WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile coho oncorhynchus

  1. Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

  2. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  3. Growth and condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch relate positively to species richness of trophically transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, J P; Fisher, J; Teel, D J; Baldwin, R E; Marcogliese, D J; Jacobson, K C

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were first, to test the hypothesis that metrics of fish growth and condition relate positively to parasite species richness (S(R)) in a salmonid host; second, to identify whether S(R) differs as a function of host origin; third, to identify whether acquisition of parasites through marine v. freshwater trophic interactions was related to growth and condition of juvenile salmonids. To evaluate these questions, species diversity of trophically transmitted parasites in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch collected off the coast of the Oregon and Washington states, U.S.A. in June 2002 and 2004 were analysed. Fish infected with three or more parasite species scored highest in metrics of growth and condition. Fish originating from the Columbia River basin had lower S(R) than those from the Oregon coast, Washington coast and Puget Sound, WA. Parasites obtained through freshwater or marine trophic interactions were equally important in the relationship between S(R) and ocean growth and condition of juvenile O. kisutch salmon.

  4. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  5. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  6. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  7. Large wood and in-stream habitat for juvenile coho salmon and larval lampreys in a Pacific Northwest stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Dunham, Jason; Lightcap, Scott W.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of large wood on Pacific salmon are well-studied, but studies of nonsalmonid species such as lampreys are uncommon. To address this need, we evaluated the potential effects of large wood on larval lampreys (Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus; and potentially Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni), as well as juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, in a small coastal Oregon stream. Our objectives were to 1) identify in-stream habitat characteristics associated with the presence of larval lampreys and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon; and 2) evaluate how these characteristics were associated with in-stream wood. To address habitat use, we quantified presence of larval lampreys in 92 pools and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon in 44 pools during summer low flows. We focused on a study reach where large wood was introduced into the stream between 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that presence of larval lampreys was significantly associated with availability of fine sediment and deeper substrate. The abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon (fish/pool) was strongly associated with pool surface area and to a weaker extent with the proportion of cobble and boulder substrates in pools. Pools with wood, regardless of whether they were formed by wood, had significantly greater coverage of fine sediment, deeper substrate, and greater pool surface area. Taken together, these results suggest that in-stream wood can provide habitat associated with presence of larval lampreys and greater abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon.

  8. Epizootiology and histopathology of Parvicapsula sp. in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, William T.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2003-01-01

    The epizootiology and histopathology of the myxosporean Parvicapsula sp. was studied during monthly health surveys of 4 groups of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at a commercial farm in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, from 1984 to 1986. No Parvicapsula sp. was detected in histological samples taken from juvenile fish in fresh water, but the parasite was detected in fish from all groups 2 to 8 mo after transfer to seawater net pens. Groups placed in seawater net pens in November and December had a higher prevalence of infection, and a longer period of continuous detected infection, than those introduced into net pens in May. For the groups transferred to seawater in November and December, the highest infection prevalence (45 to 90%) was detected during the following March and April. Among 13 tissues examined histologically, only the pseudobranch and kidney were positive for Parvicapsula sp., with 26 (62%) of 42 positive fish showing infections only in the pseudobranch, 5 (12%) showing infections only in the kidney, and 11 (26%) showing infections in both organs. Both the pseudobranch and kidney were apparent primary infection sites, but pseudobranch infections appeared to persist longer in a population. Pseudobranch infections were frequently heavy and associated with extensive inflammation and necrosis of filament and lamellar tissues. The kidney had been the only infection site reported for Parvicapsula sp. in previous studies of coho salmon.

  9. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  10. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  11. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  12. OVER-WINTER JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN A COASTAL OREGON STREAM NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter habitat has the potential to be a limiting factor for the production and condition of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts, but little is known about how the variation of habitat throughout whole stream networks influences coho smolts. Over a four year period (2002 - ...

  13. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  14. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  15. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  16. Infectious haemolytic anaemia causes jaundice outbreaks in seawater-cultured coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P A; Larenas, J; Contreras, J; Cassigoli, J; Venegas, C; Rojas, M E; Guajardo, A; Pérez, S; Díaz, S

    2006-12-01

    In the last 9 years, epizootics of an icterus condition has affected coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), reared in seawater cages in southern regions of Chile. At necropsy, fish from field cases exhibited signs of jaundice accompanied by pale light-brown livers and dark spleens. Histopathological and haematological results indicated that these fish presented haemolytic anaemia. After microbiological examination no bacterial or viral agents could be identified as aetiological agents of this disease. In an infectivity trial, coho salmon, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were inoculated intraperitoneally with a filtrate of an organ homogenate (0.45 microm) from a diseased coho salmon and held for 60 days in tanks supplied with fresh water. The disease was only reproduced in coho salmon in which mortalities, beginning at day 23 post-inoculation (p.i.), reached a cumulative value of 24% at day 27 p.i. This condition was transmitted to non-inoculated cohabiting coho salmon suggesting that it is a waterborne disease. Thus, this icteric condition is caused by an infectious form of haemolytic anaemia, probably of viral aetiology, and coho salmon are more susceptible than either Atlantic salmon or rainbow trout.

  17. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, various quantitative trait loci (QTL that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002 were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10 with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035 mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.

  18. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  19. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON END-OF-SUMMER SIZE: HIERARACHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size of coho salmon juveniles entering the winter has been shown to influence overwinter survival, and hence may be a useful indicator of linkages between summer habitat conditions and subsequent smolt production. We are investigating habitat-specific demographics of juvenile...

  20. Hormonal control of hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, M.M.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.; Moon, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma cortisol concentration and liver cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor activities of continuously swimming, food-deprived coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) did not differ from those of resting, fed fish. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in the exercising, starved fish, but there were no significant differences in either hepatic glycogen concentration or hepatic activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate kinase, or lactate dehydrogenase between the two groups. Total glucose production by hepatocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups; glycogen breakdown accounted for all the glucose produced in the resting, fed fish whereas it explained only 59% of the glucose production in the exercised animals. Epinephrine and glucagon stimulation of glucose production by hepatocytes was decreased in the exercised fish without significantly affecting hepatocyte glycogen breakdown in either group. Insulin prevented glycogen breakdown and enhanced glycogen deposition in exercised fish. The results indicate that food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon conserve glycogen by decreasing the responsiveness of hepatocytes to catabolic hormones and by increasing the responsiveness to insulin (anabolic hormone).

  1. Chemosensory deprivation in juvenile coho salmon exposed to dissolved copper under varying water chemistry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Baldwin, David H; Meador, James P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2008-02-15

    Dissolved copper is an important nonpoint source pollutant in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Copper is neurotoxic to fish and is specifically known to interfere with the normal function of the peripheral olfactory nervous system. However,the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper to olfactory sensory neurons is not well understood. Here we used electrophysiological recordings from the olfactory epithelium of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to investigate the impacts of copper in freshwaters with different chemical properties. In low ionic strength artificial fresh water, a short-term (30 min) exposure to 20 microg/L dissolved copper reduced the olfactory response to a natural odorant (10(-5) M L-serine) by 82%. Increasing water hardness (0.2-1.6 mM Ca) or alkalinity (0.2-3.2 mM HCO3-) only slightly diminished the inhibitory effects of copper. Moreover, the loss of olfactory function was not affected by a change in pH from 8.6 to 7.6. By contrast, olfactory capacity was partially restored by increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 0.1-6.0 mg/L). Given the range of natural water quality conditions in the western United States, water hardness and alkalinity are unlikelyto protect threatened or endangered salmon from the sensory neurotoxicity of copper. However, the olfactory toxicity of copper may be partially reduced in surface waters that have a high DOC content.

  2. Riverscape patterns among years of juvenile coho salmon in midcoastal Oregon: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flitcroft; K. Burnett; J. Snyder; G. Reeves; L. Ganio

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of salmon distribution throughout a riverscape may be expected to change over time in response to environmental conditions and population sizes. Changing patterns of use, including identification of consistently occupied locations, are informative for conservation and recovery planning. We explored interannual patterns of distribution by juvenile Coho Salmon...

  3. Coho Use of Beaver Ponds in California - Movers and stayers: seasonal growth of alternative behavioral strategies of juvenile coho in natural and constructed habitats of mid-Klamath tributaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) once ranged across the western part of the North America from Alaska to California. Due to habitat destruction, over fishing,...

  4. Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Prefer and Are Less Aggressive in Darker Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Gaffney

    Full Text Available Fish are capable of excellent vision and can be profoundly influenced by the visual properties of their environment. Ambient colours have been found to affect growth, survival, aggression and reproduction, but the effect of background darkness (i.e., the darkness vs. lightness of the background on preference and aggression has not been evaluated systematically. One-hundred Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, a species that is increasing in popularity in aquaculture, were randomly assigned to 10 tanks. Using a Latin-square design, every tank was bisected to allow fish in each tank to choose between all the following colour choices (8 choices in total: black vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and a mixed dark grey/black pattern, as well as industry-standard blue vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and black. Fish showed a strong preference for black backgrounds over all other options (p < 0.01. Across tests, preference strength increased with background darkness (p < 0.0001. Moreover, having darker backgrounds in the environment resulted in less aggressive behaviour throughout the tank (p < 0.0001. These results provide the first evidence that darker tanks are preferred by and decrease aggression in salmonids, which points to the welfare benefits of housing farmed salmon in enclosures containing dark backgrounds.

  5. Loma salmonae (Protozoa: Microspora) infections in seawater reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Groff, J.M.; Hedrick, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Loma salmonae (Putz et al., 1965) infections were observed in five groups of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, reared in seawater net-pens in Washington State, U.S.A. in 1984–1986. Ultrastructural characteristics, size of spores, tissues and host infected, and geographical location identified the microsporidium as Loma salmonae. Preserved spores measured 4.4×2.3 (4–5.6×2–2.4) μm and exhibited 14–17 turns of the polar filament. Infections were evident in the gills of some fish before seawater entry, but few parasites were observed and they caused little tissue damage. Infections observed in fish after transfer to seawater were associated with significant pathological changes in the gills. A mixed inflammatory infiltrate was associated with ruptured microsporidian xenomas within the vessels and interstitium of the primary lamellae. Microsporidian spores were dispersed throughout the lesions and were often seen inside phagocytes. The parasite was also observed in the heart, spleen, kidney and pseudobranchs; however, the inflammatory lesions were common only in the heart.Monthly examination of fish after transfer to seawater showed peak prevalences (33–65%) of gill infections during the summer. Although moribund fish were often infected with other pathogens, the high prevalence of L. salmonae infections and the severity of the lesions it caused, suggested that this parasite significantly contributed to the recurrent summer mortalities observed at this net-pen site.

  6. Effects of food ration on SMR: influence of food consumption on individual variation in metabolic rate in juvenile coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2012-03-01

    1. Consistency of differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) between individual juvenile salmonids and the apparently limited ability of individuals to regulate their SMR has led many researchers to conclude that differences in individual SMR are fixed (i.e. genetic). 2. To test for the effects of food ration on individual performance and metabolism, SMR was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption using flow-through respirometry on individually separated young of the year coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) placed on varying food rations over a period of 44 days. 3. Results demonstrate that the quantity of food consumed directly affects SMR of juvenile coho salmon, independent of specific dynamic action (SDA, an elevation in metabolic rate from the increased energy demands associated with digestion immediately following a meal) and indicates that higher food consumption is a cause of elevated SMR rather than a consequence of it. Juvenile coho salmon therefore demonstrated an ability to regulate their SMR according to food availability and ultimately food consumption. 4. This study indicates that food consumption may play a pivotal role in understanding individual variation in SMR independent of inherent genetic differences. We suggest that studies involving SMR need to be cautious about the effects of intra-individual differences in food consumption in communal tanks or in different microhabitats in the wild as disproportionate food consumption may contribute more to variation in SMR than intrinsic (genetic) factors. 5. In general, our results suggest that evolutionary changes in SMR are likely a response to selection on food consumption and growth, rather than SMR itself.

  7. Pituitary thyrotropin and gonadotropin of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): separation by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W; Gorbman, A

    1987-02-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) and gonadotropin (GTH) were isolated from adult female coho salmon pituitary glands. After final extraction in acidic alcohol and precipitation in 85% ethanol, proteins were fractionated using gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Homologous bioassay systems were used to monitor bioactivity during the purification procedures. TSH activity was measured in vivo in coho salmon parr. GTH (steroidogenic) activity was determined in vitro using cultures of adult coho salmon ovarian follicles. Using these procedures, TSH and GTH activities were separated. TSH activity eluted as one major peak at pH 6.3 whereas GTH activity eluted as five major peaks at pH's 5.4, 5.0, 4.7, 4.3, and after 1.0 M NaCl on chromatofocusing. Molecular weights of the TSH and GTHs were estimated by gel filtration chromatography as 35 and 40 kDa, respectively. Like other vertebrate TSHs and gonadotropins, the coho salmon TSH and GTHs appeared to consist of two subunits. Coho salmon TSH and bovine TSH (bTSH) were equipotent in the TSH bioassay. The five coho salmon GTHs exhibited similar potencies in stimulating ovarian estradiol synthesis in vitro. Further biochemical analysis and tests for other gonadotropic activities are warranted to determine if these five GTHs are isoforms of one GTH or if they can be distinguished functionally in other GTH bioassays. Sufficient quantities of coho salmon TSH were isolated in this study for future studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in fish.

  8. Effects of selenium dietary enhancement on hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), when compared with wild coho: hepatic enzymes and seawater adaptation evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, S.P.; Landolt, M.L.; Grace, R.; Palmisano, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), were fed elevated levels of selenium (as Na2SeO3) to raise eviscerated body burdens to the level measured in wild counterparts. The goal was to find a dietary concentration that would achieve the desired effect without causing damage to growth and normal development. To measure some indices of health, the detoxifying enzymes chosen were hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD). Eviscerated body selenium (Se) concentration, GSH-Px and SOD levels were measured during and at the end of the 9 month freshwater feeding trial. Selenium retention and enzyme activity were also measured during 6 months’residence in sea water (SW). Selenium supplements were added to a commercial ration to give final concentrations of 1.1, 8.6, 11.1, 13.6 μg g-1 Se in the four respective diets. The results indicated that a dietary concentration of 8.6 μg g-1selenium was capable of inducing eviscerated body burdens similar to those found in wild fish. The elevated selenium levels persisted throughout the freshwater (FW) rearing phase, but declined when the fish were fed an unsupplemented ration upon SW entry. Superoxide dismutase levels did not increase above control levels. Glutathione peroxidase levels increased in fish fed the supplemented diets. GSH-Px activity declined in the higher supplemented dietary groups when all groups were reduced to the control group level of 1.1 μg g-1. Cumulative mortality in SW was 20% in fish fed either the 1.1 or the 8.6 μg g-1 Se diets. The 8.6 μg g-1 Se supplemented diets did produce healthy coho, comparable to their wild counterparts.

  9. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON END-OF-SUMMER SIZE AND ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size of coho salmon juveniles entering the winter has been shown to influence overwinter survival, and hence may be a useful indicator of linkages between summer habitat conditions and subsequent smolt production. We are investigating habitat-specific demographics of juvenile...

  10. Survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Peterson, Tracy S; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch). An essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by using different methods for parasite detection. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these infections; and (3) for the first time, determine the sensitivity and specificity of histology for detecting parasites compared with examining wet preparations for muscle and gill infections. We examined 576 fry, parr, and smolt coho salmon in total by histology. The muscle and gills of 219 of these fish also were examined by wet preparation. Fish were collected from 10 different locations in 2006-2007. We identified 21 different species of parasites in these fish. Some parasites, such as Nanophyetus salmincola and Myxobolus insidiosus, were common across all fish life stages from most basins. Other parasites, such as Apophallus sp., were more common in underyearling fish than smolts and had a more restricted geographic distribution. Additional parasites commonly observed were as follows: Sanguinicola sp., Trichodina truttae , Epistylis sp., Capriniana piscium, and unidentified metacercariae in gills; Myxobolus sp. in brain; Myxidium salvelini and Chloromyxum majori in kidney; Pseudocapillaria salvelini and adult digenean spp. in the intestine. Only a few parasites, such as the unidentified gill metacercariae, elicted overt pathologic changes. Histology had generally poor sensitivity for detecting parasites; however, it had relatively good specificity. We recommend using both methods for studies or monitoring programs requiring a comprehensive assessment of parasite identification, enumeration, and parasite-related pathology.

  11. Interaction of growth hormone overexpression and nutritional status on pituitary gland clock gene expression in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; White, Samantha L; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are involved in generating a circadian rhythm that is integrated with the metabolic state of an organism and information from the environment. Growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, show a large increase in growth rate, but also attenuated seasonal growth modulations, modified timing of physiological transformations (e.g. smoltification) and disruptions in pituitary gene expression compared with wild-type salmon. In several fishes, circadian rhythm gene expression has been found to oscillate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, as well as in multiple peripheral tissues, but this control system has not been examined in the pituitary gland nor has the effect of transgenic growth modification been examined. Thus, the daily expression of 10 core clock genes has been examined in pituitary glands of GH transgenic (T) and wild-type coho salmon (NT) entrained on a regular photocycle (12L: 12D) and provided either with scheduled feeding or had food withheld for 60 h. Most clock genes in both genotypes showed oscillating patterns of mRNA levels with light and dark cycles. However, T showed different amplitudes and patterns of expression compared with wild salmon, both in fed and starved conditions. The results from this study indicate that constitutive expression of GH is associated with changes in clock gene regulation, which may play a role in the disrupted behavioural and physiological phenotypes observed in growth-modified transgenic strains.

  12. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  13. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  14. Chromosomal characterization of cultured populations of Chilean coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque V.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal characterization of coho salmon samples from three fish farms in southern Chile (Polcura, Castro and Coyhaique was carried out in order to compare their chromosome constitutions. All populations had a 2n = 60; however, Polcura and Coyhaique had a different chromosome arm number (NF = 110; 40m + 10sm + 10st/t than Castro (NF = 108; 40m + 8sm + 12st/t. Variation in NF was due to chromosome pair 25, which was submetacentric in Coyhaique and Polcura, but subtelocentric in Castro. In all karyotypes, a large submetacentric chromosome pair exhibited an interstitial secondary constriction in the short arm. The observed variability in chromosome arm number agrees with previous reports for O. kisutch, and in this particular case it seemed to be caused by a pericentric inversion of pair 25. Cultured populations of Chilean coho salmon are, therefore, likely to be cytogenetically variable.A caracterização cromossômica de amostras de salmon tipo coho de três criações de peixes do sul do Chile (Polcura, Castro e Coyhaique foi feita com a intenção de comparar suas constituições cromossômicas. Todas as populações apresentaram 2n = 60; contudo, Polcura e Coyhaique tiveram um número de braços cromossômicos (NF = 110; 40m + 10sm + 10st/t diferente de Castro (NF = 108; 40m + 8sm + 12st/t. A variação no NF deveu-se ao par cromossômico 25, que era submetacêntrico em Coyhaique e Polcura e subtelocêntrico em Castro. Em todos os cariótipos, um grande par cromossômico submetacêntrico exibiu uma constrição secundária intersticial no braço curto. A variabilidade observada no número de braços cromossômicos concorda com relatos prévios para O. kisutch e, neste caso particular, parece ter sido causada por uma inversão pericêntrica no par 25. Portanto, populações cultivadas de salmão chileno do tipo coho provavelmente são citogeneticamente variáveis.

