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Sample records for juvenile common carp

  1. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Lígia M; Bainy, Afonso C D; Ventura, Eliana C; Marques, Maria R F; Silva, José Roberto M C; Klemz, Cláudio; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 μg/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI) and factor condition (K) were determined. The total cytocrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A isoform, and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were determined from the hepatic microsomal fraction as well as the activity of the oxidative stress enzyme system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Among the parameters assessed, EDS at the sublethal concentration in subchronic exposure caused significant changes in liver somatic indices as well as induction of the phase I biotransformation system and oxidative stress in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Thus, it is seen that the use of biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in this study proved to be an extremely important tool for detecting the adverse effects of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment, even at low concentration.

  2. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed......We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where...

  3. Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, J; Spieser, O H; Bauer, C; Ferling, H; Mallow, U; Kalbfus, W; Negele, R D

    2000-11-01

    In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 microg NP/l over a 70-day period. Classical toxicological endpoints, such as various haematological parameters and histopathological alterations were investigated. In a comprehensive protocol, besides NP-induced effects also alterations due to a treatment with the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) were evaluated. After both the NP-exposure as well as the EE2-treatment, the predominant haematological finding was a severe anaemia. Histopathological alterations in the kidney, the liver and the spleen occurred exclusively after treatment with EE2, whereas NP-exposed fish did not show any tissue lesions. Depending on the haematological parameter examined, a NOEC between 1 and 5 microg NP/l could be established. From the present findings, it is assumed, that under field conditions, the NP-induced, general toxic effects, might outbalance the relatively weak estrogenic effects of this compound and possibly might disturb ecologically relevant processes such as fish reproduction.

  4. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters. The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  5. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  6. Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Benli, A Çağlan Karasu; Ayhan, Ayşen; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Selvi, Mahmut; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Cakiroğullari, Gül Çelik; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-09-01

    The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism.

  7. Cold shocks: a stressor for common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Booms, G.H.R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Komen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11°C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after

  8. The Effects of Exercise Training on the Morphological Parameter of Juvenile Common Carp%运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼形态参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫冠杰; 曹振东; 彭姜岚; 付世建

    2011-01-01

    为考查运动锻炼对鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)幼鱼形态特征的影响,在25℃条件下将60尾体长为(7.1±0.39)cm的实验鱼,以60%临界游泳速度(Ucrit)持续运动锻炼15 d,每天锻炼时间分别为6 h和12 h,对照组锻炼时间为每天0 h;随后分别进行有关形态特征图像及相关参数的测定.结果显示,6 h和12 h实验组的叉长(FL)、尾柄侧面积(S')的值与对照组相比均显著增大(p<0.05);而头高(HD)、体高(BD)和体高比体长(H/L)的值都显著减小(p<0.05);6 h和12 h实验组之间比较,12 h处理组的BD值和H/L值比6 h处理组的显著变小(p<0.05);其中,与对照组相比6 h和12 h组S'值增加的比率为5.8%和9.5%,而H/L值分别降低3.4%和6.9%.研究认为,运动锻炼对实验鱼的形态特征及相关参数均产生影响,且这种影响随锻炼强度的提高而增大;运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼产生的这种影响可能会使它们的游泳运动速度及能量效率得到显著提高.%To investigate the effects of exercise training on the morphological parameter of juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio),the morphological images and related parameters were measured in juvenile common carp ( body length, (7.1 ± 0.39) cm, n = 60) after exercise training for 15 days. The exercise training water flow rate was 60% critical swimming speed ( Ucrit ) and the exercise training duration was 0 h (control), 6 h and 12 h daily and the water temperature was maintained at 25 ℃ conditions. The results revealed that the fork length (FL) and the caudal area (S') of 6h and 12 h exercise trained groups increased significantly (p <0.05), while head depth (HD), body depth (BD) and the body depth: body length ratio (H/L) reduced significantly (p <0.05), respectively,compared with those of the control group. Between the two experimental treatment groups, the values of BD and H/L of 12 h exercise trained group were significantly smaller than those of 6 h exercise trained group (p < 0

  9. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  11. 运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼游泳能力及代谢的影响%The Effect of Exercise Training on the Swimming Performance and Metabolic Rate in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫东娟; 闫冠杰; 曹振东; 付世建

    2012-01-01

    以鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)幼鱼为研究对象,在25℃条件下将90尾体重为(8.12±1.30)g的实验鱼平均分成0h锻炼组(对照组)、6h锻炼组和12h锻炼组,以600临界游泳速度(Ucrit)持续运动锻炼15d,每天锻炼时间分别为0、6和12 h;随后对实验鱼进行Ucrit、耗氧率(MO2)和快速启动(Fast- start)的测定.结果显示,经过运动锻炼鲤鱼幼鱼的Ucrit和Fast-start与对照组相比,均没有显著提高,但6h锻炼组的实验鱼在30和36 cm·s-1的流速下MO2显著降低,而12h运动锻炼组的MO2始终处于较高水平.研究认为可能是由于在低于Ucrit流速下的适度的运动锻炼可能会提高鱼类在该流速下的能量利用效率,而高强度的锻炼则会使它们的基础代谢处于较高水平.%To investigate the effect of exercise training on the swimming performance and metabolic rate during swimming in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 90 juvenile fish (8. 12+1. 30) g was forced to swim under 60% critical swimming speed (Ucrit) for 0 h (control), 6 h and 12 h daily for 15 d. Then three groups of fish were underwent both an Ucrit, and fast-start measurement. The oxygen consumption rate (Mo2 ) at different swimming speed was also measured. Neither Ucrit, nor fast-start performance as indicated by maximum velocity (Vmax), maximum acceleration velocity (Amax) and travel distance during first 12 ms (S120 ms) significantly changed after 15 d training in juvenile common carp. However, the Mo2 at 20 and 36 cm s ' of fish in 6 h training group were significantly lower than those in control group while the Mo, at all swimming speed of fish in 12 h training group were significantly higher than those of control group (p<0. 05). It suggested that the cost of transport decrease after moderate exercise training (6 h), however, high intensity training (12 h) may impair the cost of transport by increased basal metabolic rate.

  12. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  13. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  14. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp. Cyprinus carpio in ..... pathogenic bacteria is of concern to fish processors. ... (Mediterranean) Sea and stored in ice.

  15. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp ... Owing to its toxic potential to humans, it is a high priority ... various heavy metal ions (Bhattacharyya and Gupta,. 2008).

  16. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  17. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2015-06-01

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 μg/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·μg/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 μg/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·μg/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  20. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lian

    Full Text Available The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

  1. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  2. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  3. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  4. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT(50)) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT(50) corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%.

  5. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  6. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

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    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied.In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains.In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  9. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  10. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  11. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  12. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio carpio L. POPULATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

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    Tea Tomljanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study common carp populations from Croatian fish ponds (Draganići, Končanica, Našička Breznica, Orahovica (Grudnjak and Poljana, and three carp populations from open waters (Sava and Danube rivers and Vransko lake were analyzed, with total of 295 specimens. All populations were checked for 20 morphometric and 13 meristic parameters. The analysis was conducted using Principal component analysis (PCA and Constrained linear analysis of canonical redundancy (RDA. According to the number gill rakers the most distinguished are carps from Sava river and Vransko lake, and some individuals from the Danube river, while the fish pond populations do not emphasize by this parameter. Fish pond populationes Grudnjak, Draganići, Končanica and Našice are overlapping. The Danube population is divided into two groups: one group is closely associated with fish pond populations, while another group is closely link with populations of carp in open waters. Specimens of carp from the Danube, which are morphologically similar to fish pond carps are considered to have recently entered into open water and still have the external characteristics of domestic carps. By this research a significant separation of domestic and open waters carp was revealed which has proven Monte Carlo test (F=347.191; p=0.002, however, a clear separation of domestic strains of common carps is not noticeable.

  14. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  15. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, I.R.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Forlenza, M.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30–40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like rec

  16. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

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    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  17. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

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    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  18. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  19. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  20. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas

  1. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release.

  2. Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp.

  3. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  4. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

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    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  5. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  6. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  7. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  8. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

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    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  9. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

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    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  10. Magnesium status in freshwater fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) and the dietary protein-magnesium interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Meyer-Burgdorff, K H; Gunther, K D

    1991-04-01

    Common carp juveniles were fed for 9 weeks one of the eight semipurified diets containing graded levels of magnesium, 0.08, 0.6, 1.1, 3, 2 g Mg kg(-1) and 25 or 44% protein.Fish growth and feed utilization were significantly affected by both Mg and protein levels in the diets. Significant interaction between these two studied variables existed in relation to the fish performance as well as to mean deposition rate of several minerals in common carp body. The fish fed diets containing 0.08 g Mg kg(-1) had reduced growth and developed deficiency signs such as muscle flaccidity and skin hemorrhages.Results indicated that a minimum Mg level of 0.6 g Mg kg(-1) was required to elevate plasma and bone magnesium content and to reduce the whole body Ca concentration (hypercalcinosis symptom). Further increase of dietary Mg up to 3.2 g Mg kg(-1) improved growth rate of fish insignificantly, but the deposition rate of dietary Mg fell to as low as 7.4 and 10.7 percent in low- and high-protein diet fed fish, respectively. In Mg-deficient fish, considerable amount of magnesium was absorbed via extra-oral routes, however, this way of the covering magnesium need becomes insufficient in fast growing fish.

  11. A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnamvand, Mehdi; Kaboodvandpour, Shahram; Ghiasi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir (SGR) is a mercury polluted lake that is located in the West of Iran. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are the most abundant fishes in the SGR. A total of 48 common and silver carps (24 each) were captured randomly, using 50×6 m gill net (mesh size: 5×5 cm) during July to December 2009. Each month, the levels of accumulated total mercury (T-Hg) in white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of these fishes were measured using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco 254 AMA, USA) on the dry weight basis. There were no statistically significant differences between T-Hg concentrations in white muscle, red muscle and liver in common carp in comparison with similar tissues in silver carp (P>0.05). The content of T-Hg in liver tissue of both species was lower than of white and red muscle tissues. Higher levels of accumulated T-Hg were observed during summer. Results showed that T-Hg concentrations in common and silver carps target tissues were strongly dependent on age, length and weight (Ptissues of all samples with weights of over 850 g were greater than those limits established by WHO and FAO (500 ng g(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation of Mercury in The Tissues of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) From Common Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Farkova, Dagmar; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess mercury content in the great cormorant in the Třeboň region pond systems (Czech Republic) in terms of its potential to accumulate mercury from common carp. Selected tissues samples were taken from 51 cormorants and 30 common carp. In the food chain the cormorant was found to have the potential to accumulate mercury, where the muscle total mercury was roughly 35 times higher compared to the total mercury content in the carp muscle as its food. A statistically significantly higher overall mercury content (p mercury content of the cormorant was within the range 64.3%-87.3%. The results can help us to gain a better understanding of how mercury is distributed and accumulated in the aquatic food chain.

  13. Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, P.T.; Dongen, W. van; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; Coen, W.M. de

    2003-02-26

    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes

  14. Elevated ability to compete for limited food resources by 'all-fish' growth hormone transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Sundström, L F; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2009-10-01

    Food consumption, number of movements and feeding hierarchy of juvenile transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics were measured under conditions of limited food supply. Transgenic fish exhibited 73.3% more movements as well as a higher feeding order, and consumed 1.86 times as many food pellets as their non-transgenic counterparts. After the 10 day experiment, transgenic C. carpio had still not realized their higher growth potential, which may be partly explained by the higher frequency of movements of transgenics and the 'sneaky' feeding strategy used by the non-transgenics. The results indicate that these transgenic fish possess an elevated ability to compete for limited food resources, which could be advantageous after an escape into the wild. It may be that other factors in the natural environment (i.e. predation risk and food distribution), however, would offset this advantage. Thus, these results need to be assessed with caution.

  15. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  16. Experimental transmission of malacosporean parasites from bryozoans to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, D S; El-Matbouli, M

    2010-04-01

    To address whether a fish host is involved in the life cycles of malacosporeans of the genus Buddenbrockia, cohabitation experiments with different bryozoan and fish species were conducted. Samples were analysed by malacosporean-specific PCR, partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA, and light and electron microscopy. Co-habitation challenges with bryozoans resulted in malacosporean infections detected mainly in the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). Sequences of the minnow parasite and of worm-like Buddenbrockia stages in Plumatella repens were identical and showed 99.5% similarity to Buddenbrockia plumatellae and 96.3% similarity to the sequence obtained from carp. One sample, comprising 4-5 zooids of statoblast-raised bryozoans cohabitated with infected carp was PCR-positive, but no overt infection could be observed in the remaining colony. Light and electron-microscopy of kidney samples of infected minnows revealed single cells within kidney tubules, whereas in carp, sporogonic stages were found in kidney tubules. Phylogenetic analysis of the Buddenbrockia spp. known to date placed the carp-infecting species at the base of the B. plumatellae clade, but low posterior probability makes this node questionable. The present study showed that Buddenbrockia spp. were able to infect cyprinid fish, showing stages in kidney-tubules strikingly similar to those of T. bryosalmonae.

  17. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the com...

  18. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  19. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  1. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  2. Response to Stress in 17 alpha-hydroxylase Deficient Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt, van H.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the stress response during 3 hours net confinement stress and recovery period of 22 hours in normal (STD) and in 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficient common carp (E5). Fish were raised for 6 months and sampled at T-0 (control, unstressed), 5 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour

  3. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  4. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  5. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  6. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  7. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  8. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-γ content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1β content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-α mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome wide identification, phylogeny and expression of zinc transporter genes in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT, and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP. Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc

  10. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  11. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  12. Development and use of genetically uniform strains of common carp in experimental animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, A B; Sukkel, M; Gort, G; Komen, J; Richter, C J

    1998-10-01

    Fish are widely used in numerous fields of basic and applied research. Currently, they are the third laboratory animal group in numbers, and will become increasingly important. Common carp is a major species in both aquaculture and research. Inbred strains of carp by gynogenetic (only female inheritance) and androgenetic (only male inheritance) reproduction techniques were developed at our university. With these methods, homozygous animals are produced in one generation and we present the production of homozygous inbred and F1 hybrid strains of common carp. As in mammalian research, using genetically well defined fish is a methodological necessity since in outbred stocks: (1) repeatability between experiments is low, (2) high levels of inbreeding may have accumulated and (3) high intrastrain variability might obscure treatment effects. Within inbred strains, the variation is reduced and as a result, less animals (compared to outbreds) are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. We illustrate this with experimental data from an F1 hybrid and partly outbred strain of common carp, both subjected to an antibiotic treatment resulting in reduced gonadal growth. Results obtained from a single inbred strain should be generalized with the use of a panel of inbred strains. We show that optimal allocation of animals between and within inbred strains depends on the ratio (variation between strains): (variation within strains). When selecting a panel of inbred strains, attention has to be paid to genetic relations between strains to avoid testing within a limited genetic range. It should be considered that in inbred strains, (genic) dominance and interaction effects are absent, due to the absence of heterozygous genotypes. In general, variation within inbred strains will be reduced for traits with a high degree of genetic determination. However, in inbred strains of carp produced by gynogenesis or androgenesis, the chromosome manipulation treatment induces

  13. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  14. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  15. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  17. Histopathological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Gills Caused by Thiamethoxam

    OpenAIRE

    Elenka Georgieva; Stela Stoyanova; Iliana Velcheva; Vesela Yancheva

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of new neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on the histological structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) gills. Three experimental groups of fish were treated with 6.6, 10 and 20 mg/l thiamethoxam in laboratory conditions. Results showed different histological changes in the gill epithelium, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. The blood circ...

  18. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

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    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions.

  19. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%.

  20. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  1. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  2. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion.

  3. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  4. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-03-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of different dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no differences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with different protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly affected by the different diets ( Prate, and the feed conversion ratio were not different in fish fed the different dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased ( Pglucose-6-phosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level ( P 0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  5. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  8. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  9. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC₅₀) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC₅₀ were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L⁻¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L⁻¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L⁻¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.

  10. Selectivity of multifilament trammel and gillnets for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 in Lake Marmara

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    Celalettin Aydın

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to estimate the selectivity properties of multifilament trammel and gillnets for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 in Marmara Lake in Manisa, Turkey. Trammel and gillnets of 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm stretched mesh size and 210 d/2 no twine thickness were tested in the Marmara Lake. In addition, selectivity parameter of 11, 12, 13 and 14 cm mesh size of trammel and gillnets were modelled. SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters. Experiments were carried out monthly in the three different stations identified eastern, middle and western areas which represent longitudinal length of the lake. A total of 36 trials were conducted both nets. A total of 119 common carps were caught ranges between 11.3 - 49.0 cm total lengths. According to the Bi- normal model, which gave the lowest deviance for both trammel and gillnets, selectivity curves were estimated for 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 cm stretched mesh size modelled lengths as 12.98, 19.47, 25.96, 32.45, 35.70, 38.94, 42.19 and 45.43 cm for trammel nets, 12.40, 18.60, 24.80, 31.00, 34.10, 37.20, 40.30 and 43.40 cm for gillnets, respectively. When considering minimum landing size (40 cm total length, it is recommended that both nets under 13 cm mesh size should be prohibited for common carp fishery in the Lake Marmara.

  11. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

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    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  12. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were: bindi

  13. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğretmen, F; İnanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (PBHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, PBHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (Pintestine of carp (Pintestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (Pintestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.

  15. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  16. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

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    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  17. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  18. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  19. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  20. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of growth hormone (GH) transgene and nutrition on growth and bone development in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Yushun; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2013-10-01

    Limited information is available on effects of growth hormone transgene and nutrition on growth and development of aquatic animals. Here, we present a study to test these effects with growth-enhanced transgenic common carp under two nutritional conditions or feeding rations (i.e., 5% and 10% of fish body weight per day). Compared with the nontransgenic fish, the growth rates of the transgenic fish increased significantly in both feeding rations. The shape of the pharyngeal bone was similar among treatments, but the transgenic fish had relatively smaller and lighter pharyngeal bone compared with the nontransgenic fish. Calcium content of the pharyngeal bone of the transgenic fish was significantly lower than that of the nontransgenic fish. Feeding ration also affected growth rate but less of an effect on bone development. By manipulating intrinsic growth and controlling for both environment (e.g., feeding ration) and genetic background or genotype (e.g., transgenic or not), this study provides empirical evidence that the genotype has a stronger effect than the environment on pharyngeal bone development. The pharyngeal bone strength could be reduced by decreased calcium content and calcification in the transgenic carp.

  2. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Štěpánová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P<0.0001 were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L. The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

  3. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...... the importance of fibroblasts, macrophages, reactive oxygen species (especially hydrogen peroxide) and certain cytokines during wound healing processes. In fish however, only a few studies have been devoted tissue regeneration and modulation of cell proliferation during wound healing, even though mechanical...... injury as well as numerous diseases can severely damage fish tissues. The work presented in this thesis examines for the first time the immunomodulatory effects of β-glucans during wound healing processes in common carp. First, in order to choose the most suitable methodology for the measurement...

  4. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  5. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  6. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca

  7. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  8. Measuring cortisol in the water as an indicator of stress caused by increased loading density in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a high loading density for a period of 28 days on growth, water quality and stress parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. In addition, cortisol levels in the water were measured during the experiment to investigate if a relationship exists between loading

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor (Tlr)1 and Tlr2 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Inge R; Pietretti, Danilo; Voogdt, Carlos G P; Westphal, Adrie H; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental components of innate immunity that play significant roles in the defence against pathogen invasion. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of the full-length coding sequence of tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Each

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of Toll-like receptor (Tlr)1 and Tlr2 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Inge R.; Pietretti, Danilo; Voogdt, Carlos G.P.; Westphal, Adrie H.; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental components of innate immunity that play significant roles in the defence against pathogen invasion. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of the full-length coding sequence of tlr1, tlr2a and tlr2b from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

  11. Segregation of microsatellite alleles and residual heterogosity at single loci in homozygous androgenetic common carp (Cyprino carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Weerd, van de M.; Leffering, C.P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-three androgenetic progeny groups of common carp were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers to (i) verify the homozygous status of the 566 androgenetic individuals, (ii) analyse the microsatellite allele segregation, and (iii) study the possible association of microsatellite alleles with p

  12. Effect of cadmium on oxidative stress and immune function of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Zheng, Zhi; Cai, Jingzeng; Liu, Qi; Yang, Jie; Gong, Yafan; Wu, Meishan; Shen, Qiang; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-09-23

    Cadmium (Cd) is an increasingly important environmental pollutant which causes irreversible toxicity to fish. To understand how Cd impacts the immune response and oxidative stress in common carp, we performed transcriptomic profiles for head kidney, the immune organ of common carp which were underwent Cd exposure. Totally there are 42,489,124 and 48,562,526 high quality clean reads obtained from the Cd exposure groups, and 44,677,578 and 44,106,696 clean reads from the control groups. Among them, 308 genes were differently expressed, including 101 upregulated and 207 down-regulated genes. The identified genes were enriched using databases of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Antioxidant systems and immune function genes and pathways were identified and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that Cd exposure leads to oxidative stress and immunosuppression in head kidney of common carp. These results provide new insights for unveiling the biological effects of Cd in common carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  14. The effect of seed morphology on the potential dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Ouborg, N.J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and

  15. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  16. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Discarded Roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús;

    Lipid oxidation represents a severe challenge in food engineering because it deteriorates quality of foods, especially those containing high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). One way to overcome this barrier is application of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole...... (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG), and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in PUFA-rich foods. However, recently there have been concerns over health-related risks posed by these synthetic agents. Therefore, obtaining safe antioxidants from natural sources, especially those which...... are discarded with no use, with potency to retard lipid oxidation has gained sizable attention. Therefore, the present study aimed at obtaining “green” antioxidants from discarded common carp roe via the so-called hydrolysis process by using alcalase and determining their antioxidant activity both in vitro...

  18. Effects of dimethoate (30% EC), an organophosphate pesticide on liver of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Nayan

    2013-05-01

    Organ histopathology and changes in biochemical parameters in fish are good biomarkers of aquatic pollution. This study is an attempt to assess the effects of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide on the liver of common carp (C. carpio). Healthy individual fish were exposed to 0.40 mg l(-1) (25% of 96 hr LC50) concentration of dimethoate, for short term (96 hr). Liver of the exposed fish exhibited alterations like disruption of regular arrangement of hepatocytes, congestion and rupture of vessels; hemorrhage, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei and necrosis. Biochemical parameters viz. total liver protein (p < 0.001) and liver glycogen (p < 0.001) registered a significant decrease and blood glucose (p < 0.001) exhibited significant increase throughout exposure.

  19. Factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traditional smoked common carp meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, J.; Vidaković, S.; Škaljac, S.; Kartalović, B.; Ljubojević, D.; Ćirković, M.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    Smoking techniques have been progressively improved and different procedures have been developed in different regions for treating fish. In these times, the technology is mainly used for enrichment of fish with specific taste and odour, to extend the shelf-life of these perishable products and appearance required widely on the market. A lot of chemical contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the combustion of fuel in the smoking process. PAHs are a group of compounds that have been the subject of great concern in the recent years due to their toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potentials to humans. These fact can have a significant impact on the acceptance of these products by consumers. In this review article, the objective is to describe factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traditional smoked common carp meat.

  20. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  1. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-02

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility.

  2. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  3. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-04-17

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp.

  4. Common raven juvenile survival in a human-augmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, William C.; Boarman, William I.; Rotenberry, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic resource subsidies have contributed to the dramatic increase in the abundance of Common Ravens (Corvus corax) in the western Mojave Desert, California, during the past 30 years. To better understand the effects of these subsidies on raven demography, we examined whether survival to juvenile departure from the natal territory could be predicted by a set of environmental and morphological variables, such as nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and juvenile condition. We captured 240 juvenile ravens over 2 years and marked them prior to fledging. Nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and earlier fledging dates significantly predicted raven juvenile survival to departure from the natal territory. The best-fitting mark-recapture models predicted postdeparture survival as a function of time since fledging, nest proximity to anthropogenic resources, and year hatched. The positive effect of nest proximity to anthropogenic resources influenced postdeparture survival for at least 9 months after fledging, as revealed by the mark-recapture analysis. Annual survival was 47% for first-year, 81% for second-year, and 83% for third-year birds. Our results support the hypothesis that anthropogenic resources contribute to increasing raven numbers via increased juvenile survival to departure as well as increased postdeparture survival. We expect raven numbers to grow in concert with the growing human presence in the Mojave Desert unless raven access to anthropogenic resources is diminished.

  5. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  6. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  7. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  8. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  9. Molecular cloning of growth hormone receptor (GHR) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and identification of its two forms of mRNA transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; GUO Qionglin; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was cloned from the liver of 2-year common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). Its open reading frame (ORF) of 1806 nucleotides is translated into a putative peptide of 602 amino acids, including an extracellular ligand-binding domain of 244 amino acids (aa), a single transmembrane domain of 24 aa and an intracellular signal-transduction domain of 334 aa. Sequence analysis indicated that common carp GHR is highly homologous to goldfish (Carassius auratus) GHR at both gene and protein levels. Using a pair of gene-specific primers, a GHR fragment was amplified from the cDNA of 2-year common carp, a 224 bp product was identified in liver and a 321 bp product in other tissues. The sequencing of the products and the partial genomic DNA indicated that the difference in product size was the result of a 97 bp intron that alternatively spliced. In addition, the 321 bp fragment could be amplified from all the tissues of 4-month common carp including liver, demonstrating the occurrence of the alternative splicing of this intron during the development of common carp. Moreover, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression level of GHR in tissues of 2-year common carp and 4-month common carp. The result revealed that in the tissues of gill, thymus and brain, the expression level of GHR in 2-year common carp was significantly lower than that of 4-month common carp.

  10. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P intestine (P intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P intestine showed a downward trend (P intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp.

  11. Hematological profile in juvenile carp reared under a recirculating system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the influence the density of population and fish sizehas on the physiological condition of Cyprinus carpio in the light of the hematological coefficient and theerythrocyte constants. The physiology of the blood is an important parameter in order to define thegeneral condition of the organism for all teleostean fish. The investigations of the metabolic profile of theblood aimed at determining the hematologic answer of the carp under the conditions of its exposure tothe controlled modification of the following technological factors: size class, stocking density. The lowvalue of the hematocrit (27% in both experiments suggests a condition of anemia or the dehydration ofthe organism. The values registered by the hemoglobin were different, according to the size of the fish,varying between 5.22 and 5.34 g/dL blood for fish with size 65-66 g/fish, respectively 6.7-7.02 g/dLblood for fish with size 150-152 g, being with 29.92% higher in the case of fish with a larger size. Theaverage number of red blood cell counts is constant for both experiments and these values are fallinginto the normal physiological gap. Erythrocyte constants (MCV, MCH and MCHC vary according to thetwo size classes: MCH grows by 31.53% and MCHC by 28.60% with the individual growth of the carp.MCV presents values between 186.48 and 199.73 (μm3, normal value for the studied species. Thepresent study outlines the fact that the main hematological parameters vary according to the size class,the results being related to the results obtained following the investigation of the metabolic profile in thelight of the technological parameters.

