少年校园暴力包括身体暴力和心理暴力2个方面,其中身体暴力由欺负、肢体暴力、工具暴力、自杀和性侵犯5个维度18个条目构成,心理暴力由人际攻击、网络暴力、压力营造和言语侵犯4个维度18个条目构成;总体问卷Cronbach's α系数为0.905,身体暴力和心理暴力分问卷Cronbach's α系数均>0.82,分半信度为0.318~0.841,效标效度达到显著水平(P<0.01),表明该问卷具有较好的信度和效度.结论 青少年校园暴力问卷的信、效度符合心理测量

  13. Histological Studies on the Development of Digestive System In Larval and Juvenile Starry Flounder%星斑川鲽仔稚鱼消化系统发育的组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方华华; 王波

    2011-01-01

    A histological examination was made on the development of digestive system in larval and juvenile starry flounder Platichtbys stellatus Pallas from 1 day to 35 days.In 3 days, the digestive tract in the larvae was formed but no food was intaken when the starry flounder was in endogenous nutrition.In 3-5 days , the mixotrophic stage which was the transition from endogenous nutrition to exogenous nutrition, the yolk was absorbed fairly well and disappeared, while the digestive tract was differentiated into six portions:buccopharynnx, oesophagus , stomach, anterior- middle intestine, posterior intestine and anus.The larval digestive system was morphologically ready to be absorbed to food at this time.Then, these digestive tract and associated glands became mature gradually with the development.Gastric glands were observed in 16 days ,which indicated it was a kind of fish with faster development.%使用石蜡切片技术对1~35日龄星斑川鲽的仔稚鱼消化系统进行组织学观察和研究.结果表明,星斑川鲽消化系统的发育主要分成3个阶段:从初孵到3日龄是卵黄阶段,其消化道为一细长的管道;从3日龄到5日龄是后卵黄阶段(混合营养阶段),卵黄被逐渐吸收,是卵黄阶段转向外源性营养阶段的过渡,消化道明显分化成口咽腔、食道、胃、前中肠、后肠和肛门,仔鱼消化系统具备了摄食和消化外源性食物的能力.此后,随着鱼体的生长,粘膜层的褶皱增加,消化道上皮细胞进一步分化,消化系统从功能和结构上逐步完善.16日龄,胃腺出现,标志着稚鱼期的开始,也表明星斑川鲽是一种发育较快的鱼类.

  14. 湘江鳡仔稚鱼个体和耳石生长发育研究%SOMATIC AND LAPILLUS OTOLITH ONTOGENETIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN LARVAL AND JUVENILE ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA RICHARDSON IN THE XIANG RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向建国; 向劲; 王星璐; 李钟杰; 谢松光

    2011-01-01

    2008年6月至7月间于鳡(Elopichthys bambusa Richardson)的主要繁殖季节在湘江采集鳡仔稚鱼共370尾,耳石分析表明这些仔稚鱼日龄在4-25d间,推算孵化日期为5月27日至6月22日.仔鱼前弯曲期向弯曲期转化时间为第6日龄,弯曲期向后弯曲期转化为第10日龄,后弯曲期向稚鱼期转化为15.5日龄.体长生长和耳石生长均在进入后弯曲期后(12-13日龄)出现1个节点:节点后体长生长速度是节点前的5倍,节点后耳石生长速度是节点前的2倍.早期生活史不同阶段鳡微耳石形态显著改变:前弯曲期耳石为圆形;弯曲期耳石前后轴的生长速度明显超过背腹轴生长,耳石也变为椭圆形;后弯曲期耳石进一步延长,耳石后端形成略尖的突起,耳石呈梨形;进入稚鱼期后,耳石后突起变得较为平滑,耳石形状呈贝形.耳石半径和体长的关系在后弯曲期阶段出现节点,节点前后呈不同的直线关系.%Elopichthys bambusa Richardson is a piscivorous fish distributes widely in the east floodplain waters, China. This fish is a potamodromous species, which grows and matures in the floodplain lakes and then naturally migrates into the attached rivers for spawning. E. Bambusa used to be a very important commercial species, however, resource of this fish has been dramatically destroyed in most waters due to overfishing and habitat degradations. With the success of artificial breeding of E. Bambusa in early 2000s, this species becomes an important aquacultural species and also a target species of stock enhancement typically in some reservoirs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Mortality rate of fish during early life stage is high for both wild populations and artificial seeding production. An understanding of early growth and development is essential not only for wild population conservation, but also for artificial seeding production.In this study, a total number of 370 larval and juvenile

  15. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  16. CLINICAL CASE OF TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY IN A PATIENT WITH SYSTEMIC JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Alexeeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of successful application of a monoclonal antibodies drug to interleukin 6 receptors (tocilizumab at severe systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis with the development of secondary hemophagocytic syndrome. Tocilizumab treatment secured a decrease in clinical and laboratory parameters of the disease activity, life quality improvement, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and hemophagocytic syndrome remission and allowed avoiding the per os prescription of glucocorticoids.

  17. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  18. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  19. FORENSIC TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectively and rigorously understanding the individual psychological characteristics of adolescent offenders, such as intelligence, personality traits and others of a clinical and criminological nature, is essential when developing appropriate processes for intervention in educational and judicial measures in the context of juvenile justice. However, the clinical and personological tools described in the previous article (Wenger & Andrés-Pueyo, 2016 are not enough to address the criminogenic needs of the adolescents and other, more specific, tools are needed. In this article, a number of complementary instruments developed specifically for the forensic area are reviewed. These tools enable us to carry out very specific assessments in this context, such as the evaluation of the risk of violence or the assessment of psychopathy. A review is also presented of the forensic psychological tests available in Spanish for professionals in the field of juvenile justice.

  20. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.