  15. Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of slime from 25% of the body caused no deaths among smolts of coho salmon in fresh water or in seawater (28‰). Removal of slime and scales from the same percentage of body area caused no deaths in fresh water, but 75% mortality within 10 days in seawater. The 10-day median tolerance limit was 10% scale removal immediately before the smolts entered seawater. Mortality was highest when the scales were removed from the area of the rib cage. Recovery of smolts in fresh water from a loss of scales that would be lethal in seawater occurred rapidly; 90% of the fish regained tolerance to seawater within 1 day.

  16. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  17. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Sundström, L Fredrik; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT), and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3) in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  18. Effect of dietary vitamin E level on growth, tissue lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Higgs, David A; Balfry, Shannon K; Devlin, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E concentration on growth performance, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle tissue, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic growth hormone coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets that contained either 11, 29, 50, or 105 IU of vitamin E/kg. Following the 10-week feeding trial, no significant (P>0.05) diet-related differences were detected in growth, whole body proximate composition or erythrocyte fragility. The vitamin E contents of liver and muscle, however, were affected by the dietary treatment. Fish fed diets containing > or =50 IU of vitamin E/kg had significantly increased vitamin E concentrations in their tissues. Iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation of liver and muscle tissue of fish fed elevated dietary vitamin E (> or =50 IU vitamin E/kg diet) was significantly lower (Pvitamin E. The results indicated that changes in tissue lipid peroxidation measurements precede clinical signs of sub-optimal vitamin E intake.

  19. Effect of the antioxidants composition in diet on the sensory and physical properties of frozen farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Latorre, Mónica; Gajardo, Mónica; Bunger, Andrea; Munizaga, Alejandro; López, Luis; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-04-01

    Great attention has been paid to the antioxidants present in farmed fish feeds, with the replacement of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones being a main objective. In the present study, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was fed a conventional diet that was enriched with different kinds of antioxidants: synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxy toluene and ethoxyquin; diet I), a tocopherols-rich mixture (diet II) and a tocopherols-rosemary extract mixture (diet III). A comparative study of the sensory and physical changes observed in the corresponding frozen products was undertaken. After 18 months at -18 °C, fish previously fed on diet I showed higher putrid and rancid odours and rancid taste scores, while lower mean typical odour and taste values were attained. Dripping and expressible moisture values obtained for diet II-fish were lower when compared with their counterparts belonging to the diet I; additionally, microstructure analysis revealed that Z-lines integration was better preserved in fish corresponding to diets II and III. Diet II has been recognised as being the most profitable to be employed to maintain the sensory and physical properties of the frozen product when long-term storage is considered. Further research is to be continued to optimise the natural antioxidants profile. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Seasonal cycle in vitamin A1/A2-based visual pigment composition during the life history of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S E; Plate, E M; Ramsden, S; Haimberger, T J; Roth, W-M; Hawryshyn, C W

    2006-03-01

    Microspectrophotometry of rod photoreceptors was used to follow variations in visual pigment vitamin A1/A2 ratio at various life history stages in coho salmon. Coho parr shifted their A1/A2 ratio seasonally with A2 increasing during winter and decreasing in summer. The cyclical pattern was statistically examined by a least-squares cosine model, fit to the 12-month data sets collected from different populations. A1/A2 ratio varied with temperature and day length. In 1+ (>12 month old) parr the A2 to A1 shift in spring coincided with smoltification, a metamorphic transition preceding seaward migration in salmonids. The coincidence of the shift from A2 to A1 with both the spring increase in temperature and day length, and with the timing of seaward migration presented a challenge for interpretation. Our data show a shift in A1/A2 ratio correlated with season, in both 0+ (<12 months old) coho parr that remained in fresh water for another year and in oceanic juvenile coho. These findings support the hypothesis that the A1/A2 pigment pair system in coho is an adaptation to seasonal variations in environmental variables rather than to a change associated with migration or metamorphosis.

  1. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  2. Experimental infection of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch by exposure of skin, gills and intestine with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P A; Rojas, M E; Guajardo, A; Contreras, J; Morales, M A; Larenas, J

    2004-10-21

    Piscirickettsiosis pathogenesis was examined using some tissues as entry portals of Piscirickettsia salmonis in coho salmon. Juvenile fish, weighing approximately 8.4 g, were used in this trial. Inocula were prepared using the strain SLGO-95 of P. salmonis. The micro-organism was cultured in the CHSE-214 cell line as described by Fryer et al. (1990) and doses containing 10(4.7) and 10(3.7) TCID50 were prepared. Each dose was used to infect the fish via skin, gills and intestine. Skin and gills were exposed by calibrated drops, and the intestine by an intubation through the anal opening. Some fish were injected intraperitoneally with the same P. salmonis doses, as positive virulence controls. Sham-inoculated fish for each of the tested routes were also included as negative controls. Piscirickettsiosis was experimentally reproduced with all the inoculation methods. Cumulative mortalities and survival analyses showed that the most effective entry portal was skin followed by intestinal intubation and finally by gill infection.

  3. Survival of juvenile chinook salmon and coho salmon in the Roza Dam fish bypass and in downstream reaches of the Yakima River, Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Hansen, Amy C.

    2016-12-22

    Estimates of juvenile salmon survival are important data for fishery managers in the Yakima River Basin. Radiotelemetry studies during 2012–14 showed that tagged juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that passed through the fish bypass at Roza Dam had lower survival than fish that passed through other routes at the dam. That study also identified flow-survival relationships in the reaches between the Roza Dam tailrace and Sunnyside Dam. During 2012–14, survival also was estimated through reaches downstream of Sunnyside Dam, but generally, sample sizes were low and the estimates were imprecise. In 2016, we conducted an evaluation using acoustic cameras and acoustic telemetry to build on information collected during the previous study. The goal of the 2016 research was to identify areas where mortality occurs in the fish bypass at Roza Dam, and to estimate reach-specific survival in reaches downstream of the dam. The 2016 study included juvenile Chinook salmon and coho salmon (O. kisutch).Three acoustic cameras were used to observe fish behavior (1) near the entrances to the fish bypass, (2) at a midway point in the fish bypass (convergence vault), and (3) at the bypass outfall. In total, 504 hours of acoustic camera footage was collected at these locations. We determined that smolt-sized fish (95–170 millimeters [mm]) were present in the highest proportions at each location, but predator-sized fish (greater than 250 mm) also were present at each site. Fish presence generally peaked during nighttime hours and crepuscular periods, and was low during daytime hours. In the convergence vault, smolt-sized fish exhibited holding behavior patterns, which may explain why some fish delayed while passing through the bypass.Some of the acoustic-tagged fish were delayed in the fish bypass following release, but there was no evidence to suggest that they experienced higher mortality than fish that were released at the bypass outfall or downstream of the dam

  4. RNAseq analysis of fast skeletal muscle in restriction-fed transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): an experimental model uncoupling the growth hormone and nutritional signals regulating growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Devlin, Robert H; Johnston, Ian A

    2015-07-31

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (Gh) express Gh in multiple tissues which results in increased appetite and continuous high growth with satiation feeding. Restricting Gh-transgenics to the same lower ration (TR) as wild-type fish (WT) results in similar growth, but with the recruitment of fewer, larger diameter, muscle skeletal fibres to reach a given body size. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms behind these different patterns of muscle growth and to investigate how the decoupling of Gh and nutritional signals affects gene regulation we used RNA-seq to compare the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome in TR and WT coho salmon. Illumina sequencing of individually barcoded libraries from 6 WT and 6 TR coho salmon yielded 704,550,985 paired end reads which were used to construct 323,115 contigs containing 19,093 unique genes of which >10,000 contained >90 % of the coding sequence. Transcripts coding for 31 genes required for myoblast fusion were identified with 22 significantly downregulated in TR relative to WT fish, including 10 (vaspa, cdh15, graf1, crk, crkl, dock1, trio, plekho1a, cdc42a and dock5) associated with signaling through the cell surface protein cadherin. Nineteen out of 44 (43 %) translation initiation factors and 14 of 47 (30 %) protein chaperones were upregulated in TR relative to WT fish. TR coho salmon showed increased growth hormone transcripts and gene expression associated with protein synthesis and folding than WT fish even though net rates of protein accretion were similar. The uncoupling of Gh and amino acid signals likely results in additional costs of transcription associated with protein turnover in TR fish. The predicted reduction in the ionic costs of homeostasis in TR fish associated with increased fibre size were shown to involve multiple pathways regulating myotube fusion, particularly cadherin signaling.

  5. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River relative to discharge at Iron Gate Dam, Northern California, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg; Hetrick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a study of survival and migration behavior of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Klamath River, northern California, in 2007. This was the third year of a multi-year study with the goal of determining the effects of discharge at Iron Gate Dam (IGD) on survival of juvenile coho salmon downstream. Survival and factors affecting survival were estimated in 2006 and 2007 after work in 2005 showed radio telemetry could be used effectively. The study has included collaborative efforts among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Karuk and Yurok Tribal Fisheries Departments, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The objectives of the study included: (1) estimating the survival of wild and hatchery juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam, determining the effects of discharge and other covariates on juvenile coho salmon survival (2) and migration (3), and (4) determining if fish from Iron Gate Hatchery (IGH) could be used as surrogates for the limited source of wild fish. We have been able to meet the first objective by estimating the survivals of hatchery and wild fish (when available) downstream of IGD. We have not yet met the second or third objectives, because we have been unable to separate effects of discharge from other environmental variables as they pertain to the survival or migration of juvenile coho salmon. This was foreseen when the study began, as it was known there would likely be no experimental discharges. A multi-year analysis will be conducted after the data for the third planned year are available. The fourth objective was initiated in 2006, but wild fish were not available in 2007. The next year wild fish may be available is in 2009, based on their 3-year cycle of abundance. River discharges during the 2007 study period (April 10 through July 28, 2007) were below average compared to the period of record beginning in 1962. Average daily

  6. Basin-Scale Variation in the Spatial Pattern of Fall Movement of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several species of salmonids (Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus spp.) inhabiting Pacific coastal temperate streams, juvenile fish have been recorded moving between mainstem and tributary habitats during the transition from the summer dry season to the winter wet season. Movement co...

  7. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN AN OREGON COAST RANGE STREAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are using stable isotopes (13C, 15N, 34S) to study the use of salmon carcasses, eggs and fry by over-wintering coho juveniles in two streams of the Oregon Coast Range. Our work is paired with detailed data gathering on stream habitat condition, temperature, chemistry and PIT-t...

  8. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success.

  9. Effect of the antioxidant profile in the diet of farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch on the nutritional value retention during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A commercial diet enriched with synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxytoluene and ethoxyquin (diet I was fed to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch and its effects were compared to two diets enriched with natural antioxidants, tocopherol-rich mixture (diet II, tocopherol-rosemary extract mixture (diet III. Once sacrificed, individual fishes were kept frozen at –18 °C for up to 18 months and then analyses were carried out on the frozen salmon muscle. The feeding of diet II led to frozen samples showing higher contents of sarcoplasmic proteins and γ- and δ-tocopherols when compared to their counterparts previously fed with diet I. No effect of dietary antioxidant profile could be detected on proximate composition, α-tocopherol and astaxanthin contents or color (L*, a*, b* parameters. Concerning the fatty acid composition, the fish samples corresponding to diet II showed higher C22:6ω3 and monounsaturated contents, but lower C20:5ω3 and saturated contents when compared to their counterparts from diet I.Salmones coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch fueron alimentados con una dieta enriquecida en antioxidantes sintéticos (butil-hidroxi-tolueno y etoxiquina, dieta I y su efecto comparado con dos dietas enriquecidas en antioxidantes naturales (una mezcla rica en isómeros de tocoferol, dieta II; una mezcla de isómeros de tocoferol y extracto de romero, dieta III. Una vez sacrificado, el pescado fue conservado a –18 °C durante 18 meses. El empleo de la dieta II llevó a muestras congeladas con contenido superior en proteínas sarcoplásmicas y en γ- y δ-tocoferol al ser comparados con pescado previamente alimentado con la dieta I. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias a nivel de composición proximal, contenido en α-tocoferol y astaxantina y parámetros de color (L*, a*, b*. A nivel de composición en ácidos grasos, los individuos correspondientes a la dieta II reflejaron mayores contenidos en C22:6ω3 y monoinsaturados, pero menores en C20

  10. Uptake and selective partitioning of dietary lipids to ovarian and muscle tissue of maturing female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during secondary oocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald B; Kroeger, Eric L; Reichert, William L; Carter, Cameron S; Rust, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, were fed one of two experimental feeds containing lipids with markedly different stable (13)C isotope signatures during the late cortical alveolus, lipid droplet, and vitellogenesis stages of secondary oocyte growth. Ovarian and muscle lipids fatty acid concentrations were significantly affected by treatment during all three stages of development. Stable (13)C isotope analyses confirmed that dietary lipids were incorporated into both ovarian and muscle lipids during all three stages and revealed that ovarian lipids were more affected than muscle lipids during vitellogenesis. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the highest rate of all fatty acids examined with the greatest uptake observed during the cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stages of development. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was incorporated into ovarian lipids at the next highest rate with the greatest uptake observed during the lipid droplet stage of development. The presence of an ovary specific, fatty acid transfer mechanism is proposed. Results from this study demonstrate the ability to greatly alter the fatty acid composition of ovarian lipids through a dietary change during secondary oocyte growth and may be of great interest to producers of farmed salmon and salmon broodstock programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Two Dimensional Movement Patterns of Juvenile Winter Run and Late Fall Run Chinook Salmon at the Fremont Weir, Sacramento River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    predator avoidance of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(4):781– 787. doi:10.1139... Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70(October 2012):280–293. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2012-0186 Chapman, E. D., A. R. Hearn, C. J. Michel...juveniles from hatchery and wild populations of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47(3):566–571. doi

  12. Identification of differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Dimitar B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during primary and early secondary oocyte growth in coho salmon, a semelparous teleost that exhibits synchronous follicle development. Methods Reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries were generated from ovaries with perinucleolus (P or cortical alveolus (CA stage follicles and selected genes were assessed with quantitative PCR (qPCR. An assessment of changes in RNA composition during oocyte growth and its relationship to transcript levels was also conducted. Results SSH revealed several differentially expressed genes during early oogenesis, some which will not likely be utilized until 1–3 years later in salmon. Zona pellucida glycoprotein (zp genes, vitellogenin receptor (vldlr isoforms, cathepsin B (ctsba, cyclin E (ccne, a DnaJ transcript (dnaja2, and a ferritin subunit (fth3 were significantly elevated at the P stage, while a C-type lectin, retinol dehydrogenase (rdh1, and a coatomer protein subunit (cope were upregulated at the CA stage. Putative follicle cell transcripts such as anti-Müllerian hormone (amh, lipoprotein lipase (lpl, apolipoprotein E (apoe, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr also increased significantly at the CA stage. The analysis of RNA composition during oocyte growth showed that the total RNA yield and proportion of messenger RNA relative to non-polyadenylated RNAs declined as oogenesis progressed. This influenced apparent transcript levels depending on the type of RNA template used and normalization method. Conclusion In coho salmon, which exhibit a dramatic change in oocyte size and RNA composition during oogenesis, use of messenger RNA as template and normalization of qPCR data to a housekeeping gene, ef1a, yielded results that best reflected transcript abundance within the ovarian follicle. Synthesis of zp transcripts and proteins involved in

  13. JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL ACROSS STREAM NETWORK SEASONAL HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinte...

  14. Alternate Directed Anthropogenic Shifts in Genotype Result in Different Ecological Outcomes in Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Domesticated and growth hormone (GH transgenic salmon provide an interesting model to compare effects of selected versus engineered phenotypic change on relative fitness in an ecological context. Phenotype in domestication is altered via polygenic selection of traits over multiple generations, whereas in transgenesis is altered by a single locus in one generation. These established and emerging technologies both result in elevated growth rates in culture, and are associated with similar secondary effects such as increased foraging, decreased predator avoidance, and similar endocrine and gene expression profiles. As such, there is concern regarding ecological consequences should fish that have been genetically altered escape to natural ecosystems. To determine if the type of genetic change influences fitness components associated with ecological success outside of the culture environments they were produced for, we examined growth and survival of domesticated, transgenic, and wild-type coho salmon fry under different environmental conditions. In simple conditions (i.e. culture with unlimited food, transgenic fish had the greatest growth, while in naturalized stream tanks (limited natural food, with or without predators domesticated fish had greatest growth and survival of the three fish groups. As such, the largest growth in culture conditions may not translate to the greatest ecological effects in natural conditions, and shifts in phenotype over multiple rather than one loci may result in greater success in a wider range of conditions. These differences may arise from very different historical opportunities of transgenic and domesticated strains to select for multiple growth pathways or counter-select against negative secondary changes arising from elevated capacity for growth, with domesticated fish potentially obtaining or retaining adaptive responses to multiple environmental conditions not yet acquired in recently generated transgenic

  15. Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Clark

    Full Text Available Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1 was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'. Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1 kg(-1. Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  16. High-throughput sequencing and pathway analysis reveal alteration of the pituitary transcriptome by 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in female coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Louisa B. [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Schultz, Irvin R. [Battelle, Marine Sciences Laboratory – Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 1529 West Sequim Bay Road, Sequim, WA 98382 (United States); Goetz, Giles W. [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Luckenbach, J. Adam [Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 98164 (United States); Young, Graham [School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 98164 (United States); Goetz, Frederick W. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Manchester Research Station, P.O. Box 130, Manchester, WA 98353 (United States); Swanson, Penny, E-mail: penny.swanson@noaa.gov [Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 98164 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Studied impacts of ethynylestradiol (EE2) exposure on salmon pituitary transcriptome. •High-throughput sequencing, RNAseq, and pathway analysis were performed. •EE2 altered mRNAs for genes in circadian rhythm, GnRH, and TGFβ signaling pathways. •LH and FSH beta subunit mRNAs were most highly up- and down-regulated by EE2, respectively. •Estrogens may alter processes associated with reproductive timing in salmon. -- Abstract: Considerable research has been done on the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction and gene expression in the brain, liver and gonads of teleost fish, but information on impacts to the pituitary gland are still limited despite its central role in regulating reproduction. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of the potential effects of natural and synthetic estrogens on the brain–pituitary–gonad axis in fish by determining the effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) on the pituitary transcriptome. We exposed sub-adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to 0 or 12 ng EE2/L for up to 6 weeks and effects on the pituitary transcriptome of females were assessed using high-throughput Illumina{sup ®} sequencing, RNA-Seq and pathway analysis. After 1 or 6 weeks, 218 and 670 contiguous sequences (contigs) respectively, were differentially expressed in pituitaries of EE2-exposed fish relative to control. Two of the most highly up- and down-regulated contigs were luteinizing hormone β subunit (241-fold and 395-fold at 1 and 6 weeks, respectively) and follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (−3.4-fold at 6 weeks). Additional contigs related to gonadotropin synthesis and release were differentially expressed in EE2-exposed fish relative to controls. These included contigs involved in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) and transforming growth factor-β signaling. There was an over-representation of significantly affected contigs in 33 and 18 canonical pathways at 1 and 6 weeks

  17. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  18. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in the Ugashik lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 26 July to 24 September 2002, hourly counts were conducted from counting towers to estimate the escapement of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch into the Ugashik...