  12. Eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook, and to determine the minimum effective concentration for use in handling procedures. In the first trial, juvenile common snook were subjected to immersion baths at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg L-1 eugenol concentrations, after which induction and recovery times were evaluated. In the second experiment, the lethal exposure time (LT50 at 75 mg L-1 was estimated. Minimum effective eugenol concentration was 50 mg L-1, andthe stage of deep anesthesia and recovery were, respectively, reached at 126.3 and 208.8 s. At 75 mg L-1, LT50 was 1,314 s, and induction time and recovery were also satisfactory; however, fish cannot tolerate over 229 s exposure.

  13. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  14. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  15. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety.

  17. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed.

  18. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  20. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  3. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-09-16

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp.

  4. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene, her6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Liu; Yong-Hua Sun; Na Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Zuo-Yan Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Some members of hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene (HES) family have important effects on axial mesoderm segmentation and the establishment and maintenance of the somite fringe. In fishes, the her6 gene, a member of the HES family, is the homologue of hes1 in mammals and chicken. In this study, the her6 gene and its full-length cDNA from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were isolated and characterized. The genomic sequence of common carp her6 is approximately 1.7 kb, with four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA of 1314 bp encodes a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids. To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the upstream sequence of 500 bp can direct highly efficient and tissue-specific expression of eGFP in zebrafish embryos, whereas a fragment of 200 bp containing the TATA box and a partial suppressor of hairless paired site sequence (SPS) is not sufficient to drive eGFP expression in zebrafish embryos.

  5. Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WU; Yong Hua SUN; Yan Wu WANG; Ya Ping WANG; Zuo Yan ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH-transgene in the F4 hGH-transgenic common carp were extensively studied. Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH-transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head-totail arrangement at 4-5 insertion sites. By using a method of plasmid rescue, four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish, A and B, were recovered and clarified into 6 classes. All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences. The class Ⅰ, which comprised 83% and 84.5% respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B, had maintained the original configuration, indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction. The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map, indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation, rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission. In the five types of aberrant transgenes, three flanking sequences of the host genome were analyzed. These sequences were common carp β-actin gene, common carp DNA sequences homologous to mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 and human epidermal keratin 14, respectively.

  6. Cytochrome p450 induction and gonadal status alteration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated with the discharge of dioxin contaminated effluent to the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nakai, Kiyotaka; Aoto, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Aiko; Ushikoshi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2003-05-01

    Accumulations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected in the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan in which dioxin contaminated effluent was released during the period starting from November 1992 to March 2000. Higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents were observed in carps collected downstream to the dioxin release site (contaminated site) than the reference site. Modulations of cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme in liver, serum estrogen concentration and gonadal somatic index (GSI) were also measured as biomarkers for the contaminants. Total CYP content in livers was markedly higher in male and female carps from the contaminated site relative to the reference site fish. The expression level of the cytochrome p450 1A and Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were significantly higher in female carps from the contaminated site than from the reference site. A lower level of plasma estrogen was observed in carps from the contaminated site. The GSI in female carps from the contaminated site was smaller than that recorded at the reference site. The present study indicates that dioxins released to the Hikiji River might induce the CYP enzyme and inhibit the reproductive functions in common carps dwelling downstream from the release site.

  7. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  8. Morphological variations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by ifxation and preservation in 10% formalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of morphological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by fixation and preservation in 10% formalin. Methods: Fish samples were collected from the Research Center of Aquaculture of Barabadi Fazli martyr, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. After initial assay on morphological characters such as total length, standard length and head length, samples were fixed in 10% formalin for 12 weeks. After this period, samples were taken away from the formalin and the morphological characteristics and evaluation of color features were assayed once again. Results: The results indicated that shrinkage was usual in all the specimens and changes in body and fins color were clear and their color was opaque. Formalin preservation is usually causing a reduction in the length of fishes. Conclusions: Different rates of change in body length and color of preserved sample are observed after a standard period of preservation in different preservatives and it can be suggested that the decrease of color intensity in fixed samples in formalin does not have inhibition effects in color identification keys.

  9. Recombinant human leptin attenuates stress axis activity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Marnix; Bernier, Nicholas J; Manuel, Remy; de Gelder, Stefan; Metz, Juriaan R; Huising, Mark O; Flik, Gert

    2012-08-01

    Proper functioning of the endocrine stress axis requires communication between the stress axis and other regulatory mechanisms. We here describe an intimate interplay between the stress axis and recombinant human leptin (rhLeptin) in a teleostean fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Restraint stress (by netting up to 96h) increased plasma cortisol but did not affect hepatic leptin expression. Perifusion of pituitary glands or head kidneys with rhLeptin revealed direct effects of rhLeptin on both tissues. RhLeptin suppresses basal and CRF-induced ACTH-secretion in a rapid and concentration-dependent manner. The rhLeptin effect persisted for over an hour after administration had been terminated. RhLeptin decreases basal interrenal cortisol secretion in vitro, and by doing so attenuates ACTH-stimulated cortisol production; rhLeptin does not affect interrenal ACTH-sensitivity. Our findings show that the endocrine stress axis activity and leptin are inseparably linked in a teleostean fish, a notion relevant to further our insights in the evolution of leptin physiology in vertebrates.

  10. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  11. Functional divergence of duplicated c-myc genes in a tetraploid fish, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futami, Kunihiko; Zhang, Huan; Okamoto, Nobuaki

    2005-12-19

    The proto-oncogene c-myc is thought to be one of the most important genes in controlling cell proliferation. In a tetraploid fish, two c-myc genes (CAM1 and CAM2) were previously isolated from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and were shown to have different expression patterns in adult tissues. Here we found that CAM1 and CAM2 proteins had distinct properties in terms of their transcription regulation system, formation of the transcription activator complex Myc/Max, and transcriptional activation of the target gene. These results showed that the two carp c-Myc proteins have overlapping but distinct functions, suggesting that CAM1 and CAM2 are evolving to acquire different functions after an earlier tetraploidization event.

  12. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2012-05-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities.

  13. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  14. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

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    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  15. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  16. Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupova, Hana; Prokes, Miroslav; Macova, Stanislava; Penaz, Milan; Barus, Vlastimil; Novotny, Ladislav; Machova, Jana

    2010-03-01

    A one-month chronic exposure of common carp larvae and embryos to nitrite revealed significant (p < 0.01) differences in total accumulated mortality in fish exposed to 33, 67, and 330 mg/L NO(2)(-) compared with controls. At the highest concentration, all fish died within 8 d of exposure. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of nitrite were estimated at 29 d LC50 = 88 mg/L NO(2)(-); lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) = 28 mg/L NO(2)(-); and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) = 7 mg/L NO(2)(-). Fulton's condition factor values were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared with controls. By day 12, fish exposed to 33 and 67 mg/L NO(2)(-) had significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. No significant negative effects of nitrite at the concentrations tested (0.7-330 mg/L NO(2)(-), at 10 mg/L Cl(-)) on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from all the concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and body shortening were observed at all concentrations and in controls, as was yolk sac deformation and edema, eye deformation, and cardiac edema. The incidence of these malformations was positively correlated with nitrite concentration. Histopathology revealed epidermal spongiosis; edema and hyperplasia of the gill epithelium, including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of eosinophilic granular cells (chloride cells); and interstitial edema of skeletal muscle in fish exposed to 67 mg/L NO(2)(-). Similar, but milder, changes were observed at lower nitrite concentrations.

  17. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  18. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis

  19. Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the intestinal wall of common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Hua, Congjie; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhao, Yuanli; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Jinyong

    2017-01-10

    Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10.2-11.2 µm (10.8 ± 0.2 µm) in length, 9.1-9.9 µm (9.6 ± 0.2 µm) in width and 6.1-6.6 µm (6.3 ± 0.1 µm) in thickness. Polar capsules are pyriform, equal in size, slightly converging anteriorly, measuring 4.4-5.4 µm (5.0 ± 0.2 µm) in length by 3.2-3.6 µm (3.4 ± 0.1 µm) in width. Polar filaments coiled with four to five turns and arranged perpendicular to the polar capsule length, measuring up to 106 µm. Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. is morphologically similar to Myxobolus rotundatus Achmerov, 1956 which also infects the inner wall of the intestine of common carp. However, the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence identity was only 94%, generally beyond the intraspecies variation in the genus. Phylogenetically, this new species is sister to M. rotundatus and then clusters with M. shantungensis Hu, 1965 to form an independent common carp-infecting cluster within the Henneguya-Myxobolus clade.

  20. Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney.

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage.

  2. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp.

  3. Characterization and expression pattern of a novel β-defensin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): implications for its role in mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Guo, Hongyan; Shan, Shijuan; Qi, Chenchen; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2014-01-01

    β-defensins are a group of cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptides that play antibacterial and antiviral roles in immune systems of vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and identification of a β-defensin 3 cDNA sequence from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this β-defensin 3 belonged to the BD-2 group of fish. Real-time PCR showed that the β-defensin 3 mRNA was expressed in all the tissues of normal common carp that we examined and was highly expressed in the spleen and gills. When challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp β-defensin 3 mRNA was quickly upregulated in various tissues. Our results indicate that the β-defensin 3 showed markedly high constitutive expression in the gills, and significantly upregulated expression in the hindgut of the common carp after infection, suggesting it plays an important role in the innate and mucosal immunity of common carp.

  4. Development and Characterization of New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers from Expressed Sequence Tags in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important aquaculture fish worldwide but only limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are characterized from expressed sequence tags (ESTs in this species. In this study, 1487 putative SNPs were bioinformatically mined from 14,066 online ESTs mainly from the European common carp, with the occurrence rate of about one SNP every 173 bp. One hundred and twenty-one of these SNPs were selected for validation using PCR fragment sequencing, and 48 out of 81 primers could amplify the expected fragments in the Chinese common carp genome. Only 26 (21.5% putative SNPs were validated, however, 508 new SNPs and 68 indels were identified. The ratios of transitions to transversions were 1.77 for exon SNPs and 1.05 for intron SNPs. All the 23 SNPs selected for population tests were polymorphic, with the observed heterozygosity (Ho ranging from 0.053 to 0.526 (mean 0.262, polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.095 to 0.357 (mean 0.246, and 21 SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that different common carp populations with geographic isolation have significant genetic variation at the SNP level, and these new EST-SNP markers are readily available for genetics and breeding studies in common carp.

  5. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0 µg/L, 0.1 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L where 1 µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P<0.05 effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH compared to control groups in the concentration of 1 mg/L. A significant decline (P<0.05 in triacylglycerols (TAG in plasma was found in the concentration of 1 mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

  6. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues ...

  7. Compensatory responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under ammonia exposure: additional effects of feeding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Mauro, Nathalie; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. The toxic effects of ammonia can be modulated by other physiological processes such as feeding and swimming. In this study, we wanted to examine these modulating effects in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (unfed for seven days prior to the sampling), and swimming at a sustainable, routine swimming speed or swum to exhaustion, while being exposed chronically (up to 28 days) to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 1 mg/L ~58.8 μmol/L as NH4Cl at pH 7.9). Swimming performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and metabolic responses such as oxygen consumption rate (MO2), ammonia excretion rate (Jamm), ammonia quotient, liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), plasma ammonia and lactate, as well as plasma ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and Ca(2+)) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and iono-regulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. Cortisol plays an important role in stress and in both the regulation of energy and the ion homeostasis; therefore plasma cortisol was measured. Results show that during HEA, Jamm was elevated to a larger extent in fed fish and they were able to excrete much more efficiently than the starved fish. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in plasma of HEA exposed fed fish was much slower. MO2 increased considerably in fed fish after exposure to HEA and was further intensified during exercise. During exposure to HEA, the level of cortisol in plasma augmented in both the feeding regimes, but the effect of HEA was more pronounced in starved fish. Energy stores dropped for both fed and the starved fish with the progression of the exposure period and further declined when swimming to exhaustion. Overall, fed fish were less affected by HEA than starved fish, and although exercise exacerbated the toxic effect in both feeding treatments, this was more pronounced in starved fish

  8. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

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    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  9. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills

  10. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River.

  11. The effect of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on somatic indices and oxidative stress parameters in early stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvatova, Nina; Zelinska, Gabriela; Dobsikova, Radka; Stancova, Vlasta; Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Sehonova, Pavla; Marsalek, Petr; Bartoskova, Marta; Prokes, Miroslav; Piskorova, Ingrid; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the subchronic exposure of early stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to norfloxacin using morphometric data and oxidative stress parameters. A subchronic toxicity test was performed on fertilized embryos of common carp according to the OECD Guidelines No. 210. Embryos were exposed to norfloxacin concentrations of 0.0001 (environmental), 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg.L(-1) for 34 days. At the end of the test (day 34), significant (pnorfloxacin compared to the control. A significant increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase in all carp exposed to norfloxacin concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg.L(-1) (pnorfloxacin concentration of 10.0 mg.L(-1). In experimental carp exposed to a norfloxacin concentration of 0.0001 mg.L(-1), a significant increase (pnorfloxacin concentrations of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg.L(-1) were revealed. From the results, we can conclude that norfloxacin has a negative impact on selected biochemical processes related to the production of reactive oxygen species in early-life stages of common carp.

  12. Supplemental diagnosis of a myxozoan parasite from common carp Cyprinus carpio: synonymy of Thelohanellus xinyangensis with Thelohanellus kitauei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Whipps, C M; Liu, W S; Zeng, L B; Gu, Z M

    2011-06-10

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa et Nakajima, 1981, was described from common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Japan. In China, a myxosporean infecting the intestinal tissue of the same host species was described as Thelohanellus xinyangensis Xie, Gong, Xiao, Guo, Li et Guo, 2000, despite many similarities to T. kitauei. To examine the potential conspecificity of these species, a morphological and molecular investigation of T. xinyangensis was conducted. Comparing myxospore morphology, the mean spore length and width of each species is not identical between species, but ranges of dimensions overlap. These data are more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. Comparison of relative ratios of spore length to polar capsule length and spore width to polar capsule width of T. xinyangensis and T. kitauei reveal no differences and scanning electron microscopy reveals a smooth spore surface of T. xinyangensis, which is consistent with that of T. kitauei. Most convincingly, DNA sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene of the two species were identical. From the morphological and molecular biological data, we propose T. xinyangensis from the intestine of common carp is not a distinct species and is synonymous with T. kitauei.

  13. Vitamin C and Chitosan Alleviate Toxic Effects of Paraquat on Some Biochemical Parameters in Hepatocytes of Common Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Sharifinasab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat is nonselective bipyridyl herbicide that induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress. Vitamin C and chitosan have antioxidant as well as radical scavenger properties and show protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the present study, hepatoprotective effects of chitosan and vitamin C were evaluated in common carp exposed to paraquat. Methods: While exposed to 0.02 mg. L-1paraquat for 21 days, common carp were fed chitosan (1000 mg. kg 1 feed, vitamin C (1000 mg. kg-1 feed, and vitamin C combined with chitosan. At the end of the experiment, activities of hepatic enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. Results: Paraquat induces changes in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in liver tissue of fish. However, these enzymes were restored to normal levels in fish fed with vitamin C and vitamin C combined with chitosan following exposure to paraquat. Increased levels of malondialdehyde were observed in liver after exposure to paraquat, while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities and the total antioxidant levels decreased. Administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased the total antioxidant capacity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities. Conclusion: Administration of vitamin C is effective in reducing liver toxicity of paraquat. However, administrating both vitamin C and chitosan is more effective. In other words, chitosan and vitamin C have a synergic effect. They could be used as hepatoprotective agents against paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  14. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg(-1) dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L(-1), respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site.

  15. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10(7) CFU g(-1)L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P ACV (P ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  18. Influence of dietary magnesium on mineral, ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations in tissues of a freshwater fish, the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Dabrowski, K

    1990-01-01

    Supplementation with dietary Mg at a minimum level of 0.06% seems to be essential to prevent the hypercalcinosis of the kidney and hepatopancreas in a fish, the common carp. Mg deficiency appears to have no effect on the Mg level in kidneys and hepatic tissue, whereas the Fe level in those tissues was significantly diminished by increasing dietary Mg supplementation up to 3.2 g.kg-1. Both hypercalcinosis and accumulation of Fe in soft tissues were more pronounced in fish offered diets high in protein (44%) compared to fish on low dietary protein (25%). The ascorbic acid in the hepatopancreas and kidney was greatly depleted in fish fed the high-protein diets, and this depletion did not correlate with the dietary Mg level nor with a high level of tissue Ca. However, the increased Ca concentration in the kidney coincided with the greatest depletion of ascorbate in fish fed a high-protein diet. The concentration of ascorbate in the brain was much less affected by a low level of vitamin C in the diets than in other tissues. Depletion of ascorbate in soft tissues did not correspond to fish growth but might be rather related to the metabolic rate imposed by the dietary nutrients. It is suggested that the Mg and ascorbic acid requirements in the carp are considerably elevated by the increased dietary protein level.

  19. Seasonal Variations Of Heavy Metals In Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L., 1758 Collected From Sikkak Dam Of Tlemcen (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrag Zineb,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were determined from December 2010 to November 2011 in four different tissues (muscles, gills, gonads, and livers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 from Sikkak dam at Ainyoucef (Wilaya of Tlemcen which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in northwest part of Algeria. Heavy metals in fish samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS after dry digestion. One-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to compare the data among seasons (level of 0,05. Mean concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of Cyprinuscarpio samples, in muscle and liver as Fe > Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, in gills as Zn > Fe >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, and in gonads Fe > Zn > Ni >Pb> Cu > Cd. In samples Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by FAO/WHO. The highest metals concentrations were found in liver followed by gills, by gonads, and by muscle. Heavy metal levels in tissues of carp were decreased in winter. The obtained results showed that the average values of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni were at the highest levels in summer. The highest Pb levels were measured in the spring and Fe in autumn. It found that all tested metals in organs did not reveal any significant difference between different seasons (P > 0,05, (inter-season comparison.

  20. Transgene for growth hormone in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) promotes thymus development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; WANG Yaping; JIA Weizhang; ZHU Zuoyan

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic carp were produced by microinjection of CAgcGHc into the fertilized eggs. Observation of the thymus development between the transgenics and non- transgenic controls was carried out. The thymus of one-year- old transgenics F1 showed a great increase in both size and weight. The unilateral thymus of the transgenics weighed from 190 to 295 mg with average 218.6 mg, whereas the unilateral thymus of the controls weighed 20-81 mg with average 42.5 mg; i.e. the thymus weight in the transgenics was 5.14 fold over that in the controls. The index of thymus/body weight in the transgenics was 2.97 fold over the controls. Light microscopy observation indicated that the thymus of the transgenics well developed with the thickened outer region and compactly arranged thymocytes, while the thymus in the controls were degenerating with the thinned outer region, scattered thymocytes and groups of fatty cells. Further analysis with the electron microscopy revealed that proliferous cells in the transgenics were mainly small lymphocytes and no pathological changes were found. The results confirmed that the "All-fish" GH-transgene promotes thymus development and thymocyte proliferation, and retards thymus degeneration. The study has laid a foundation for further analysis of the immunobiological function in GH- transgenic carp.

  1. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples.

  2. Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow ma

  3. B-glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco Gracia, J.A.; Miest, J.J.; Pionnier, N.; Pietretti, D.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of ß-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, parti

  4. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Hossain, M.Y.; Jo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5¿68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9¿82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours

  5. Genome evolution trend of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by the analysis of microsatellite loci in a gynogentic family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Liqun Liang; Peng Jiang; Dayu Li; Cuiyun Lu; Xiaowen Sun

    2008-01-01

    Genome evolution arises from two main ways of duplication and reduction. Fish specific genome duplication (FSGD) may have oc curred before the radiation of the teleosts. Common carp {Cyprinus carpio L.) has been considered to be a tetraploid species, because of its chromosome numbers (2n=100) and its high DNA content. Using 69 microsatellite primer pairs, the variations were studied to better understand the genome evolution (genome duplication and diploidization) of common carp from a gynogenetic family. About 48% of primer pairs were estimated to amplify duplicates based on the number of PCR amplification per individual. Segregation patterns in the family suggested a partially duplicated genome structure and disomic inheritance. This indicates that the common carp is tetraploid and polyploidy occurred by allotetraploidy. Two primer pairs (HLJ021 and HLJ332) were estimated to amplify reduction based on the number of PCR amplification per individual. One allele in HLJ002 locus and HLJ332 locus was clearly lost in the gynogenetic family and the same as in six wild populations. Segregation patterns in the family suggested a partially diplodization genome structure. A hypothesis transition (dynamic) and equilibrium (static) were proposed to explain the common carp genome evolution between genome duplication and diploidization.

  6. Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabon, J.; Louboutin, L.; Castric, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect i...

  7. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  8. High corticosterone and sex reversal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with adrenal hyperplasia caused by P450c17a2 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Komen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inheritance of adrenal hyperplasia, caused by 17a-hydroxylase deficiency, and its association with female to male sex reversal in common carp. Inbred strains used in this experiment were E4 (XX, female, normal), E5 (XX, male, adrenal hyperplasia) and E7

  9. Effects of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) stocking and artificial feeding on water quality and production in rohu-common carp bi-culture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research showed that stocking 1.5 rohu (Labeo rohita) and 0.5 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) m¿2 yields the highest production in small holder ponds in Bangladesh. The present study looked into the effects of additional stocking of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) in fed or non-fed ponds

  10. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-08-03

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  12. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  13. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  14. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  15. Β-glucan-induced stimulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The response to pathogens and damage in vertebrates involves a series of organized and highly evolved molecular mechanisms leading to pathogen specific immune reactions and tissue regeneration as the wound healing process. Pathogen and damage‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs) rely...... administration and dose‐related immune‐suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study is to understand the effect of β‐glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration and the subsequent effects relating to the filet as a product. A comparison in modulation between immune...... cells (Macrophages) and tissue related cells (Fibroblasts) will be evaluated. Parameters as respiratory burst activity and expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in cell cultures and in in vivo experiments. The methodology of the project involves the creation of protocols...

  16. 鲤抗病育种研究进展%Genetic improvement of disease resistance in common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾智英; 石连玉; 孙效文

    2012-01-01

    尽管鲤养殖业取得了巨大成就,但病害问题仍然是其发展所面临的一个重要制约因素。病害防控方法,主要有环境防控、药物控制和疫苗法,而运用遗传改良来提高鲤抗病力被认为是一种切实可行的方法。虽然以提高生长为目的的多项鲤育种计划已经取得了成功,但有关抗病育种相关研究仍处于起步阶段。利用鲤群体所存在的有益遗传变异,选择合适的育种方法,积极开展抗病选育应该是今后鲤养殖业所必须关注的重要研究内容。从环境胁迫对抗病性状的影响、抗病性状的遗传学基础、抗病性状与其他性状的关系、抗病性状的测定、抗病育种具体方法等方面较系统地介绍了利用遗传改良来提高鲤抗病力的相关研究进展。研究亮点:抗病力是养殖鱼类一个重要经济性状,但由于基础研究薄弱、有效评价方法缺乏等原因,致使抗病选育工作远落后于以生长等性状为目标的育种研究。本文综述了鲤抗病育种相关研究进展,为鲤和其他鱼类的抗病育种工作提供了重要的参考。%Despite impressive progress in common carp farming during the last years, the impact of fish diseases is still an important problem in aquaculture. Current methods to control diseases consist, among others, of euhural environment control, medication or vaccination. Another alternative approach is to prevent diseases by improving the immune capacity of fish by or genetic selection. Selection breeding has made a great progress for common carp, but only limited to the growth characteristics, and resistance breeding research was only in the initial stage. In the future, common carp industry should focus on using of genetic variation, choosing suitable breeding methods, developing diseases resistance breeding program actively. In this review, stress effects on diseases resistance, genetic basis of diseases resistance, relationship between diseases

  17. High levels of corticosterone and gene expression of star, cyp17a2, hsd3b, cyp21, hsd11b2 during acute stress in common carp with interrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Atsma, W.; Komen, J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the acute stress response in a common carp strain (E5) with interrenal hyperplasia due to 17a-hydroxylase deficiency, and in an isogenic standard (STD) carp strain. Cortisol, corticosterone and the head kidney-somatic index were measured during and after a 3 h net confinement stress.

  18. Exogenous phospholipids supplementation improves growth and modulates immune response and physical barrier referring to NF-κB, TOR, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling factors in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P intestine, suggesting that optimum PL could improve fish intestinal immunity. In addition, 3.29% PL increased the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), the content of glutathione (P intestine, indicating that the optimum PL could improve fish intestinal physical barrier. Finally, based on the PWG, C3 content in the DI, ACP activity in the DI, intestinal PC content and intestinal ASA activity, the optimal dietary PL levels for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) were estimated to be 3.46%, 3.79%, 3.93%, 3.72%, and 4.12%, respectively.

  19. Assessment of yeast as a dietary additive on haematology and water quality of common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla; Omar, Samad Sofy; Anwer, Ayub Youns

    2017-09-01

    Feeding experiment was accomplished at the Aquaculture unit (Close system), Grdarasha station, Agriculture College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to investigate different levels of Aquagrow E (AGEY) brewer's yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the haematological and water quality of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio. The basal diet was formulated to contain 34% protein and 10% lipid and the dietary treatments were supplemented with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of AGEY diet. A total of 180 Common carp (10.30 ± 0.27 g) fed on experimental diets for 10 weeks. Water quality assessment for well water and pond water for rearing Cyprinus carpio in cage system conducted weekly, while some parameters including pH, EC, water temperature and DO were monitored daily during the entire periods of study. Values of total hardness, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate for studied water samples were within normal ranges for rearing Cyprinus carpio. Mean concentration of GPT, GOT and Glucose were 104 to 170 U/L, 1371 to 3308 U/L and 34 to 63mg/dl respectively, moreover, highest levels were observed in treatments with higher concentrations of yeast in its food except for blood sugar. Slight variation in lipase enzyme were found between control and treatment groups, while levels of amylase enzyme were increased toward cages with higher levels of yeast until T1 and then decreased toward T3. Total protein levels were increased to toward higher levels of yeast in food of Cyprinus carpio fish. Haematological results showed highest levels of WBC and platelets in treatments cages than control group. Levels of RBCs and hemoglobin were highest in treatment group 1 with 0.5%of yeast than treatments higher yeast concentrations. Significant correlation was found in haematological parameters between control and treatments.