  19. Skagit River coho salmon life history model—Users’ guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Kirby, Grant; Morris, Scott

    2017-09-29

    Natural resource management is conducted in the context of multiple anthropogenic stressors and is further challenged owing to changing climate. Experiments to determine the effects of climate change on complex ecological systems are nearly impossible. However, using a simulation model to synthesize current understanding of key ecological processes through the life cycle of a fish population can provide a platform for exploring potential effects of and management responses to changing conditions. Potential climate-change scenarios can be imposed, responses can be observed, and the effectiveness of potential actions can be evaluated. This approach is limited owing to future conditions likely deviating in range and timing from conditions used to create the model so that the model is expected to become obsolete. In the meantime, however, the modeling process explicitly states assumptions, clarifies information gaps, and provides a means to better understand which relationships are robust and which are vulnerable to changing climate by observing whether and why model output diverges from actual observations through time. The purpose of the model described herein is to provide such a decision-support tool regarding coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe of Washington State.The Skagit coho salmon model is implemented in a system dynamics format and has three primary stocks—(1) predicted smolts, (2) realized smolts, and (3) escapement. “Predicted smolts” are the number of smolts expected based on the number of spawners in any year and the Ricker production curve. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) return to the Skagit River in odd years, and when they overlap with juvenile rearing coho salmon, coho smolt production is substantially higher than in non-pink years. Therefore, the model uses alternative Ricker equations to predict smolts depending on whether their juvenile year was a pink or non-pink year. The stock “realized smolts

  20. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  1. Performance of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced from untreated and cryopreserved milt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expanding use of milt cryopreservation in aquaculture, the performance of fish produced from this technique has not been fully explored beyond initial rearing stages. We compared the performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss produced from untreated (UM) and cryopreserved milt (CM) and reared for 4–9 months. For the 1996 brood, CM alevins were heavier (∼ 1.7%, P influenced by a significant milt-by-family interaction (P families. No significant differences were found in length or weight (P > 0.05) for 1997 brood alevins and percent yolk was similar for both broods (P > 0.34). In growth and survival experiment I (GSE-I, 1996), UM and CM juveniles reared in separate tanks and fed to satiation (130 days) showed no significant differences in survival, length or weight (P > 0.05) between milt groups. In contrast, for UM and CM siblings reared in the same tank for 210 days on a low food ration (GSE-II), survival was similar (P > 0.05), but length (UM 4% > CM, P  CM, P = 0.08), were influenced by cryopreservation. Fish from the 1997 brood (GSE-III) were reared for 313 days in a repeat of GSE-II and no differences were found in survival (P = 0.47), length (P = 0.75) or weight (P = 0.76) suggesting considerable heterogeneity between broods. Performance of the 1996 brood was also tested for response to stress and a disease challenge. Cortisol responses of juveniles exposed to acute stress were not significantly different (P = 0.19), but mean cortisol was consistently and significantly greater (P families and suggests a cautionary approach to the widespread use of cryopreservation for steelhead.

  2. Free and protein-bound insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in plasma of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    1999-09-01

    Total and free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were quantified in plasma from growth hormone (GH)-treated and fasted coho salmon. Total IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay after acid-ethanol extraction and free IGF-I was separated from protein-bound IGF-I using ultrafiltration by centrifugation. Total and free IGF-I increased in plasma after GH treatment and decreased after fasting. The level of free IGF-I, however, was maintained at approximately 0.3% in both experiments. Unsaturated binding activity in plasma for IGF-I was assessed by incubation with (125)I-recombinant salmon IGF-I ((125)I-sIGF-I). Although there was no difference in binding activity between GH-treated and control fish, fasted fish showed higher binding activity than did fed fish, suggesting induction of unsaturated binding protein by fasting. IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) bands were observed in plasma of coho salmon by Western ligand blotting using (125)I-sIGF-I. A low-molecular-weight (22 kDa) band was clear in fasted fish but not detectable in fed fish. The IGFBP band, which has molecular weight similar to that of human IGFBP-3 (41 kDa), was more intense in GH-treated fish than in controls. The molecular distribution of IGF-I in plasma was examined by gel filtration under neutral conditions. Most IGF-I was eluted around 40 kDa. This result suggests that the major form of bound IGF-I in the circulation of coho salmon may be in a 40-kDa binary complex rather than in a 150-kDa ternary complex, as in mammals.

  3. Effects of Montreal municipal sewage effluents on immune responses of juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, Harri M. [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)], E-mail: harri.salo@ktl.fi; Hebert, Nancy; Dautremepuits, Claire [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada); Cejka, Patrick [Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant, 12 001 Maurice-Duplessis, Montreal, Que. H1C 1V3 (Canada); Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel [INRS-institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus Boul., Pointe-Claire, Que. H9R 1G6 (Canada)

    2007-10-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of treated Montreal sewage effluents on juvenile female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A comprehensive panel of immunological assays was used to evaluate the effects of exposure for 1 and 4 weeks to 1, 3, 10 and 20% sewage effluent. Phagocytic ingestion of fluorescent latex beads by head kidney macrophages and granulocytes was suppressed following 1-week of exposure, with the highest exposure concentration being the most suppressive. Phagocytic activity returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. The cytotoxic activity of head kidney derived non-specific cytotoxic cells was enhanced after a 1-week exposure, especially at the lowest exposure concentration, and returned to control levels after 4 weeks of exposure. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS and ConA activation was not affected following sewage effluent exposure, but nonactivated, spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 4 weeks of exposure. Plasma lysozyme activity was elevated at lowest exposure concentration after 4 weeks. No changes were noted in either the blood leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio or in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The proportion of circulating granulocytes increased following exposure for 4 weeks to the low effluent concentration. Plasma cortisol levels were not affected by effluent exposure suggesting that mechanisms other than stress influenced the observed immunomodulation. In summary, this study demonstrates that sewage effluent can alter the immune functions of rainbow trout.

  4. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  5. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  6. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  7. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in streams adjacent to Perryville, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent runs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Kametolook, Three Star, and Long Beach rivers near Perryville have declined, and residents can no longer meet...

  8. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatly reduced spawning runs of anadromous salmon in streams of the Pacific Northwest (USA) have led to concerns about the effects of reduced marine derived nutrients (MDN's) on sustaining over-wintering juvenile salmon in those streams. In response to these concerns, state a...

  9. Evaluation of strobe lights to reduce turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Kohn, Mike

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a radiotelemetry evaluation to determine if strobe lights could be used to decrease turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. We found that radio-tagged juvenile steelhead approached and entered two spillbays (one lighted, one unlighted) in equal proportions. However, the presence of strobe lights was associated with decreased spillbay residence time of juvenile steelhead and increased passage through induction slots (secondary turbine intakes located upstream of the ogee on the spillway). Mean residence time of tagged fish inside the lighted spillbay was 14 min compared to 62 min inside the unlighted spillbay. Radio-tagged steelhead passed through induction slots at a higher proportion in the lighted spillbay (55%) than in the unlighted spillbay (26%). Recent studies have suggested that strobe lights can induce torpor in juvenile salmonids. We believe that strobe light exposure affected fish in our study at a location where they were susceptible to high flows thereby reducing mean residence time and increasing the proportion of tagged fish entering induction slots in the lighted spillbay. Our results suggest that factors such as deployment location, exposure, and flow are important variables that should be considered when evaluating strobe lights as a potential fish-deterring management tool.

  10. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  11. Effects of Iron Gate Dam discharge and other factors on the survival and migration of juvenile coho salmon in the lower Klamath River, northern California, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steven; Stutzer, Greg; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Current management of the Klamath River includes prescribed minimum discharges intended partly to increase survival of juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration in the spring. To determine if fish survival was related to river discharge, we estimated apparent survival and migration rates of yearling coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam. The primary goals were to determine if discharge at Iron Gate Dam affected coho salmon survival and if results from hatchery fish could be used as a surrogate for the limited supply of wild fish. Fish from hatchery and wild origins that had been surgically implanted with radio transmitters were released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam at river kilometer 309. Tagged fish were used to estimate apparent survival between, and passage rates at, a series of detection sites as far downstream as river kilometer 33. Conclusions were based primarily on data from hatchery fish, because wild fish were only available in 2 of the 4 years of study. Based on an information-theoretic approach, apparent survival of hatchery and wild fish was similar, despite differences in passage rates and timing, and was lowest in the 54 kilometer (km) reach between release and the Scott River. Models representing the hypothesis that a short-term tagging- or handling-related mortality occurred following release were moderately supported by data from wild fish and weakly supported by data from hatchery fish. Estimates of apparent survival of hatchery fish through the 276 km study area ranged from 0.412 (standard error [SE] 0.048) to 0.648 (SE 0.070), depending on the year, and represented an average of 0.790 per 100 km traveled. Estimates of apparent survival of wild fish through the study area were 0.645 (SE 0.058) in 2006 and 0.630 (SE 0.059) in 2009 and were nearly identical to the results from hatchery fish released on the same dates. The data and models examined supported positive effects of water

  12. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Mark D.; Simenstad, Charles A.; Bottom, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010–2012). We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity. PMID:27695094

  13. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  14. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  15. Habitat use by subyearling Chinook and coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1781 habitat observations were made on Chinook salmon (698) and coho salmon (1083). During both spring and fall, subyearling coho salmon used pool habitat with abundant cover. During spring, principal component analysis revealed that water depth was the most important variable governing subyearling Chinook salmon habitat use. Substrate materials used by Chinook salmon in the spring and coho salmon in the fall were significantly smaller than were present on average within the study reaches. When the two species occurred sympatrically during spring they exhibited similar habitat selection. Although the habitat used by coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries was consistent with observations of habitat use in their native range, higher water velocities were less important to Chinook salmon than has previously been reported.

  16. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

    2005-01-01

    An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July

  17. Carrying capacity of habitats used seasonally by coho salmon in the Kametolook River, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch are an important subsistence resource for residents of the Native Village of Perryville, but recent returns to local streams...

  18. Estimation of Coho Salmon escapement in the Ugashik Lakes, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Local subsistence users have expressed concern over the lack of inseason escapement information for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch entering the Ugashik lakes....

  19. Immune response, stress resistance and bacterial challenge in juvenile rainbow trouts Oncorhynchus mykiss fed diets containing chitosan-oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin LUO, Xuefeng CAI, Chuan HE, Min XUE, Xiufeng WU , Haining CAO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan-oligosaccharides (COS on the growth performance, immune response, stress resistance, and disease resistance of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were studied. Four experimental diets containing 0, 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg COS (COS0, COS20, COS40, and COS60, respectively were fed to juvenile rainbow trout (initial weight = 5.2 ± 0.3 g for 8 weeks. By the end of the feeding trial, representative groups of fish from each dietary treatment were challenged with stressor (30 sec air exposure and pathogen exposure (intraperitoneal injection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Results showed that supplementation of COS in diets did not affect production performance and body composition of rainbow trout. However, fish fed the COS40 diet demonstrated improved phagocytic activities, respiratory burst activities and decreased serum cortisol level. Additionally, survival following A. hydrophila challenge was significant higher among fish fed the COS-supplemented feeds, although there was no difference based on the level of supplementation. The present study suggests that COS can be used as an immuno-stimulant in rainbow trout feeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 416– 422, 2009].

  20. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival.

  1. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J N; Beauchamp, D A

    2016-09-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  3. Chronic toxicity of verapamil on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the toxic effects of verapamil (VRP) were studied on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by chronic semi-static bioassay. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 μg/L) for 0, 21 and 42 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses of different tissues (brain, gill, liver, muscle and intestine). Based on the results, there was no significant change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration, but VRP-induced stress in fish exposed to higher concentrations reflected the significant changes of physiological and biochemical responses. Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, effects induced by VRP-stress in each test group were distinguished. Additionally, all parameters measured in this study displayed various dependent patterns to VRP concentrations and exposure time using two-way ANOVA statistic analysis. In short, the multiple responses in fish indicated that VRP induced physiological stress and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual VRP in aquatic environment; but molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear and need to be further studied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  5. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Spromberg, Julann A.; David H. Baldwin; Damm, Steven E.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A.; Anulacion, Bernadita F.; Jay W Davis; Nathaniel L Scholz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run‐off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long‐term conservat...

  6. Water balance trumps ion balance for early marine survival of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackville, M; Wilson, J M; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

    2012-08-01

    Smolting salmonids typically require weeks to months of physiological preparation in freshwater (FW) before entering seawater (SW). Remarkably, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) enter SW directly following yolk absorption and gravel emergence at a size of 0.2 g. To survive this exceptional SW migration, pink salmon were hypothesized to develop hypo-osmoregulatory abilities prior to yolk absorption and emergence. To test this, alevins (pre-yolk absorption) and fry (post-yolk absorption) were transferred from FW in darkness to SW under simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Ionoregulatory status was assessed at 0, 1 and 5 days post-transfer. SW alevins showed no evidence of hypo-osmoregulation, marked by significant water loss and no increase in gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (NKA) activity or Na⁺:K⁺:2Cl⁻ cotransporter (NKCC) immunoreactive (IR) cell frequency. Conversely, fry maintained water balance, upregulated gill NKA activity by 50 %, increased the NKA α1b/α1a mRNA expression ratio by sixfold and increased NKCC IR cell frequency. We also provide the first evidence of photoperiod-triggered smoltification in pink salmon, as fry exposed to SNP in FW exhibited preparatory changes in gill NKA activity and α1 subunit expression similar to fry exposed to SNP in SW. Interestingly, fry incurred larger increases in whole body Na⁺ than alevins following both SW and FW + SNP exposure (40 and 20 % in fry vs. 0 % in alevins). The ability to incur and tolerate large ion loads may underlie a novel mechanism for maintaining water balance in SW prior to completing hypo-osmoregulatory development. We propose that pink salmon represent a new form of anadromy termed "precocious anadromy".

  7. Étude expérimentale de la compétition interspécifique entre juvéniles de saumon coho, Oncorhynchus kisutch, et de saumon atlantique, Salmo salar, en eau douce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELAND M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Le risque d'introduction accidentelle du saumon coho dans les rivières peuplées par le saumon atlantique a conduit à développer des recherches en milieu expérimental sur les mécanismes de la compétition entre alevins et juvéniles des deux espèces. Les conséquences possibles de cette compétition ont été évaluées en termes de survie, croissance, prédation, dévalaison et occupation de l'habitat. Les résultats montrent que la présence des saumons cohos n'a pas une influence très marquée sur les alevins ou juvéniles de saumon atlantique si l'environnement trophique est favorable. La microdistribution est différente, les saumons atlantiques occupant plutôt les radiers alors que les saumons cohos préfèrent les profonds. Le comportement pélagique et grégaire des jeunes saumons cohos, nettement plus gros que les saumons atlantiques du même âge dès l'émergence, peut être opposé au comportement benthique et inféodé au substrat de ces derniers. Ces différences s'accentuent en sympatrie, aux dépens du saumon atlantique, désavantagé par la taille. Sous conditions trophiques limitantes, la croissance et la sédentarité des alevins de saumon atlantique sont significativement affectées par la présence des cohos, ce qui justifie d'émettre d'expresses réserves sur l'intérêt de l'introduction du saumon coho dans les rivières françaises.

  8. Effect of daily oscillation in temperature and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of temperature oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean temperatures for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant temperature and oscillating temperature tanks, respectively. Daily fluctuation in temperature averaged 7.5????C in the variable temperature groups and less than 1????C for the constant temperature group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > temperature = sediment > (temperature ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the temperature group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by daily temperature oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time course of hepatic gene expression and plasma vitellogenin protein concentrations in estrone-exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osachoff, Heather L; Brown, Lorraine L Y; Tirrul, Leena; van Aggelen, Graham C; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Estrone (E1), a natural estrogen hormone found in sewage effluents and surface waters, has known endocrine disrupting effects in fish, thus, it is a contaminant of emerging concern. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to an environmentally-relevant concentration of E1 (24ng/L E1 [0.1nM]) for 7d and then placed in clean water for a 9d recovery period. RNA sequencing showed transcripts from numerous affected biological processes (e.g. immune, metabolic, apoptosis, clotting, and endocrine) were altered by E1 after 4d of treatment. The time course of E1-inducible responses relating to vitellogenesis was examined daily during the two phases of exposure. Hepatic gene expression alterations evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were found during the treatment period for vitellogenin (VTG), vitelline envelope proteins (VEPs) α, β and γ, and estrogen receptor α1 (ERα1) transcripts. ERα1 was the only transcript induced each day during the treatment phase, thus it was a good indicator of E1 exposure. Gradual increases occurred in VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts, peaking at d7. VTG transcript was only elevated at d4, making it less sensitive than VEPs to this low-level E1 treatment. Inductions of ERα1, VEPα, VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts ceased 1d into the recovery phase. Plasma VTG protein concentrations were not immediately elevated but peaked 7d into the recovery phase. Thus, elevated vitellogenesis-related gene expression and protein production occurred slowly but steadily at this concentration of E1, confirming the sequence of events for transcripts and VTG protein responses to xenoestrogen exposure.