  20. Transciptomic study of mucosal immune, antioxidant and growth related genes and non-specific immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Jafar, Ali

    2016-08-01

    A 8-weeks feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida) on expression of antioxidant enzymes (GSR, GPX and GSTA), immune (TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL- 8 and LYZ) and growth (GH, IGF1 and Ghrl) genes as well as cutaneous mucus and serum non-specific immune response in common carp. The results revealed Ferula significantly increased antioxidant gene expression (GSR and GSTA) in a dose dependent manner (P Ferula fed fish compared control group (P Ferula on expression of genes was more pronounced in higher doses. Feeding on Ferula supplemented diet remarkably increased skin mucus lysozyme activity (P  0.05). Regarding non-specific humoral response, serum total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50 showed no remarkable variation between Ferula fed carps and control group (P > 0.05). These results indicated up-regulation of growth and health related genes in Ferula fed common carp. Further studies using pathogen or stress challenge is required to conclude that transcriptional modulation is beneficial in common carp.

  1. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of

  2. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (mur

  3. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  4. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P  0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P  0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture.

  5. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  6. Kinetics and thiol requirements of iodothyronine 5'-deiodination are tissue-specific in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Peter H M; Geven, Edwin J W; Nagelkerke, Anika; Flik, Gert

    2012-03-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases determine the biological activity of thyroid hormones. Despite the homology of the catalytic sites of mammalian and teleostean deiodinases, in-vitro requirements for the putative thiol co-substrate dithiothreitol (DTT) vary considerably between vertebrate species. To further our insights in the interactions between the deiodinase protein and its substrates: thyroid hormone and DTT, we measured enzymatic iodothyronine 5'-deiodination, Dio1 and Dio2 mRNA expression, and Dio1 affinity probe binding in liver and kidney preparations from a freshwater teleost, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Deiodination rates, using reverse T3 (rT3, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine) as the substrate, were analysed as a function of the iodothyronine and DTT concentrations. In kidney rT3 5'-deiodinase activity measured at rT3 concentrations up to 10 μM and in the absence of DTT does not saturate appreciably. In the presence of 1mM DTT, renal rT3 deiodination rates are 20-fold lower. In contrast, rT3 5'-deiodination in liver is potently stimulated by 1mM DTT. The marked biochemical differences between 5'-deiodination in liver and kidney are not associated with the expression of either Dio1 or Dio2 mRNA since both organs express both deiodinase types. In liver and kidney, DTT stimulates the incorporation of N-bromoacetylated affinity labels in proteins with estimated molecular masses of 57 and 55, and 31 and 28 kDa, respectively. Although primary structures are highly homologous, the biochemistry of carp deiodinases differs markedly from their mammalian counterparts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Probiotics on Results of Common carp,Crucian Carp,and Grass Carp Culture%微生态制剂对鲤、鲫和草鱼养殖池塘效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 王荻; 尹家胜; 卢彤岩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of probiotics I containing primarily Bacillus subtilis and probiotics II containing a mixture of various microorganisms on weight gain,food conversion ratio and drug cost of common carp(Cyprinus carpio),Crucian carp(Carassius auratus) and grass carp(Ctenophyargodon idellus) in culture ponds in Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces.The probiotics,alone or together,were showed to have influence on weight gain,the food conversion ratio and the drug cost in the fish culture.There were 423.57% higher weight gain in Heilongjiang province and 90% higher weight gain in Liaoning province in the ponds treated with the probiotics used together,than that in the control ponds with lower drug production cost of 29% in Heilongjiang province and 56.25% in Liaoning province.The food conversion ratio was found to be decreased by 0.35 and 0.05 in the ponds treated with probiotics used together,indicating that the probiotics have important influence on the profit of grass carp culture in Liaoning province and of common carp farming in Heilongjiang and have a promotion of green aquaculture with less drugs,less feed and more profits.%以枯草芽孢杆菌为主的主要用于促进鱼类消化生长的微生态制剂I、多种混合微生物主要用于调节水质的微生态制剂II,或是两者混合使用的方法,比较研究了黑龙江省及辽宁省池塘养殖的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和草鱼(Ctenophyargodon idellus)的增重率、饲料系数及药价等效益。结果表明,单种或者混合使用微生态制剂均对池塘养殖鲤及草鱼的增重率、饵料系数及用药价格有一定影响,同时使用两种微生态制剂提高鱼类增重率最显著,辽宁省和黑龙江省分别提高了423.57%和90%;而两省养殖池塘的药价也分别降低了29%和56.25%。微生态制剂I及混合同时使用两种微生态制剂均能显著降低饲料系数,辽宁及黑龙江分别降低0.35及0.05。结果可

  8. Copper Bioaccumulation and Depuration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Following Co-exposure to TiO2 and CuO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Borhan; Maleki, Afshin; Johari, Seyed Ali; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Shahsavari, Siros; Davari, Behroz

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), such as TiO2 and CuO, are widely applied in an increasing number of products and applications, and therefore their release to the aquatic ecosystems is unavoidable. However, little is known about joint toxicity of different NPs on tissues of aquatic organisms, such as fish. This study was conducted to assess the uptake and depuration of Cu following exposure to CuO NPs in the presence of TiO2 NPs in the liver, intestine, muscle, and gill of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Carps with a mean total length of 23 ± 1.5 cm and mean weight of 13 ± 1.3 g were divided into 6 groups of 15 each (1 control group) and exposed to TiO2 NPs, CuO NPs, and a mixture of TiO2 and CuO NPs for periods of 20 days for uptake and 10 days for depuration. The determination of total Cu concentration was carried out by an ICP-OES. The order of Cu uptake in different tissues of the carps was liver > gill > muscle > intestine in both levels of CuO NPs alone; results showed that the total Cu concentrations in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles were increased and were in the sequence of liver > gill > intestine > muscle. In depuration period, Cu concentrations were decreased in all treatments in the sequence of gill > intestine > muscle > liver. Uptake of Cu in different tissues of common carp increased with increasing concentration and time and was tissues- and time-dependent. In conclusion, this study suggested that the uptake of Cu in the tissues of common carp increased in the joint presence of TiO2 NPs.

  9. Influence of cyanobacteria on water activity and dry matter of muscles in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Lukas; Vlasek, Vaclav; Langova, Jitka; Palikova, Miroslava; Brabec, Tomas; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Klima, Zdenek; Navratil, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are studied from the viewpoint of the issue of risks to water supply, agriculture and recreational activities for a long time. Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of substances which can be toxic and can influence the safety and quality of fish products. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diet with the content of cyanobacteria can affect the water activity and the dry matter of fish muscle and whether this diet can contribute significantly to the shelf life of fish muscles. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used in this study. Both fish species were divided into two groups. The first group of fish was fed with feed with cyanobacteria (3% of dry matter), the second group with feed without cyanobacteria. The water activity and the dry matter were monitored immediately after sampling of the fish muscle on day 7, 14 and 21 (carp) or on day 10, 20 and 30 (rainbow trout) and seven days after every sampling and cold storage (6-8 °C). Feed with the content of cyanobacteria significantly decreased the water activity in muscles of both fish species on day 21 (in carp) and on day 30 (in rainbow trout). The dry matter of fish muscle significantly increased on day 7 and 21 (in carp) and on day 10 and 30, but decreased on day 20 (in rainbow trout). The cold storage significantly influenced the dry matter only. While the dry matter was increased in the common carp (7 days of cold storage after sampling on days 14 and 21), the dry matter decreased in the rainbow trout (7 days of cold storage after sampling on day 10). The decrease of water activity was found only after longer exposure in the both exposed fish species. The dry matter was influenced far greater and was mostly increased in the both exposed fish species.

  10. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF MAJALAYA COMMON CARP STRAINS RESISTANT TO KHV INFECTION USING CYCA-DAB1*05 ALLELE AS THE MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cyca-DAB1*05 allele of major histocompatibility complex class II genes is recently suggested to have a link with the European common carp strain resistant to koi herpesvirus (KHV. In this study, a set of specific primers for Cyca-DAB1*05 was designed and applied as a marker to identify broodstocks of majalaya common carp strain subsequently used as a candidate resistant to KHV infection. From a total of 23 broodstock subjected to PCR analysis, two female and male fish, both having (P and no Cyca-DAB1*05 (N, were selected and then diallelly mated. Disease resistance of progenies from 10 crosses was determined by a survival analysis in pond rearing and a laboratory challenge-test using cohabitation method. The results have revealed that the average survivals of PxP progenies for pond rearing and KHV challenge test were 86% and 100% higher (P < 0.05 respectively compared to that of NxN fish. Survival rate of PxN/NxP progenies was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than that of PxP fish. Furthermore, PCR analysis showed that almost 91% progenies of PxP crosses seemed to have a KHV resistant gene marker. Thus, this study suggests that the marker is associated with the KHV resistance in majalaya common carp strain, and farming of PxP progenies can be useful to increase common carp production.

  12. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  13. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  14. Use of biological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to indicate exposure to hormonally active agents in selected Minnesota streams, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Talmage, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of hormonally active agents (HAAs) was determined in selected Minnesota streams using biological characteristics (measures of endocrine disruption) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and runoff from agricultural and forested land. Four biological characteristics of common carp were used as indicators of HAAs in the streams selected for this study: (1) high concentrations of vitellogenin in male fish and low concentrations in female fish, (2) high or low plasma concentrations of the sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone), (3) low gonado-somatic index (GSI) (gonad weight divided by total body weight multiplied by 100) values, and (4) abnormal gonad histopathology (high percent of atretic oocytes in female ovaries and high percent ceroid/lipofuscin tissue in male or female gonads). The study design was a paired site approach targeting sites downstream and upstream of WWTP discharges on different streams. Male (221 individuals) and female (201 individuals) common carp were collected using electrofishing techniques from seven streams with sites at two locations (upstream and downstream of WWTPs), and eight sites located downstream of WWTPs with no upstream-paired sites. Samples were collected between August 3 and September 13, 1999.

  15. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  16. Variability in growth and condition of juvenile common two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Patrícia Nunes, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Ecologia Marinha). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The objective of this study was to assess the variability in condition for juvenile common two-banded sea bream Diplodus vulgaris in nursery areas of the main Portuguese estuaries using several individual condition indices. Estuaries and coastal lagoons play an important role for juveniles of marine fish because they offer areas with high availability of food, high water temperature and lower...

  17. Short-term effects of T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione system in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a single oral dose of T-2 and HT-2 toxin at 0.15, 0.33 and 1.82 mg kg(-1) body weight, or deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-DON at 0.13, 0.31 and 1.75 mg kg(-1) body weight in common carp. Conjugated dienes and trienes (the early markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated in all DON-treated groups at the 16th hour, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; termination marker) were increased at the highest dose of DON at the 16th and 24th hours. T-2 toxin did not cause changes in these parameters. Glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity showed higher levels at the 16th hour as the effect of both mycotoxins. The expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) revealed a dual response. Downregulation was observed at the 8th hour, followed by an induction at the 16th hour, at the lowest dose of both mycotoxins. Higher doses revealed long-drawn emergence and an elevation was observed only at the 24th hour. However, at the lowest and highest doses of DON or T-2 toxin the changes in gene expression were delayed, which may be related to the low oxidative stress response, as suggested by the expression profiles of the nrf2, keap1, gpx4a and gpx4b genes.

  18. The role of microorganisms in the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in chill-stored common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Longteng; Song, Sijia; Wang, Zhiying; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-06-01

    Biochemical and microbial changes after harvest strongly affect the final quality and shelf life of fish and fish products. In this study, the role of microbes in the degradation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the origin of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in common carp fillets during different stages of chilled storage (at 4°C) were investigated. The content of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, HxR, and Hx, the activity of AMPD and ACP, and the total count of viable, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, H2S-producing bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria were examined. Results indicated that the population of microbial communities in control samples increased with storage time, and Pseudomonas peaked on the 10th day of storage. Changes in AMPD activity were less related to the abundance of microbes during the entire storage period. However, ACP was derived from both fish muscle and microbial secretion during the middle and late stages of storage. Degradation of ATP to IMP was not affected by spoilage bacteria, but the hydrolysis of IMP, and the transformation of HxR to Hx was affected considerably by the spoilage bacteria.

  19. Recombinant outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda, a potential vaccine candidate for fish, common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Biswajit; Shetty, Mahesh; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-12-20

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is a component of the outer membrane of Edwardsiella tarda and is wildly distributed in Enterobacteriaceae family. The gene encoding the OmpA protein was cloned from E. tarda and expressed in Escherichia coli M15 cells. The recombinant OmpA protein containing His(6) residues was estimated to have a molecular weight of ~38kDa. In Western blot the native protein showed expression at ~36kDa molecular weight which was within the range of major outer membrane proteins (36-44kDa) observed in this study. All E. tarda isolates tested harbored the ompA gene and the antibody raised to this protein was seen to cross react with other Gram negative bacteria. The OmpA protein characterized in this study was observed to be highly immunogenic in both rabbit and fish. In Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, rabbit antisera showed an antibody titer of 1: 128,000. Common carp vaccinated with recombinant OmpA protein elicited high antibody production and immunized fish showed a relative percentage survival of 54.3 on challenge.

  20. Myxobolus musseliusae (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio and revision of Myxobolus dispar recorded in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Whipps, C M; Gu, Z M; Huang, M J; He, C; Yang, H L; Molnár, K

    2013-01-01

    During a survey of myxozoan parasites of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China, a parasite was collected that was identified as Myxobolus dispar based on an earlier description from China. However, the small subunit ribosomal DNA of this species shared only 90 % similarity with M. dispar, instead matching M. musseliusae with 100 % identity. To resolve this apparent taxonomic conflict, the validity of M. dispar reported from China was investigated. The species encountered here and in the earlier report from China both bear spores that are notably smaller than those of M. dispar in Europe. In the present study, a mucous envelope was adhered to the posterior of many fresh spores and was observed to expand and surround the spore. This structure has never been reported from fresh spores of M. dispar. Histology showed extravascular plasmodia in the gill filaments in close contact with the cartilaginous ray of the filament, which contrasts with the plasmodia of M. dispar which develop in the arteries of the gill filaments. Phylogenetically, the current species is distinct from M. dispar, instead forming a sister group with M. musseliusae. The data presented here allow us to conclude that the species isolated is M. musseliusae and that prior reports of M. dispar in China are unsubstantiated.

  1. Population genetics and management units of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Nicholas, F W

    2009-08-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into Australia on several occasions and are now the dominant fish in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the continent's largest river system. In this study, variability at 14 microsatellite loci was examined in C. carpio (n = 1037) from 34 sites throughout the major rivers in the MDB, from 3 cultured populations, from Prospect Reservoir in the Sydney Basin and from Lake Sorrell in Tasmania. Consistent with previous studies, assignment testing indicated that the Boolara, Yanco and koi strains of C. carpio are present in the MDB. Unique to this study, however, the Prospect strain was widely distributed throughout the MDB. Significant genetic structuring of populations (Fisher's exact test, AMOVA and distribution of the different strains) amongst the MDB sub-drainages was detected, and was strongly associated with contemporary barriers to dispersal and population history. The distributions of the strains were used to infer the history of introduction and spread of C. carpio in the MDB. Fifteen management units are proposed for control programmes that have high levels of genetic diversity, contain multiple interbreeding strains and show no evidence of founder effects or recent population bottlenecks.

  2. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Thomas J; Abney, Sonja R; Goodbred, Steven L; Rosen, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (<51 microg kg(-1) ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  3. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  4. 应用RNAi技术构建的转基因鲤的检测分析%Detection and Analysis of Transgenic Common Carp with RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫学春; 梁利群; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic expression vector including myostatin gene with H1 promoter were injected into the nuclear area in a zygote of common carp by microinjection technology and then a group of transgenic carps with RNAi phenotype was obtained.PCR and molecular hybridization detection revealed that the exon-gene was integrated into the receptor fish with integrated level of 32.78%.In the growth experiment,it was found that the transgenic fish had about 99% more rapid growth,22% higher body height,and 26% higher body width than common carp in the control group,in which 31.82% of individuals in the transgenic population had 60% higher body width than the ones in the control group.The findings indicated that the hairpin-type dsRNA expressed by the plasmid degraded the transcript products of myo and was useful in inhibition of the expression of its homologue genes in muscle cells and in improvement of the renew power of common carp muscles.This inhibited power was showed that the back muscle of common carp became wider,and body weight was increased,indicating that dsRNA transcripted and expressed by myo has RNAi effect in common carp.This experiment applies a new method to gain transgenic common carp with special functions.%将构建携带H1启动子的肌肉生长抑制基因的真核表达载体,通过显微注射技术导入鲤受精卵核区附近,获得了一批具有RNAi表型的转基因鲤,PCR和分子杂交检测证实外源基因整合到受体鱼的基因组中,阳性率为32.78%;一龄鱼的生长实验表明,转基因鲤比普通鲤平均生长快0.99倍,其体高和体厚分别平均增长0.22和0.26倍,其中有31.82%的群体平均体厚是普通鲤的1.6倍.结果显示,该质粒表达的发夹环型dsRNA可以有效降解其转录产物,对阻抑肌细胞中同源基因的表达、鲤肌肉的再生能力增强起到了重要作用.这种抑制作用表现为鲤背部肌肉增厚、体质量增加,说明该基

  5. Carpe Diem: Seizing the Common Core with Visual Thinking Strategies in the Visual Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mary; Unrath, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) art discussions and subsequent, inspired artmaking can help reach the goals of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects (CCSS-ELA). The authors describe how this was achieved in a remedial…

  6. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  7. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).

  8. Expression and characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its activity against type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ci; Zhan, Chun-Lan; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2014-05-10

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential roles in the metabolism of animal collagen while few reports are available for MMPs in aquatic animals. In this study, we report the complete sequence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) skeletal muscle. The full-length cDNA of MMP-2 was 2792bp which contains an open reading frame of 1974bp, corresponding to a protein of 657 amino acid residues. Based on the structural feature of MMP-2, the gene of the catalytic domain containing 351 amino acid residues was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE showed that the truncated recombinant MMP-2 (trMMP-2) with molecular mass of approximately 38kDa was in the form of inclusion body. The trMMP-2 was further purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. After renaturation, similar to native MMP-2, the trMMP-2 exhibited high hydrolyzing activity toward gelatin as appeared on gelatin zymography and optimal activity was at pH 8.0 and 40°C. The activity of the trMMP-2 was completely suppressed by metalloproteinase inhibitors, including EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was necessary for the gelatinolytic activity, suggesting it is a calcium-dependent metalloproteinase. Moreover, the trMMP-2 effectively hydrolyzed native type I collagen at 37°C and even at 4°C, implying its potential application value as a collagenase for preparation of biologically active oligopeptides.

  9. Redescription and molecular analysis of Myxobolus shantungensis Hu, 1965 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Zemao; Zhang, Yunchao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2011-12-01

    Myxobolus shantungensis Hu, 1965 infects gill arches of common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), causing serious pathological effects on host fish. An inadequate original description and absence of molecular data make accurate early diagnosis challenging. To augment the original description, M. shantungensis is redescribed here using morphological and molecular biological methods. Mature spores of M. shantungensis were ellipsoidal or apple shaped in frontal view and lemon shaped in lateral view, averaging 8.2  ±  0.3 μm (8.0-9.0 μm) ×  10.1 ±  0.5 μm (9.2-11.1 μm)  ×  6.9  ±  0.3 μm (6.0-7.4 μm). Some spores had three to four "V"-shaped valve edge markings on the posterior of the spore. The two equal polar capsules were oval, measuring 4.3  ±  0.3 μm (3.8-5.0 μm)  ×  3.2  ±  0.2 μm (2.8-3.5 μm), situated at the anterior extremity of the spore. Polar filaments coiled with six to seven turns. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of mature spores of M. shantungensis was generally pitted with a number of irregular ridges in shape. M. shantungensis is also characterized on the molecular level using the sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. A BLAST search revealed that this sequence did not match any available sequences in GenBank.

  10. Effect of different microcystin profiles on toxin bioaccumulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae via Artemia nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sanaa; Carvalho, António Paulo; Ouahid, Youness; Del Campo, Francisca F; Oudra, Brahim; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a 12-day growth trial was conducted to compare the effect of the variation in microcystin (MC) composition in two Microcystis aeruginosa bloom samples on the growth performance and MC accumulation/transfer in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. Fish were fed Artemia salina nauplii that had been preexposed to extracts from two M. aeruginosa natural blooms with different microcystins (MCs) profiles. Bloom A had MC-LR as major toxin (74.05%) while bloom B had a diversity of MC (MC-RR; MC-(H4)YR; MC-YR; MC-LR; MC-FR; MC-WR) with no dominance of MC-LR. Newly-hatched Artemia nauplii were exposed separately to the two M. aeruginosa extracts A and B (100 microg L(-1)EqMC-LR) for 2h. The MC concentration in the nauplii was 73.60+/-7.88ngEqMC-LRg(-1)FW (n=4, mean+/-SE) for bloom A and 87.04+/-10.31ngEqMC-LRg(-1)FW for bloom B. These contaminated nauplii were given at the same ration to different groups (A and B) of fish larvae. Larval weight and length from day 9 were significantly different between groups A and B, and in both cases lower than that of a control group fed non-exposed nauplii. MCs accumulation by larvae, inversely correlated with the growth performance, was also significantly different between groups A and B (37.43+/-2.61 and 54.55+/-3.01ngEqMC-LRg(-1) FW, respectively, at the end of the experimental period). These results indicate that MC profile of a bloom may have differential effects on toxin accumulation/transfer and toxicity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  12. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  13. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  14. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Tuin, van der S.J.L.; Yang Guiwen,; Schopman, N.; Mroczek, A.; Hermsen, G.J.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and align

  15. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  16. Evaluation of Growth and Histology of Liver and İntestine in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) Fed Extruded Diets with or without Fish Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Markovi63; Poleksi63; Laki63; Živi63; Duli63; Stankovi63; Spasi63; Raškovi63; Sørensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Growth and histology of intestine and liver of carp fed diets with or devoid of fish meal (FM) was studied. Carp were fed four experimental diets formulated to contain 38% protein for 90 days. FM was incorporated at 30% in feed A, 15% in feed B and C, and was completely replaced with a mixture of plant proteins in feed D. Feed C and D were supplemented with methionine and lysine. The results showed that carp fed feed D had the lowest weight gain, length and height compared to the other th...

  17. Distribution and habitat associations of juvenile Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Caleb G.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Patino, Reynaldo; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Common Snook Centropomus undecimalis were once abundant off the Texas coast, but these populations are now characterized by low abundance and erratic recruitment. Most research concerning Common Snook in North America has been conducted in Florida and very little is known about the specific biology and habitat needs of Common Snook in Texas. The primary objective of this study was to describe the habitat use patterns of juvenile Common Snook and their role in the fish assemblage in the lower portion of the Rio Grande, Texas. Secondarily, we documented the relationship between age and juvenile reproductive development. Fish were collected during January–March 2006 from the lower 51.5 km of the Rio Grande using a bottom trawl and boat-mounted electrofisher. Measurements of water quality and other habitat traits were recorded at each sampling site. We captured 225 Common Snook exclusively in freshwater habitats above river kilometer 12.9. The distribution of juvenile Common Snook was not random, but influenced primarily by turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Sex differentiation and gonadal development based on histological examination of gonads established that age-1 and age-2 Common Snook were juvenile, prepubertal males. There was no difference between the age groups in their overall distribution in the river. However, age-2 Common Snook were associated with deeper areas with faster currents, higher conductivity, and steeper banks. Overall, Common Snook in the lower Rio Grande show substantial differences in habitat use than their counterparts in other parts of the range of the species, but it is unclear whether this is due to differences in habitat availability, behavioral plasticity, or some combination thereof.

  18. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...... degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All the hydrolysates showed in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of radical scavenging and chelating properties. CRPH-containing emulsions had significantly smaller droplets than control (p ...

  19. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-II GnRH (cGnRH-II) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a conservative neurodecapeptide family, which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate. Two differing cGnRH-II cDNAs of common carp, namely cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2, were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The length of cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs (bp), respectively. The cGnRH-II precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids, including a signal peptide, cGnRH-II decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site. The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-II genes in common carp genome were further identified, and that two genes might exist as a single copy. The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-II gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-II genes were detected in five dissected brain regions, pituitary and gonad of common carp. With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary, two cGnRH-II genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues. However, expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions, pituitary and gonad. According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-II genes in brain areas, it was presumed that cGnRH-II might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing. Then, the expression of cGnRH-II genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-II might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  20. 鲤鱼微卫星分子标记的筛选%Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东旺; 楼允东; 孙效文; 沈俊宝

    2001-01-01

    A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA)15 probe labelled at the 5 ' end with γ32P-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50℃ and 53℃.

  1. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shuangfei; HU; Wei; WANG; Yaping; ZHU; Zuoyan

    2004-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)is a conservative neurodecapeptide family,which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate.Two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNAs of common carp,namely cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2,were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The length of cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs(bp),respectively.The cGnRH-Ⅱ precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids,including a signal peptide,cGnRH-Ⅱ decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide(GAP)linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site.The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in common carp genome were further identified,and that two genes might exist as a single copy.The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-Ⅱ gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis.Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR,expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes were detected in five dissected brain regions,pituitary and gonad of common carp.With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary,two cGnRH-Ⅱ genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues.However,expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions,pituitary and gonad.According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in brain areas,it was presumed that cGnRH-Ⅱ might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing.Then,the expression of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-Ⅱ might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  2. Study on the Primary Culture of Hepatocytes from Common Carp%鲤鱼肝细胞的原代培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月红; 吉尚雷; 吴东明; 谭崇桂

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the best conditions fur the primary culture of hepatocyte cells from common carp. [Method] The primary culture of hepatocytos from common carp was conducted to analyze the effects of different medium, temperature, pH, trypsinase concentration,growing time on the growth situations of hepatocytes from common carp. Result] The optimum culture conditions of hepatocyte cells from common carp were as follows; Lernperature of about 25 ℃ ,pH of 7. 4,trypsinase concentration of.0. 250% , digestion time of 40 min,culture medium M199. The average survival rate of the isolated hepatocyles was above 85%. 3. 8 x 10 isolated cells could be obtained per gram of liver,and the best balance between the cell viability and quantity could be achieved. [Conclusion] The research could provide basis for establishing stable toxicological and pharmacological experiment models.%[目的]探讨鲤鱼肝细胞原代培养的最佳条件.[方法]通过对鲤鱼的肝脏细胞进行原代培养,分析不同培养基、温度、pH、胰蛋白酶浓度、生长时间对鲤鱼肝细胞生长状况的影响,并测定肝细胞活力.[结果]鲤鱼肝细胞培养的最佳条件为:温度在25℃左右,pH7.4,胰蛋白酶浓度0.250%,消化时间40 min,培养基为M199.分离肝细胞的平均存活率>85%,每克肝平均可获得3.8×106个分离细胞,在细胞活力及数量上达到最佳平衡.[结论]该研究可为建立稳定的毒理学和药理学试验模型奠定基础.

  3. The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Enache

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galați. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3 and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4. The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, average weight - 65 g/ fish; 245 fish in B2, average weight - 66 g/ fish; 211 fish in B3, average weight - 152 g/fish; 107 fish in B4, average weight - 150 g/fish. The technological indicators obtained revealed the following: the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value on the two repetitions, was 1.28%/day in V1 and 1.49 %/day in V2, indicating better growth in V2; the food conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions, was 1.28 in V1 and 1.06 in V2, expressing a higher efficiency in capitalization of food in V2. The mean biomass gain in V1 was 30.46 kg/m3 as compared to 18.55 kg/m3 in V2, almost perfectly correlated with the stocking density. The daily growth rate (DGR varied in a similar way, from 494.57 to 520.90 g/day in V1 and 302.4 to 315.9 g/day in V2. The experiment demonstrated a remarkable technological plasticity in both experimental variants, whereas, in terms of technological performance indicators, it was found that the application of lower stocking densities lead to higher crop biomass. The high stocking density means, therefore, large amounts of metabolic waste, removed from the breeding units through their effluent, the recirculating flow of which is 4m3/h, enough to ensure the whole volume of water in a growth tank to be changed every half hour.

  4. Molecular characterization and expression of three preprosomatostatin genes and their association with growth in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Pang, Meixia; Liu, Haiyang; Tong, Jingou

    2015-04-01

    Somatostatins (SSs) are a structurally diverse family of peptides that play important roles in the regulation of growth, development and metabolism in vertebrates. In this study, three preprosomatostatin genes (PSSs) in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cc) were identified and characterized. Based on cloned sequences and genome BLAST, six isoforms of the PSS gene in C. carpio (CcPSS) were identified and included CcPSS1a and CcPSS1b, CcPSS2a and CcPSS2b, and finally, CcPSS3a and CcPSS3b. The open reading frames (ORF) of CcPSS1a, CcPSS2a and CcPSS3a consist of 345, 336 and 363 nucleotides. During embryonic development, the expressions of CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were first observed at the stage of optic vesicle, and CcPSS1 mRNA was initially detected at the stage of muscular effect. The highest mRNA levels of CcPSS1, CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were observed at 1-day post-hatch (dph), 2-dph and the stage of heart beating, respectively. In the adult brain, the distributions of three CcPSS mRNAs were differential but overlapping in the hypothalamus, telencephalon and medulla oblongata. For peripheral tissues, all three CcPSS mRNAs were detected in the mid-intestine, and CcPSS1 and CcPSS3 mRNAs were also expressed in the liver. Owing to the importance of somatostatins on regulating growth, functional mutations of CcPSSs were identified in a C. carpio population. A total of 23 polymorphic sites were detected in CcPSS1a and CcPSS3a. Of them, two SNPs (CcPSS1a-g.922C>T, and CcPSS3a-g.1125C>A) were significantly associated with growth traits, indicating their potential applications in gene (marker)-assisted selective breeding in C. carpio.

  5. Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on

  6. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by yeast hydrolysate on complement system and stress resistance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liang, Chao; Sun, Cun-Xin; Xue, Yun-Fei; Wan, Zu-De; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement by yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, complement system and stress resistance of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (initial average weight 19.44 ± 0.06 g). In the study, there were five groups: one control group was fed with a basal diet (YH0), and four treatment groups were fed with dietary fish meal replaced by 1% YH (YH1), 3% (YH3), 5% (YH5) and 7% (YH7), respectively. Each group had four replicates. At the end of feeding trial, twelve fish from each group (three fish per replicate) were randomly selected for assessing the growth and immunity. Meanwhile, 20 fish per replicate were injected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that (1) Replacement levels of YH significantly affected the growth of the fish with the highest values of weight gain (WG) occurred in fish fed YH3 diet. However, no significant difference in feed conversion ratios (FCR) was observed among all groups. (2) Pre-stressed plasma lysozyme activity, total protein and albumin contents and complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) levels of fish fed YH3 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed YH0 diet. However, post-stressed immune parameters of fish in all groups were significantly lower. (3) There was a trend that the expression levels of the complement-related genes (c1r/s-A, c4-1, c3-H1, c5-1, fb/c2-A, mbl-2 and masp) initially increased and then decreased except mbl-2 and masp, with the maximum values observed in fish fed YH3 diet. Before stress, the expression levels of the inflammation-related genes (alp, il-1β and tnf-α) in the hepatopancreas and spleen of fish fed YH1 diet and YH7 diet were significant higher than that of fish fed YH0 diet. After stress, no significant difference in the expression levels of those genes was observed among all groups. These results indicated that FM replacement by YH could improve growth

  8. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  9. Involvement of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase in IGF-I and insulin-induced ovarian steroidogenesis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sudipta; Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Previously, we observed that in vitro steroidogenesis in intact ovarian follicles of common carp Cyprinus carpio can alone be induced by recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin (b-insulin) and this induction was gonadotropin-independent. To investigate early signal transduction components involved in this process, the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) during ovarian steroidogenesis was examined. IGF-I and b-insulin induced testosterone and 17β-estradiol production in carp ovarian theca and granulosa cells in short-term coincubation and this induction was significantly inhibited by Wortmannin and LY294002, two mechanistically different specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase. IGF-I and b-insulin were shown to activate PI3 kinase from 30 min onwards with a maximum at 90 min. In this study, we found the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in the regulation of IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in carp ovary. An antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2) markedly attenuated IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroid production. Cells treated with IGF-I and b-insulin stimulated ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERKs1/2) in a time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated in presence of MEK1/2 inhibitor. PI3 kinase inhibitors strongly attenuated phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase, which was increased during IGF-I and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3 kinase is an initial component of the signal transduction pathway which precedes the MAP kinase during IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in C. carpio ovarian follicles.

  10. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of hatchery and feral common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes populations in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomljanović Tea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp production has an important status in Croatian aquaculture. In addition, the sport fishing of common carp in open waters is very popular, but it is often based on stocking from fish farms. Using fifteen microsatellites, 243 individuals from 5 hatchery and 5 feral populations have been analyzed. A total number of 148 alleles were recorded. However, the mean number of alleles per locus was remarkably low. Pairwise FST values (0.026-0.130 were significant (P<0.01, demonstrating differentiation among populations. The Markov chain method test showed that all the populations deviated from HWE (P <0.05. After sequential Bonferroni correction only the Vrana lake was in HWE in all the loci but MFW20. The factors that may result in genetic divergence and significant reduction of the observed heterozygosity are discussed. AMOVA results for 10 populations indicate that the percentage of the variation among populations was 6.26%, which is lower than the variation within populations (91.04%.

  11. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1 on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P<0.05 lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P<0.05 leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1 after recovery period. Statistically significant (P<0.05 alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp.

  12. PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region among 3 subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its application to genetic discrimination of subspecies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis among ten representative strains belonging to three subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A total of 2.4 kb fragment was amplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis with nine restriction endonucleases subsequently. The results indicated that each subspecies owned one hyplotype and four restriction enzymes (DdeⅠ, HaeⅢ, TaqⅠand MboⅠ) produced diagnostic restriction sites which could be used for discriminating the three subspecies and as molecular genetic markers for assistant selective breeding of common carp.

  13. The effect of MT gene on heavy metal accumulations in transgenic common carp and experimental animal%金属硫蛋白基因对转基因鲤及实验动物体内重金属累积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫学春; 孙效文; 梁利群; 曹顶臣

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important things for industry production of transgenic fish is whether the fish meal is safe to the health of human beings, which means the foreign genes and their expressed products might be harmful to fish and the animal eating this fish. For the transgenic common carp produced by injecting fusion genes which included chum salmon' s growth hormone gene and common carp's metallothionine promoter, two things should be investigated. One is whether the transgenic common carp will produce excessive amounts of growth hormone in its body, and the foreign hormone how to affect the animal eating this fish. The other thing is whether this fish will accumulate excessive heavy metal in its body, what effect will be on the animal eating this fish. The investigation of the concentrations of the foreign growth hormone in transgenic carp is reported. This article examines the effect of a metallothionine transgene on the residual heavy metal concentrations in the transgenic common carp and the cat eating the transgenic carp. Using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, we measured the concentrations of the heavy mental elements including Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the muscle, liver, kidney and gills of the transgenic common carp and non-transgenic carp. Also measured were the concentrations of Zn and Cd in the muscle, liver and kidney of the cat fed with transgenic and non-transgenic common carps. In the cat, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in tissue concentrations of heavy metals between the experimental group and the control group. The heavy metal concentrations in the non-transgenic common carp and transgenic common carp were statistically similar. The result showed that metallothionine gene as a promoter for aquaculture fish genetransfer would not bring about the heavy metal accumulations in transgenic fish and animal eating them。

  14. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  15. The effect of copper, zinc, mercury and cadmium on some sperm enzyme activities in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Beata; Pietrusewicz, Marta; Radziwoniuk, Julita; Glogowski, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of copper, zinc, cadmium and mercury ions (100, 10 and 1 mg/l) on the activity of some enzymes of carp spermatozoa. Acid phosphatase activity was proved to be relatively insensitive to zinc ions, while copper, mercury and cadmium ions effectively inhibited the activity of this enzyme. Beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity was sensitive only to mercury ions. Lactic dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by heavy metals. Our results showed that, among the examined metals, mercury had the strongest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities.

  16. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity.

  17. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  18. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  19. Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production.

  20. 感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼组织病理学变化%Histopathological Changes in Juvenile Grass Carp with Parasite Ichthyophthirius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珍珍; 苏文; 陶秉春

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological changes were observed in brain ,heart ,gill ,fin ,head kidney ,midkidney , premaxilla ,skin and viscus in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus infected with protozoon Ichthyophthirius sp .The protozoon was found in various organs included gill filaments ,premaxilla , pectoral fins and dorsal fins ,and there was congestion in the brain ,and the auricle ,ventricule and arterial balls of the heart .There was congestion in the gill filaments with inflammatory cells infiltration ,the disappeared partly gill lamella structure ,and respiratory epithelial cells .The congestion in the head kidney , the fatty degeneration and hyalinization of epithelial cells of renal tubuls and the connecting tubule ,and enlargement of glomerula led to the disappearance of renal follicle ,with congestion in renal interstitium . The collagen fiber of dense layer in abdominal subcutaneous tissue showed part hyaline degeneration ,the congestion vein ,the intestinal mucous epithelial cell shed partly ,and the almost dissolved epithelial cells . The serious congestion was observed in the hepatopancreas ,and venous congestion appeared in the liver sinusoids and spleen .%应用组织病理学方法,对感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼的脑、心脏、鳃、鳍、头肾、中肾、上颌、皮肤肌肉及内脏团等组织器官进行观察。观察结果表明,各组织器官均有明显的组织病理学变化,鳃丝、上颌、胸鳍及背鳍等组织器官可见小瓜虫寄生;脑组织淤血;心耳、心室及动脉球内发生淤血;鳃丝淤血并有炎细胞浸润,部分鳃小片结构消失,呼吸上皮细胞脱落;头肾淤血;中肾肾小管、连接小管的上皮细胞内出现脂肪样变及玻璃样变,肾小球肿大导致肾小囊囊腔消失,肾间质淤血;腹皮下致密层胶原纤维发生玻璃样变,静脉淤血;肠道黏膜层部分上皮细胞脱落,严重者上皮细胞溶解消失,黏膜下层可见炎细胞浸润

  1. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  2. Study on the Morphological Characteristics of the Allotetraploid of Red Crucian Carp(♀) × Common Carp(♂)%异源四倍体鲫鲤的形态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建中; 张轩杰; 刘少军; 周工健; 刘筠

    2001-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of the allotetraploid fi sh were studied by ordinary regulations and were compared with those of Red crucia n Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The results were as follows: D.3,16~19; A.3,5~7; scalles in lateral line 30 ~34,scalles above lateral line 5~7,scalles below lateral line 5~8; gill raker 32 ~35; pharyngeal tooth 2, 1.4~4.1; vertebrae, 31~33; body length/body height = 2.33~3.33, body length/head length =2.73~4.60; head length / Lip length =2.67 ~4.01, head length /eye diameter =3.33~5.13; caudal peduncel length/caudal ped uncel height =0.83~1.32. The results indicated that the morphological character istics of the allotetraploid fish were steady.%按常规标准测定了异源四倍体鲫鲤的形态特征,并与二倍体的红鲫和湘江野鲤进行了比较.主要结果如下:异源四倍体鲫鲤的背鳍条Ⅲ,16~19;臀鳍条Ⅲ,5~7;侧线鳞30~34,侧线上鳞为5~7,侧线下鳞为5~8;鳃耙数32~35;下咽齿2行,1.4~4.1;脊椎骨31~33;口须2对;体长为体高的2.23~3.33倍,为头长的2.73~4.60倍;头长为吻长的2.67~4.01倍,为眼径的3.33~5.13倍;尾柄长为尾柄高的0.83~1.32倍.研究表明,异源四倍体鲫鲤形态性状稳定,已形成了一个新的四倍体鱼种群.

  3. Prey species and size choice of the molluscivorous fish, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, N. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    ponds in northern Vietnam. Furthermore, shell strength of common snails was assessed. Average daily consumption as percentage of fish weight ranged from 8.12% for smaller fish (100-250 g) to 4.68% in the larger fish (610-1250 g). Bithynia fuchsiana, the intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis, and some...... intestinal trematodes were readily consumed by even the smallest black carp tested. The proportion of Melanoides tuberculata, an important host for intestinal trematodes, declined with an increase in its shell height. The same was observed for two viviparid snail species, Angulyagra polyzonata and Sinotaia......, to control snails serving as first intermediate hosts. However, the use of large juvenile (>2 kg) black carp in nursery ponds could be problematic and we decided to determine consumption rates by black carp of various sizes and their choice of different sizes of selected snail species found in aquaculture...

  4. [The influence of insulin on contamination of the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the monogenetic fluke Dactylogyrus vastator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikriakov, B P; Mikriakov, D B; Stepanova, M A

    2011-01-01

    The influence of insulin on the contamination of the carp Cyprinus carpio with the monogenetic fluke Dactylogyrus vastator is studied. Fishes reacted to the introduction of the hormon by the decrease in the degree of intensity of infection and by the increase in the number of lifeless parasites on gills, by contrast to control fishes and fishes processed with stress hormones (adrenaline and cortisol). We assume that the decrease in the abundance index in live monogenetic fluke and the increase in the number of lifeless oness is caused by the deficiency of nutrients accessible for the growth and development caused by activation of hormone-induced anabolic processes and stimulation of mechanisms of immune protection.

  5. Preliminary studies on the cryopreservation of spermatozoa in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuppusamy Umaa Rani; Natesan Munuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of various extenders containing different cryoprotectants on post-thaw viability, motility and scanning electron microscopic study of frozen spermatozoa from carp. Methods:cryopreservation has been achieved using extender and cryoprotectants like dimethylacetamide After screening a variety of cryoprotectants and extenders, a protocol for the 5%-20% at appropriate dilution ratio (1:10). For all experimental tests, the motility and viability percentage of spermatozoa were examined after storage of 5 d at 4 °C. Results: The maximum motility of 75% has been observed with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Scanning electron microscopic studies on normal and cryopreserved spermatozoa showed prominent head, middle piece and different segments of flagellum. There were no significant deformities noticed on the surface topography of cryopreserved spermatozoa. Conclusions:Thus the results clearly documented that cryoprotectant 10% dimethyl sulfoxide affords better cryopreservation at 4 °C for the spermatozoa of Cyprinus carpio.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  7. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  8. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01. These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp.

  9. Toxic effects of copper sulfate and copper nanoparticles on minerals, enzymes, thyroid hormones and protein fractions of plasma and histopathology in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hedayati, Aliakbar; Taheri Mirghaed, Ali; Ghelichpour, Melika

    2016-10-01

    Differences in toxicological effects of dissolved copper and copper nanoparticles were studied in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper sulfate (0.25Cu), 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (0.25NCu) and 25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (25NCu) over 14days. Plasma biochemical, enzymatic and hormonal characteristics, and liver and kidney histopathology were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that both forms of copper had no significant effects on plasma calcium levels, however, significantly increased plasma phosphorous levels, compared to control group (no added copper). Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity increased in 0.25Cu and 25NCu treatments compared to the control and 0.25NCu treatments. Nanoparticle copper exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the control and 0.25Cu treatments. Only copper sulfate exposure caused plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) elevation. Both copper forms increased plasma T4 and free T4 (FT4); however, copper sulfate effect was higher than nanoparticle copper. Copper sulfate exposure increased plasma albumin fraction, whereas, 25mgL(-1) copper nanoparticle exposure increased plasma α2-globulin fraction compared to the control. Both copper forms damaged the fish liver and kidney, however, copper sulfate caused more severe damages compared to nanoparticle copper. Overall, except for plasma ALP and α2-globulin fraction, dissolved copper seems to be more toxic than nanoparticle copper in common carp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization of Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic parasite of common carp, and its differentiation from the invasive species Atractolytocestus huronensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Stefka, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-05-01

    Sequence structure of complete internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA region and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene sequences were studied in the monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.). Intraindividual sequence diversity was observed in both ribosomal spacers. In ITS1, a total number of 19 recombinant clones yielded eight different sequence types (pairwise sequence identity, 99.7-100%) which, however, did not resemble the structure typical for divergent intragenomic ITS copies (paralogues). Polymorphism was displayed by several single nucleotide mutations present exclusively in single clones, but variation in the number of short repetitive motifs was not observed. In ITS2, a total of 21 recombinant clones yielded ten different sequence types (pairwise sequence identity, 97.5-100%). They were mostly characterized by a varying number of (TCGT)(n) repeats resulting in assortment of ITS2 sequences into two sequence variants, which reflected the structure specific for ITS paralogues. The third DNA region analysed, mitochondrial cox1 gene (669 bp) was detected to be 100% identical in all studied A. sagittatus individuals. Comparison of molecular data on A. sagittatus with those on Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958, an invasive parasite of common carp, has shown that interspecific differences significantly exceeded intraspecific variation in both ribosomal spacers (81.4-82.5% in ITS1, 74.4-75.2% in ITS2) as well as in mitochondrial cox1, which confirms validity of both congeneric tapeworms parasitic in the same fish host.

  11. Effect of sub-acute exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Linhua; WANG Zhenyu; XING Baoshan

    2009-01-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify and understand nanotoxicity. Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), but there are limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. In this work, the objective was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of TiO2 NPs to carp (Cyprinus carpio). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in liver, gill and brain tissues of carps varied with concentration of TiO2 NPs suspensions and exposure time (up to 8 d). As a result, 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs caused statistically significant decrease in SOD, CAT and POD activities and significant increase in LPO levels in tissues (P < 0.05), suggesting that the fish exposed to these two concentrations of TiO2 NPs suffered from the oxidative stress. The extent of depletion of antioxidant enzymes activities and the elevation of LPO in the liver was the greatest, indicating that the liver might be the most susceptible organ to TiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, carps had gill pathologies including edema and thickening of gill lamellae as well as gill filaments, and liver pathologies including necrotic and apoptosis hepatocytes after exposed to 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 20 d. These results indicate a potential risk from TiO2 NPs released into the aqueous environment.

  12. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  13. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  14. Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Y.M. Alkassasbeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environmental pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of landfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach: Leachates were collected from Air Hitam (AHL, Ampar Tenang (ATL and Sungai Sedu (SSL landfills. The experiments were performed as three replicates using a total of 180 carps for each definitive test. The semi-static renewal method of acute toxicity test was used. The data obtained were statically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method. Results: The leachate used in this study had an invariable of (1640-7600 mg L-1 COD and (321.22-956.86 mg L-1 Ammonical-N. The 96 h LC50 values of landfills leachate from the three landfills using fry C. carpio individuals with an average weight of 0.92±0.24 g and average length of 3.83±0.19 cm were found to be 1.132, 2.0 and 3.822% respectively. Among the behavioral changes observed for the individual fish at different leachate concentrations, decline in general activity, loss of balance, breathing difficulties, excessive mucosal secretion and gathering at the surface for breathing. Conclusion: This study of acute toxicity to the recommended fish species, C. caprio, is considered the first in Malaysia. Further research with toxicity testing methods directly on fish will be very useful in assessing possible ecological risk assessment of landfill leachate.

  15. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  16. Changes in Biogenic Amines and ATP-Related Compounds and Their Relation to Other Quality Changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Stored at 20 and 0°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Qin, Na; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines, ATP-related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen, microbial flora (total viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and H2S-producing bacteria), and free amino acids were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) stored at 20 and 0°C. Pseudomonas and H2S-producing bacteria became the dominant bacteria in carp stored at 20 and 0°C, whereas Aeromonas rapidly increased only in carp stored at 0°C. Inosine monophosphate, which is responsible for flavor and freshness, increased to a maximum of 2.37 l mol/g after 12 h at 20°C and to 4.72 l mol/g after 3 days at 0°C. Putrescine and cadaverine were the dominant amines in carp and their concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores in all samples during the storage. Significant correlations also were observed between histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores only in samples stored at 20°C. Arginine decreased while putrescine increased in all samples. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in histidine was observed after 24 h of storage, which coincided with an increase in histamine after 36 h in samples stored at 20°C. Hypoxanthine concentrations were significantly correlated with the microbial species (P < 0.01) and sensory scores (P < 0.05) and seems to be a reliable marker for quality of carp fillets stored at 20 and 0°C.

  17. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  18. Spatial and ontogenetic variability in the chemical composition of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea) otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S. E.; Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Cabral, H. N.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    A description of variations in the chemical composition of fish otoliths at different spatial scales and life history stages is a prerequisite for their use as natural tags in fish population connectivity and migration studies. Otolith geochemistry of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea), a marine migrant species collected in six Portuguese estuaries was examined. Elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Pb:Ca) were analysed in two zones of the right otolith (corresponding to late larval and juvenile stages) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ 13C and δ 18O) were determined in left otoliths using isotopic ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (irm-MS). Significant differences in otolith geochemical signatures were found among estuaries, among sites within estuaries and between otolith zones. Several elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca and Sr:Ca) showed consistent patterns between otolith zones and were likely influenced by environmental factors and ontogenetic effects associated with physiological changes during metamorphosis. Assignment of individuals to their collection estuary based on the otolith geochemical signatures was more accurate at the site level (81%) than among estuaries (69%). Site temperature was not correlated with any of the elemental or isotope ratios, but salinity was significantly correlated with Ba:Ca, δ 13C and δ 18O. Observed spatial variations among estuaries and sites within estuaries indicate that geochemical signatures in otoliths are accurate natural tags of estuarine habitat in common sole. Nevertheless, the significant variations observed between otolith zones should be taken into account in the design of population connectivity studies.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  20. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

    2007-07-16

    Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China.

  2. Impact of acute Cd²⁺ exposure on the antioxidant defence systems in the skin and red blood cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Ágnes; Hermesz, Edit

    2015-05-01

    Cd(2+)-induced oxidative stress and its effects on the expression of stress biomarkers and on macromolecule damage in the skin and blood of common carp were studied. Both tissues play important roles in the defence mechanisms against external hazards, serving as an anatomical barrier and as connecting tissue between the organs. In the skin, the production of peroxynitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide was almost doubled after exposure to 10 mg/L Cd(2+). The accumulation of these oxidant molecules suggests an intensive production of superoxide anion and nitrogen monoxide and the development of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Although the metallothioneins and the components of the glutathione redox system were activated in the skin, the accumulation of reactive intermediates led to the enhanced damage of lipid molecules after 24 h of metal exposure. In the blood, the basal levels of metallothionein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were 2-2.5-fold of that measured in the skin. This high level of metallothionein expression could be the reason that the blood was less affected by an acute Cd(2+) challenge and the metallothionein and glutathione systems were not activated.

  3. The Protective Role of Vitamin C and Chitosan Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress in Muscles of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifinasab Zeinab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antioxidants, including vitamin C, chitosan or a combination of both, on oxidative stress markers in muscles, as edible tissues of fish, exposed to paraquat. Fish exposed to 0.02 mg/L paraquat for 21 days were fed different diets: a normal diet, a diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, a diet with vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as biochemical parameters including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, were measured in muscles. Fish exposure to paraquat increased LDH, CPK, catalase and MDA activity significantly, while it significantly decreased AST, ALT and AChE activity and total antioxidant capacity in muscles. Administration of vitamin C, combined with chitosan, to fish exposed to paraquat was effective in regulating AChE, AST, ALT, LDH, CPK and catalase activity. A significant increase in the total antioxidant status and a significant decrease in MDA levels were observed in fish fed chitosan-vitamin C complex. In conclusion, it is suggested that combined supplementation with vitamin C and chitosan may improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish and protect common carp from paraquat toxicity.

  4. The Protective Role of Vitamin C and Chitosan Against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress in Muscles of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifinasab Zeinab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antioxidants, including vitamin C, chitosan or a combination of both, on oxidative stress markers in muscles, as edible tissues of fish, exposed to paraquat. Fish exposed to 0.02 mg/L paraquat for 21 days were fed different diets: a normal diet, a diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, a diet with vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as biochemical parameters including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, were measured in muscles. Fish exposure to paraquat increased LDH, CPK, catalase and MDA activity significantly, while it significantly decreased AST, ALT and AChE activity and total antioxidant capacity in muscles. Administration of vitamin C, combined with chitosan, to fish exposed to paraquat was effective in regulating AChE, AST, ALT, LDH, CPK and catalase activity. A significant increase in the total antioxidant status and a significant decrease in MDA levels were observed in fish fed chitosan-vitamin C complex. In conclusion, it is suggested that combined supplementation with vitamin C and chitosan may improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish and protect common carp from paraquat toxicity.