  10. Ecotoxocological effects of short-term exposure to a human pharmaceutical Verapamil in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2010-09-01

    Verapamil (VRP) is a calcium channel blocker that is a highly prescribed compound and commonly present in aquatic environment, but the ecotoxicological effects of this pharmaceutical in fish have not been fully documented. In this study, the toxic effects of VRP were studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute static bioassay. In the acute test, the median lethal concentration (LC50, 2.72 mg/L) was evaluated and the behavioral changes were obviously intensified with increasing VRP concentrations. Compared to the control, oxidative stress was observed in fish tissues with different levels after short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations (0.27 and 1.35 mg/L) of VRP. Activities of SOD and GPx in fish brain were induced at 0.27 mg/L VRP, but all the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and GR) in fish brain were decreased at 1.35 mg/L VRP. When compared to the control, all the antioxidant enzymes in gill were decreased in both treated groups, but there was no significant change in muscle. Additional, muscle DNA/RNA ratio in fish exposed at 1.35 mg/L VRP was significantly lower than that in the control. Furthermore, through chemometrics of all parameters measured in fish exposed to sublethal VRP concentrations using principal component analysis, two groups with 89.8% of total accumulated variance were distinguished. In short, the physiological and biochemical responses in of fish indicated that VRP-induced environmental stress; but according to VRP residual status in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual aerobic performance at high temperatures in juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Baird, Sarah E.; Nguyen, Trinh X.; Cabrera-Stagno, Valentina; Farrell, Anthony P.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the current warming trends affect fish populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. To help define suitable thermal habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon, the thermal performance of juvenile Chinook salmon acclimated to either 15 or 19°C was tested across a range of environmentally relevant acute temperature changes (from 12 to 26°C). Swim tunnel respirometers were used to measure routine oxygen uptake as a measure of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and oxygen uptake when swimming maximally as a measure of maximal metabolic rate (MMR) at each test temperature. We estimated absolute aerobic scope (AAS = MMR − RMR), the capacity to supply oxygen beyond routine needs, as well as factorial aerobic scope (FAS = MMR/RMR). All fish swam at a test temperature of 23°C regardless of acclimation temperature, but some mortality occurred at 25°C during MMR measurements. Overall, RMR and MMR increased with acute warming, but aerobic capacity was unaffected by test temperatures up to 23°C in both acclimation groups. The mean AAS for fish acclimated and tested at 15°C (7.06 ± 1.76 mg O2 kg−1 h−1) was similar to that measured for fish acclimated and tested at 19°C (8.80 ± 1.42 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Over the entire acute test temperature range, while MMR and AAS were similar for the two acclimation groups, RMR was significantly lower and FAS consequently higher at the lower test temperatures for the fish acclimated at 19°C. Thus, this stock of juvenile Chinook salmon shows an impressive aerobic capacity when acutely warmed to temperatures close to their upper thermal tolerance limit, regardless of the acclimation temperature. These results are compared with those for other salmonids, and the implications of our findings for informing management actions are discussed. PMID:28078086

  12. Exposure to a contextually neutral stressor potentiates fear conditioning in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Brandon S; Ferrari, Maud C O; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M; Chivers, Douglas P

    2017-08-01

    Organisms faced with stressors deploy a suite of adaptive responses in the form of behavioral, physiological and cognitive modifications to overcome the challenge. Interactive effects of these responses are known to influence learning and memory processes and facilitation is thought to be dependent, in part, upon contextual relevance of the stressor to the learning task. Predation is one such stressor for prey animals, and their ability to manage reliable information about predators is essential for adaptive antipredator strategies. Here, we investigated (i) the influence cortisol has on the ability of juvenile rainbow trout to learn and retain conditioned antipredator responses to predatory cues, and (ii) whether conditioned behavioral and physiological responses to predator cues are fixed or deployed in a threat-sensitive manner. Trout were fed cortisol-coated pellets minutes prior to a conditioning event where they were exposed to novel predator odor paired with chemical alarm cues (unconditioned stimulus). We tested for conditioned responses by exposing trout to predator cues after 2, 4 or 10days and subsequently documented physiological and behavioral responses. Both control and cortisol-fed trout learned the predator odor and responded 2 and 4days post conditioning. However, at 10days only cortisol-fed trout maintained strong behavioral responses to predator cues. Interestingly, we failed to find conditioned physiological responses to predator odor despite the presence of threat-sensitive cortisol responses to the unconditioned stimulus. Our findings suggest cortisol exposure prior to predator-learning may enhance retention of conditioned responses, even without a contextual link between stressor source and learning task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Experimental determination of the bioconcentration factors for anatoxin-a in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Osswald

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatoxin-a is a cyanobacterial neurotoxin with a worldwide occurrence in freshwater ecosystems. As a result of global climate changes, it is expected to occur an increase of eutrophication processes and of frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms in several regions of the world. In these conditions, the water concentrations of cyanotoxins, including anatoxin-a, may increase reaching toxic levels, with an additional risk for organisms able to bioconcentrate it in their body. Considering the importance that these processes may have in freshwater ecosystems and the lack of knowledge that still exists on the topic, this study tested the hypothesis that rainbow trout is able to bioconcentrate anatoxin-a. A 96 h bioassay was carried out by exposing juvenile fish to three concentrations of anatoxin-a (132 ug/L, 264 ug/L and 524 ug/L through the test media. At the end of the assay, the actual concentrations of the toxin were determined in the test media and in the whole fish body by HPLC-FLD and the bioconcentration factors (BCF were determined. At all the tested concentrations of anatoxin-a, the fish body concentrations of the toxin were higher than the corresponding water concentrations, with BCF ranging from 30 to 47 based on fresh weight. These findings indicate that the rainbow trout is able to bioconcentrate anatoxin-a, even during short-term exposures and this process may considerably increase the risk of being intoxicated in real scenarios. Since other species of fish may have also this capability and considering that they are key species in a considerable number of freshwater ecosystems, more research should be done on this most important topic in the actual context of global climate changes.

  14. RESTORATION OF STREAM PHYSICAL HABITAT AND FOOD RESOURCES: INFLUENCE ON JUVENILE COHO GROWTH AND SALMON DERIVED NUTRIENT INCORPORATION IN COASTAL OREGON STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT - Stream restoration in Western Oregon and Washington includes physical habitat improvement and salmon carcass additions. However, few studies examine the effects of carcass placement on juvenile fish in western Oregon, and in particular the interaction with physical hab...

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  16. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Beauchamp, David A.; Cross, Alison D.; Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, James M.; Helle, John H.; Walker, Robert V.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2009-12-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 ( P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d -1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d -1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d -1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d -1) and not significantly different ( P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks ( P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant ( P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  17. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  18. Effects of a parasite, Eubothrium salvelini (Cestoda:Pseudophyllidea), on the resistance of juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, N.P.; Yamada, S.B.

    1977-05-01

    Most research to date on the tolerance of natural populations to physical and chemical stressors appears to have overlooked that parasites may themselves be stressors, and that they may be capable of modifying the resistance of the host to other applied stressors. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts trapped at the outlet of Babine Lake, central British Columbia, were subjected to 1 mg/l dissolved zinc under laboratory conditions. Smolts infected with the intestinal cestode Eubothrium salvelini proved to be significantly more susceptible to zinc than were noninfected smolts. We recommend that future investigations of environmental effects, especially on wild populations, include consideration of the state of parasitism of the test organisms.

  19. 2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2006-01-01

    During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of

  20. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  1. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid behavior near a prototype weir box at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of juvenile salmonids at Cowlitz Falls Dam is a critical part of the effort to restore salmon in the upper Cowlitz River because the majority of fish that are not collected at the dam pass downstream and enter a large reservoir where they become landlocked and lost to the anadromous fish population. However, the juvenile fish collection system at Cowlitz Falls Dam has failed to achieve annual collection goals since it first began operating in 1996. Since that time, numerous modifications to the fish collection system have been made and several prototype collection structures have been developed and tested, but these efforts have not substantially increased juvenile fish collection. Studies have shown that juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) tend to locate the collection entrances effectively, but many of these fish are not collected and eventually pass the dam through turbines or spillways. Tacoma Power developed a prototype weir box in 2009 to increase capture rates of juvenile salmonids at the collection entrances, and this device proved to be successful at retaining those fish that entered the weir. However, because of safety concerns at the dam, the weir box could not be deployed near a spillway gate where the prototype was tested, so the device was altered and re-deployed at a different location, where it was evaluated during 2013. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an evaluation using radiotelemetry to monitor fish behavior near the weir box and collection flumes. The evaluation was conducted during April–June 2013. Juvenile steelhead and coho salmon (45 per species) were tagged with a radio transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, and released upstream of the dam. All tagged fish moved downstream and entered the forebay of Cowlitz Falls Dam. Median travel times from the release site to the forebay were 0.8 d for steelhead and 1.2 d for coho

  2. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-06-17

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  3. Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Zeug

    Full Text Available Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations.

  4. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nakano

    Full Text Available Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH binding to the GH receptor (GHR. Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  5. Intestinal nematodes affect selenium bioaccumulation, oxidative stress biomarkers, and health parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursky, Olesya; Pietrock, Michael

    2015-02-17

    In environmental studies, parasites are often seen as a product of enhanced host susceptibility due to exposure to one or several stressors, whereas potential consequences of infections on host responses are often overlooked. Therefore, the present study focused on effects of parasitism on bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Joint effects of biological (parasite) and chemical (Se) stressors on biomarkers of oxidative stress (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), and fish health (condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gross energy) were also examined. Fish of the control group received uncontaminated food, while test fish, either experimentally infected with the nematode Raphidascaris acus or not, were exposed to dietary selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an environmentally relevant dose over 7 weeks. Selenium bioaccumulation by the parasite was low relative to its host, and parasitized trout showed slowed Se accumulation in the muscle as compared to uninfected fish. Furthermore, GST and SOD activities of trout exposed to both Se-Met and parasites were generally significantly lower than in fish exposed to Se-Met alone. Gross energy concentrations, but not K or HSI, were reduced in fish exposed to both Se-Met and R. acus. Together the experiment strongly calls for consideration of parasites when interpreting effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms in field investigations.

  6. Morphological observation on larval and juvenile development of Oncorhynchus mykiss%斑点鳟仔、稚、幼鱼的形态发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文; 高凤祥; 潘雷; 胡发文; 菅玉霞; 王雪; 张少春

    2012-01-01

    以斑点鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)发眼卵为材料,进行了发眼卵的人工孵化及仔鱼的人工培育研究.对斑点鳟仔稚鱼的形态发育进行了系统观察,描述了各发育期的形态特征,并测定生长参数.斑点鳟早期生活史的分期如下:初孵仔鱼全长14.25±0.45 mm,体重85±5 mg,肛门未开口,营内源性营养,脊柱末端向上弯曲;10 dph开始上浮,投喂卤虫;12 dph开口摄食,开始营内外源混合性营养;14 dph鳍膜消失,各鳍独立;16dph开始投喂配合饵料;24 dph卵黄囊吸收完毕,营完全外源性营养;34 dph,体侧形成8~9个幼鲑斑;44dph各鳍的鳍条发育健全;60 dph幼鱼外形为纺锤形,与成鱼相同.研究表明,斑点鳟早期生长发育过程中全长、肛门前长、水平眼径和头高的生长情况基本相同,0~ 16 dph生长速度较快,16~44dph生长速度较慢,44 dph后生长速度再次变快.%The paper reported the results of morphological observation on larval development of Oncorhynchus mykiss. The eyed eggs obtained from America were used in this study. Morphological development of fish larvae was systematically observed. The paper described the morphological characteristics of various developmental stages and measured growth parameters. The early life history of Oncorhynchus mykiss was: the total length of newly hatched larvae was 14.25 ±0.45 mm, the weight was 85 ±5 mg; the anus was not open, the larvae relied on their yolk for nourishment, the end of spine was upwarped; the larvae started floating at 10 dph, fed with artemia; the larval mouth opened at 12 dph; the fin membrance disappeared at 14 dph; the yolk was exhausted at 24 dph; 8 - 9 large black spots on the lateral formed at 34 dph; All fin rays and scales formed at 44 dph; the juvenile showed the appearence of small adults at 60 dph. The morphological development and changes of pigment pattern were observed. The development of head, dorsal spine, anal fin and caudal peduncle

  7. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon: Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program, October 1994-September 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1995-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 26, 1994 to June 27, 1995. A total of 1,531 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 688 adult, 236 jack, and 368 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawvtscha); 984 adult and 62 jack coho (O. kisutch) ; and 388 adult and 108 jack spring chinook (O. tshawvtscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 971 summer steelhead; 581 adult and 27 jack fall chinook; 500 adult and 22 jack coho; and 363 adult and 61 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were also 373 summer steelhead; 12 adult, 186 jack and 317 subjack fall chinook; 379 adult and 32 jack coho; and 15 adult and one jack spring chinook released at Threemile Dam. In addition, 154 summer steelhead were hauled to Bonifer and Minthorn for brood. The Westland Canal facility, located near the town of Echo, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The facility operated for a total of 179 days between December 2, 1994 and July 19, 1995. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 137 days and were trapped 42 days. Three steelhead kelts and an estimated 1,560 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5. Approximately 98% of the fish transported this year were salmonids. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass began operating March 25, 1995 and was closed on June 16, 1995. The juvenile trap was operated by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife research personnel from April 1, 1995 through the summer to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  8. Potential effects of changes in temperature and food resources on life history trajectories of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and changes in food resources owing to climate change may alter the growth and migratory behavior of organisms. This is particularly important for salmonid species like Oncorhynchus mykiss, where some individuals remain in freshwater to mature (nonanadromous Rainbow Trout) and others migrate to sea (anadromous Steelhead). Whether one strategy is adopted over the other may depend on the individual's growth and size. In this study, we explored (1) how water temperature in Beaver Creek, a tributary to the Methow River, Washington, may increase under four climate scenarios, (2) how these thermal changes may alter the life history trajectory followed by O. mykiss (i.e., when and if to smolt), and (3) how changes in food quality or quantity might interact with increasing temperatures. We combined bioenergetic and state-dependent life history models parameterized for O. mykiss in Beaver Creek to mimic baseline life history trajectories. Based on our simulations, when mean water temperature was increased by 0.6°C there was a reduction in life history diversity and a 57% increase in the number of individuals becoming smolts. When mean temperature was increased by 2.7°C, it resulted in 87% fewer smolts than in the baseline and fewer life history trajectories expressed. A reduction in food resources led to slower growth, more life history trajectories, and a greater proportion of smolts. In contrast, when food resources were increased, fish grew faster, which reduced the proportion of smolts and life history diversity. Our modeling suggests that warmer water temperatures associated with climate change could decrease the life history diversity of O. mykiss in the central portion of their range and thereby reduce resiliency to other disturbances. In addition, changes in food resources could mediate or exacerbate the effect of water temperature on the life history trajectories of O. mykiss.

  9. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  10. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  11. Effect of Cryptobia salmositica-induced anorexia on feeding behavior and immune response in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Adrian; Guo, Fu Ci; Bernier, Nicholas J; Woo, Patrick T K

    2004-01-28

    At 10 degrees C, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (n = 13 per group) infected with Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 became anorexic at 3 wk post-infection (w.p.i.), with feed-intake decreasing significantly from 1.33 to 0.94% body weight (b.w.). Anorexia was most severe at 4 w.p.i. (0.80% b.w.), coinciding with peak parasitemia (9.2 x 10(6) parasites ml blood(-1)) and anemia. At 8 w.p.i., fish had recovered their appetite although they still had contained detectable parasites (6.8 x 10(5) parasites ml(-1)) and were anemic (pack cell volume, PCV, of 24.4%). However at 5 degrees C, anorexia occurred at 5 w.p.i. (0.81% b.w.), and was most severe at 7 w.p.i. (0.40% b.w.). At 8 w.p.i. (0.43% b.w.), fish displayed high parasitemia (4.6 x 10(6) parasites ml(-1)) and low PCV (10.8%). Fish at 5 degrees C had lower gastric evacuation (GE) rates (GE48h) than 10 degrees C fish, however there were no differences between infected and naive fish at both temperatures. Before anorexia, there was no significant correlation between mean share of meal (MSM, a measure of how food was partitioned within a group) and coefficient of variation in feeding but this became significant during anorexia (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0002 at 10 and 5 degrees C respectively). Significant correlations were detected between b.w. and MSM before onset of anorexia at 10 degrees C (p = 0.005) and 5 degrees C (p = 0.02); this was maintained at 10 degrees C (p = 0.001) but not at 5 degrees C (p = 0.98). Fish on an anorexic diet (0.93% b.w.) responded well at 10 degrees C to a live C. salmositica vaccine; this could partly be due to constant antigenic stimulation by the live vaccine.

  12. The Fate of Coho Salmon Nomads: The Story of an Estuarine-Rearing Strategy Promoting Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V. Koski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The downstream movement of coho salmon nomads (age 0, conventionally considered surplus fry, has been an accepted characteristic of juvenile coho salmon for the past 40 to 50 yr. The fate of these nomads, however, was not known and they were assumed to perish in the ocean. Several studies and observations have recently provided new insights into the fate of nomads and the role of the stream-estuary ecotone and estuary in developing this life history strategy that promotes coho resilience. Chinook and sockeye salmon have developed the ocean-type life-history strategy to exploit the higher productivity of the estuarine environment and migrate to the ocean at age 0. Nomad coho can acclimate to brackish water, and survive and grow well in the stream-estuary ecotone and estuary, but instead of migrating to the ocean they return upstream into freshwater to overwinter before migrating to the ocean as smolts. Nomads may enter the estuarine environment from natal or non-natal streams, rear there throughout the summer, and then emigrate to a non-natal stream for overwintering and smolting in the spring. These estuarine and overwintering habitats have enabled coho to develop this unique nomad life history strategy that may help to ensure their resilience. Restoring estuarine habitats may be essential to the recovery of depressed populations of coho.

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  14. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Astaxanthin on Growth, Muscle Pigmentation and Antioxidant Capacity of Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Khosravi, Sanaz; Chang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets. Muscle astaxanthin content increased with increased astaxanthin in the diet. Deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh resulted in a decrease in lightness and an increase in redness and yellowness. The fillets from trout fed the AX75 diet had significantly lower lightness than trout fed the AX50 and AX100 diets. Fish fed the AX50 and AX75 diets showed significantly lower catalase activity than those fed the control diet. Total antioxidant status increased significantly in all astaxanthin supplemented groups when compared to the control group. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in fish fed the AX50 diet compared to fish fed the AX0 diet. These findings suggest that while fillet pigmentation increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin concentration, indices of fish antioxidant capacity may not be affected in a dose dependent manner. PMID:27752505

  15. Coupled stream and population dynamics: Modeling the role beaver (Castor canadensis) play in generating juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.; Bouwes, N.; Wheaton, J. M.; Pollock, M.

    2013-12-01

    through the dynamics of the co-occurring beaver population. The model allowed to us to ask questions critical for designing restoration strategies based on dam building beaver activity, such as what beaver population growth rate is required to develop and maintain floodplain connectivity in an incised system, or what beaver population size is required to increase juvenile steelhead production? The model was sensitive to several variables including beaver colony size, dams and colony dynamics and site fidelity, and thus highlights further research needs to fill critical information gaps.