  5. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Konopova

    Full Text Available Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly. In either case juvenile hormone (JH prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and Broad-Complex (BR-C genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  6. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopova, Barbora; Smykal, Vlastimil; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  7. 营养状况对幼年鲤鱼肝脏IGF-Ⅰ mRNA表达的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL STATUS ON EXPRESSION OF IGF-Ⅰ mRNA IN IMMATURE COMMON CARP LIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华益民; 林浩然

    2001-01-01

    通过室外喂养观察3种营养状况对幼年鲤鱼生长、血清生长激素 (GH) 水平和组织胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)mRNA表达的影响。一组鱼喂含40%酪蛋白的饵料(H组),一组鱼喂含20%酪蛋白的饵料(L组),饵料的总能量相同;另一组鱼先饥饿32天再投喂含40%酪蛋白的饵料。禁食后饥饿组鲤鱼体重和体长的生长受阻,在第16天饥饿组鱼血清GH水平明显升高,到第32天达到H组的4倍;而肝组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA水平在第16天无明显下降,但是到第32天已降到不到H组的一半。鲤鱼其它组织饥饿32天未发现IGF-Ⅰ mRNA表达有明显变化。饥饿32天后开始投喂含40%酪蛋白的饵料,鲤鱼生长、肝组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA的表达水平逐渐恢复,再投喂16天皆与H组无明显差异。再投喂过程中,GH水平也逐渐下降,第16天恢复正常。实验结果提示鲤鱼营养对肝组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA的表达有调节作用。营养缺乏将导致鲤鱼肝组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA的表达水平也相应恢复正常,从而导致鲤鱼生长恢复。同时,实验结果也提示,鲤鱼肝以外的组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA表达不受营养调节。L组鲤鱼在喂养过程中,体重和体长的增长比H组低,但即使喂养40天,两组鱼体重和体长并无显著差异。两组鱼血清生长激素水平和各组织IGF-Ⅰ mRNA的表达水平到实验第32天也未发现有明显差异。推测在鲤鱼含正常能量和20%酪蛋白的饵料已能维持正常IGF-Ⅰ mRNA的表达。L组和H组鱼肝IGF-Ⅰ mRNA在喂养1个月后仍无显著差异也可能与实验时间较短有关。%Effects of three kinds of nutritional status on tissue IGF-Ⅰ mRNA expression in juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied by prolonged outdoor feeding. One group of fish was fed with food containing 40% Casein (H group); another group was fed with food containing 20% Casein (L group). Two kinds of food contain the same amount

  8. Supplementary studies on Myxobolus tsangwuensis Chen, 1954 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.): molecular and histological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingjun; Liu, Yang; Jia, Luo; Zhai, Yanhua; Deng, Qiong; Gu, Zemao

    2014-10-01

    Myxobolus tsangwuensis Chen, 1954 is a common parasite infecting the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). It was described simply in the original description and its molecular data was absent, which makes the accurate diagnosis challenging. Here we supplemented its description based on the morphological, histological and molecular data. It was characterized by the presence of small round or ellipsoidal plasmodia in the gills of host and histology showed the plasmodia developed in the capillary network of the gill lamella. Mature spores of M. tsangwuensis were ellipsodal in frontal view and lemon shaped in lateral view, averaging 11.2 ± 0.7 (10.2-12.5) μm × 9.3 ± 0.3 (8.5-10.0) μm × 6.2 ± 0.4 (5.5-7.0) μm. Spores valves were symmetrical and smooth. Occasionally, a small intercapsular appendix was observed. Two polar capsules were pyriform with different sizes, measuring 5.0 ± 0.2 (4.4-5.3) μm × 3.1 ± 0.1 (2.9-3.5) μm and 3.9 ± 0.2 (3.4-4.3) μm × 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.0-2.8) μm, respectively. Polar filaments coiled five to seven turns in large polar capsule and three to four turns in the small polar capsule. Some spores were surrounded by the mucous envelope that was not recorded in the original description. Molecular analysis revealed that the present SSU rDNA sequences did not match any available sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis showed M. tsangwuensis was sister to M. basilamellaris and M. musseliusae.

  9. Crescimento de jundiá e carpa húngara criados em sistema de recirculação de água Jundiá growth and Common Carp reared in recirculated water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Corrêia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o crescimento e o rendimento de carcaça e a composição corporal de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen e carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio criados em sistema de recirculação de água, em mono e bicultivo, durante 60 dias, na fase de recria. Cinco tratamentos com três repetições foram testados: 100C=100% carpa; 100J=100% jundiá; 50C50J=50% carpa 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carpa 25% jundiá e 25C75J=25% carpa 75% jundiá, sendo utilizados 20 peixes por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados o peso (P, a biomassa total (BT, o fator de condição (FC, a conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE, o rendimento de carcaça (RC, o índice digestivo-somático, o índice hepato-somático, o quociente intestinal, as composições centesimais dos peixes, as taxas de deposição de proteína e a gordura corporal. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso, no FC e na TCE dos jundiás (P>0,05. Para essas variáveis, as carpas submetidas ao tratamento 25C75J apresentaram valores significativamente maiores (PA study was conducted to evaluate growth, carcass yield and body composition of jundiá and common carp raised in mono or duoculture in a recirculated water system, for 60 days, during the growing. Five treatments were tested with three replicates: 100C=100% carp; 100J=100% jundiá, 50C50J=50% carp 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carp 25% jundiá and 25C75J=25% carp 75% jundiá. Twenty fishes were distributed in each experimental unit. It was evaluated weight (W, total biomass (TB, condition factor (CF, feed conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, carcass yield (YC, digestive-somatic index, hepatossomatic index, intestinal quotient and the proximate composition and body deposition of protein and fat. Considering jundiá performance, no statistical difference was observed for W, CF and SGR (P>0.05. Common carp from treatment 25C75J showed the highest values (P<0

  10. 反复冻融对草鱼和鲤鱼冷冻鱼糜品质变化的影响%Effect of Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Quality Properties of Frozen Surimis of Grass Carp and Common Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓; 孙卫青; 杨华; 马俪珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on their quality,color parameters,cooking loss,water-holding capacity,shearing force and TBARS of frozen surimis of grass carp and common carp were determined during 4 repeated freeze-thaw cycles.More freeze-thaw cycles could result in a significant increase(P0.05) in cooking loss of grass carp and common carp surimi and a significant reduction(P0.05) in water-holding capacity but no significant difference between both fish species was observed.The shearing force of grass carp surimi was inversely proportional to the number of freeze-thaw cycles.The first freeze-thaw cycle caused denaturation and contraction of protein in common carp surimi and resulted in an increase in its shearing force,whereas the parameter declined with increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles.Repeated freeze-thaw cycles aggravated lipid oxidation in surimi from both fish species.As a result,significantly increased TBARS(P0.05) was observed and a significant difference(P0.05) was also between both fish species.After the fourth freeze-thaw cycle,surimi from both carp species lost their original color.%为了解反复冻融对淡水冷冻鱼糜品质变化的影响,本实验以草鱼和鲤鱼冷冻鱼糜为研究对象,通过测定二者在反复冷冻-解冻后的色泽、蒸煮损失、持水性、剪切力和硫代巴比妥酸值等指标,分析冷冻鱼糜冷冻贮存4个月过程中,期间反复冻融4次后其品质的变化。结果表明:随着冻融次数的增加,两种鱼糜的蒸煮损失均显著增加(P〈0.05),持水性显著降低(P〈0.05),而两种鱼之间差异不显著。草鱼冷冻鱼糜的剪切力随着冻融次数的增加直线式下降;第1次冻融,鲤鱼鱼糜蛋白变性收缩,剪切力提高,之后随着冻融次数的增加剪切力下降。反复冻融促进了两种冷冻鱼糜的脂肪氧化,TBARS值显著增加(P〈0.05),且组间差异也显著(P〈0.05)。

  11. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  12. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  13. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  14. Effects of temperature on auditory sensitivity in eurythermal fishes: common carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae versus Wels catfish Silurus glanis (family Siluridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Pia Maiditsch

    Full Text Available In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders.Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C. Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average.The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical species.

  15. Acute toxication of deltamethrin results in activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and up-regulation of caspase 3, iNOS gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harun; Altun, Serdar; Özdemir, Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that protects agricultural yields, including crops, fruits, and vegetables from insect-pests. It is known that deltamethrin toxication leads to metabolic disorders and has detrimental effects on the brain and liver in different organisms. However, the harmful effects of deltamethrin toxication on aquatic animals remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of deltamethrin toxication by performing a histopathological examination, an immunofluorescence assay, and a qRT-PCR on common carp. We observed that a low-dose (0.04μM) and a high-dose (0.08μM) of deltamethrin exposure caused lamellar cells hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in the gills, hyperemia, diffuse hydropic degenerations and focal necrosis in the hepatocytes, necrotic changes in the neurons, and also induced activation of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the gills, liver, and brain depending on the exposure time (24h, 48h, 72h and 96h). In addition, deltamethrin toxication caused the up-regulation of caspase-3 and the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) of the gene expression depending on the dose (0.04μM and 0.08μM) and the exposure time in the brain (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Our results indicated that long-term deltamethrin exposure could lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis on the different organs in common carp. Thus, deltamethrin toxication is dangerous for common carp populations, and the usage of deltamethrin should be controlled and restricted in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF LOW PH ON BLOOD ELECTROLYTE OF THE COMMON CARP%低pH对鲤鱼血液电解质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玲; 卢健民; 蔺玉华; 夏重志; 战培荣

    2000-01-01

    本文通过对鲤鱼血液中K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Cl-、PO3-4等离子浓度的测定,初步探讨了水环境中低pH水平对鲤鱼血液电解质平衡的影响。结果显示:鲤鱼在低pH水平环境条件下,血清中电解质的平衡受到影响,在本试验中,K+的含量明显高于正常水平,Na+的含量明显低于正常值,而对Ca2+、Mg2+的影响无显著变化规律。%In this research report,by determining the concentration of the K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Cl-、PO3-4 and etc in Common carp blood,we just preliminarily study into how low pH level affects the balance of electrolyte in common carp blood under water circumstances.The results show that when common carps are in the condition of low pH circumstances,the balance of electrolyte in serum is affected.In the experiments,the conrt of K+ was evidently higher than the normal level;the content of Na+ was evidently lower than the normal level.But there was no evident law of the changes of Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,PO3-4 etc,that were caused by low pH level.

  17. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  18. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  19. Expression pattern of potential biomarker genes related to growth, ion regulation and stress in response to ammonia exposure, food deprivation and exercise in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Diricx, Marjan; Chan, Lai Pong; Liew, Hon Jung; Kumar, Vikas; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-10-15

    Waterborne ammonia has become a persistent pollutant of aquatic habitats. During certain periods (e.g. winter), food deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural water. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by their genes. In this present study, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression patterns of potential biomarker genes controlling growth, ion regulation and stress responses in common carp subjected to elevated ammonia (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and fasting (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Both feeding groups of fish were exposed to high environment ammonia (HEA) for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days, and were sampled after performing swimming at different speeds (routine versus exhaustive). Results show that the activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an important branchial ion regulatory enzyme, was increased after 4-10 days of exposure. Effect of HEA was also evident on expression patterns of other ion-regulatory hormone and receptor genes; prolactin and cortisol receptor mRNA level(s) were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively after 4, 10 and 21 days. Starvation and exhaustive swimming, the additional challenges in present study significantly further enhanced the HEA effect on the expression of these two genes. mRNA transcript of growth regulating hormone and receptor genes such as Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone receptor were reduced in response to HEA and the effect of ammonia was exacerbated in starved fish, with levels that were remarkably reduced compared to fed exposed fish. However, the expression of the growth

  20. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  1. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem = Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Aline Veiverberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor degordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflowermeal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was higher

  2. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  3. Hepatocytes as in vitro test system to investigate metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed rainbow trout and common carp: Comparison between in vivo and in vitro and across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Ina; Köster, Jessica; Segner, Helmut; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2016-09-01

    In vitro tools using isolated primary fish hepatocytes have been proposed as a useful model to study the hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics in fish. In order to evaluate the potential of in vitro fish hepatocyte assays to provide information on in vivo metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish, the present study addressed the following questions: Are in vitro and in vivo metabolite patterns comparable? Are species specific differences of metabolite patterns in vivo reflected in vitro? Are metabolite patterns obtained from cryopreserved hepatocytes comparable to those from freshly isolated cells? Rainbow trout and common carp were dosed orally with feed containing the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) for 14days. In parallel, in vitro incubations using suspensions of freshly isolated or cryopreserved primary hepatocytes obtained from both species were performed. In vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with authentic standards supported by HPLC-MS. Comparable metabolite patterns from a qualitative perspective were observed in liver in vivo and in hepatocyte suspensions in vitro. Species specific differences of MXC metabolite patterns observed between rainbow trout and common carp in vivo were well reflected by experiments with hepatocytes in vitro. Finally, cryopreserved hepatocytes produced comparable metabolite patterns to freshly isolated cells. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro hepatocyte assay could be used to identify metabolite patterns of pesticides in farmed fish and could thus serve as a valuable tool to support in vivo studies as required for pesticides approval according to the EU regulation 1107.

  4. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians.

  5. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Mark D.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Bottom, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010–2012). We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity. PMID:27695094

  6. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  7. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  8. 饲料中添加乳酸杆菌对幼建鲤生长性能和消化吸收功能的影响%Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum Supplementation on Growth Performance, Digestive and Absorptive Function of Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘羽; 冯琳; 陈岗富; 刘扬; 吴培; 周小秋

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲料中添加乳酸杆菌对幼建鲤生长性能和消化吸收功能的影响.选择平均体重为(22.35±0.06)g的健康幼建鲤720尾,随机分成6组,每组设3个重复,每个重复40尾,分别饲喂乳酸杆菌含量为0(对照组)、0.45×107、0.91×107、1.31×107、2.14×10 7和2.40×107 cfu/kg的试验饲料80 d.结果表明,各乳酸杆菌组的末重、增重率和摄食量均显著或极显著高于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01).当乳酸杆菌含量>0.45×107 cfu/kg时,幼建鲤蛋白质沉积率和脂肪沉积率均极显著提高(P<0.01);当乳酸杆菌含量>0.91×107 cfu/kg时,幼建鲤灰分沉积率极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).饲料中添加乳酸杆菌可以显著或极显著提高幼建鲤肝胰脏和肠重、肝胰脏和肠蛋白质含量以及前、中、后肠皱襞高度(P <0.05或P<0.01).当乳酸杆菌含量>0.45×107 cfu/kg时,肠道糜蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性极显著升高(P<0.01);当乳酸杆菌含量>0.91×107 cfu/kg时,肠道胰蛋白酶活性显著升高(P<0.05).对照组前、中、后肠碱性磷酸酶、Na+,K+-ATP酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶以及全肠肌酸激酶活性显著或极显著低于各乳酸杆菌组(P<0.05或P<0.01).由此得出,饲料中添加乳酸杆菌可以促进幼建鲤的生长,同时促进其消化器官的生长发育,提高幼建鲤的消化和吸收能力.以幼建鲤增重率为标识,根据折线法确定的乳酸杆菌最适添加量为0.99×107 cfu/kg.%The experiment was aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum supplementation on growth performance, digestive and absorptive function of juvenile Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In 80 days of feeding trial, a total of 720 juvenile Jian carp with average body weight of (22.35 ±0.06) g were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 3 replicates per group and 40 fish per replicate. The fish in the 6 groups were fed 6 experimental diets containing graded levels

  9. Viability of male gametes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

  10. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  11. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

    2011-03-01

    The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 μg/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 μg/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 μg/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish.

  12. Cloning and Expression of Rhesus Glycoprotein Genes in Tissues in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)%鲤(Cyprinus carpio)Rh糖蛋白家族基因的克隆与组织mRNA表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓丽; 位莹莹; 徐奇友

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of ammonia metabolism in fish, cDNA of three Rhesus glycoprotein genes (Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg1) were cloned and sequenced in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and the amino acids sequences of the three Rh genes was compared with human Rh genes. Phylogenetic tree revealed that the Rh genes of common carp had close relationship with Rh genes of zebra fish (Danio rerio). The expressions of Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg1 were found all significantly higher in gill than in any other tissue. In gill tissue, the expression of Rhbg gene was extremely higher than Rhag and Rhcg1 gene. These findings indicated that Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg1 gene maybe play an important role in ammonia metabolism in common carp, especially the Rhbg gene while Rhbg gene may be the major transporter of ammonia.%为了研究鱼类氨代谢机制,克隆了鲤(Cyprinus carpio)Rh糖蛋白家族的Rhag、Rhbg、Rhcg1基因的cDNA全序列,与人类Rh基因的氨基酸序列比对结果显示,鲤Rh糖蛋白保守性较高。系统分析表明,鲤3个Rh基因与斑马鱼(Danio rerio)Rh基因的亲缘关系较近。Rhag、Rhbg、Rhcg1基因在鲤鳃组织中表达较高,而在其它组织表达的相对量极低。比较3个基因在鳃组织的表达,Rhbg的表达量极显著高于其它2个基因。这一结果预示Rhag、Rhbg、Rhcg1与鲤的氨代谢密切相关,尤其是Rhbg基因,可能是鲤氨代谢的重要因子。

  13. 苯丙氨酸缺乏幼建鲤的病理组织学观察及抗氧化能力变化%Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian) with Phenylalanine Deficiency:Observation of Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 周小秋

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of phenylalanine deficiency on histopathological changes and antioxidant ability of juvenile Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 400 juvenile Jian carp with an average body weight of (7. 53 ±0. 01) g were randomly divided into 2 groups with 4 replicates per group and 50 fish per replicate, and the fish in the 2 groups were fed with diets containing 1. 9 (deficiency group) and 10. 9 g/kg (control group) phenylalanine, respectively. The experiment lasted for 60 days. The results showed as follows: phenylalanine deficiency resulted in juvenile Jian carp tailfin upsweep; mortification and exfoliation of intestinal epithelium cell, and hydrops of lamina propria; vacuolar degeneration of hepato-cyte; swelling of pancreatic gland cell and zymogen granule reduction in pancreatic gland acinus; ferrugination ferroheme deposition of spleen; carcoplasm solidification, dissolution or fragmentation of muscle fiber; renal glomerulus hyperemia and intumescence of hind kidney, and lumens slightly disfiguration; blood capillary hy-peremia, dissolution and exfoliation as well as cartilage disappear of gill flake. Moreover, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content and free radical-scavenging ability in serum were decreased. The results indicate that phenylalanine deficiency can induce pathological injure of tissues and organs at different degree, as well as decrease antioxidant ability of juvenile Jian carp.%本试验旨在研究苯丙氨酸缺乏对幼建鲤组织器官病理变化和抗氧化能力的影响.将平均体重为(7.53±0.01)g的幼建鲤随机分为2组(每组4个重复,每个重复50尾鱼),分别饲喂苯丙氨酸含量为1.9(缺乏组)和10.9 g/kg(对照组)的试验饲料60 d.结果表明:苯丙氨酸缺乏引起幼建鲤尾鳍向上弯曲;肠上皮细胞坏死、脱落,肠黏膜固有层水肿;肝细胞空泡变性

  14. Comparative study of ß-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Pietretti, D.; Wiegertjes, G. F.;

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role...... in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single......-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by β-glucans in head...

  15. AGE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE SYMBIOCENOSES OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA AND SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX IN FISH PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zaichenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiocenoses of grass carp and silver carp in fish ponds. Methodology. The work was performed at Belotserkovskoy hydrobiological station, located on the river Ros within Bila Tserkva. The objects of the study were symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp of different age groups (from yearlings to age-5 fish. Fish underwent partial parasitological dissection using generally accepted methods. Findings. The age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiotic communitues of grass carp and silver carp were investigated during different seasons of one year. The effect of different factors on the formation of symbiotic communities have been analyzed. Different species of symbiotic organisms were characterized by different temperature preferences (Peritrcha have the highest rates of invasion in the summer. The distribution of symbionts depend on the way of their transmission. Some species of protista, monogenea and parasitic crustaceans infect the host during their high density (wintering or spawning. Other species of symbiotic organisms infect the host by nutritional way, therefore the invasion rates increase with the intensity of feeding. The differences in symbiotic community structure of fish of different age group are related to the differences in species biology. The composition of symbiotic communities of fish of different age groups contain symbiotic organisms that do not depend on the host age (metacercaria of Diplostomum, some Protista; species that more rapidly infect fish juveniles (some species of ciliates, cestoda – B. acheilognathi and species that predominantly infect older age group (monogenea, parasitic crustaceans. Originality. For the first time, we performed complex investigations of symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp in view of the specificity of their biology and during different seasons. Practical value. The results of the work can be

  16. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonino-Infante, José L; Claireaux, Guy; Ernande, Bruno; Jolivet, Aurélie; Quazuguel, Patrick; Sévère, Armelle; Huelvan, Christine; Mazurais, David

    2013-05-07

    An individual's environmental history may have delayed effects on its physiology and life history at later stages in life because of irreversible plastic responses of early ontogenesis to environmental conditions. We chose a marine fish, the common sole, as a model species to study these effects, because it inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes. We tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. We thus examined the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes. Elevated temperature and better trophic conditions had a positive effect on larval growth and developmental rates; warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage. The latter suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages. We hypothesize that an irreversible plastic response to temperature occurred during early ontogeny that allowed adaptive regulation of metabolic rates and/or oxygen demand with long-lasting effects. These results could deeply affect predictions about impacts of global warming and eutrophication on marine organisms.

  17. 盐碱池塘养殖鲤肠道菌群的分子分析%Molecular Analysis of Intestinal Microflora in Common Carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) from Saline-alkali Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进强; 刘哲; 王建福; 蔡原; 冯志云

    2013-01-01

    为了了解盐碱池塘养殖鲤肠道细菌群落组成及多样性,提取鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)肠道细菌基因组DNA,选用细菌通用引物对16S rRNA基因进行了PCR扩增,构建了细菌16S rRNA基因克隆文库.通过对阳性克隆子进行限制性片段长度多态性分析(RFLP),选出有代表性的克隆子进行测序、BLAST比对分析和构建系统发育树.本研究从16S rRNA基因文库中共筛选出176个阳性克隆,经RFLP分析得到28个不同分类操作单元(operational taxonomic unite,OTU)(GenBank登录号:JX262557~JX262584),文库覆盖度为88.6%.16S rRNA序列系统发育分析发现,盐碱塘养殖鲤肠道细菌归属于变形细菌门(Proteobacteria)(包含Alpha和Gamma亚群)、厚壁细菌门(Firmicutes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)和梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria)4个门,分别占克隆总数的89.9%、7.9%、1.1%和1.1%.其中,变形细菌门的α-变形菌纲(占克隆总数的88.1%)为优势类群,气单胞菌属为优势菌属.本研究揭示了盐碱池塘养殖条件下健康鲤肠道细菌群落组成.%In order to investigate composition and diversity of intestinal bacteria of common carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in saline-alkaline ponds,the 16S rRNA genes were amplified from the total DNA of intestinal bacteria in common carp by PCR with bacteria-specific primers and a clone library was constructed.Positive clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP),and the representative clones with unique patterns were sequenced,BLAST and then constructed phylogenetic tree.A total of 28 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)(GenBank accession No.JX262557~JX262584) were sequenced from 176 clones of the clone library.The clones coverage value (C=88.6%) and rarefaction analysis both showed that the clone library covered the majority intestinal bacteria.Sequence alignment showed that the most bacteria exhibited high similarity (>98%) with known bacterial 16S rRNA genes retrieved from

  18. 高水平维生素E对幼建鲤生长性能和消化吸收功能的影响%High Levels of Dietary Vitamin E Affect Growth Performance,Digestive and Absorptive Function of Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍曦; 罗辉; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 周小秋

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was aimed to investigate the effects of high levels of dietary vitamin E on growth performance, digestive and absorptive function of juvenile Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In a 60-day feeding trial, a total of 1 200 juvenile Jian carp with an average body weight of (9. 46 ±0. 03) g were randomly divided into 8 groups with 3 replicates per group and 50 fish per replicate. The fish in the 8 groups were fed with experimental diets containing graded levels of vitamin E: 7, 107, 757, 1 007, 1 257, 1 507, 1 757 and 2 007 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed as follows: with vitamin E level increasing, the weight gain, feed intake, protein production value, lipid production value, ash production value, hepatopancreas weight, hepatopancreas protein content, intestine weight, intestine protein content, and the activities of tryp-sin, chymotrypsin, lipase, alkaline phosphatase and Na+ , K+ -ATPase in intestinal tract of juvenile Jian carp were firstly increased and then decreased, and the highest values of above indices were found in the group with the diet containing 1 257 mg/kg vitamin E, while the feed conversion ratio showed an opposite trend. Compared with the NRC recommendation requirement group (the group with the diet containing 107 mg/kg vitamin E), the folds height in foregut, midgut and hindgut of juvenile Jian carp in the group with the diet containing 1 257 mg/kg vitamin E was increased by 10. 85% ( P 0. 05) and 6. 24% (P <0.05) , respectively. It is concluded that suitable high level of vitamin E can promote the growth, improve the growth and development of digestive organs and enhance the digestive and absorptive function of juvenile Jian carp. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of weight gain, the dietary vitamin E requirement of juvenile Jian carp is estimated to be 1 106 mg/kg.%本试验旨在研究饲料中高水平维生素E对幼建鲤生长性能和消化吸收功能的影响.选用l 200尾平均体重(9.46±0.03)g

  19. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  20. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  1. Habitat suitability for juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) in the Bay of Biscay (France): A quantitative description using indicators based on epibenthic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Olivier; Baulier, Loîc; Cloarec, Aurélie; Martin, Jocelyne; Le Loc'h, François; Désaunay, Yves

    2007-02-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution of young-of-the-year common sole based on beam trawl surveys conducted in late summer in the coastal and estuarine parts of the Bay of Biscay (France). Previous studies showed that habitat suitability for juvenile common sole varies according to physical factors and notably bathymetry and sediment structure. Nevertheless, the use of these descriptors alone to model habitat suitability led to considerable unexplained variability in juvenile common sole distribution. Hence, the epibenthic macro- and megafauna collected during beam trawl surveys was taken into account to improve models of habitat suitability for these juvenile flatfish. Ecotrophic guilds based on life traits (behaviour, mobility and feeding) were used to develop generic indicators of trawled benthic fauna. These synthetic descriptors were used in generalized linear models of habitat suitability in order to characterize the distribution of juvenile common sole. This approach significantly improved the description based on physical descriptors and allowed demonstrating that young common sole distribution is related to the density of trawled deposit and suspension feeders and also of carnivorous organisms. These models provide a reliable method to develop indicators of nursery habitat suitability from trawl survey data with the aim of assessing and surveying their quality.