  16. Habitat use by juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries-species, age, diel and seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the habitat needs of fish and how these requirements may change seasonally over a 24-h period is important, especially for highly managed sport species. Consequently, we examined the diel and seasonal habitat use of four juvenile salmonid species in streams in the Lake Ontario watershed. For juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salarand juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, differences in day versus night habitat use were more profound than seasonal differences. Observed differences in day versus night habitat for all species and age classes were mainly due to the use of less object oriented cover at night and to a lesser extent to the use of slower velocities and smaller substrate at night. Seasonal differences in habitat use were also observed, likely due to increased fish size, and included movement to deeper and faster water and the use of larger substrate and more cover from summer to winter. Different habitat variables were important to individual species. Juvenile Atlantic salmon were associated with higher water velocities, juvenile rainbow trout with larger substrate and more cover, and subyearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and subyearling coho salmon O. kisutch with small substrate and less cover. Our observations demonstrate that habitat partitioning occurs and likely reduces intraspecific and interspecific competition which may increase the potential production of all four species in sympatry. Consequently, these findings provide important information for resource managers charged with managing, protecting, and enhancing Great Lakes tributaries where all or some of these species occur.

  17. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonictinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tyshawytscha) using ELISA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A.; Grue, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) has been proposed as an alternative to carbaryl for controlling indigenous burrowing shrimp on commercial oyster beds in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington. A focus of concern over the use of this insecticide in an aquatic environment is the potential for adverse effects from exposure to non-target species residing in the Bay, such as juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). Federal registration and State permiting approval for the use of IMI will require confirmation that the compound does not adversely impact these salmonids following field applications. This will necessitate an environmental monitoring program for evaluating exposure in salmonids following the treatment of beds. Quantification of IMI residues in tissue can be used for determining salmonid exposure to the insecticide. Refinement of an existing protocol using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection would provide the low limits of quantification, given the relatively small tissue sample sizes, necessary for determining exposure in individual fish. Such an approach would not be viable for the environmental monitoring effort in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor due to the high costs associated with running multiple analyses, however. A new sample preparation protocol was developed for use with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IMI, thereby providing a low-cost alternative to LC-MS for environmental monitoring in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. Extraction of the analyte from the salmonid brain tissue was achieved by Dounce homogenization in 4.0 mL of 20.0 mM Triton X-100, followed by a 6 h incubation at 50–55 °C. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and reversed phase solid phase extraction were used for sample cleanup. The limit of quantification for an average 77.0 mg whole brain sample was calculated at 18.2 μg kg-1 (ppb) with an average

  18. Development of a new method for the determination of residues of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using ELISA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2012-03-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) has been proposed as an alternative to carbaryl for controlling indigenous burrowing shrimp on commercial oyster beds in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington. A focus of concern over the use of this insecticide in an aquatic environment is the potential for adverse effects from exposure to non-target species residing in the Bay, such as juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and cutthroat trout (O. clarki). Federal registration and State permiting approval for the use of IMI will require confirmation that the compound does not adversely impact these salmonids following field applications. This will necessitate an environmental monitoring program for evaluating exposure in salmonids following the treatment of beds. Quantification of IMI residues in tissue can be used for determining salmonid exposure to the insecticide. Refinement of an existing protocol using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection would provide the low limits of quantification, given the relatively small tissue sample sizes, necessary for determining exposure in individual fish. Such an approach would not be viable for the environmental monitoring effort in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor due to the high costs associated with running multiple analyses, however. A new sample preparation protocol was developed for use with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IMI, thereby providing a low-cost alternative to LC-MS for environmental monitoring in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. Extraction of the analyte from the salmonid brain tissue was achieved by Dounce homogenization in 4.0 mL of 20.0 mM Triton X-100, followed by a 6 h incubation at 50-55 °C. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and reversed phase solid phase extraction were used for sample cleanup. The limit of quantification for an average 77.0 mg whole brain sample was calculated at 18.2 μg kg(-1) (ppb) with an average

  19. Oncorhynchus Masou Virus (OMV) Epidemiology and its Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoru YOSHIMIZU; Nomura, Tetsuichi

    2001-01-01

    Distribution of salmonid herpesvirus was known in USA and Japan. Herpesviruses isolated in USA were classified to serotype 1 (SaHV-1) and in Japan were serotype 2 (SaHV-2). The reference strain of SaHV-1 is Herpesvirus salmonis and SaHV-2 is Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) strain OO-7812. OMV disease (OMVD) causes oncogenic and skin ulcer conditions. The main susceptible fish species are kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), masu salmon (O. masou), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and rainbow trout (O....

  20. Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but in nature, the ability to compete for available food is a key factor determining survival fitness and invasiv...

  1. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications. Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of mortality

  2. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  3. Linking climate change projections for an Alaskan watershed to future coho salmon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppi, Jason C; Rinella, Daniel J; Wilson, Ryan R; Loya, Wendy M

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to dramatically change hydrologic processes across Alaska, but estimates of how these impacts will influence specific watersheds and aquatic species are lacking. Here, we linked climate, hydrology, and habitat models within a coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population model to assess how projected climate change could affect survival at each freshwater life stage and, in turn, production of coho salmon smolts in three subwatersheds of the Chuitna (Chuit) River watershed, Alaska. Based on future climate scenarios and projections from a three-dimensional hydrology model, we simulated coho smolt production over a 20-year span at the end of the century (2080-2100). The direction (i.e., positive vs. negative) and magnitude of changes in smolt production varied substantially by climate scenario and subwatershed. Projected smolt production decreased in all three subwatersheds under the minimum air temperature and maximum precipitation scenario due to elevated peak flows and a resulting 98% reduction in egg-to-fry survival. In contrast, the maximum air temperature and minimum precipitation scenario led to an increase in smolt production in all three subwatersheds through an increase in fry survival. Other climate change scenarios led to mixed responses, with projected smolt production increasing and decreasing in different subwatersheds. Our analysis highlights the complexity inherent in predicting climate-change-related impacts to salmon populations and demonstrates that population effects may depend on interactions between the relative magnitude of hydrologic and thermal changes and their interactions with features of the local habitat.

  4. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1995-1996 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1995-September 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  5. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  6. An enriched stable-isotope approach to determine the gill-zinc binding properties of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute zinc exposures in hard and soft waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Wolf, R.E.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to employ an enriched stable-isotope approach to characterize Zn uptake in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during acute Zn exposures in hard water (???140 mg/L as CaCO 3) and soft water (???30 mg/L as CaCO3). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated to the test hardnesses and then exposed for up to 72 h in static exposures to a range of Zn concentrations in hard water (0-1,000 ??g/L) and soft water (0-250 ??g/L). To facilitate detection of new gill Zn from endogenous gill Zn, the exposure media was significantly enriched with 67Zn stable isotope (89.60% vs 4.1% natural abundance). Additionally, acute Zn toxicity thresholds (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]) were determined experimentally through traditional, flow-through toxicity tests in hard water (580 ??g/L) and soft water (110 ??g/L). Following short-term (???3 h) exposures, significant differences in gill accumulation of Zn between hard and soft water treatments were observed at the three common concentrations (75, 150, and 250 ??g/L), with soft water gills accumulating more Zn than hard water gills. Short-term gill Zn accumulation at hard and soft water LC50s (45-min median lethal accumulation) was similar (0.27 and 0.20 ??g/g wet wt, respectively). Finally, comparison of experimental gill Zn accumulation, with accumulation predicted by the biotic ligand model, demonstrated that model output reflected short-term (predicted observed differences in accumulation between hard and soft water rainbow trout gills. Our results indicate that measurable differences exist in short-term gill Zn accumulation following acclimation and exposure in different water hardnesses and that short-term Zn accumulation appears to be predictive of Zn acute toxicity thresholds (96-h LC50s). ?? 2009 SETAC.

  7. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Gustavo, E-mail: gchiang@centromeri.cl [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA–Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Concepción, Concepcion (Chile); Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental (ECoA), IIMyC-CONICET-UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Rivas, Meyling [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  8. Geochemical signatures in fin rays provide a nonlethal method to distinguish the natal rearing streams of endangered juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linley, Timothy J.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Nims, Megan K.; Langshaw, Russell B.

    2016-09-01

    Rebuilding fish populations that have undergone a major decline is a challenging task that can be made more complicated when estimates of abundance obtained from physical tags are biased or imprecise. Abundance estimates based on natural tags where each fish in the population is marked can help address these problems, but generally requires that the samples be obtained in a nonlethal manner. We evaluated the potential of using geochemical signatures in fin rays as a nonlethal method to determine the natal tributaries of endangered juvenile spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Archived samples of anal fin clips collected from yearling smolt in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were analyzed for Ba/Ca, Mn/Ba, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Water samples collected from these same streams in 2012 were also quantified for geochemical composition. Fin ray and water Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr were highly correlated despite the samples having been collected in different years. Fin ray Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Zn/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios differed significantly among the natal streams, but also among years within streams. A linear discriminant model that included Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr correctly classified 95% of the salmon to their natal stream. Our results suggest that fin ray geochemistry may provide an effective, nonlethal method to identify mixtures of Wenatchee River spring Chinook Salmon for recovery efforts when these involve the capture of juvenile fish to estimate population abundance.

  9. Juvenile Salmonid Pit-Tag Studies at Prosser Dam and the Chandler Canal Fish Collection Facility, Yakima River, 1991 and 1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, Thomas E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the second and third years of a 3-year study to estimate juvenile salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) timing and survival characteristics related to passage through the Prosser Dam complex, including the Chandler Canal and the Chandler fish collection facility, on the Yakima River. Yearling chinook (O. tshawyacha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) were collected at the Chandler facility, PIT tagged, and released at various locations in the Yakima River, Chandler Canal, and the Chandler facility. Individual fish were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection monitors at the Chandler facility and/or McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Survival through various reaches, PIT-tag detection efficiency, and Chandler Canal fish entrainment proportion parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. The research objectives in 1991 and 1992 were to: (1) assess the effects of passage through the Chandler Canal and the Chandler facility on the survival of juvenile salmonids, (2) determine the entrainment rate of juvenile salmonids into the Chandler Canal as a function of river flow, and (3) determine the efficiency and reliability of the PIT-tag monitoring system at the Chandler facility. The initial 1990 research plan was expanded in 1991 and 1992 to include several more release locations and many more release days.

  10. Effects of dietary propolis and vitamin E on growth performance and antioxidant status in blood of juvenile Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Teleostei: Salmoniformes under different flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüzar Tuna Kelestemur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of propolis and vitamin E supplementation in diets of juvenil rainbow trout subjected to two different flow rates with or without flow stress (0.9 and 2.1 l/min, respectively on final weigth (FW, condition factor (CF, feed conservation ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and vitamin A, C and E concentrations and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in serum as well as plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. The experimental groups were as follows: group C was fed a basal diet, group P10 was fed a basal diet supplemented with 10 g propolis/kg, group P30 was fed a basal diet supplemented with 30 g propolis/kg, group E60 was fed a basal diet supplemented with 60 mg vitamin E/kg. CF and PER were not different among all diets groups for both flow rate treatments (p > 0.05. The FCR improved in P10, P30 and E60 diet groups compared to C diet group at 2.1 l/min flow rate (p 0.05. Fish fed with diet E60had higher serum vitamin E concentration than other groups (p 0.05.

  11. Effects of diets with soybean meal on the growth, digestibility, Phosphorus and Nitrogen excretion of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Efectos de dietas con harina de soya en el crecimiento, digestibilidad, excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno de juveniles de trucha arco iris Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agustín Cruz Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the inclusion of high levels of soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile rainbowtrout and determine the phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Fishmeal was replaced with soybean meal at levels of 50,75 and 100 % with an inclusion of 0.8 g of phytase per kg of diet (g kg-1, whereas a diet with 100% substitution was used without phytase. A commercial diet and one with 100% of fishmeal were used as controls. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, mean + standard deviation for a period of 50 days, and growth performance, P and N excretion and protein digestibility were determined at the end of this period. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The results showed that fish growth decreased when 100% of substitution was used, but diet with 75% of soybean meal did not affect growth. In addition, excretion values of P and N at this level of substitution were lowerthan those of the fish fed the control diets. The data suggest that diet with 75% soybean meal and 25% fishmeal might be used under practical conditions, as the growth performance observed on the juveniles fed such diet was similarto those offish fed the commercial diet and the nutrient loading was reduced.Se realizó una prueba de alimentación para evaluar la inclusión de altos niveles de harina de soya como sustituto de la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles de trucha arco iris y determinar la excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno. La harina de pescado se sustituyó en niveles de 50, 75 y 100% con la inclusión de 0.8 g de fitasa por kg de dieta (g kg-1, así como una dieta con 100% de sustitución sin fitasa fue utilizada. Una dieta comercial y una con 100% de harina de pescado se utilizaron como controles. Las dietas se ofrecieron a grupos de juveniles portriplicado de juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, promedio + desviación estándar por un periodo de 50 días. Al finalizar este periodo, se determinó el

  12. Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Hinman, C; Macneale, K H; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L; Stark, J D

    2015-08-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI), or low impact development, encompasses a diverse and expanding portfolio of strategies to reduce the impacts of stormwater runoff on natural systems. Benchmarks for GSI success are usually framed in terms of hydrology and water chemistry, with reduced flow and loadings of toxic chemical contaminants as primary metrics. Despite the central goal of protecting aquatic species abundance and diversity, the effectiveness of GSI treatments in maintaining diverse assemblages of sensitive aquatic taxa has not been widely evaluated. In the present study we characterized the baseline toxicity of untreated urban runoff from a highway in Seattle, WA, across six storm events. For all storms, first flush runoff was toxic to the daphniid Ceriodaphnia dubia, causing up to 100% mortality or impairing reproduction among survivors. We then evaluated whether soil media used in bioretention, a conventional GSI method, could reduce or eliminate toxicity to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as well as their macroinvertebrate prey, including cultured C. dubia and wild-collected mayfly nymphs (Baetis spp.). Untreated highway runoff was generally lethal to salmon and invertebrates, and this acute mortality was eliminated when the runoff was filtered through soil media in bioretention columns. Soil treatment also protected against sublethal reproductive toxicity in C. dubia. Thus, a relatively inexpensive GSI technology can be highly effective at reversing the acutely lethal and sublethal effects of urban runoff on multiple aquatic species.

  13. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  14. Development of a multiplex gene expression assay for components of the endocrine growth axis in coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Dickey, Jon T; Beckman, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the efficacy of the Quantigene plex (QGP) technology for measuring a panel of endocrine growth-related transcripts in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. The QGP technology permits the simultaneous quantification of multiple targeted mRNAs within a single tissue homogenate using sequence-specific probes and requires no reverse transcription (RT) or amplification as is required for RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Using liver homogenates from coho salmon under fed and fasted conditions, we compared the detectable fold differences of steady-state mRNA levels between the QGP and probe-based RT-qPCR assays for insulin-like growth factors (igf1 and igf2), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (igfbp1b, igfbp2a, and igfbp2b), somatolactin receptor (slr), and growth hormone receptors (ghr1 and ghr2). Significant, positive correlations for all genes between the two assays were found. In addition, the relatively low variance of results from the QGP assay suggests that this is a suitable method for a comprehensive analysis of endocrine growth-related transcripts and could potentially be used to develop assays for other gene networks in teleosts.

  15. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  16. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  17. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  18. Bypass system modification at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River improved the survival of juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.W.; Sandford, B.P.; Reagan, R.E.; Gilbreath, L.G.; Meyer, E.B.; Ledgerwood, R.D.; Adams, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1987 to 1992, we evaluated a fish bypass system at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 2 on the Columbia River. The survival of subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha released into the system ranged from 0.774 to 0.911 and was significantly lower than the survival of test fish released into turbines and the area immediately below the powerhouse where bypass system flow reentered the river. Yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch released into the bypass system were injured or descaled. Also, levels of blood plasma cortisol and lactate were significantly higher in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon that passed through the bypass system than in fish released directly into a net located over the bypass exit. This original system was then extensively modified using updated design criteria, and the site where juvenile fish reentered the river was relocated 2.8 km further downstream to reduce predation on bypassed fish by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Based on studies conducted from 1999 to 2001, the new bypass system resulted in high fish survival, virtually no injuries to fish, fish passage times that were generally similar to water travel times, and mild stress responses from which fish recovered quickly. The mean estimated survival of subyearling Chinook salmon passing through the new bypass system was 0.946 in 2001, which was an usually low-flow year. Survival, physical condition, passage timing, and blood physiological indicators of stress were all useful metrics for assessing the performance of both bypass systems and are discussed. The engineering and hydraulic criteria used to design the new bypass system that resulted in improved fish passage conditions are described.

  19. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  20. Accurate aging of juvenile salmonids using fork lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon life history strategies, survival, and habitat interactions may vary by age cohort. However, aging individual juvenile fish using scale reading is time consuming and can be error prone. Fork length data are routinely measured while sampling juvenile salmonids. We explore the performance of aging juvenile fish based solely on fork length data, using finite Gaussian mixture models to describe multimodal size distributions and estimate optimal age-discriminating length thresholds. Fork length-based ages are compared against a validation set of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorynchus kisutch, aged by scales. Results for juvenile coho salmon indicate greater than 95% accuracy can be achieved by aging fish using length thresholds estimated from mixture models. Highest accuracy is achieved when aged fish are compared to length thresholds generated from samples from the same drainage, time of year, and habitat type (lentic versus lotic), although relatively high aging accuracy can still be achieved when thresholds are extrapolated to fish from populations in different years or drainages. Fork length-based aging thresholds are applicable for taxa for which multiple age cohorts coexist sympatrically. Where applicable, the method of aging individual fish is relatively quick to implement and can avoid ager interpretation bias common in scale-based aging.