  2. 水温和饲料蛋白质水平对松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道消化酶活性的影响%Effects of Water Temperature and Dietary Protein Level on Intestinal Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Songpu Mirror Carp (Cyprinus specularis Songpu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金凤; 赵志刚; 罗亮; 徐奇友

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究水温和饲料蛋白质水平对松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus specularis Songpu)幼鱼肠道消化酶活性的影响.选取平均体重为(10.11±1.07)g的松浦镜鲤幼鱼1350尾,随机分成15组,每组3个重复,每个重复30尾鱼.试验鱼在不同水温(18、23和28℃)下饲喂不同蛋白质水平(30.0%、32.0%、34.0%、36.0%和38.0%)的5种饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明:水温对松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或P<0.01).饲料蛋白质水平对前肠、中肠和后肠蛋白酶以及前肠淀粉酶活性有显著或极显著影响(P<0.05或P<0.01).除了前肠蛋白酶活性外,水温和饲料蛋白质水平的交互作用对各肠段蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均未产生显著影响(P>0.05).同一水温下,随饲料蛋白质水平的升高,肠道蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势;同一饲料蛋白质水平下,肠道蛋白酶和淀粉酶活性随水温升高而升高,而脂肪酶活性则随水温的升高而降低.由此得出,水温和饲料蛋白质水平与松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道消化酶活性关系密切;根据肠道蛋白酶活性,松浦镜鲤幼鱼最佳饲料蛋白质水平在水温18℃下为35.83% ~ 36.96%,23℃下为37.40%~39.58%,28℃下为36.79% ~39.99%.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water temperature and dietary protein level on intestinal digestive enzyme activities of juvenile Songpu mirror carp ( Cyprinus specularis Songpu). A total of 1 350 juvenile Songpu mirror carp with an average body weight of (10.11 ±1. 07) g were randomly assigned to 15 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. Juvenile Songpu mirror carp were fed five diets containing 30. 0% , 32. 0% , 34. 0% , 36. 0% and 38. 0% protein, respectively, and reared at different water temperatures (18, 23 and 28 ℃) for 60 days. The results

  3. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  4. Four Myxobolus spp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from the gill lamellae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) in the western part of Japan, with the description of three new species (M. tanakai n. sp., M. paratoyamai n. sp., and M. ginbuna n. sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eigo; Kasai, Akihiro; Tomochi, Hisayuki; Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-07-05

    Approximately three dozen Myxobolus spp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) have been described to parasitize the gills of carp of the genera Cyprinus and Carassius. Hitherto, these fish were often introduced to temperate waters worldwide as food and ornamental fish from Asia, their place of origin. The present study examined the myxosporean infection of seven common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and seven Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) collected from the Fushinogawa River around the university in Yamaguchi City, Japan, during the period April 2015 to October 2016. In total, four Myxobolus spp. were detected in the gill lamellae of Cy. carpio and Ca. langsdorfii, i.e., two species in each species of fish. The four species were characterized morphologically and genetically based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). A new species, Myxobolus tanakai n. sp., from four individuals of Cy. carpio had an elongated pyriform spore (15.4-18.6 μm by 6.3-8.4 μm), resembling the spore shape of Myxobolus koi from Cy. carpio or Carassius auratus in Japan, China, and the USA, but bigger than it (13.2-15.6 μm by 6.6-7.8 μm). The new species formed a clade with M. koi but was distinct from any of the isolates of this species (nucleotide identities less than 98.6%). The second new species, Myxobolus paratoyamai n. sp., from a single Cy. carpio with its one prominent and one rudimentary polar capsule closely resembled the spore morphology of Myxobolus toyamai from Cy. carpio or Carassius gibelio in Japan, China, and the USA. However, the isolate formed a clade with Myxobolus longisporus from Cy. rubrofuscus in China rather than with M. toyamai isolates (nucleotide identities less than 97.9% with known species). Another new species, Myxobolus ginbuna n. sp., from two individuals of Ca. langsdorfii had similar-shaped spores to Myxobolus wulii, but the dimensions were smaller (11.7-13.9 μm by 8.5-9.8 μm vs. 17.6-18.5 μm by 8.9-10.0 μm). This new species

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID LEVELS ON SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES, IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPABILITY OF JUVENILE FURONG CRUCIAN CARP (FURONG CARP♀× RED CRUCIAN CARP♂)%饲料脂肪水平对芙蓉鲤鲫幼鱼血清生化指标、免疫反应及抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志刚; 王金龙; 伍远安; 李传武; 李绍明; 刘文革

    2016-01-01

    To investigate effects of dietary lipids on serum biochemical indices, immunity, and antioxidant capability of juvenile Furong crucian carp (Furong carp♀× red crucian carp♂) [mean initial body weight, (2.04±0.01) g], five isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated with increasing lipid levels (2.50%, 4.39%, 6.61%, 8.42%and 10.81%lipid) using fish oil as the lipid source to feed triplicate groups of fish for 60 days. The results showed that with the increase of dietary lipid level, weight gain rate (WGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) significantly increased and then decreased, and the maximum of WGR and PER were found in the 6.61%lipid group (P0.05). The im-munoglobulin M (Ig M) content, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), hepatic SOD activity and total antioxidant capa-city (T-AOC) significantly increased and then decreased with increasing dietary lipid levels (P0.05). These results suggest that proper die-tary lipid level can improve the health of Furong crucian carp, but excess dietary lipid may exert adverse effects. Based on the second-order regression analysis of WGR, the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile furong crucian carp was 6.94%.%为研究饲料脂肪水平对芙蓉鲤鲫(Furong crucian carp)幼鱼[初始体重,(2.04±0.01) g]血清生化指标、免疫指标及抗氧化能力的影响,以鱼油为主要脂肪源,配制五种脂肪水平分别为2.50%、4.39%、6.61%、8.42%和10.81%的等氮实验饲料。实验在室内循环水养殖系统中进行,每种饲料3个重复,每个重复随机放养30尾芙蓉鲤鲫,养殖周期为60d。结果显示:随着饲料中脂肪水平的升高,芙蓉鲤鲫增重率和蛋白质效率呈现先显著升高后显著降低的趋势(P0.05)。芙蓉鲤鲫血清免疫球蛋白M (IgM)含量、血清和肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、肝胰脏总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)随脂肪水平增加先升高后下降(P0.05)。研究结果表明,在饲料中适宜的脂肪添加有

  6. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  7. Correlation Analysis of Microsatellite DNA Markers Related to Muscular Quality Traits in Mirror Common Carp(Cyprinus carpio L.)%镜鲤肌肉品质性状的微卫星标记分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴景; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 吕伟华; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    A total of 233 microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genotypes in the reference panel contained 107 individuals obtained from mirror common carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) strain, and two muscle quality traits including fat content and protein content were tested using GLM (General Linear Model) single marker of the regression. The determination of the threshold values by 10000 Permutation test revealed that 17 markers had significant correlation (P < 0.05) with the two traits, in which HLJ030, HLJ2560, HLJ3633 and HLJ3554 had very significant correlation with muscle protein content(P<0.01). In addition, the genotypes of these cor-relative loci captured were determined by Daucan’s in SPSS 17.0 software. These functional markers and genotypes related to the traits may provide the efficient evidence for improving muscle quality trait in the common carp.%利用233个微卫星标记检测镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)一个家系的107尾个体的基因型,采用GLM方法对肌肉脂肪含量和蛋白质含量4种经济性状进行单标记回归分析。 Permutation检验结果显示:有17个标记分别与肌肉脂肪和蛋白质含量具有显著相关性(P<0.05),其中,有4个标记(HLJ030、HLJ2560、HLJ3633,和HLJ3554)与肌肉蛋白质含量呈极显著相关(P<0.01),表明这些标记与性状间可能存在连锁关系。对同一标记不同基因型之间进行了多重比较,找到了与这两种性状相关的优势基因型,为鲤的肌肉品质性状选育提供了有效的依据。

  8. Exposure to sub-acute doses of fipronil and buprofezin in combination or alone induces biochemical, hematological, histopathological and genotoxic damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Bibi, Asia; Shahid, Sana; Ghazanfar, Madiha

    2016-10-01

    Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level. Results obtained in treated fish were compared statistically with those of control non-treated fish and also among treatment groups. Significance level was p<0.05. Compared to control, serum total protein and globulin concentrations decreased significantly (p<0.0001) in fish treated with FP; while albumin concentration remained unaltered with all treatments. Glucose concentration decreased significantly (p<0.002) in fish treated with FP. In contrast, combined FP+BPFN treatment and BPFN treatment caused insignificant elevation of glucose concentration. Hematological assessment demonstrated significant decrease in red blood cell and thrombocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit percent; while white blood cell count showed an increase in all treatment groups (p<0.0001). Blood smears from pesticide treated fish revealed aberrant erythrocyte morphologies which included necrosis, micronuclear formation and hyperchromatosis. DNA laddering assay carried out on whole blood demonstrated excessive smear formation in combined FP+BPFN and BPFN treatment groups but no smear formation was noticeable in FP treated fish. Compared to control, whole blood DNA content increased significantly in the combined FP+BPFN and BPFN treatment groups (p<0.001 and p<0.009). With all treatments histopathological changes observed in the gills were: epithelial uplifting and necrosis of lamellae

  9. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  10. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host.

  11. 鲤免疫应答相关基因的克隆与鉴定%Cloning and identification of immune response related genes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰培金; 王文东; 李伟; 卢强

    2011-01-01

    mRNA differential-display reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) is an effective and quick method to study gene different expression in the same cell under different physiological status and different stages of growth and development. In order to study immune response related genes in carp leucocytes, fluorescence DDRT-PCR was used to compare mRNA from leucocytes from peripheral blood of carp with LPA (50μg/mL), ConA (SO μg/mL) and PHA (50 μg/mL) stimulation and non mitogens stimulation in different time such as 4h, 12h and 24h.The results as following, 92 different fragments were obtained altogether, of which the re-amplified fragments were found in 87 different cDNAs and the re-amplification rate was 94.6%. Cloning and PCR testing showed that 81 fragments were positive and the positive rate was 93.1%. Analysis with BLAST and DNATools software revealed 3 cDNA fragments were immune response related genes which encoded proteasome activator complex PA28α subunit, translation elongation factor-1α(EF-1α) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp-13) of common carp. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the genes encoded by these different fragments were involved in various functions such as MHC class I antigen, signal transduction, translational control, apop-tosis, degradation of the extracellular matrix. It is essential for further studying the mechanisms of these differentially expressed genes in fish.%为研究鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)白细胞免疫应答相关的分子机理,以体外培养的鲤外周血白细胞为实验材料,用荧光标记的mRNA差异显示(FluoroDDRT-PCR)技术,研究丝裂原(50 μg/mL LPS、50 μg/mL PHA和50 μg/mLConA)在刺激白细胞4、12和24 h内诱导白细胞免疫应答相关基因的mRNA表达差异,共获得92个差异片段,其中87个片段有再扩增产物,再扩增率为94.6%;将差异片段克隆,经PCR鉴定,获得81个阳性克隆,鉴定率为93.1%;差异片段序列同源性功能分析

  12. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-kai; Yu, Ju-hua; Xu, Pao; Li, Jian-lin; Li, Hong-xia; Ren, Hong-tao

    2012-10-01

    Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) is an important economic fish species cultured in China. In this report, we performed a systematic analysis to identify an appropriate housekeeping (HK) gene for the study of gene expression in Jian carp. For this purpose, partial DNA sequences of four potential candidate genes (elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), beta-actin (ACTB), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were isolated, and their expression levels were studied using RNA extracted from nine tissues (forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, fore-intestine, hind-intestine, ovary, muscle, heart, kidney) in juvenile and adult Jian carp. Gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and expression stability was evaluated by comparing the coefficients of variation (CV) of the Ct values. The results showed that EF-1α was the most suitable HK gene in all tissues of juvenile and adult Jian carp. However, at distinct juvenile and adult developmental stages, there was not a single optimal gene for normalization of expression levels in all tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene only in forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, heart, and kidney. These results provide data that can be expected to aid gene expression analysis in Jian carp research, but underline the importance of identifying the optimal HK gene for each new experimental paradigm.

  13. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Fish raised in aquaculture ponds may get infected with fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) during the nursing stage. Freshwater snails serve as intermediate hosts for FZT and we wanted to explore the possibility of controlling snails by stocking nursery ponds with a few juvenile specimens...... offered snails as food; the odds of survival of fry from tanks with medium sized and large black carp was 5.6% and 39.9%, respectively of that of fry in tanks with small sized black carp. Since the large black carp also consumed fewer snails than medium sized fish, we believe that large specimens were...... stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  14. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  15. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  16. Quality of coastal and estuarine essential fish habitats: estimations based on the size of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, O.; Holley, J.; Guérault, D.; Désaunay, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Survival and growth of early fish stages are maximal in coastal and estuarine habitats where natural shallow areas serve as nurseries for a variety of widely distributed species on the continental shelf. Processes occurring in these nursery grounds during the juvenile stage affect growth and may be important in regulating the year-class strength of fishes and population size. The need, therefore, exists to protect these essential fish habitats hence to develop indicators to estimate their quality. The purpose of the present study was to use the growth of juvenile sole as a means of comparing the quality of coastal and estuarine nursery habitats in the Bay of Biscay (France). These sole nurseries were clearly identified from studies based on trawl surveys carried out during the last two decades. The size of 1-group juveniles at the end of their second summer, as estimated from these surveys, is an indicator of growth in these habitats during the juvenile phase and can be used to compare habitat quality. A model taking into account the role of seawater temperature in spatial and interannual variations of juvenile size was developed to compare growth performance in the different nursery sectors. This study shows that the size of juvenile sole after two summers of life is not density-dependent, probably because the size of the population adapts to habitat capacity after high mortality during early-juvenile stages. Size is on one hand positively related to temperature and on the other hand higher in estuarine than in non-estuarine habitats. This high growth potential of juvenile fish in estuarine areas confirms the very important role played by estuaries as nursery grounds and the essential ecological interest of these limited areas in spite of their low water quality. If a general conclusion on habitat quality is to be reached about studies based on the growth of juvenile fish, it is necessary to use not only an integrative indicator of growth, like size

  17. Isolation and expression analysis of Sox10 gene relating body color variation in Oujiang color common carp%瓯江彩鲤体色相关基因Sox10的分离与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康乐; 胡建尊; 颜标; 王成辉

    2013-01-01

    The numerous and diverse body color of fish was not only excellent materials to study the molecular mechanism of body color and body color inherence, body color evolution, and it was also an ideal model to diagnosis disease. Now, five basic and stable body color patterns have existed in Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), namely“Quanhong”,“Dahua”,“Mahua”,“Fenyu”and“Fenhua”, respectively. This fish can be a very good model and material for studying body color inheritance. At the melanin synthesis signaling pathway, skin color was regulated by a small group genes. Sox10 gene plays an important role in the formation of melanin, it regulates the birth, migration and differentiation of melanin. However, the effect of Sox10 gene on body color has not been reported. Four healthy lines of Oujiang color carp (“Quanhong”, “Dahua”, “Fenyu”,“Fenhua”) were collected from the provincial farm of the Zhejiang. Then the skin, muscle, eye, gill, kidney, swim bladder, heart, and liver were taken out, furthermore, the black skin and red skin were sampled separately of“Dahua”, the same with black skin and white skin of“fenhua”. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol, and reverse transcribed into the First-strand cDNA. Primers were designed by Primer5 program, and the right products were purified and sequenced. The obtained sequence was analyzed by Bioedit, Clustalw, Mega and other bioinformatics softwares. The total length of Sox10 gene cloned in Oujiang color common carp is 2 830 bp which contains 9 bp 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) and 1 375 bp 3’-UTR, and 1 446 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 481 amino acids. The phylogenetic analyses showed that there were 59%−94%similarities in amino acid sequence with some of previously reported other species. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the gene was highly expressed in skin, muscle, eyes and swim bladder, weakly expressed in gill and heart and no expression were found in

  18. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  19. EVALUATION OF THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic diseases in adults are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, and its early signs can be stated by the thickening of intima-media complex of common carotid arteries (CCA. This symptom is detected during ultrasound examination in 49% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus, in 24% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and in 13% of children with juvenile spondylarthritis. Besides, 36% of children with systemic lupus erythematosus and 17% — with systemic type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had structure changes of CCA wall. A dependence of these disorders on cholesterol and glucose levels in blood serum, overweight and Cushing syndrome, age, duration and activity of a disease, levels of ESR, C-reactive protein and white blood cells was not showed. Authors detected a correlation between the thickness of intima-media complex of CCA and hemostasis parameters.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, intima-media complex, ultrasound diagnostics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:64-69

  20. Effects of re-grading and re-weaning on growth, cannibalism of smaller-size juvenile yellowcheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa)%再次分级、驯食对小规格鳡生长、残食的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凡; 樊启学; 宗克金; 宋林; 张云龙; 彭聪; 胡培培; 赵巧娥

    2012-01-01

    Effects of re-grading and re-weaning on growth, size heterogeneity, cannibalism and survival of smaller - size juvenile yellowcheek carp, Elopichthys bambusa, were investigated in the 85 days feeding experiment. There were 5 groups which were fed with different feeding regimes. Fish in group A (the control group) was bigger, which were produced by first grading and weaning. Fish in group B, C, D and E produced by first grading and weaning were smaller, and rearing with the regime of re-grading ( B) , re-grading and re-weaning ( C) , re-weaning ( D) , and neither re-grading nor re-weaning (E). According to the size categories, juveniles in both group B and C were re -graded two subgroups, Bl and B2, C1 and C2. The results of present experiment were as follows; total length and body weight of juveniles in group A were higher than those in other groups during the experiment. Body weight was the lowest in group E at the end of the experiment SGR of body weight (55 ~ 139 DAH) was the lowest in group E. Total survival rate (55 ~ 139 DAH) was the highest in group A, the second in group B, and the lowest in group E. Total cannibalism rate (55 ~ 139 DAH) was the highest (63. 98% ) in group E, the next highest in group D. Initial coefficient of variation of body weight of juveniles exhibited a significant effect on total cannibalism rate ( P = 0. 001 ) , and the relationship between the two parameters could be explained by the line model y - 0. 5149x- 7. 7617 (r2 =0. 667). These results suggested that; re-grading and re-weaning were good for the survival of the smaller juveniles produced by first grading. However, the size of smaller juveniles produced by first grading, feeding with any regime in the present experiment, was still lower than the size of bigger juveniles.%研究了再次分级、驯食对初次分级产生的鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)幼鱼弱小群体(S群)生长、存活的影响.试验设5组,A组试验鱼取自初次分级并驯食后的大规格群(B群),

  1. 晶体苏氨酸和微囊苏氨酸对幼建鲤生长性能和消化吸收能力影响的比较研究%Crystalline and Microencapsulated Threonine in Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian): A Comparison of Their Effects on Growth Performance, and Nutrient Digestion and Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯琳; 彭艳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 姜维丹; 胡凯; 周小秋

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在通过60 d的饲养试验比较饲料中添加晶体苏氨酸和微囊苏氨酸对幼建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.Jian)生长性能和消化吸收能力的影响.选取平均初重为(13.61±0.02)g的健康幼建鲤300尾,随机分成2组,每组3个重复,每个重复50尾,分别饲喂在基础饲料中添加晶体苏氨酸和微囊苏氨酸的试验饲料,试验饲料中苏氨酸的有效含量均为1.25%.结果表明:微囊苏氨酸组幼建鲤的特定生长率(SGR)、摄食量(FI)、蛋白质沉积率(PPV)和脂肪沉积率(LPV)均显著高于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05);同时,微囊苏氨酸组幼建鲤的肝胰脏和肠重及蛋白质含量、肠长、肝体指数(HIS)和肠体指数(ISI)亦显著高于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05).微囊苏氨酸组幼建鲤的各肠段皱襞高度和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性以及中肠、后肠Na+,K+-ATP酶和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GT)活力均显著高于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05).微囊苏氨酸组肝胰脏和肠道胰蛋白酶以及肠道脂肪酶的活力均显著高于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05).微囊苏氨酸组肝胰脏和肌肉中谷草转氨酶(GOT)和谷丙转氨酶(GPT)活力以及血浆氨浓度显著低于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05),而血清中GOT活力则显著高于晶体苏氨酸组(P<0.05).体外溶解速率试验结果表明:晶体形式的L-苏氨酸在15 min内完全释放,而包被处理的微囊苏氨酸释放速率较慢,在120min后才完全释放.由此得出,幼建鲤对微囊苏氨酸的利用效果优于晶体苏氨酸;与晶体苏氨酸相比,微囊苏氨酸能有效提高幼建鲤对营养的消化吸收能力.%The effects of dietary crystalline threonine or microencapsulated threonine on growth performance, and nutrient digestion and absorption of juvenile Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) were investigated in the 60-day experiment. A total of 300 juvenile Jian carp with initial weight of (13.61 ±0. 02 ) g were randomly allocated to 2 groups with 3 replicates per

  2. Quantitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of rearing environment, tilapia and common carp cultured in earthen ponds and inhibitory activity of its lactic acid bacteria on fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Ngoufack Zambou, François; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the bacterial load of water, Nile Tilapia and common Carp intestines from earthen ponds, isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and assess their antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Following enumeration and isolation of microorganisms the antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates was evaluated. Taxonomic identification of selected antagonistic LAB strains was assessed, followed by partial characterisation of their antimicrobial metabolites. Results showed that high counts (>4 log c.f.u ml(-1) or 8 log c.f.u g(-1)) of total aerobic bacteria were recorded in pond waters and fish intestines. The microbiota were also found to be dominated by Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. LAB isolates (5.60%) exhibited potent direct and extracellular antimicrobial activity against the host-derived and non host-derived spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic isolates were identified and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was found as the predominant (42.85%) specie. The strains displayed the ability to produce lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative (Vibrio spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were produced by three L. lactis subsp. lactis strains. In this study, the LAB from the microbiota of fish and pond water showed potent antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage or pathogenic bacteria from the same host or ecological niche. The studied Cameroonian aquatic niche is an ideal source of antagonistic LAB that could be appropriate as new fish biopreservatives or disease control agents in aquaculture under tropical conditions in particular or worldwide in general.

  3. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  4. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element.

  5. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 2. Formation, bioaccumulation and elimination of hydroxylated metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschy, C., E-mail: cmunschy@ifremer.f [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The uptake, elimination and transformation of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, and then depurated over a five-month period. Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) PBDEs were determined in fish plasma exposed to PBDEs and compared to those obtained in control fish. While all MeO- and some OH- congeners identified in fish plasma were found to originate from non-metabolic sources, several OH- congeners, i.e., OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, were found to originate from fish metabolism. Among these, 4'-OH-BDE-49 was identified as a BDE-47 metabolite. Congener 4'-OH-BDE-101, identified here for the first time, may be the result of BDE-99 metabolic transformation. Our results unequivocally showed that PBDEs are metabolised in juvenile sole via the formation of OH- metabolites. However, this was not a major biotransformation route compared to biotransformation through debromination. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food showed the ability to biotransform PBDEs into hydroxylated metabolites; these meta-bolites accumulated in fish.

  6. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschy, C., E-mail: cmunschy@ifremer.f [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Olivier, N. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gastineau, O.; Le Bayon, N.; Buchet, V. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Adaptation, Reproduction and Nutrition of marine fish, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane (France)

    2011-01-15

    The uptake and elimination of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, then depurated over a five-month period. The results show that all of the studied PBDEs accumulate in fish tissues, including the higher brominated congener BDE-209. Several additional PBDE congeners were identified in the tissues of exposed fish, revealing PBDE transformation, mainly via debromination. The identified congeners originating from PBDE debromination include BDE-49 and BDE-202 and a series of unidentified tetra-, penta-, and hepta- BDEs. Contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AEs) were related to their hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow}) and influenced by PBDE biotransformation. Metabolism via debromination appears to be a major degradation route of PBDEs in juvenile sole in comparison to biotransformation into hydroxylated metabolites. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food accumulate PBDEs, including the higher brominated congeners, and have a debromination capacity.

  7. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  8. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  9. 借助斑马鱼EST数据库从鲤鱼微卫星序列中寻找蛋白编码基因%Searching for Protein-coding Genes Using Microsatellites in Common Carp by Comparing to Zebrafish EST Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉梅; 匡友谊; 梁利群; 鲁翠云; 何建国; 孙效文

    2008-01-01

    应用in sifico的方法,利用Blastu和Blastx搜索引擎,将鲤鱼微卫星序列与GenBank数据库进行同源序列比对.利用Blastn,将侧翼序列长度>50bp的875个鲤鱼微卫星序列与斑马鱼的EST数据库首先进行比对,结果找到了121个同源序列.随后采用Blastx搜索蛋白质数据库,有94个微卫星位点存在同源蛋白.除了33个假定和3个未知蛋白外,剩余的58个微卫星位点被成功地进行了功能注释,而且其中的7个位点已经定位在了鲤鱼连锁图谱上.另外,通过PCR-SSCP的方法,将两个与鲤鱼微卫星侧翼序列相匹配的斑马鱼EST序列开发成鲤鱼的STS标记,并将其中的一个标记HLJZe33定位到鲤鱼连锁图谱上.以上研究结果表明,通过比较基因组研究,模式生物斑马鱼的很多遗传和基因组资源都可以被利用到鲤鱼的基因组研究中.%In this study,an in silico approach was utilized to identify homologies existing between common carp microsatellite sequences and GenBank database using Biastn and Blastx searches.About 875 microsatellite sites with flanking sequences over 50bp of common carp were first compared to the zebrafish EST database.The results showed that 121 homologies were found using Blastn.Subsequent Blastx searches confirmed 94 sites recorded in the protein database.Except for 33 hypothetical proteins and three unknown proteins,seven out of 58 characterized proteins have been mapped to two linkage maps.In addition,two polymorphic STS markers were developed using matched zebrafish EST sequences by PCR-SSCP method,of which one marker HLJZe33 was mapped successfully.This study Was a pilot for comparative studies between common carp and zebrafish,and the results demonstrated that more genetic and genomic resources of zebrafish can be used for the genome research of common carp.

  10. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    presence of MP, the negative effect caused by high concentrations of Cr(VI) on the predatory performance was significantly reduced in L-est fish but not in M-est fish, and Cr(VI) concentrations higher than 3.9mg/l caused oxidative damage in L-est fish but not in M-est fish. The acclimatization and test conditions were similar for fish from the two estuaries and these ecosystems have environmental differences. Thus, long-term exposure to distinct environmental conditions in the natural habitat during previous developmental phases influenced the sensitivity and responses of juveniles to Cr(VI), therefore, we rejected hypothesis 3. Overall, the results of this study indicate toxicological interactions between MP and Cr(VI) highlighting the importance of further investigating the combined effects of MP and other common contaminants.

  11. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts

  12. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determin

  13. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  14. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  15. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2008-06-01

    The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  16. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  17. 维生素A对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响%Effects of vitamin A on growth performance,body composition and serum transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 文华; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究VA对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响,以确定草鱼饲料中VA适宜的添加量。【方法】采用酪蛋白和脱脂豆粕为蛋白源、白糊精为糖源、玉米胚芽油和大豆油为脂肪源的半纯化饲料作为基础饲料,配制VA水平为0(对照组),810,1 620,2 520,3 224,3 980,7 950,16 386IU/kg的8组试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(10.79±0.52)g的草鱼12周,每组3个重复,每重复40尾,试验结束后测算体质量增长率、特定生长率、饲料系数、鱼体营养成分以及血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性等指标。【结果】对照组的草鱼幼鱼,在试验后期有8.33%出现眼球突出、尾鳍充血的症状,添加VA试验组的草鱼未出现类似症状;饲料中VA含量在0~1 620IU/kg时,体质量增长率随饲料中VA增加而显著增加(P〈0.05),饲料中VA含量〉7 950IU/kg时,体质量增长率显著降低(P〈0.05);特定生长率的变化趋势与体质量增长率类似,而饲料系数变化趋势与体质量增长率相反;VA对草鱼成活率和全鱼水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分含量无显著性影响(P〉0.05);饲料中缺乏VA会显著降低血清中ALP的活性,同时显著提高GPT和GOT的活性(P〈0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,饲料中缺乏VA会引起草鱼幼鱼眼球突出、尾鳍充血和肝功能异常,饲料中添加适量的VA会促进草鱼的生长,降低饲料系数,但过量的VA会降低草鱼幼鱼的生长速度。对草鱼体质量增长率与饲料中VA含量进行折线回归分析,可知草鱼幼鱼获得最佳生长时对VA的需要量为1 653IU/kg,同时建议饲料中VA含量不宜超过7 950IU/kg。%【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the dietary vitamin A on growth,body composition and transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella),to determine optimal

  18. Management implications of broadband sound in modulating wild silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Brooke J.; Calfee, Robin D.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage, outcompete native species, and are notorious for their prolific and unusual jumping behavior. High densities of juvenile and adult (~25 kg) carp are known to jump up to 3 m above the water surface in response to moving watercraft. Broadband sound recorded from an outboard motor (100 hp at 32 km/hr) can modulate their behavior in captivity; however, the response of wild silver carp to broadband sound has yet to be determined. In this experiment, broadband sound (0.06–10 kHz) elicited jumping behavior from silver carp in the Spoon River near Havana, IL independent of boat movement, indicating acoustic stimulus alone is sufficient to induce jumping. Furthermore, the number of jumping fish decreased with subsequent sound exposures. Understanding silver carp jumping is not only important from a behavioral standpoint, it is also critical to determine effective techniques for controlling this harmful species, such as herding fish into a net for removal.

  19. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  20. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  1. Efeito da Niclosamida no Controle de Girinos de Anuros na Propagação de Pós-Larvas de Carpa Comum (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis Effect of the Niclosamida on the Control of Tadpole of Anurous in the Propagation of Post-Larvae of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Graeff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi testar a influência de um molusquicida (niclosamida no controle dos girinos, sem comprometer o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência da carpa comum na fase de desenvolvimento do ovo até a idade de 28 dias. Foram conduzidos seis experimentos, envolvendo seis fases de desenvolvimento dos girinos e peixes (ovo, 7, 12, 21, 27 e 34 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0,00; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; e 0,25 ppm de niclosamida e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 20 aquários de seis litros, sendo todos abastecidos até o início do experimento, quando então era interrompido o fluxo de água. A eficiência da niclosamida no período de fertilização e eclosão de ovos de girinos e carpa não ocorreu. Na primeira semana de vida, os níveis de 0,25; 0,20; e 0,10 ppm mostraram efeito sobre os girinos aos 48, 65 e 115 minutos após a aplicação do produto respectivamente, mas apresentaram-se sem efeito sobre as pós-larvas de carpa comum. A dosagem de 0,15 ppm de niclosamida, aos 27 dias, tendeu a provocar maior mortalidade de girinos, com maior sobrevivência de pós-larvas de carpa comum, e a de 0,10 ppm, o melhor resultado na idade de 21 dias das pós-larvas de carpa comum e girinos.The objective of the research was to test the effect of a molusquicida (Niclosamida in the tadpoles control and not to compromise the development and survival of common carps in the egg development until 28 days age. Six experiments were carried out and involved six tadpoles and fishes development phases (egg, 7, 12, 21, 27 and 34 days. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 ppm niclosamida and four replicates, was used. Post-larvae and tadpoles stayed together in a density of 100 units of each from a nursery production. Twenty aquariums of six liters were all supplied until the beginning of the experiment, when the water flow was

  2. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN THE COMMON CARP FROM THE DANJIANGKOU RESERVOIR,CHINA%丹江口水库鲤肠道寄生蠕虫群落结构与季节动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高典; 王桂堂; 吴山功; 邹红; 习丙文; 李文祥

    2012-01-01

    Change of the environment by natural barriers (e.g. lakes, mountain ranges) and/ or human activities (e.g. major roads, agriculture, dam) can lead to the difference on diversity and change of seasonal dynamics of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species in nature. In order to study the influence of characteristics on parasite communities in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, we investigated the infra- and component communities of intestinal helminths in the common carp Cyprinus carpio before the Middle Route of the South to North water Transfer Project was constructed in the Hanjiang River from February 2004 to November 2005. In investigation, a total of 11 species of intestinal helminths were recorded from 206 fish, including 3 digeneans, 5 nematodes, 2 acantho-cephalans and 1 cestode and the statistical analysis of infective status of helminth population and community were performed at the same time. The total prevalence was 45.63%, and the mean abundance of helminthes and the intensity of infection being 4.23±12.65 and 9.29±17.48 respectively. Among the 11 species sampled, Aspidogaster ijimai had the highest total prevalence (25.24%) and mean abundance (1.76±6.46), while Carassatrema lamellorchi had the highest mean intensity (25.00±46.68). The frequency distribution of helminths was over-dispersed in most of species as measured by the variance to mean ratio except that in low infective abundance, i.e. Cucullanus cyprini. The species diversity index of helminths communities was 4.63 as measured by Shanon-Wiener Index, and the species equitability index was 0.60. The analysis of seasonal dynamics of helminth community diversity showed that it possessed a fluctuant and irregular seasonal changes about helminth species composition and number. In common, each fish was infected with 1 to 4 species of helminths. In the helminth component communities, Aspidogaster ijimai was the dominant species, and the subdominant species

  3. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  4. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052 Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Strohschein Maschke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor de gordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflower meal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was

  5. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  6. Trypanosomiasis-induced Th17-like immune responses in carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

  7. 鱼肉酶解物及壳聚糖对鲤鱼涂膜保鲜效果的研究%Effect of hydrolysate of fish flesh and chitosan on coating preservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) with shelf life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航; 罗永康; 胡素梅; 陆伟

    2012-01-01

    以感官评分、挥发性盐基氮、菌落总数、K值为指标,研究比较了鱼肉酶解物和壳聚糖为原料的涂膜液对鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(4℃)冷藏过程中品质变化的影响.结果显示:贮藏期间,对照组的感官评分显著低于各涂膜组(P<0.05).贮藏前8d,涂膜组能够显著抑制K值的升高(P<0.05).鱼肉酶解物和壳聚糖涂膜组均能够显著抑制细菌的生长,而贮藏2~6d内鱼肉酶解物涂膜鲤鱼的菌落总数显著低于壳聚糖涂膜组(P<0.05).贮藏后期,鱼肉酶解物组能延缓TVB-N值的升高,壳聚糖涂膜组能够显著抑制TVB-N值的升高(P<0.05).鱼肉酶解物可作为一种新的可食性涂膜材料,用于延长鲤鱼的贮藏期.%The sensory scores, total bacteria count, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and the K value were used to e-valuate the quality of common carp during cold storage (4 ℃ ) , and the different effects were compared between the groups which were coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh and chitosan. During storage, sensory scores of the control group was significantly lower than the film groups ( P < 0. 05 ). In the first eight days, the film groups restrained the growing K value significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . Coating could effectively inhibited the increase of total bacteria count, and during 2 to 6 days, the common carp which were coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh gave lower bacteria count than chitosan ones (P < 0. 05 ) . In the post-storage, the common carp coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh could effectively slow down the increase of TVB-N, and the group coated with chitosan restrained the growing of TBV-N value significantly. The hydrolysate of fish flesh can be used as a new material of edible film to extend the shelf life.

  8. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  9. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  10. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaiKun Luo, Jun Xiao, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200 by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀ and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂. We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100. We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100 and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150, respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

  11. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts and the consequences of differential activation for the individual host.The general aspects of the teleost immune system are very similar to those of the mammalian immune system. Polarisation of m...

  12. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  13. Influence of potato starches on functional properties of common carp myofibrillar protein%马铃薯淀粉对鲤鱼肌原纤维蛋白功能特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 孔保华; 董和亮; 夏秀芳; 丁一; 王松; 黄莉

    2013-01-01

    将马铃薯淀粉(不同添加量0%、1%、2%、3%和4%)添加到鲤鱼肌原纤维蛋白中,通过测定肌原纤维蛋白的浊度、乳化性、凝胶的硬度、弹性、保水性、白度值等指标,较为系统地研究了马铃薯淀粉对鲤鱼肌原纤维蛋白功能特性的影响.结果表明:在温度一定时,淀粉-蛋白复合物的浊度随着马铃薯淀粉添加量的增大而升高;在马铃薯淀粉添加量一定时,淀粉-蛋白复合物的浊度随着温度的升高而升高.随着马铃薯淀粉添加量的增加,乳化活力和乳化稳定性呈先上升后下降后又有所增加的趋势,在马铃薯淀粉添加量为2%和1%时乳化活性和乳化稳定性分别达到最大值25.66m2/g,90.67%.当温度相同时,淀粉-蛋白复合凝胶的硬度和弹性值随着马铃薯淀粉添加量的增大而升高,在80℃条件下,添加了4%淀粉的样品与对照组相比硬度和弹性分别提高了65.85%,20.85%,且效果显著(p<0.05),而随着马铃薯淀粉添加量的增加,凝胶持水性增大(p<0.05),最大增加了18.75%,但凝胶的白度值呈现下降趋势.因此添加马铃薯淀粉可以有效改善肌原纤维蛋白的功能特性.%The effects of potato starches(0% 、1% 、2% 、3% 、4%) on the functional properties of common carp myofibrillar protein were studied.Turbidity,emulsifying propertity of myofibrillar protein and hardness,springiness,whiteness,water-holding capacity myofibrillar protein gelation were evaluated.Results indicated under the same temperature,turbidity increased with the potato starches content increased from 1% to 4%.Under the same potato starches content,turbidity increased with the temperature increased.EAI and ESI of MPI increased then decreased and increased again as the increased of potato starches content.EAI and ESI reached maximum 25.66m2/g and 90.67% by adding 2% potato starches and 1% potato starches.Under the same temperature

  14. 雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤及其他倍性鱼cdc2基因cDNA全序列克隆及表达%The cloning of cdc2 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy fishes including the diploid gynogenetic hybrid of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 刘少军; 钟欢; 周毅; 宋灿; 张纯; 刘筠

    2013-01-01

    Cdc2(Cyclin Dependent Kinase,namely CDK1)encoded by cdc2 gene and CyclinB combination regulates G2/M transition. To find out molecular mechanism that diploid hybrid fish could produce diploid gamete,the full length cDNAs of cdcl in the third gynogenetic generation(G3) ,red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) ,triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid were obtained by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Our data showed that all the cDNAs of cdcl gene in the four different ploidy fishes encode a protein of 302 amino acids containing a domain (PSTAVRE) which combine Cyclins. A high homology of 97. 6% of the Cdc2 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in these four fishes, which indicates the higher conservative function and evolution of Cdc2 protein in these four fishes. A comparative expression pattern of cdcl in early-stage gonads of G3 and different ploidy fishes was carried out by Realtime PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in the four fishes. The results showed that the expression of cdcl in the ovary of G3 was higher than those of red crucian carp and triploid crucian carp, while lower than that of allotetraploid, which, at the molecular level, indicates existence of polyploid oogonia in early-stage gonads of G3. The higher expression of cdcl in G3 suggests that consecutive S-phase replication may occur without intervening mitosis, which might be related to the formation mechanisms for the diploid eggs generated by diploid hybrids.%为研究雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤产生二倍体卵子的分子机制,实验采用PCR和cDNA末端快速分离法,克隆获得了雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤第三代(G3)、二倍体红鲫、三倍体湘云鲫和四倍体鲫鲤的细胞周期相关基因——cdc2基因cDNA全序列.结果显示,4种不同倍性鱼cdc2基因均编码含有302个氨基酸蛋白,而且编码的蛋白都含有与其他CDK激酶相当保守的序列PSTAVRE;同源性分析发现,4

  15. 亚麻油替代鱼油对鲤鱼生长性能、肝胰脏脂质代谢及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Replacement of Fish Oil by Linseed Oil on Growth Performance, Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Ability in Hepatopancreas of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜; 陈文燕; 林仕梅; 高启平; 罗莉

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effects of replacement of different levels of fish oil by linsee d oil on growth performance, body composition and indices of lipid metabolism and antioxidant in hepatopancreas of common carp, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets ( crude protein content was 35%, and gross ener-gy was 15 MJ/kg) were formulated by replacing 0 ( control group) , 25%, 50%, 75%and 100% fish meal with linseed oil on bsa is of a practical diet, respectively.Common carp with the initial body weight of (5.81 ±0.03) g in five groups were fed five experimental diets for 8 weeks in the room circulation farming system.The results showed as follows: with the increase of linseed oil to replace fish oil level, the specific growth rate ( SGR) of carp showed a trend of first increase and then decrease, while the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was just the opposite.The highest SGR was found in 25%group, and significantly higher than that in 75% and 100% groups (P0 .05 ) .The whole fish crude protein content in control group was significantly higher than that in other groups ( P0 .05 ) .With the increase of linseed oil to replace fish oil level, the hepatopancreas lipoprotein lipase ( LPL ) activity and total anti-oxidant capability ( T-AOC ) were gradually reduced and the hepatopancreas malate dehydrogenase ( MDH) activity was gradually increased, but no significant differences were found in those indices between control group and 25%group (P>0.05).Re-placement of different levels of fish oil by linseed oil had no significant effect on hepatopancreas superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) activity (P>0.05).Thus, replacement of different levels of fish oil by linseed oil have dif-ferent effects on growth performance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant ability in hepatopancreas of common carp.Replacement of 25%fish oil by linseed oil, the growth of common carp shows the best effect;total re-placement of fish oil by linseed oil can hinder the growth of common carp, and

  16. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  17. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  19. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  20. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture.

  1. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  2. 饲料中不同蛋能比对黄金鲫幼鱼生长和体组成的影响%Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile gold carp, Carassius auratu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镇燕; 陈成勋; 孙学亮; 邢克智

    2013-01-01

    试验旨在研究不同蛋白能量比的饲料对黄金鲫幼鱼生长和体组成的影响。以初始体重为(7.50±0.02)g的黄金鲫幼鱼为试验对象,随机分为9组,每组设3个重复,每个重复30尾鱼,分别投喂由3种不同的蛋白水平(30%、35%、40%)和3种不同的脂肪水平(6%、8%、10%)组成的9种不同蛋能比(从21.6~30.9 mg/kJ)的试验饲料,进行为期8周的生长试验。结果表明,饲料蛋白水平显著影响黄金鲫的生长、饲料效率和蛋白质效率(P0.05)。同样的,饲料效率随着蛋白含量的增加也显著提高,蛋白/脂肪为35/8(26.5 mg/kJ)和40/10组的饲料效率最高。蛋白质效率最高值发生在蛋白/脂肪为35/8组,显著高于蛋白含量为40%的处理组,但与其它组没有显著差异。饲料不同蛋能比对鱼体水分没有显著影响,鱼体脂肪含量与饲料脂肪含量正相关。综合试验结果,黄金鲫适宜的蛋能比水平为25.5~26.5 mg/kJ,蛋白质为35%,脂肪为6%~8%。%A growth experiment was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein to ener-gy (P/E) ratio for juvenile gold carp [initial average weight (7.5 ± 0.02) g]. Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels(30%, 35%and 40%), each with three lipid levels (6%, 8%and 10%), in order to produce a range of P/E ratios(from 21.6 to 30.9 mg/kJ). Each di-et was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fish. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed that the dietary protein level significantly influenced the growth, feed effi-ciency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P<0.01). The weight gain and specific growth rates (SGR) of fish were significantly improved with the increasing dietary protein (P<0.05), and the peak value occurred in fish fed the diets with 40% protein and 10% lipid (29.2 mg/kJ), which was significantly higher than that fed with 30% dietary protein, however, no significant

  3. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  4. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  5. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spring viremia of carp (SVC is a viral disease of cyprinids, the causative agent of which is a RNA-containing virus. The virus is represented by one serotype. This disease was firstly described in Yugoslavia by N.Fijan (1968, in Russia – by N.N. Rudykov (1971. The virus has similar morphology as viruses, which are causative agents of a number of salmonid diseases (VHS, IHN, differing from them by cultural properties. Avirulent strains are among field isolates. Outbreaks of spring viremia of carp are common in carps cultivated in fish farms but they can be observed in fish from different types of water bodies. Manifestations of the disease are related to stress factors. The extensity of infection in unfavorable ecological and zoohygienic conditions can reach 20-40% and is accompanied with the death of the affected fish. The main concern of nowadays is the prevention of the virus penetration into specialized fish farms. The aim of the present study was to conduct the analytical research on factors influencing the transmission and spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. Methodology. The theoretical basis of the study are the works of foreign and domestic scientists regarding ihtiopathology, including the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. The study was conducted using a monographic method and the results of personal analytical observations. Findings. A literature review on the factors that affect the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp is presented. The factors, which affect the vertical and horizontal transmission of the virus, have been examined. For a long period of time, the geographic range of SVC was limited to European continent that is explained by low water temperatures in the winter. Accordingly, this disease was reported in the majority of European countries. However, in 1998 the disease was registered in Brazil, in 2002 in North Carolina, Wisconsin and Illinois. Outbreaks were reported in

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a common genetic risk factor for asthma, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus in a Mexican pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morales, Silvia; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; Bonilla-González, Edmundo; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Escamilla-Guerrero, Guillermo; Cuevas, Francisco; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Martínez-Aguilar, Nora Ernestina; Gómez-Vera, Javier; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena

    2009-04-01

    There is a great deal of evidence that points to the association of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene as a common genetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases that are caused by inflammatory and/or autoimmune etiologies. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the TNF-alpha promoter region have been associated with disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated whether -308G/A and -238G/A TNF-alpha polymorphisms were associated with asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in a pediatric Mexican population. In a case-control study of 725 patients (asthma: 226, JRA: 171, and SLE: 328) and 400 control subjects, the participants were analyzed using the allelic discrimination technique. The genotype distribution of both TNF-alpha polymorphisms was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group. However, there were significant differences in the allele frequency of TNF-alpha-308A between the patients and the healthy controls. This allele was detected in 2.9% of the controls, 6.0% of asthmatic and JRA patients (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0086), and 6.7% of SLE patients (p = 0.00049); statistical significance was maintained after ancestry stratification (asthma: p = 0.0143, JRA: p = 0.0083, and SLE: p = 0.0026). Stratification by gender showed that the risk for the -308A allele in asthma and JRA was greater in females (OR = 4.16, p = 0.0008 and OR = 4.4, p = 0.0002, respectively). The TNF-alpha -238A allele showed an association only with JRA in males (OR = 2.89, p = 0.004). These results support the concept that the TNF-alpha gene is a genetic risk factor for asthma, SLE, and JRA in the pediatric Mexican population.

  8. Global cooling: cold acclimation and the expression of soluble proteins in carp skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Lynn; Young, Iain S; Doherty, Mary K; Robertson, Duncan H L; Cossins, Andrew R; Gracey, Andrew Y; Beynon, Robert J; Whitfield, Phillip D

    2007-08-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has a well-developed capacity to modify muscle properties in response to changes in temperature. Understanding the mechanisms underpinning this phenotypic response at the protein level may provide fundamental insights into the molecular basis of adaptive processes in skeletal muscle. In this study, common carp were subjected to a cooling regimen and soluble extracts of muscle homogenates were separated by 1-D SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS and de novo peptide sequencing using LC-MS/MS. The 2-D gel was populated with numerous protein spots that were fragments of all three muscle isoforms (M1, M2 and M3) of carp creatine kinase (CK). The accumulation of the CK fragments was enhanced when the carp were cooled to 10 degrees C. The protein changes observed in the skeletal muscle of carp subjected to cold acclimation were compared to changes described in a previous transcript analysis study. Genes encoding CK isoforms were downregulated and the genes encoding key proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were upregulated. These findings are consistent with a specific cold-induced enhancement of proteolysis of CK.

  9. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  10. Dynamics of an estuarine nursery ground: the spatio-temporal relationship between the river flow and the food web of the juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) as revealed by stable isotopes analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, C.; Le Loc'h, F.; Roussel, J.-M.; Desroy, N.; Huteau, D.; Riera, P.; Le Bris, H.; Le Pape, O.

    2010-07-01

    Estuaries are essential fish habitats because they provide nursery grounds for a number of marine species. Previous studies in the Bay of Vilaine (part of the Bay of Biscay, France) have underlined the estuarine dependence of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea, L.) and shown that the extent of sole nursery grounds was positively influenced by the variability of the river flow. In the present study, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to describe the trophic network until the young-of-the-year sole and to compare interannual variations in the dominant trophic pathways in the sole nursery areas in this bay. Particulate organic matter (POM), sediment organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos, benthic invertebrate sole prey and young-of-the-year common sole were collected during the summer over 4 years characterised by contrasting river discharges. POM isotopic signatures were used to identify the origins of nutrient and organic matter assimilated into the estuarine food web through benthic organisms to juvenile common sole. Interannual spatial variations were found in the POM carbon stable isotope signatures, with the importance of these variations depending on the interannual fluctuations of the river flow. Moreover, the spatio-temporal variability of this POM isotopic signature was propagated along the food webs up to juvenile sole, confirming the central role of river discharge and terrigeneous subsidy input in the estuarine benthic food web in determining the size of the sole nursery habitat.

  11. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  12. Comparison of Effects of Crystalline Tryptophane and Coated Tryptophane on Growth Performance, Protein Metabolism and Abilities of Digestion and Absorption of Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian)%晶体色氨酸和包膜色氨酸对幼建鲤生长性能、蛋白质代谢及消化吸收能力影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐凌; 孙崇岩; 邝声耀; 冯琳; 周小秋

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of crystalline tryptophane and coated trypto-phane on growth performance, protein metabolism and the abilities of digestion and absorption of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian).A total of 300 juvenile Jian carp with an initial body weight of (7.73 ± 0 .03 ) g were randomly divided into 2 groups ( with 3 replicates per group and 50 fish per replicate) , and the fish in the 2 groups had been fed experimental diets containing crystalline tryptophane and coated tryptophane for 60 days, respectively.The tryptophane content was 0.25% both for 2 experimental diets.The results showed as follows: the specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention rate and lipid retention rate in coated tryptophane group were significantly higher and the feed conversion ratio in coated tryptophane group was significantly lower than those in crystalline tryptophane group ( P<0 .05 ) .Compared with the crys-talline tryptophane, the coated tryptophane significantly improved the intestosomatic index, intestinal length in-dex, hepatosomatic index, intestinal protein content, hepatopancreas protein content and the fold heights of an-terior intestine, middle intestine and posterior intestine ( P <0.05 ); significantly increased the activities of trypsin and lipase in intestine and hepatopancreas ( P<0 .05 ); significantly increased the activities of Na +, K +-ATPase andγ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) in middle intestine and posterior intestine and alkaline phos-phatase (AKP) in anterior intestine, middle intestine and posterior intestine (P<0.05).Moreover, the con-centration of plasma ammonia and the activities of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase ( GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase ( GPT ) in hepatopancreas and muscle in coated tryptophane group were significantly lower than those in crystalline tryptophane group ( P<0 .05 ) .The results of release rate of tryptophan in vitro showed that crystalline

  13. Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

    2013-12-01

    Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks.

  14. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  15. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kenneth A; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-12-08

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationship between virus transmissibility and virulence. Based on observations from natural outbreaks, as well as the biology of virus-host interactions, we hypothesize that (i) close contact between carp provides the most efficient transmission of virus, (ii) transmission occurs at regular aggregations of carp that favour recrudescence of latent virus, and (iii) the initially high virulence of CyHV-3 will decline following its release in Australia. We also suggest that the evolution of carp resistance to CyHV-3 will likely necessitate the future release of progressively more virulent strains of CyHV-3, and/or an additional broad-scale measure(s) to complement the effect of the virus. If the release of CyHV-3 does go ahead, longitudinal studies are required to track the evolution of a virus-host relationship from its inception, and particularly the complex interplay between transmission, virulence and host resistance.

  16. Preference of early juveniles of a coral reef fish for distinct lagoonal microhabitats is not related to common measures of structural complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Bosch, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef populations of a variety of fish and invertebrate species are replenished by individuals that use inshore coastal habitats as temporary juvenile habitats. These habitats vary greatly in their architecture, and different characteristics of structure could play a role in their selection and

  17. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  18. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  19. Stress and innate immunity in carp: corticosteroid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, H.H.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Bury, N.R.; Sturm, A.; Flik, G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is deeply involved in immune regulation in all vertebrates. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) express four corticoid receptors that may modulate immune responses: three glucocorticoid receptors (GR); GR1, with two splice variants (GR1a and GR1b), GR2 and a single mineraloc

  20. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  1. 饲料中不同脂肪源对鲤鱼生长性能、脂质代谢和抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Different Lipid Sources in Diets on Growth Performance,Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Ability of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑜; 毛述宏; 关勇; 林鑫; 林仕梅; 高启平; 罗莉

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different lipid sources in diets on growth performance, body composition, and activities of lipid metabolism related enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in hepatopancreas of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio). On the basis of a practical diet, 5 experimental diets were formulated to contain 1.5% lipid originated from fish oil (FO group) , soybean oil (SO group) , rapeseed oil (RO group) , linseed oil (LO group) and lard (L group) , respectively. Seven hundred and fifty common carp with an average initial body weight of (5. 83 ±0. 01) g were randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 50 fish in each replicate, and each group was fed one of the five experimental diets. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: the best and the lowest specific growth rate (SGR) , protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found in FO group and L group, respectively, and there was significant difference in those indices between FO group and L group (P 0. 05). Different lipid sources significantly affected the contents of crude protein and crude lipid of whole fish (P 0.05). Crude protein content of whole fish in the FO group was the highest (P SO group > FO group > RO group > L group. The hepatopancreas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in L group was significantly higher than that in other groups (P 0. 05). Different lipid sources significantly affected the hepatopancreas total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (P <0. 05) , the highest was in FO group and the lowest was in L group. These results suggest that fish oil is the suitable lipid source for common carp, while lard is unsuitable as a single lipid source for common carp, because it will damage the hepatopancreas health, hinder the growth of fish.%在一种实用饲料配方的基础上,分别添加1.5%的鱼油、豆油、菜籽油、亚麻籽油和猪油作为单一脂肪源,配制成5种

  2. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger,

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  3. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  4. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness.

  5. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensted, Mette; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Have, Christian Theil;

    2015-01-01

    with obesity and related traits in Indian children. The current study aimed to examine the effect of these variants on risk of childhood/juvenile onset obesity and on obesity-related quantitative traits in two Danish cohorts. METHODS: Genotype information was obtained for 1461 young Caucasian men from...... the Genetics of Overweight Young Adults (GOYA) study (overweight/obese: 739 and normal weight: 722) and the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank (TDCOB; overweight/obese: 1022 and normal weight: 650). Overweight/obesity was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); among children and youths, this cut...... previously found to associate among Indian children did not associate with risk of obesity or obesity-related quantitative measures among Caucasian children and juvenile men from Denmark....