  1. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  2. The sockeye salmon neo-Y chromosome is a fusion between linkage groups orthologous to the coho Y chromosome and the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Hammond, J; Phillips, R B; Park, L K

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) have an X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, with females having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 58 and males 2n = 57 in all populations examined. To determine the origin of the sockeye Y chromosome, we mapped microsatellite loci from the rainbow trout (O. mykiss; OMY) genetic map, including those found on the Y chromosomes of related species, in kokanee (i.e. non-anadromous sockeye) crosses. Results showed that 3 microsatellite loci from the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 8 (OMY8q), linked to SEX (the sex-determining locus) in coho salmon (O. kisutch), are also closely linked to SEX in the kokanee crosses. We also found that 3 microsatellite loci from OMY2q are linked to those markers from OMY8q and SEX in kokanee, with both linkage groups fused to form the neo-Y. These results were confirmed by physical mapping of BAC clones containing microsatellite loci from OMY8q and OMY2q to kokanee chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fusion of OMY2q to the ancestral Y may have resolved sexual conflict and, in turn, may have played a large role in the divergence of sockeye from a shared ancestor with coho. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Protectiveness of water quality criteria for copper in western United States waters relative to predicted olfactory responses in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Gensemer, Robert W; Van Genderen, Eric J; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2011-07-01

    Copper (Cu) can impair olfaction in juvenile Pacific salmon (as well as other fishes), thus potentially inhibiting the ability of juveniles to avoid predators or to find food. Because Cu is commonly elevated in stormwater runoff in urban environments, storm events may result in elevated Cu concentrations in salmon-bearing streams. Accordingly, there is concern that existing Cu criteria, which were not derived using data for olfactory-related endpoints, may not be adequately protective of juvenile salmon. However, a modification of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM) for deriving site-specific Cu criteria was recently proposed, which accounted for the sensitivity of olfactory endpoints. The modification was based on olfactory inhibition in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to Cu in various combinations of pH, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. We used that olfactory-based BLM to derive 20% inhibition concentrations (IC20) values for Cu for 133 stream locations in the western United States. The olfactory BLM-based IC20 values were compared to the existing hardness-based Cu criteria and the USEPA's BLM-based Cu criteria for these representative natural waters of the western United States. Of the 133 sampling locations, mean hardness-dependent acute and chronic Cu criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 value in 122 (92%) and 129 (97%) of the waters, respectively (i.e., <20% olfactory impairment would have been predicted at the mean hardness-based Cu criteria concentrations). Waters characterized by a combination of high hardness and very low DOC were most likely to have hardness-based Cu criteria that were higher than the olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, because DOC strongly influences Cu bioavailability in the BLM. In all waters, the USEPA's current BLM-based criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, indicating that the USEPA's BLM

  4. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  5. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  6. Genotype-temperature interaction in the regulation of development, growth, and morphometrics in wild-type, and growth-hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e.g. most fishes, are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production at six different temperatures, ranging between 8 degrees and 18 degrees C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12 degrees C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16 degrees C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves. CONCLUSIONS: Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to

  7. Temperature-dependent interactions between juvenile steelhead and Sacramento pikeminnow in laboratory streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl D. Reese; Bret C. Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - We examined the temperature dependence of interactions between juvenile steelhead 'Oncorhynchus mykiss' and juvenile Sacramento pikeminnow 'Ptychocheilus grandis' in laboratory streams. Growth of dominant steelhead in water 20-23 degree C was reduced by more than 50% in trials with Sacramento pikeminnow compared with trials with steelhead...

  8. Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Robert H; D'Andrade, Mark; Uh, Mitchell; Biagi, Carlo A

    2004-06-22

    Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but in nature, the ability to compete for available food is a key factor determining survival fitness and invasiveness of a genotype. When transgenic and nontransgenic salmon were cohabitated and competed for different levels of food, transgenic salmon consistently outgrew nontransgenic fish and could affect the growth of nontransgenic cohorts except when food availability was high. When food abundance was low, dominant individuals emerged, invariably transgenic, that directed strong agonistic and cannibalistic behavior to cohorts and dominated the acquisition of limited food resources. When food availability was low, all groups containing transgenic salmon experienced population crashes or complete extinctions, whereas groups containing only nontransgenic salmon had good (72.0 +/- 4.3% SE) survival, and their population biomass continued to increase. Thus, effects of growth hormone transgenic salmon on experimental populations were primarily mediated by an interaction between food availability and population structure. These data, while indicative of forces which may act on natural populations, also underscore the importance of genotype by environment interactions in influencing risk assessment data for genetically modified organisms and suggest that, for species such as salmon which are derived from large complex ecosystems, considerable caution is warranted in applying data from individual studies.

  9. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  10. Muscle fibre size optimisation provides flexibility for energy budgeting in calorie-restricted coho salmon transgenic for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian A; de la Serrana, Daniel Garcia; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (GH) show substantially faster growth than wild-type (WT) fish. We fed GH-transgenic salmon either to satiation (1 year; TF) or the same smaller ration of wild-type fish (2 years; TR), resulting in groups matched for body size to WT salmon. The myotomes of TF and WT fish had the same number and size distribution of muscle fibres, indicating a twofold higher rate of fibre recruitment in the GH transgenics. Unexpectedly, calorie restriction was found to decrease the rate of fibre production in transgenics, resulting in a 20% increase in average fibre size and reduced costs of ionic homeostasis. Genes for myotube formation were downregulated in TR relative to TF and WT fish. We suggest that muscle fibre size optimisation allows the reallocation of energy from maintenance to locomotion, explaining the observation that calorie-restricted transgenics grow at the same rate as WT fish whilst exhibiting markedly higher foraging activity.

  11. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... including: Evidence about coho salmon distribution in the historical literature; archeological data for coho... (Gobalet, in press), as well as earlier literature by Gobalet (Gobalet, 1990; Gobalet and Jones, 1995; and... Taft (1954) study. Response: The BRT carefully reviewed contemporary freshwater habitat data...

  12. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR to detect Parvicapsula minibicornis and comparison to histologically ranked infection of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), from the Klamath River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, K.; Purcell, M.K.; Foott, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Parvicapsula minibicornis is a myxosporean parasite that is associated with disease in Pacific salmon during their freshwater life history phase. This study reports the development of a quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to detect P. minibicornis DNA. The QPCR assay targets the 18S ribosomal subunit gene. A plasmid DNA control was developed to calibrate cycle threshold (CT) score to plasmid molecular equivalent (PME) units, a measure of gene copy number. Assay validation revealed that the QPCR was sensitive and able to detect 50 ag of plasmid DNA, which was equivalent to 12.5 PME. The QPCR assay could detect single P. minibicornis actinospores well above assay sensitivity, indicating a single spore contains at least 100 times the 18S DNA copies required for detection. The QPCR assay was repeatable and highly specific; no detectable amplification was observed using DNA from related myxozoan parasites. The method was validated using kidney tissues from 218 juvenile Chinook salmon sampled during the emigration period of March to July 2005 from the Klamath River. The QPCR assay was compared with histological examination. The QPCR assay detected P. minibicornis infection in 88.1% of the fish sampled, while histological examination detected infection in 71.1% of the fish sampled. Good concordance was found between the methods as 80% of the samples were in agreement. The majority of the disconcordant fish were positive by QPCR, with low levels of P. minibicornis DNA, but negative by histology. The majority of the fish rated histologically as having subclinical or clinical infections had high QPCR levels. The results of this study demonstrate that QPCR is a sensitive quantitative tool for evaluating P. minibicornis infection in fish health monitoring studies. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Embryotoxic action of methyl mercury on coho salmon embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, E.W. (Hampden-Sydney College, VA (United States)); Mottet, N.K. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Environmental levels of heavy metals like mercury have increased significantly over the last 100 years in response to anthropogenic activities. More recently the increase in acid precipitation may make the situation worse in that it appears to increase the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in the surface waters and benthic regions. Concentrations of mercury in surface waters are normally relatively low in the ng/L range, yet levels of mercury in fish tissue in the mg/L range are not uncommon. There have been several well-publicized accounts of acute mercury poisoning from consuming highly contaminated fish. Less is known about the health risks associated with consumption of fish with low levels of mercury contamination. Human embryos are especially sensitive to MeHg's teratogenic effects. For example, psychomotor retardation is a common outcome of fetal MeHg exposure. Such neural effects may be the result of abnormal migration of neurons during development. A number of different species have been utilized to investigate the effects of mercury on teleost development. Coho salmon, like all teleostean embryos possess mitotic cells that provide a useful model for the study of MeHg teratogenesis. Due to their large size, coho salmon embryos are easily observed and maintained in the laboratory. In addition large numbers of eggs are available from one female thus minimizing effects of variability among individuals. The objective of the present study is to characterize the toxic levels of MeHg and study their uptake. In addition some of the teratogenic effects of MeHg on coho salmon embryos will be described. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  16. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  17. Summary of management techniques, catches and escapement for the Kuskokwim area coho salmon stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We have three primary stocks of coho salmon in the Kuskokwim Area commercial fishery. The Kuskokwim, Kanektok and Goodnews Rivers' stocks. The Kuskokwim River stock...

  18. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wilson, Aaron [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wendt, Daniel [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Mendelssohn, Jeffrey [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Desormeaux, Erik [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Klare, Jennifer [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but we also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.

  19. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  20. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  2. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  3. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  4. Feasibility and Risks of Coho Reintroduction in Mid-Columbia [Tributaries] Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L. (Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The long-term vision for the coho re-introduction project is to reestablish naturally reproducing coho salmon populations in mid-Columbia river basins, with numbers at or near carrying capacity that provide opportunities for significant harvest for Tribal and non-Tribal fishers.

  5. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... efforts which began in 1906. Because the scientific literature prior to 1906 referenced coho salmon as... literature, the BRT found evidence that coho salmon were likely missidentified as chum salmon (O. keta) or... situation such as this and that few if any museum collections, even contemporary collections, could...

  6. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  7. Habitat-dependent interactions between two size-classes of juvenile steelhead in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1997-01-01

    Abstract - The presence of small steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; averaging 55 mm fork length) influenced the growth of larger juvenile steelhead (90 mm fork length) during a 6-week experiment conducted in North Fork Caspar Creek, California, in summer 1994. In fenced replicate deep stream sections in this small stream, growth of the larger steelhead was greater in...

  8. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  9. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  10. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  11. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  12. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival

  14. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed qPCR assays to distinguish closely related GST isoforms in salmon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the effect of cadmium on GST and metallothionein genes in 3 tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of GST varied among isoforms, tissues, and included a loss of expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallothionein outperformed, but generally complemented, GSTs as biomarkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salmon olfactory genes were among the most responsive to cadmium. - Abstract: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GSTs as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8-48 h) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to

  15. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  17. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  18. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, NK; Johnson, GE; Storch, AJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-07-06

    River delta. (2) Characterize the fish community and juvenile salmon migration, including species composition, length-frequency distribution, density (number/m{sup 2}), and temporal and spatial distributions in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). (3) Determine the stock of origin for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) captured at sampling sites through genetic identification. (4) Characterize the diets of juvenile Chinook and coho (O. kisutch) salmon captured within the study area. (5) Estimate run timing, residence times, and migration pathways for acoustic-tagged fish in the study area. (6) Conduct a baseline evaluation of the potential restoration to reconnect the old Sandy River channel with the delta. (7) Apply fish density data to initiate a design for a juvenile salmon monitoring program for beach habitats within the tidal freshwater segment of the LCRE (river kilometer 56-234).

  19. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    projection,, each year, the catchable 7 !A Table 1. Annual commercial landings of coho salmon by State or Province in metric tons (MT) and number of fish...Washington) having a legal right to 50% of the catchable allocation. Salmon Life cycles) Fisheries Growth, ’Feeding habits. Animal migrations tt. I.I.,O

  20. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  1. High Population Density of Juvenile Chum Salmon Decreased the Number and Sizes of Growth Hormone Cells in the Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Md. Abdus; Ota, Yuki; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Urano, Akihisa

    1999-01-01

    Juveniles of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) held at high population density were apparently smaller than those held at medium and low population densities. The effects of high population density on pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells in juvenile chum salmon were examined using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The ratio of GH-immunoreactive (ir) area to the whole pituitary was almost constant in all of the high, medium and low population density groups, although the nu...

  2. Calibration of aerial surveys and determination of streamlife for coho salmon (O. kitsuch) spawning in the Gechiak River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of species distributions of voles and shrews identified by trap lines near Upinnivgik. Presented at Bristol Bay Coho Salmon workshop, February , 1986.

  3. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  4. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  5. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...

  6. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  7. Coho Salmon Habitat in a Changing Environment-Green Valley Creek, Graton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M. D.; Kobor, J. S.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Green Valley Creek (GVC) is a small (101 sq km) aquatic habitat refugium in the Russian River watershed (3,840 sq km) in coastal northern California. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) is endangered per the Federal Endangered Species Act, and GVC is one stream where coho have persisted. Fish surveys in GVC have found high species diversity, growth rates, and over-summer survival. The upper portion of GVC comprises a principal tributary (20 sq km) that provides spawning and rearing habitat for coho. The second principal tributary, Atascadero Creek, is comparable in size, but has few fish. Atascadero Creek and lower GVC have broad, densely vegetated floodplains. A Recovery Plan for the Central Coastal California coho Evolutionarily Significant Unit has been developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which applies to the Russian River and its tributaries. Cooperative research regarding fish populations and habitat, a captive breeding and release program for native coho salmon, and efforts to plan for and restore habitat are ongoing. These regional efforts are particularly active in GVC, and participants include NMFS, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District, the California Coastal Conservancy, the University of California Cooperative Extension, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, among others. Our research focuses on hydrologic, geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the watershed in relation to aquatic habitat. Natural watershed factors contributing to habitat for coho include proximity to the coastal summer fog belt with cool temperatures, the Wilson Grove Formation aquifer that maintains dry season stream flow, and structural geology favorable for active floodplain morphology. Human impacts include water use and agriculture and rural residential development. Historic human impacts include stream clearing and draining of wetlands and floodplain for agriculture, which likely

  8. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Coho Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    rays resulting in black 1931) but usually enter from October banding; orange tints on anal, to March, peaking in December and pectoral, and pelvic fins...Tdft (1954) developed the following orange -red, and demersal. Scott and fe.nity f.)r,nuli: Crossmdn (1973) reported egg diameters of 4.5-6.0 mm for...undercut bdnks, overhanging areas to overwinter. In Carnation "eqetation, glides, averaqe water Creek (Vancouver Island, B.C.) coho tenperat ires of 10 to

  9. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.J.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Myers, H.K.; Zeigel, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.

  10. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  11. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  12. Supplementing enzymes to extruded, soybean based diet improves breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Verlhac, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    presumably by assisting in the breakdown of NSP. This study examined the effects on NSP degradation when supplementing β-glucanase, xylanase, protease or a mix of the three enzymes to an extruded, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet containing 344 g kg−1 de-hulled, solvent-extracted soybean...... meal (SBM). The NSP content in the non-supplemented control diet and in faecal samples from the dietary treatment groups was analysed to determine the recovery/apparent digestibility of cellulose and total non-cellulosic polysaccharide (T-NCP) sugar monomers. The enzymes had significant, positive...

  13. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program Population Estimates for Juvenile Salmonids in Nason Creek, WA ; 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Matthew; Murdoch, Keely [Yakama Nation Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-07-20

    This report summarizes juvenile coho, spring Chinook, and steelhead salmon migration data collected at a 1.5m diameter cone rotary fish trap on Nason Creek during 2008; providing abundance and freshwater productivity estimates. We used species enumeration at the trap and efficiency trials to describe emigration timing and to estimate the number of emigrants. Trapping began on March 2, 2008 and was suspended on December 11, 2008 when snow and ice accumulation prevented operation. During 2008, 0 brood year (BY) 2006 coho, 1 BY2007 coho, 906 BY2006 spring Chinook, 323 BY2007 fry Chinook, 2,077 BY2007 subyearling Chinook, 169 steelhead smolts, 414 steelhead fry and 2,390 steelhead parr were trapped. Mark-recapture trap efficiency trials were performed over a range of stream discharge stages. A total of 2,639 spring Chinook, 2,154 steelhead and 12 bull trout were implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. Most PIT tagged fish were used for trap efficiency trials. We were unable to identify a statistically significant relationship between stream discharge and trap efficiency, thus, pooled efficiency estimates specific to species and trap size/position were used to estimate the number of fish emigrating past the trap. We estimate that 5,259 ({+-} 359; 95% CI) BY2006 Chinook, 16,816 ({+-} 731; 95% CI) BY2007 Chinook, and 47,868 ({+-} 3,780; 95% CI) steelhead parr and smolts emigrated from Nason Creek in 2008.

  14. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  15. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  16. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  17. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  18. Nitrogen waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with particular focus on urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Particulate and dissolved nitrogen (N) waste components are removed in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using different cleaning technologies, and to dimension and optimize their removal efficiency requires that the expected daily load of the different waste forms can be estimated. Using...... a laboratory, mass-balance approach, the current study examined the effects of commercially applied feeding levels on the loading of different N waste forms, including daily fluctuations in dissolved total nitrogen (TN), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), urea-N, and non-characterized, dissolved N deriving from...... juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In addition, the study examined whether there was a removal of urea-N across a moving bed biofilter operated as end-of-pipe under commercial conditions. The laboratory, mass-balance study showed that there were no effects of feeding levels (1.3, 1.5 or 1...

  19. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  20. Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, S.T.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead at the upstream compared to the downstream site during both periods. The median condition factor of juvenile steelhead did not change over the summer at the upstream site, but showed a significant decline over time at the downstream site. A negative trend in median condition factor at the downstream site supported bioenergetics modeling results that suggested the warmer stream temperatures had a negative impact on juvenile steelhead. Bioenergetics modeling predicted a lower feeding performance for juvenile steelhead rearing downstream compared to upstream of Hemlock Dam although food availability appeared to be limited at both study sites during the warm period. Warmer water temperatures, greater diel variation, and change in diel pattern likely led to the reduced feeding performance and reduced growth, which could have affected the overall survival of juvenile steelhead downstream of Hemlock Dam. ?? 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association.

  1. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  2. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  4. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  5. 75 FR 16745 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... important component in the evolutionary legacy of the species. Additionally, through the initial petition and subsequent written correspondence between NMFS' Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) in... and the importance of these populations to the evolutionary legacy of the CCC coho salmon ESU in light...

  6. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  7. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  8. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  9. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  10. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 3 of 3; Addendum to the Assessment of Juvenile Oncorhynchus nerka (Sockeye and Kokane) Rearing Conditions of Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes 2002 Section of the 2002 Technical Report, 2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Howie; Lawrence, Shayla; Rebellato, Betty (Okanagan Nation Alliance, Fisheries Department, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this addendum is, first, to provide and discuss disease agent survey results that were not available for inclusion in the Disease Risk Assessment portion of the YEAR 3 report at the time of its writing, and second, to make recommendations stemming from these results. The first set of results deals with live box exposure tests conducted using juvenile sentinel rainbow trout in the spring of 2002 to detect Myxosoma cerebralis and Ceratomyxa shasta. The second set of results deals with similar exposure tests conducted in the spring of 2003. The latter tests were initially intended to occur in the fall of 2002 but had to be re-scheduled to the spring of 2003 because suitably aged sentinel rainbow trout for the exposures were not available in the fall of 2002. The methods used for the live box exposure tests were essentially the same as those described in the YEAR 3 report. Fish were again exposed at the same four sites above McIntyre Dam and at the same four sites below the dam. As mentioned in the YEAR 3 report, the spring 2002 exposure lasted for 21 days (May 6 to 27). The spring 2003 exposure also lasted for 21 days (April 22 to May 13). The number of fish in the spring 2003 tests was, however, reduced to approximately half the number used in previous tests in order to reduce the chances of dissolved oxygen problems, suspected to have occurred in earlier tests in some of the live boxes. As before, fish that survived the live box exposures were transferred to Skaha Hatchery where they were held for sufficient time to permit any infections with M. cerebralis and C. shasta to develop and to permit for spore development in these pathogens. Assays for the pathogens were carried out as previously described. Detection of M. cerebralis was based on detecting its spores following the trypsin/pepsin digestion method. Detection of C. shasta was based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, but smears of fresh intestinal tissues (one fish per smear) were also

  11. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  12. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  16. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  17. Transplant of Oncorhynchus in Dayang River of the Yellow Sea northern shore%黄海北岸大洋河大麻哈鱼类的移植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会芳; 李征远; 田军; 孙莉; 谭学群; 堀淳

    2004-01-01

    According to the salmon's(Oncorhynchus) biological character of return to its hatching river, adopting the method of transplant and releasing, 9839000 eyed eggs of the salmon were introduced (Oncorhynchu, keta, O.gorbuscha, O. kisutch, O. masou) from Japan, total 8409000 juvenile fish was hatched and cultivated for 11 years running from 1985 to 1996. total 127 returning and mature salmons were collected from 1987 to 1995. It proved that the salmon could exist in the Yellow Sea area and return to its releasing river.