  6. 摄食水平对岩原鲤幼鱼摄食代谢和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响%Effect of meal size on postprandial metabolic response and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀明; 陈昌瑞; 吴川; 付世建; 张耀光

    2012-01-01

    为考察摄食水平对岩原鲤幼鱼摄食代谢和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响,在(25±0.5)℃条件下,将实验鱼[体质量(13.05±0.17)g]轻度麻醉后灌喂不同摄食水平(通威鲤鱼种饲料,饵料分别为体质量的0%、0.5%、1%和2%)的混合饵料,随后在不同时间点测量其耗氧率并计算相关参数.结果显示,各个摄食处理组和对照组的静止代谢(RMR)无显著性差异;摄食后,各摄食水平组岩原鲤代谢率均呈现先上升后下降的整体变化趋势;0.5%和1%摄食水平的SDA耗能和峰值时间无显著性差异,但都显著低于2%摄食水平组(P<0.05).摄食水平从0.5%上升到2%,摄食代谢峰值(PMR)和SDA系数无显著性变化;摄食组运动前代谢率显著高于禁食组(P<0.05),但摄食组的运动代谢峰值、代谢率增量和过量耗氧(EPOC)与禁食组无显著性差异;岩原鲤幼鱼的最大代谢率MMR和MMR/RMR显著大于其PMR和PMR/RMR(P< 0.05).研究表明,随着摄食水平的上升,岩原鲤幼鱼主要通过SDA时间的延长来满足SDA耗能增加的需求;摄食对岩原鲤力竭运动后代谢恢复过程无显著性影响.%To investigate the effect of meal size on postprandial metabolic response and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi)[( 13.05±0.17) g, n=44], experimental fish were lightly anaesthetized and force-fed with compound feed (meal sizes: 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% body weight) at (25 ±0.5)℃. After diet offered, oxygen consumption rates at different intervals were measured. Variables of postprandial metabolic and EPOC responses were calculated. The results of present study showed that resting metabolic rates (RMR) were not significantly different among all groups. The postprandial metabolic rate first increased and then slowly decreased to pre-fed level. The time to peak metabolic rate and the energy expended on Specific dynamic action (SDA) in 0.5% and 1% meal

  7. Comparative Analysis on Growth and Morphology in Yangtze River ♀, Zhujiang River ♂ and Their F1 Hybrids of Juvenile Grass Carp%长江草鱼♀×珠江草鱼♂杂交子一代与其亲本一龄阶段生长性能和体型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建军; 王荣泉; 刘峰; 宣云峰; 朱树人; 李家乐

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究杂交草鱼一龄阶段的生长和体型特点.[方法]建立长江自交 YR(长江群体♀×长江群体♂)、珠江自交 ZR(珠江群体♀×珠江群体♂)、杂交 F1(长江群体♀×珠江群体♂)3个组合.为了避免前期生长差异对后期试验的影响,亲鱼催产至鱼苗下塘均同步进行,控制夏花培育过程养殖密度、养殖环境等条件保持一致;另一方面,到50日龄即对3个组合进行剪鳍标记同箱混养,克服不同网箱的影响.对3个组合鱼的生长和形态数据进行测量分析.体重(W)用电子天平测量,全长(TL)、体长(SL)、头长(HL)、体高(BH)和体宽(BW)用游标卡尺测量.绝对增重率 AGR(g/d)=(W2-W1) / ( t2-t1);超亲杂种优势HB(%)= (F1-BP ) ×100 / BP.其中,AGR为50~170日龄的绝对增重率;W2-W1 为饲养50~170 d的体增重;t2-t1 为两阶段的间隔天数;F1为杂交一代某性状的平均值;BP为优良亲本某性状的平均值.体型分析利用体长/全长、头长/全长、体高/体长及体宽/体长4个比例参数进行比较.[结果]体重、体长及绝对增重率均为 F1> ZR> YR;体重、体长,在50日龄组合间差异不显著(P>0.05),在170日龄组合间差异均极显著(P<0.01);绝对增重率,F1分别比ZR、YR高20.00%、50.00%,F1与ZR差异不显著(P>0.05),与YR差异显著(P<0.05);F1在体重上表现明显的超亲杂种优势(20.09%).3个组合间,体长/全长差异不显著(P>0.05),头长/全长、体高/体长及体宽/体长差异显著(P<0.05),F1表现头短、体高、体宽等特点.[结论] F1在生长性能和体型特征上均具有优势.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the growth and morphological characteristics of juvenile hybrids of grass carp. [Method] Three inbred generations of YR (Yangtze River stock ♀× Yangtze River stock ♂), ZR (Zhujiang River stock ♀× Zhujiang River stock ♂) and hybrids F1 (Yangtze River stock ♀×Zhujiang River stock ♂) were

  8. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  9. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  10. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  11. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and complete loss in lobular structure with degenerating spermatozoa in some carps. .... according to the germ cell types present and .... Testis (20x) of carp exposed to 1000 µg/L of BPA showing testicular organization; slightly reduced lobular.

  12. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  13. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  14. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  15. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  16. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n = 90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish × 6 treatments × 3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  18. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  20. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  1. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  2. 复合芽孢杆菌对草鱼与鲢鳙混养的鱼种池水质的净化作用%Mixture of Bacillus Has Purification Effect on The Water in The Grass Carp with Silver Carp and Aristichthys nobilis Fish Fry Collection Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利丹; 王海; 李景胜; 韩立忠; 杨建光

    2015-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus juveniles with total length of 3 cm were polycultured with bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis juveniles and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix at a initial density of 3100 grass carp juveniles, 1100 bighead carp juve-niles, and 1100 silver carp juveniles in a 0.53 hm2 test pond where a mixture of Bacillus was administrated once every 15 d and at a ini-tial density of 2900 grass carp juveniles, 1500 bighead carp juveniles, and 1500 silver carp juveniles in a 0.667 hm2 control pond where no mixture of Bacillus was administrated. Water quality indicators were monitored in the test and control ponds 3 d after administrat ion of the Bacillus mixture. It was found that the water quality indicators was shown to be 18% lower COD, 6% lower ammonia nitro-gen level, and 41% lower unionized ammonia level in the test pond than in the control pond. However, higher Secchi disk transparency (28%)and dissolved oxygen level were observed in the test pond compared with those in the control pond, indicating that the mixture of Bacillus has purification effect on the water in an aquaculture pond.%试验池面积0.53hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养全长3cm 草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 0.31万尾、鳙Aristichthys nobilis 0.11万尾、白鲢 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 0.11万尾,每15d 泼洒复合芽孢杆菌 Bacillus;对照池面积0.667hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养草鱼0.29万尾、鳙0.15万尾、白鲢0.15万尾,不泼洒复合芽孢杆菌。在泼洒复合芽孢杆菌3d 后,检测试验池和对照池水质,研究复合芽孢杆菌对水质净化的作用。结果表明:试验池塘全年 COD、氨氮和非离子氨水平分别比对照池低6%、18%和41%,而透明度(28%)和溶解氧则增加。复合芽孢杆菌对养鱼池塘水质具有明显的净化作用。

  3. 荷包红鲤自噬相关基因LC3B的克隆及在重金属镉胁迫下的表达%Molecular cloning,characterization and expression analysis of LC3B from purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio)exposed to cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高典; 隗黎丽; 许珍娥; 刘申; 乔盼盼

    2013-01-01

    LC3(microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3),located in autophagosome membranes after processing,serves as a major autophagy marker.In this study,we isolated its LC3B isform from common carp (cyprinus carpio),one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplifica-tion of cDNA ends (RACE).The cDNA of LC3B gene is 2138-nt in length,containing a 378-nt open read-ing frame.The putative LC3B encodes a peptide of 125 amino acids,with a calculated molecular weight of 14.73 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.76.Multiple sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of common carp LC3B had the highest sequence identity (95.2%)and similarity (96.8%)to that of zebrafish.In a phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences from fish,mammalian,avian and am-phibian LC3 genes,the LC3 proteins from different species were divided into three subgroups (LC3A, LC3B and LC3C).The common carp LC3B formed a phylogenetic cluster with zebrafish,then other verte-brates.The mRNA transcript level of LC3B was detected in muscle,brain,gills,spleen,liver,blood,head kidney,kidney and heart tissues by RT-PCR analysis.LC3B mRNA transcript level in kidney was found significantly elevated after exposure to cadmium.This was markedly affected by exposure concentration, not by exposure time.%微管相关蛋白1轻链3(microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3,LC3)是哺乳动物细胞中酵母自噬相关基因8(ATG8)的同源物,其 LC3B亚型的表达强度与自噬泡数量的多少成正相关,为自噬发生的标志蛋白之一。应用 RACE-PCR技术克隆了婺源荷包红鲤 LC3B基因的 cDNA全长序列,用 RT-PCR方法检测了该基因在荷包红鲤主要组织中的表达,并用Real-time quantitative PCR方法检测了该基因在镉胁迫下转录水平的变化,以初步揭示该基因在镉胁迫下的作用。结果表明,荷包红鲤 LC3B基因 cDNA全长为2138 bp,其中开放阅读框长378 bp

  4. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  5. An observer study for a computer-aided reading protocol (CARP) in the screening environment for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Paymann; Deshpande, Ruchi; Sayre, Jim; Messer, Ellen; Gupte, Sangeeta; Romsdahl, Harlan; Hasegawa, Akira; Liu, Brent J

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate improving work flow efficiency by shortening the reading time of digital mammograms using a computer-aided reading protocol (CARP) in the screening environment and to increase detection sensitivity using CARP, compared to the current protocol, commonly referred to as the quadrant view (QV). A total of 200 cases were selected for a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) study to evaluate two image display work flows, CARP and QV, in the screening environment. A Web-based tool was developed for scoring, reporting, and statistical analysis. Cases were scored for and stratified by difficulty. A total of six radiologists of differing levels of training ranging from dedicated mammographers to senior radiology residents participated. Each was timed while interpreting the 200 cases in groups of 50, first using QV and then, after a washout period, using CARP. The data were analyzed using ROC and κ analysis. Interpretation times were also assessed. Using QV, readers' average area under the ROC curve was 0.68 (range, 0.54-0.73). Using CARP, readers' average area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (range, 0.66-0.75). There was no statistically significant difference in reader performance using either work flow. However, there was a statistically significant reduction in the average interpretation time of negative cases from 64.7 seconds using QV to 58.8 seconds using CARP. CARP determines the display order of regions of interest depending on computer-aided detection findings. This is a variation of traditional computer-aided detection for digital mammography that has the potential to reduce interpretation times of studies with negative findings without significantly affecting sensitivity, thus allowing improved work flow efficiency in the screening environment, in which, in most settings, the majority of cases are negative. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Operational Protocols for Electric Barrier Systems on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal: Induction of Passage-Preventing Behaviors in Small Sizes of Silver Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    electrified zone, with the System operating under various output protocols, were simulated in a tank and the responses of captured, wild juvenile silver...parallel, extended above the water surface, and covered the entire cross-sectional area of the tank, thus generating a homogeneous electric field...evaluated in the study on juvenile silver carp. 5 Hz 10 Hz 15 Hz 4.8 ms 8.9 ms 13.8 ms 2.4 ms 4.3 ms 9.8 ms 24 ms 1.6 ms 2.9 ms 6.5 ms 0.4 0.3 0.2

  7. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  8. Common Features of Neural Activity during Singing and Sleep Periods in a Basal Ganglia Nucleus Critical for Vocal Learning in a Juvenile Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Shin; Hessler, Neal A.

    2011-01-01

    Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase. PMID:21991379

  9. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  10. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  11. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Erol Gabor; Mihai Benţea

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group). Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex) at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spe...

  12. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  13. Characterization of the microbiota in lightly salted bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dapeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-04-01

    The microbiota of unsalted and salted (dry-cured with 2% salt) bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets during storage at 4 °C were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Eleven genera were present in the initial microbiota of bighead carp fillets, where Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Kocuria were the dominant bacteria. As storage time progressed, the microbial composition of both unsalted and salted fillets became less diverse. Additionally, differences in microbiota were observed between these two treatments. For unsalted bighead carp fillets, Aeromonas became the dominant genus at the end of storage and Pseudomonas was found less commonly. For salted fillets, Pseudomonas was the only bacteria identified at the end of storage.

  14. Threonine affects intestinal function, protein synthesis and gene expression of TOR in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian. First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4-25.2 g/kg diet were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0-275 mg/l in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG, specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na(+/K(+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05. However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05. In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na(+/K(+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05. In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG.

  15. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  16. Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio,is an intriguing model system.In the present work,a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp.Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening,and two of them are ZP3 homologues.Moreover,the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries.The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp,and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids.Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids,but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites.In addition,gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%).The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization.Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes.Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization,it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis.

  17. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  18. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G.; Nelson, Justine; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds.We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control chemicals. Specifically, we exposed cell lines established from bighead carp and silver carp larvae to thiram (7 concentrations) then completed metabolite profiling to assess the dose-response of the bighead carp and silver carp metabolome to thiram. Forty one of the 700 metabolomic markers identified in bighead carp exhibited a dose-response to thiram exposure compared to silver carp in which 205 of 1590 metabolomic markers exhibited a dose-response. Additionally, we identified 11 statistically significant metabolomic markers based upon volcano plot analysis common between both species. This smaller subset of metabolites formed a thiram-specific metabolomic fingerprint which allowed for the creation of a toxicant specific, rather than a species-specific, metabolomic fingerprint. Metabolomic fingerprints may be used in biocide development and improve our understanding of ecologically significant events, such as mass fish kills.

  19. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G; Nelson, Justine E; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A; Hubert, Terrance D; Amberg, Jon J

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds. We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control chemicals. Specifically, we exposed cell lines established from bighead carp and silver carp larvae to thiram (7 concentrations) then completed metabolite profiling to assess the dose-response of the bighead carp and silver carp metabolome to thiram. Forty one of the 700 metabolomic markers identified in bighead carp exhibited a dose-response to thiram exposure compared to silver carp in which 205 of 1590 metabolomic markers exhibited a dose-response. Additionally, we identified 11 statistically significant metabolomic markers based upon volcano plot analysis common between both species. This smaller subset of metabolites formed a thiram-specific metabolomic fingerprint which allowed for the creation of a toxicant specific, rather than a species-specific, metabolomic fingerprint. Metabolomic fingerprints may be used in biocide development and improve our understanding of ecologically significant events, such as mass fish kills.

  20. Effects of Different Dietary Carbohydrate-to-Lipid Ratios on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpoio)%饲料不同糖脂比对鲤鱼生长、体成分及消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲木; 李长娥; 刘宏超; 张宝龙; 程镇燕; 孙金辉; 白东清; 乔秀亭

    2016-01-01

    降趋势,糖脂比为27.2的组显著低于其他各组( P<0.05);而后肠淀粉酶活性以糖脂比为15.0的组为最低,显著低于除糖脂比为9.6的组外的其他各组( P<0.05)。各组织脂肪酶活性变化趋势相似,均随饲料糖脂比的升高而呈先上升后下降趋势,最高值均出现在饲料糖脂比为15.0时。综合考虑生长、体成分、血清生化指标、消化酶活性,鲤鱼饲料中适宜的糖脂比为6.8~15.0。%This study determined the effects of different dietary carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratios on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of common carp ( Cyprinus carpoio) . Common carp with the aver⁃age body weight of (44.45±1.60) g were randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 70 fish in each replicate. The fish in those groups were fed 5 different experimental diets with the carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratios of 5.2, 6.8, 9.6, 15.0 and 27.7, respectively. The growth experiment lasted for 63 d. The re⁃sults showed as follows: 1 ) the maximum weight gain ratio ( WGR ) , specific growth rate ( SGR ) and the minimum feed conversion rate ( FCR) were observed in common carp fed the diet with 6.8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lip⁃id ratio, and the WGR and SGR in 6.8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group were significantly higher than those in other groups ( P0.05). 3) With the increase of diary carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio, serum total cholesterol content was firstly decreased and then increased, and the lowest value was found in 15.0 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group which was significant⁃ly higher than that in 5.2 and 27.7 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio groups ( P<0.05);the highest serum triglyceride content was found in 6. 8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group, and significantly higher than that in other groups ( P<0.05);the highest serum glucose content was found in 27.7 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group, and signifi⁃cantly higher than that in

  1. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  2. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  3. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  4. ONTOGENY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACTS IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS), YELLOWCHECK CARP(ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA) AND TOPMOUTH CULTER(CULTER ALBURNUS)%草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌消化道组织的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 杨代勤; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    研究仔稚鱼消化机能的发育变化对于掌握鱼类早期发育阶段的消化特点、营养需要及提高仔稚鱼成活与生长等均有重要意义.采用HE、PAS等染色方法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)消化道组织的早期发育进行了研究,结果表明:(1)初孵仔鱼卵黄囊的相对体积以鳡的最大; (2)均在孵后2d和3d分别出现肠管和口裂,在孵后3d、4d和2d分别出现肠腔; (3)在孵后4d、7-9d和4d其肠腔内分别出现食物团,表明此时草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌已分别开始外源性摄食; (4)在孵后5d、6d和6d其肠道内表面分别出现黏膜褶,随后在稚鱼中其黏膜褶的高度和数量不同程度的发育; (5)草鱼和鳡的肠道分别在孵后14d和30d出现盘曲,而在翘嘴鲌的切片图中未发现其肠道的盘曲; (6)草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌的肠道分别于孵后17-23d、30d和24-29d出现数量较多的黏液细胞,此时标志着食性的转换和分化过程基本完善.%A thorough understanding of the temporal process of structure and function of larval and juvenile digestive systems has important values for investigating the digestive characteristics, nutritional needs of larva and juveniles, and enhancing their survival and growth. In inland aquaculture in China, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, yellowcheck carp Elopichthys bambusa and topmouth culter Culter albumus are economically important freshwater species that belong to the family Cyprinidae, with entirely different nutritional needs. Using the methods of histology, a comparative study among the above species in early developmental stages was conducted in our study to examine the ontogeny of digestive tracts. The results of the three species in different days post hatching (dph) showed the following: (1) yellow-check carp had the maximum relative bulk of yolk sac in newly hatched larva in the three species; (2) the intestinal tubes and oral fissures

  5. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    . In addition, the absence of marked differences on the respiratory burst activity in head-kidney cells supports the idea of a localized immune response to the site of injury. Due to direct and constant contact between skin and ß-glucan, bath treatment was an obvious choice to investigate. However, intravenous...

  6. Transferrin polymorphism of common carp: link with disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurecka, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Iron is fundamental to the biology of eukaryotic cells since it plays a key role in many metabolic functions. Iron concentrations are tightly regulated, for example by ferritin, because excessive iron leads to tissue damage. Iron cannot cross cellular membranes directly and most cells acquire iro

  7. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    the environment the atrazine or triazine based herbicides are not degraded by ... biological effects of environmental pollution in waters. Monitoring of blood .... leading to an excess utilization of stored carbohydrates. Hussein et al. (1996) ... Acute toxicity of ammonia and its sublethal effects on selected haematological and.

  8. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  9. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  10. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social

  11. Comparison of size, terminal fall velocity, and density of bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp eggs for use in drift modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Garcia, Tatiana; Chapman, Duane C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Asian carp established in the United States spawn in the turbulent water of rivers, and their eggs and early larvae develop while drifting in the current. The eggs, which are believed to perish if they settle before hatching, are slightly denser than water and are held in suspension by water turbulence. It is possible to use egg drift modeling to assess the capability of a river to support the survival of Asian carp eggs. Detection of spawning and estimation of egg abundance in the drift are typically assessed by ichthyoplankton trawls. Correct sampling design and interpretation of trawl data require knowledge of the vertical distribution of eggs in the drift, which can be accomplished with particle transport models. Data that are required to populate models of egg drift and vertical distribution include physical properties of assessed rivers and information on egg size, density, and terminal fall velocity, but data on these egg characteristics have not been previously available. Physical characteristics of the eggs are presented as a function of postfertilization time. We recorded mean egg diameter and terminal fall velocity for eggs from each Asian carp species during the first 5 h of development and at approximately 12 and 22 h postfertilization. Eggs of all species reached their maximum size before 4 h. Water-hardened eggs of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were similarly sized in our trials, and water-hardened eggs of Bighead Carp H. nobilis were the largest. After water hardening, Silver Carp eggs sank slowest, and Bighead Carp eggs sank fastest. For a given species, smaller-diameter eggs generally had faster terminal fall velocities and higher specific gravity than larger eggs. We provide regression models of egg density and diameter for all three species, discuss usage of these data in modeling the drift and dispersion of Asian carp eggs, and discuss implications for egg sampling design.

  12. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  13. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed.

  14. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  15. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  16. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  17. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  18. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  19. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  20. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Reovirus (GCRV in Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I- like receptors (RLRs; antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.

  1. STUDY ON SERUM GH EXPRESSION OF TRANSGENIC AND CONTROL COMMON CARP UNDER HUNGRY CONDITION%饥饿状态下转基因鲤鱼和对照鲤鱼血清生长激素的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟山; 罗大极; 汪亚平; 陈竹; 管波; 廖兰杰; 朱作言

    2009-01-01

    This study comparatively analyzed the change regulation of serum growth hormone of transgenic fish and control under starvation and feeding condition by using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, ELISA technology, and discussed its possible mechanism. The result showed that there was no obviously change in serum growth hormone level of both transgenic fish and the control in feeding experiment, but serum growth hormone level of the former was extremely higher than the latter, which were (142.0±4.9)ng/mL and (1.6±0.2) ng/mL respectively, body weight growth rate of the former was also higher than the latter. In starvation experiment, the concentration of serum growth hormone in transgenic fish descended from (142.0±4.9) ng/mL to (46.0±3.2) ng/mL rapidly, and then kept at this lower level, while the concentration of serum growth hormone in the control rose up from (1.6±0.2) ng/mL to (10.9±1.4) ng/mL continuously, there was no significant difference in body weight minus growth rate between transgenic fish and the control. The study result revealed that the regulatory mechanism of serum growth hormone of transgenic common carp was different with that of the control, because its expression level was not impacted by pituitary feedback inhibition mechanism but related to the control mode of β-actin gene promoter in the transgene.%研究采用酶联免疫吸附测定(Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays,ELISA)技术,比较分析了转GH基因鲤鱼和对照鲤鱼在饥饿和饱食状态下血清生长激素水平的变化规律,并探讨其可能机制.实验结果表明,在投喂实验中,转基因鲤鱼和对照鲤鱼血清生长激素水平均无明显变化,但转基因鲤鱼血清生长激素远高于对照鲤鱼,分别为(142.0±4.9)ng/mL和(1.6±0.2)ng/mL,转基因鲤鱼体重增长速率显著高于对照鱼.在饥饿实验中,转基因鲤鱼的血清生长激素迅速下降,从(142.0±4.9)ng/mL降至(46.0±3.2)ng/mL,而后稳定在这一较低水平;对照

  2. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  3. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group. Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spermatozoa of the three summers carp. Analyzing the results obtained shows that the addition of organic selenium in the nutrition of carp breeders caused a slight increase in protein, and fat decreased slightly from sperm, the differences between groups were non-significant (p>0.05%. The slight increase in the amount of protein in milt is due to the positive effect of organic selenium over glutathione peroxidase activity of sperm cores (SN-GSH-Px, which is an integral part of sperm chromatin with the possibility of amino-acid uptake. Researches regarding viability, meristically and somatic measurements of breeders were carried out and significant differences were recorded in the experimental group compared to the control.

  4. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  5. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  6. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  7. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  9. Phase I metabolism of 3-methylindole, an environmental pollutant, by hepatic microsomes from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlabek, Vladimir; Burkina, Viktoriia; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Sakalli, Sidika; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2016-05-01

    We studied the in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) in hepatic microsomes from fish. Hepatic microsomes from juvenile and adult carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were included in the study. Incubation of 3MI with hepatic microsomes revealed the time-dependent formation of two major metabolites, 3-methyloxindole (3MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The rate of 3MOI production was similar in both species at both ages. No differences in kinetic parameters were observed (p = 0.799 for Vmax, and p = 0.809 for Km). Production of I3C was detected only in the microsomes from rainbow trout. Km values were similar in juvenile and adult fish (p = 0.957); Vmax was higher in juvenile rainbow trout compared with adults (p = 0.044). In rainbow trout and carp, ellipticine reduced formation of 3MOI up to 53.2% and 81.9% and ketoconazole up to 65.8% and 91.3%, respectively. The formation of I3C was reduced by 53.7% and 51.5% in the presence of the inhibitors ellipticine and ketoconazole, respectively. These findings suggest that the CYP450 isoforms CYP1A and CYP3A are at least partly responsible for 3MI metabolism. In summary, 3MI is metabolised in fish liver to 3MOI and I3C by CYP450, and formation of these metabolites might be species-dependent.

  10. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  11. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  12. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment for environmentally sustainable aquaculture management : a case study of combined aquaculture systems for carp and tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with two-net cage aquaculture systems of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Cirata reservoir, Indonesia. The studied system included fingerling production in hatcheries, fish rearing in cages, and transport of fry and feed as well as that of harvested fish to markets. The environmental impact indicators were calculated based on the annual production i...

  14. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  15. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  16. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF GALICIAN CARP IN AQUACULTURE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is know that first attempts of cap culture in ponds started as early as in XIII century. One of oldest strain is Galician carp. Therefore, it is important to highlight the historical development and conditions of the distribution of Galician carp across the territory of Western Ukraine and in European countries. Findings. We determined the main periods in the development of pond fish culture and its one of main object — carp. Galician carp was first presented at the Agricultural Exhibition in Berlin in 1880 by the farm Kanov, which was located on the territory of Galicia. These carp was characterized by nice flesh properties and relatively early maturation that caused interest in fish farmers. Galician carp was reared in ponds during early stages of aquaculture development, therefore we examined historical information on the use of this group in fish culture. Few-scaled (mirror Galicia carp were used not only as a commercial fish as a pure line but also for crossing with other groups of carps for obtaining higher productivity values due to heterozygosis. Throughout centuries, low level of selection, fish diseases, damages caused by wars resulted in the virtual disappearance of this carp group. Therefore, currently, Galician carp remained in few fish farms of Ukraine and they need further studies in order to be preserved as a native species, which became rare and vanishing. Originality. This work is a generalization of historical information on the development and establishment of fish culture on the territories, which belonged to Galicia. A special attention is given to Galician carp, which is currently rare and vanishing on the territory of Ukraine. This carp played an important role taking into account their effect when forming Ukrainian strains of carp. Practical value. This review of historical information on Galician carp can be used during further study of a complex of technical and biological properties of this group of carp

  18. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  19. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  20. CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter ge