  18. Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has...

  19. Recurrent die-offs of adult coho salmon returning to spawn in Puget Sound lowland urban streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel L Scholz

    Full Text Available Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90% of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1 assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2 compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3 identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia, fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek from 2002-2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60-100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002. Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States.

  20. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  1. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  2. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  3. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  4. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  6. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 107...... CFU g-1 of feed [T1], 108 CFU g-1 of feed [T2], 109 CFU g-1 of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated.Results showed...... that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic...

  7. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  8. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  10. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  11. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  12. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  13. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  14. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  15. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  16. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  17. Formation of chromosome aberrations in androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Goryczko, K

    2009-12-01

    Residues of maternal nuclear DNA in the form of chromosome fragments were observed in the healthy and morphologically normal androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A hypothetical model for formation of chromosome re-arrangements caused by the incomplete maternal nuclear DNA inactivation in the androgenetic rainbow trout was proposed in the present paper.

  18. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  19. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  20. Diverse juvenile life-history behaviours contribute to the spawning stock of an anadromous fish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Timothy E.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat quality often varies substantially across space and time, producing a shifting mosaic of growth and mortality trade-offs across watersheds. Traditional studies of juvenile habitat use have emphasised the evolution of single optimal strategies that maximise recruitment to adulthood and eventual fitness. However, linking the distribution of individual behaviours that contribute to recruitment at the population level has been elusive, particularly for highly fecund aquatic organisms. We examined juvenile habitat use within a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that spawn in a watershed consisting of two interconnected lakes and a marine lagoon. Otolith microchemical analysis revealed that the productive headwater lake accounted for about half of juvenile growth for those individuals surviving to spawn in a single river in the upper watershed. However, 47% of adults had achieved more than half of their juvenile growth in the downstream less productive lake, and 3% of individuals migrated to the estuarine environment during their first summer and returned to freshwater to overwinter before migrating back to sea. These results describe a diversity of viable habitat-use strategies by juvenile sockeye salmon that may buffer the population against poor conditions in any single rearing environment, reduce density-dependent mortality and have implications for the designation of critical habitat for conservation purposes. A network of accessible alternative habitats providing trade-offs in growth and survival may be important for long-term viability of populations.

  1. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  2. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  3. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  4. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  5. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  6. Egg cortisol exposure enhances fearfulness in larvae and juvenile rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colson, Violaine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Geffroy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an early boost of cortisol exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs during fertilisation on subsequent behavioural responses when exposed to a sudden stimulus in larvae and juveniles. At 55 d post-fertilisation (dpf), treatment had no effect on high...... accelerations occurring after a sudden event. At 146 dpf, these high accelerations were more frequent in cortisol-treated fish than in controls. At 146 dpf also, swimming activity was increased in cortisol-treated fish both before and after the sudden stimulus. This study underlines the important behavioural...... modifications in both larvae and juveniles, linked to a change in the surrounding environment of the embryo. Indeed, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs showed a higher level of fearfulness later in life. Our findings are of major interest for stress management in an aquaculture context and also allow for a better...

  7. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the hydroxymethoxide anion, H2C(OH)O-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Allan M.; Lehman, Julia H.; McCoy, Anne B.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2016-09-01

    We report the negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of the hydroxymethoxide anion, H2C(OH)O-. The photoelectron spectra show that 3.49 eV photodetachment produces two distinct electronic states of the neutral hydroxymethoxy radical (H2C(OH)Oṡ). The H2C(OH)Oṡ ground state (X ˜ 2A) photoelectron spectrum exhibits a vibrational progression consisting primarily of the OCO symmetric and asymmetric stretches, the OCO bend, as well as combination bands involving these modes with other, lower frequency modes. A high-resolution photoelectron spectrum aids in the assignment of several vibrational frequencies of the neutral H2C(OH)Oṡ radical, including an experimental determination of the H2C(OH)Oṡ 2ν12 overtone of the H-OCO torsional vibration as 220(10) cm-1. The electron affinity of H2C(OH)Oṡ is determined to be 2.220(2) eV. The low-lying A ˜ 2A excited state is also observed, with a spectrum that peaks ˜0.8 eV above the X ˜ 2A state origin. The A ˜ 2A state photoelectron spectrum is a broad, partially resolved band. Quantum chemical calculations and photoelectron simulations aid in the interpretation of the photoelectron spectra. In addition, the gas phase acidity of methanediol is calculated to be 366(2) kcal mol-1, which results in an OH bond dissociation energy, D0(H2C(OH)O-H), of 104(2) kcal mol-1, using the experimentally determined electron affinity of the hydroxymethoxy radical.

  9. 78 FR 2725 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lower Columbia River Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ..., 2012c). Under the preferred alternative we propose to exclude Indian lands as well as areas covered by... estuarine environment is an important feeding and acclimation area for juveniles preparing to enter marine..., nearly all salmonid freshwater and estuarine habitats in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California...

  10. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  11. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  12. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  13. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 679 - Species Codes: FMP Prohibited Species and CR Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ✓ Dungeness Cancer magister 910 ✓ King, blue Paralithodes platypus 922 ✓ ✓ King, golden (brown) Lithodes...) Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 410 ✓ Chum (dog) Oncorhynchus keta 450 ✓ Coho (silver) Oncorhynchus kisutch 430 ✓...

  14. Juvenile Chinook Salmon abundance in the northern Bering Sea: Implications for future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James M.; Howard, Kathrine G.; Gann, Jeanette C.; Cieciel, Kristin C.; Templin, William D.; Guthrie, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance in the northern Bering Sea is used to provide insight into future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River. The status of Yukon River Chinook Salmon is of concern due to recent production declines and subsequent closures of commercial, sport, and personal use fisheries, and severe restrictions on subsistence fisheries in the Yukon River. Surface trawl catch data, mixed layer depth adjustments, and genetic stock mixtures are used to estimate juvenile abundance for the Canadian-origin stock group from the Yukon River. Abundance ranged from a low of 0.62 million in 2012 to a high of 2.58 million in 2013 with an overall average of 1.5 million from 2003 to 2015. Although abundance estimates indicate that average survival is relatively low (average of 5.2%), juvenile abundance was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.005) with adult returns, indicating that much of the variability in survival occurs during early life-history stages (freshwater and initial marine). Juvenile abundance in the northern Bering Sea has increased since 2013 due to an increase in early life-history survival (average juveniles-per-spawner increased from 29 to 59). The increase in juvenile abundance is projected to produce larger runs and increased subsistence fishing opportunities for Chinook Salmon in the Yukon River as early as 2016.

  15. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  16. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  17. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  18. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  19. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  1. Mortality and kidney histopathology of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Caroline L.; Elliott, Diane G.; Landolt, Marsha L.

    2001-01-01

    An isolate of Renibacterium salmoninarum (strain MT 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to BKD. Juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the American Type Culture Collection type strain of R. salmoninarum, or to MT 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a 24 h immersion in 1 x 10(5) or 1 x 10(7) bacteria ml(-1). For 22 wk fish were held in 12 degrees C water and monitored for mortality. Fish were sampled periodically for histological examination of kidney tissues. In contrast to fish exposed to the high dose of strain 33209 by either injection or immersion, none of the fish exposed to strain MT 239 by either route exhibited gross clinical signs or histopathological changes indicative of BKD. However, the MT 239 strain was detected by the direct fluorescent antibody technique in 4 fish that died up to 11 wk after the injection challenge and in 5 fish that died up to 20 wk after the immersion challenge. Viable MT 239 was isolated in culture from 3 fish that died up to 13 wk after the immersion challenge. Total mortality in groups injected with the high dose of strain MT 239 (12%) was also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than mortality in groups injected with strain 33209 (73 %). These data indicate that the attenuated virulence observed with MT 239 in rainbow trout also occurs in a salmonid species highly susceptible to BKD. The reasons for the attenuated virulence of MT 239 were not determined but may be related to the reduced levels of the putative virulence protein p57 associated with this strain.

  2. Phase I metabolism of 3-methylindole, an environmental pollutant, by hepatic microsomes from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlabek, Vladimir; Burkina, Viktoriia; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Sakalli, Sidika; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2016-05-01

    We studied the in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) in hepatic microsomes from fish. Hepatic microsomes from juvenile and adult carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were included in the study. Incubation of 3MI with hepatic microsomes revealed the time-dependent formation of two major metabolites, 3-methyloxindole (3MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The rate of 3MOI production was similar in both species at both ages. No differences in kinetic parameters were observed (p = 0.799 for Vmax, and p = 0.809 for Km). Production of I3C was detected only in the microsomes from rainbow trout. Km values were similar in juvenile and adult fish (p = 0.957); Vmax was higher in juvenile rainbow trout compared with adults (p = 0.044). In rainbow trout and carp, ellipticine reduced formation of 3MOI up to 53.2% and 81.9% and ketoconazole up to 65.8% and 91.3%, respectively. The formation of I3C was reduced by 53.7% and 51.5% in the presence of the inhibitors ellipticine and ketoconazole, respectively. These findings suggest that the CYP450 isoforms CYP1A and CYP3A are at least partly responsible for 3MI metabolism. In summary, 3MI is metabolised in fish liver to 3MOI and I3C by CYP450, and formation of these metabolites might be species-dependent.

  3. Diet, feeding patterns, and prey selection of subyearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Nash, K. J.; Chiavelli, R. A.; DiRado, J. A.; Mackey, G. E.; Knight, J. R.; Diaz, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Since juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) occupy a similar habitat in Lake Ontario tributaries, we sought to determine the degree of diet similarity between these species in order to assess the potential for interspecific competition. Atlantic salmon, an historically important but currently extirpated component of the Lake Ontario fish community, are the focus of a bi-national restoration effort. Presently this effort includes the release of hatchery produced juvenile Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries. These same tributaries support substantial numbers of naturally reproduced juvenile Pacific salmonids including Chinook salmon. Subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon had significantly different diets during each of the three time periods examined. Atlantic salmon fed slightly more from the benthos than from the drift and consumed mainly chirononmids (47.0%) and ephemeropterans (21.1%). The diet of subyearling Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the drift and consisted mainly of chironomids (60.2%) and terrestrial invertebrates (16.0%). Low diet similarity between subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling Chinook salmon likely minimizes competitive interactions for food between these species in Lake Ontario tributaries. However, the availability of small prey such as chironomids which comprise over 50% of the diet of each species, soon after emergence, could constitute a short term resource limitation. To our knowledge this is the first study of interspecific diet associations between these two important salmonid species.

  4. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  5. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.

    1995-02-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the second year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through the dams and reservoirs of the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected at selected locations above, at, and below Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release, Modified Single-Release, and Paired-Release Models.

  7. Antimicrobial peptide CAP18 and its effect on Yersinia ruckeri infections in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): comparing administration by injection and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J K; Mehrdana, F; Hansen, E B; Ebbensgaard, A; Overgaard, M T; Lauritsen, A H; Dalsgaard, I; Buchmann, K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide CAP18 has been demonstrated to have a strong in vitro bactericidal effect on Yersinia ruckeri, but its activity in vivo has not been described. In this work, we investigated whether CAP18 protects rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against enteric red mouth disease caused by this pathogen either following i.p. injection or by oral administration (in feed). It was found that injection of CAP18 into juvenile rainbow trout before exposure to Y. ruckeri was associated with lowered mortality compared to non-medicated fish although it was less effective than the conventional antibiotic oxolinic acid. Oral administration of CAP18 to trout did not prevent infection. The proteolytic effect of secretions on the peptide CAP18 in the fish gastrointestinal tract is suggested to account for the inferior effect of oral administration.

  8. Molecular characterization of a novel orthomyxovirus from rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; LaPatra, Scott E; Katona, Ryan; Leis, Eric; Fei Fan Ng, Terry; Bruieuc, Marine S O; Breyta, Rachel; Purcell, Maureen; Waltzek, Thomas B; Delwart, Eric; Winton, James

    2017-01-01

    A novel virus, rainbow trout orthomyxovirus (RbtOV), was isolated in 1997 and again in 2000 from commercially-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Idaho, USA. The virus grew optimally in the CHSE-214 cell line at 15°C producing a diffuse cytopathic effect; however, juvenile rainbow trout exposed to cell culture-grown virus showed no mortality or gross pathology. Electron microscopy of preparations from infected cell cultures revealed the presence of typical orthomyxovirus particles. The complete genome of RbtOV is comprised of eight linear segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA having highly conserved 5′ and 3′-terminal nucleotide sequences. Another virus isolated in 2014 from steelhead trout (also O. mykiss) in Wisconsin, USA, and designated SttOV was found to have eight genome segments with high amino acid sequence identities (89–99%) to the corresponding genes of RbtOV, suggesting these new viruses are isolates of the same virus species and may be more widespread than currently realized. The new isolates had the same genome segment order and the closest pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 16–42% with Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the type species and currently only member of the genus Isavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. However, pairwise comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequences of the 10 RbtOV and SttOV proteins with orthologs from representatives of the established orthomyxoviral genera and a phylogenetic analysis using the PB1 protein showed that while RbtOV and SttOV clustered most closely with ISAV, they diverged sufficiently to merit consideration as representatives of a novel genus. A set of PCR primers was designed using conserved regions of the PB1 gene to produce amplicons that may be sequenced for identification of similar fish orthomyxoviruses in the future.

  9. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  10. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S O; Purcell, Maureen K; Palmer, Alexander D; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h² = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h² = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  11. Metal-metal interactions of dietary cadmium, copper and zinc in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunde, Collins; MacPhail, Ruth

    2011-05-01

    The influence of metal-metal interactions on uptake, accumulation, plasma transport and chronic toxicity of dietary Cu, Cd and Zn in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was explored. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed diets supplemented with (μg/g) 500 Cu, 1000 Zn and 500 Cd singly and as a ternary mixture at 2.5% body weight daily ration for 28 days. Complex interactions among the metals dependent on the tissue/organ, metals ratios and duration of exposure were observed. While Zn did not accumulate, whole-body Cd and Cu concentrations increased following linear and saturation patterns, respectively. Early enhanced whole-body Cu accumulation in fish exposed to the metals mixture was correlated with reduced Cd concentration whereas late enhancement of Cd accumulation corresponded with elevated Cd concentration. This suggests early mutual antagonism and late cooperation between Cd and Cu probably due to interactions at temporally variable metal accumulation sites. At the level of uptake, Cd and Cu were either antagonistic or mutually increased the concentrations of each other depending on the duration of exposure and section of the gut. At the level of transport, enhanced Cd accumulation in plasma was closely correlated with reduced concentrations of both Zn and Cu indicating competitive binding to plasma proteins and/or antagonism at uptake sites. Compared to the Cu alone exposure, Cu concentrations were either lower (gills and carcasses) or higher (liver and kidney) in fish exposed to the metals mixture. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was enhanced in livers and carcasses of fish exposed to the mixture compared to those exposed to Cd alone, while Zn stimulated Cu accumulation in gills. Chronic toxicity was demonstrated by elevated malondialdehyde levels in livers and reduced concentrations of Zn and Cu in plasma. Overall, interactions of Cd, Cu and Zn are not always consistent with the isomorphous competitive binding theory.

  12. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  13. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  14. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  15. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  16. Trophic interactions and consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon and nonnative juvenile American Shad in Columbia River reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollins, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    We used a large lampara seine coupled with nonlethal gastric lavage to examine the diets and estimate consumption rates of subyearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during July and August 2013. During August we also examined the diet and consumption rates of juvenile American Shad Alosa sapidissima, a potential competitor of subyearling Chinook Salmon. Subyearling Chinook Salmon consumed Daphnia in July but switched to feeding on smaller juvenile American Shad in August. We captured no juvenile American Shad in July, but in August juvenile American Shad consumed cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Stomach evacuation rates for subyearling Chinook Salmon were high during both sample periods (0.58 h−1 in July, 0.51 h−1 in August), and daily ration estimates were slightly higher than values reported in the literature for other subyearlings. By switching from planktivory to piscivory, subyearling Chinook Salmon gained greater growth opportunity. While past studies have shown that juvenile American Shad reduce zooplankton availability for Chinook Salmon subyearlings, our work indicates that they also become important prey after Daphnia abundance declines. The diet and consumption data here can be used in future bioenergetics modeling to estimate the growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon in lower Columbia River reservoirs.

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  18. Dietary methionine level affects growth performance and hepatic gene expression of GH-IGF system and protein turnover regulators in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant protein-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jorgen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary level of methionine were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five plant-based diets containing increasing content of crystalline methionine (Met), in a six week growth trial. Changes in the hepatic expression of genes related to i) the somatotro......The effects of dietary level of methionine were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five plant-based diets containing increasing content of crystalline methionine (Met), in a six week growth trial. Changes in the hepatic expression of genes related to i......), cathepsin L, calpains 1 and 2 (Capn 1 and Capn 2, respectively), and calpastatin long and short isoforms (CAST-L and CAST-S, respectively) were measured for each dietary treatment. The transcript levels of GHR-I and IGF-I increased linearly with the increase of dietary Met content (P ... overall growth performances. The apparent capacity for hepatic protein degradation (derived from the gene expression of TOR, Prot 20D, Capn 1, Capn 2, CAST-L and CAST-S) decreased with increasing dietary Met level in a relatively linear manner. Our results suggest that Met availability affects, directly...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  2. Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta respond to moonlight during homeward migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, E I

    2012-07-01

    The swimming depth of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta equipped with archival tags was investigated off the Pacific Ocean coast of Hokkaido and North Honshu, Japan. As shown from movements of the fish with disc tags, O. keta swam at shallower depths during the full-moon phase than in the other phases and their swimming speed during this phase was faster compared to other phases. In addition, the circadian rhythm suggests a biological clock. These observations are all consistent with the view that O. keta make use of moonlight in order to navigate at night-time during homeward migration.

  3. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  4. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  5. USE OF SLACK-WATER ENVIRONMENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN A COASTAL OREGON STREAM AS INDICATED BY 34S STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes of sulfur are rarely used in studies of elemental cycling, trophic position or use of marine-derived nutrients by salmonids. The main reason for this probably is the reluctance on the part of isotope labs to expose their instruments to SO2 (because of its corrosi...

  6. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  8. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  10. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  11. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile chinook salmon in the lemhi river basin (USA.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W; Bartz, Krista K; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The combined effects of water diversion and climate change are a major conservation challenge for freshwater ecosystems. In the Lemhi Basin, Idaho (U.S.A.), water diversion causes changes in streamflow, and climate change will further affect streamflow and temperature. Shifts in streamflow and temperature regimes can affect juvenile salmon growth, movement, and survival. We examined the potential effects of water diversion and climate change on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). To examine the effects for juvenile survival, we created a model relating 19 years of juvenile survival data to streamflow and temperature and found spring streamflow and summer temperature were good predictors of juvenile survival. We used these models to project juvenile survival for 15 diversion and climate-change scenarios. Projected survival was 42-58% lower when streamflows were diverted than when streamflows were undiverted. For diverted streamflows, 2040 climate-change scenarios (ECHO-G and CGCM3.1 T47) resulted in an additional 11-39% decrease in survival. We also created models relating habitat carrying capacity to streamflow and made projections for diversion and climate-change scenarios. Habitat carrying capacity estimated for diverted streamflows was 17-58% lower than for undiverted streamflows. Climate-change scenarios resulted in additional decreases in carrying capacity for the dry (ECHO-G) climate model. Our results indicate climate change will likely pose an additional stressor that should be considered when evaluating the effects of anthropogenic actions on salmon population status. Thus, this type of analysis will be especially important for evaluating effects of specific actions on a particular species. Efectos Interactivos de la Desviación del Agua y el Cambio Climático en Individuos Juveniles de Salmón Chinook en la Cuenca del Río Lemhi (E.U.A.).

  12. Impacts of chloramine-T treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, H; Altinok, I

    2014-05-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) were exposed to therapeutic, and higher concentrations of chloramine-T (Cl-T) to assess the effects of this chemical on the antioxidant enzyme system and genetic structure. Red blood cells acetylcholinesterase, ∆-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, paraoxonase and liver glutathione S-transferase activity were increased at 10 and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish, while they were decreased at 30 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish. On the other hand, liver catalase activity and liver protein levels increased at 10 mg L(-1) and decreased at 20 and 30 mg L(-1) concentrations of Cl-T. Liver super-oxide dismutase activity decreased at 10 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T and increased at 30 mg L(-1) of Cl-T. Compared to control, comet assay indicated that Cl-T did not cause significant DNA damage to red blood cells of the fish. Results indicate that 10 or 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T can be safely used to prevent or treat external parasitic and bacterial infection of rainbow trout. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of diet and ration level on benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C J; Higgs, Dave; Tierney, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fasted or fed one of three isoenergetic diets varying in protein and lipid content at full satiation levels or half rations for up to 9 weeks. At 3, 6, and 9 weeks, fish in each treatment group were dosed intraperitoneally with 10 mg tritiated benzo[a]pyrene [3H]-B[a]P/kg (B[a]P) to examine the effects of diet composition and energy intake on xenobiotic biotransformation and excretion. The percent dose eliminated during the experiment did not differ among fish receiving the different diet compositions or rations (range 73% to 84%). However, it was significantly decreased (to 53%) in the group that was fasted for 9 weeks. Examination of fish fasted for 6 and 9 weeks showed a significant increase in the proportion of phase I metabolites and a concomitant decrease in the proportion of phase II metabolites found in bile compared with all other groups. Also, fish that were fasted for 9 weeks produced proportionately less 9,10-dihydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-9,10-diol, more 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and more glucuronic acid conjugates compared with all other groups. Thus, dietary protein and lipid concentration did not appear to affect either the rate of B[a]P metabolism or its excretion; however, prolonged fasting resulted in a shift in metabolite profiles and decreased excretion.

  14. Effects of multiple acute stressors on the predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1994-01-01

    Northern squaw fish Ptychocheilus oregonensis are the predominant predators of juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. in the Columbia River, and their predation rates are greatest just below dams. Because juvenile salmonids are commonly subjected to multiple stressors at dams in the course of their seaward migration, high predation rates below dams may be due in part to an increase in the vulnerability of stressed fish. I conducted laboratory experiments to examine the predator avoidance ability and physiological stress responses of juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha subjected to treatments (stressors) designed to simulate routine hatchery practices (multiple handlings) or dam passage (multiple agitations). Both stressors resulted in lethargic behavior in the fish, and agitation also caused disorieniation and occasional injury. When equal numbers of stressed and unstressed fish were exposed to northern squawfish for up to 1 h, significantly more stressed fish were eaten, but this effect was not evident during longer exposures. The lack of differential predation in trials lasting up to 24 h can be explained by the rapid development of schooling behavior in the prey, but other possibilities exist, such as changing ratios of stressed and unstressed prey over time. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate in fish subjected to multiple stressors were similar and sometimes cumulative, returned to prestress levels within 6-24 h, and correlated poorly with predator avoidance ability. My results suggest that juvenile salmonids are capable of avoiding predators within 1 h after being subjected to multiple acute stressors even though physiological homeostasis may be altered for up to 24 h. Therefore, because juvenile salmonids typically reside in lailrace areas for only a short time after dam passage, measures aimed at reducing physical stress or protecting them as they migrate through dam tailraces may help alleviate the relatively intense predation

  15. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  16. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  17. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  18. Characterization of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione metabolizing peroxidase (gpx4) isoforms in Coho salmon olfactory and liver tissues and their modulation by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu; Harris, Sean M.; Espinoza, Herbert M.; McClain, Valerie [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cloned two gpx4 isoforms (gpx4a and gpx4b) from the Coho salmon peripheral olfactory system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed qPCR assays for a comprehensive analysis of gpx4 expression in 10 tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High initial rates of GPx4 enzymatic activity in Coho olfactory and liver tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the effect of cadmium on gpx4 expression in olfactory and liver tissues. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental contaminants, including various pesticides and trace metals, can disrupt critical olfactory-driven behaviors of fish such as homing to natal streams, mate selection, and an ability to detect predators and prey. These neurobehavioral injuries have been linked to reduced survival and population declines. Despite the importance of maintaining proper olfactory signaling processes in the presence of chemical exposures, little is known regarding chemical detoxification in the salmon olfactory system, and in particular, the antioxidant defenses that maintain olfactory function. An understudied, yet critical component of cellular antioxidant defense is phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx/GPx4), an isoform within the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes that can directly reduce lipid peroxides and other membrane-bound complex hydroperoxides. In this study, we cloned two gpx4 isoforms (gpx4a and gpx4b) from Coho salmon olfactory tissues and compared their modulation in olfactory and liver tissues by cadmium, an environmental pollutant and olfactory toxicant that cause oxidative damage as a mechanism of toxicity. Amino acid sequence comparisons of the two gpx4 isoforms shared 71% identity, and also relatively high sequence identities when compared with other fish GPx4 isoforms. Sequence comparisons with human GPx4 indicated conservation of three important active sites at selenocysteine (U46), glutamine (Q81), and tryptophan (W

  19. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  20. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  1. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  2. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Kania, Per Walter; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2017-01-01

    The protective effect in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of an experimental subunit vaccine targeting antigens in the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis has been evaluated and compared to effects elicited by a classical parasite homogenate vaccine. Three recombinant parasite proteins (two ...

  3. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  4. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  5. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  6. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  7. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  8. Rearing in a distorted magnetic field disrupts the ‘map sense’ of juvenile steelhead trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F.; Meinke, Amanda M.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. PMID:24899681

  9. Rearing in a distorted magnetic field disrupts the 'map sense' of juvenile steelhead trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Meinke, Amanda M; Noakes, David L G

    2014-06-01

    We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin reflectance as a non-lethal measure of smoltification for juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haner, Philip V.; Faler, Joyce C.; Schrock, Robin M.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Maule, Alec G.

    1995-01-01

    Our efforts to find nonlethal methods of assessing the parr-smoll transformation of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and spring and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha led to the development of a video system for quantitatively measuring skin silvering using skin reflectance. Gill Na'.K'-ATPase activity, skin guanine concentration, and skin reflectance were recorded from groups of fish marked with freeze brands at hatcheries and downstream sample sites in the Columbia River basin. Skin reflectance of migrants was significantly higher than that of fish before release; nonmigrants (released fish that did not migrate) had significantly lower skin reflectance than migrants from the same groups. Skin reflectance was significantly correlated with gill ATPasc activity and skin guanine concentration. Skin reflectance increased during the parrsmolt transformation and could be used as a nonlethal indicator of smoltification.

  11. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  12. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post......-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3......, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least...

  13. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    forms of stress have shown to be reproducible. Bath challenge is more appropriate for vaccine testing, since natural transmission of infection is imitated and is also more suitable due to the small size of the fry. A bath-model using H2O2 as a stressor is currently being tested on 1.4g rainbow trout fry......The fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the main causes of mortality in fry of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonid fish. The disease following infection is often called bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in USA and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS...... of infection. The overall goal is also to examine gene expression and location of transcription products in rainbow trout fry, in order to optimize vaccination or immune-stimulation. The presentation will focus on previous experimental models and the experimental design of the current model as well...

  14. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  15. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  16. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  17. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  18. Bioaccumulation of silver nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Influence of concentration and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salari Joo, Hamid, E-mail: h.salary1365@gmail.com [Department of Aquaculture, Marine Science Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Mazandaran, Noor (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: kalbassi_m@modares.ac.ir [Department of Aquaculture, Marine Science Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Mazandaran, Noor (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yu, Il Je, E-mail: u1670916@chol.com [Institute of Nano-product Safety Research, Hoseo University, 165 Sechul-ri, Baebang-myun, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Hyun, E-mail: toxin@dreamwiz.com [Institute of Nano-product Safety Research, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Johari, Seyed Ali, E-mail: a.johari@uok.ac.ir [Aquaculture Department, Natural Resources Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We studied influence of concentration and salinity on bioaccumulation of silver nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). •The Ag-NPs were characterized using standard methods. •The organisms were exposed to Ag-NPs in three different salinity concentrations, for 14 days in static renewal systems. •The bioaccumulation of Ag in the studied tissues was concentration-dependent in all the salinities and its order were liver > kidneys ≈ gills > white muscles respectively. -- Abstract: With the increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), their entrance into aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. Thus, the present study simulated the potential fate, toxicity, and bioaccumulation of Ag-NPs released into aquatic systems with different salinities. The Ag-NPs were characterized using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and UV–vis spectroscopy. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to Ag-NPs in three different salinity concentrations, including low (0.4 ppt), moderate (6 ± 0.3 ppt), and high (12 ± 0.2 ppt) salinity, for 14 days in static renewal systems. The nominal Ag-NP concentrations in the low salinity were 0.032, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 ppm, while the Ag-NP concentrations in the moderate and high salinity were 3.2, 10, 32, and 100 ppm. UV–vis spectroscopy was used during 48 h (re-dosing time) to evaluate the stability and possible changes in size of the Ag-NPs in the water. The results revealed that the λ{sub max} of the Ag-NPs remained stable (415–420 nm) at all concentrations in the low salinity with a reduction of absorbance between 380 and 550 nm. In contrast, the λ{sub max} quickly shifted to a longer wavelength and reduced absorbance in the moderate and higher salinity. The bioaccumulation of Ag in the studied tissues was concentration-dependent in all the salinities based on the following

  19. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, Aida M. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States)]. E-mail: aida_farag@usgs.gov; May, Thomas [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Marty, Gary D. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8732 (United States); Easton, Michael [International EcoGen Inc., 2015 McLallen Court, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 3H6 (Canada); Harper, David D. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States); Little, Edward E. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Cleveland, Laverne [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0-266 {mu}g l{sup -1}) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} and from 54 to 266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations {>=}120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth

  20. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  1. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal (Nez Perce Tribe)

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major

  2. Early marine migration patterns of wild coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki, steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has been published comparing the behavior of hybrids to the pure species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used acoustic telemetry to record the movements of 52 cutthroat, 42 steelhead x cutthroat hybrids, and 89 steelhead smolts, all wild, that migrated from Big Beef Creek into Hood Canal (Puget Sound, Washington. Various spatial and temporal metrics were used to compare the behavior of the pure species to their hybrids. Median hybrid residence time, estuary time, and tortuosity values were intermediate compared to the pure species. The median total track distance was greater for hybrids than for either cutthroat or steelhead. At the end of each track, most steelhead (80% were located near or north of the Hood Canal, as expected for this seaward migrating species, whereas most cutthroat (89% were within 8 kilometers of the estuary. Most hybrids (70% were detected leaving Hood Canal, though a substantial percentage (20% remained near the Big Beef Creek estuary. More hybrids (7.5% than pure cutthroat (4.5% or steelhead (0.0% were last detected in the southern reaches of Hood Canal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the similarity in freshwater ecology between the species, differences in marine ecology may play an important role in maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry.

  3. Growth and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, Melissa E.; Beckman, Brian R.; Andrews, Alexander G., III; Beaudreau, Anne H.; McPhee, Megan V.

    2017-01-01

    As the Arctic continues to warm, abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the northern Bering Sea are expected to increase. However, information regarding the growth and condition of juvenile salmon in these waters is limited. The first objective of this study was to describe relationships between size, growth, and condition of juvenile chum (O. keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon and environmental conditions using data collected in the northeastern Bering Sea (NEBS) from 2003-2007 and 2009-2012. Salmon collected at stations with greater bottom depths and cooler sea-surface temperature (SST) were longer, reflecting their movement further offshore out of the warmer Alaska Coastal Water mass, as the season progressed. Energy density, after accounting for fish length, followed similar relationships with SST and bottom depth while greater condition (weight-length residuals) was associated with warm SST and shallower stations. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found fish exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009, although these differences were not clearly attributable to environmental conditions. Our second objective was to compare size and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the NEBS between warm and cool spring thermal regimes of the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS). This comparison was based on a hypothesis informed by the strong role of sea-ice retreat in the spring for production dynamics in the SEBS and prevailing northward currents, suggesting that feeding conditions in the NEBS may be influenced by production in the SEBS. We found greater length (both species) and condition (pink salmon) in years with warm thermal regimes; however, both of these responses changed more rapidly with day of year in years with cool springs. Finally, we compared indicators of energy allocation between even and odd brood

  4. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  5. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  6. Progression and severity of gas bubble trauma in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the progression and to quantify the severity of signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG), and we attempted to relate these signs to the likelihood of mortality. When fish were exposed to 110% TDG for up to 22 d, no fish died, and there were few signs of GBT in the lateral line or gills. Bubbles in the fins, however, were relatively common, and they progressively worsened over the experimental period. When fish were exposed to 120% TDG for up to 140 h, chinook salmon had an LT20 (time necessary to kill 20% of the fish) ranging from 40 to 120 h, whereas steelhead had LT20s ranging from 20 to 35 h. In steelhead, bubbles in the lateral line, fins, and gills displayed poor trends of worsening over time, showed substantial interindividual variability, and were poorly related to mortality. In chinook salmon, only bubbles in the lateral line showed a distinct worsening over time, and the severity of bubbles in the lateral line was highly correlated with mortality. When fish were exposed to 130% TDG for up to 11 h, LT20s for chinook salmon ranged from 3 to 6 h, whereas those for steelhead ranged from 5 to 7 h. In chinook salmon, bubbles in the lateral line and fins, but not those in the gills, showed distinct trends of worsening over time. In steelhead, bubbles in the lateral line displayed the most significant trend of progressive severity. In both species at 130% TDG, the severity of all GBT signs was highly correlated with mortality. The progressive nature of GBT and the methods we developed to examine fish for GBT may be useful for monitoring programs that aim to assess the severity of dissolved gas supersaturation exposures experienced by fish in the wild. However, the efficacy of such programs seems substantially hindered by problems associated with (1) the variable persistence of GBT signs

  7. Salmonids fish census, fish size, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen data collected from Lawrence Creek, Van Duzen River watershed, California from 2015-12-14 to 2016-03-24 (NCEI Accession 0148459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile coho salmon seek slow velocity areas as rivers rise during storm events. Studies have shown significant increase in juvenile coho salmon growth and survival...

  8. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  9. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  10. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  11. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1998-1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Danette L.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2001-05-01

    Large runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead (O. mykiss) once supported productive Tribal and sport fisheries in the Umatilla River. By the 1920s, unscreened irrigation diversions, reduced in-stream flows, poor passage conditions, and habitat degradation had extirpated the salmon run and drastically reduced the summer steelhead run (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Reintroduction of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) and enhancement of summer steelhead populations in the Umatilla River was initiated in the early and mid-1980s (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Measures to rehabilitate the fishery and improve flows in the Umatilla River are addressed in the original Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987). These include habitat enhancement, hatchery production, holding and acclimation facilities, flow enhancement, passage improvement, and natural production enhancement. Detailed scope and nature of the habitat, flow, passage, and natural production projects are in the Umatilla River basin fisheries restoration plans (CTUIR 1984; Boyce 1986). The Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) provides the framework for hatchery production and evaluation activities. Many agencies cooperate, coordinate, and exchange information in the Umatilla basin to ensure successful implementation of rehabilitation projects, including the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and local irrigation districts (West Extension, Hermiston, and Stanfield-Westland). The Umatilla River Operations Group and the Umatilla Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Committee coordinate river and fisheries management and research in the Umatilla River basin.

  12. Ploidy effects on genes regulating growth mechanisms during fasting and refeeding in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diploid and triploid rainbow trout weighing approximately 3 g were either fed for five weeks, or feed deprived for one week, followed by refeeding. During feed deprivation the diploids mobilized visceral stores to a greater extent than the triploids, and during refeeding, carcass growth rate recove...

  13. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P.0.05), FCR or SGR (P.0.05) despite......Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific...... growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient...

  14. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  15. Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H

    2012-07-01

    After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation.

  17. EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY OZONATION FOR REDUCING THE TOXICITY OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN TO RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Nicholas; Evans, Jaden; Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Isazadeh, Siavash; Yargeau, Viviane; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2017-08-16

    While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracts prepared from ozonated and non-ozonated WWE. Blood, liver and brain tissues were collected from the fish at 72 h post-injection for analysis of a battery of biomarkers. In fish i.p. injected with the extracts from non-ozonated WWE, significant induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) was observed, but ozonation of the MWWE spiked with CECs significantly reduced this estrogenic response. However, in fish injected with extracts from spiked MWWE after ozonation, the balance of hepatic glutathione in its oxidized (i.e. GSSG) form was altered, indicating oxidative stress. Levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, were significantly elevated in brain tissue from trout injected with the extracts from ozonated spiked MWWE; a biological response that has not been previously reported in fish. Other in vivo biomarkers showed no significant changes across treatments. These results indicate that ozonation reduces the estrogenicity of wastewater, but may increase other sublethal responses. The increase in biomarker responses after ozonation may be due to the formation of biologically active products of transformation of CECs, but further work is needed to confirm this conclusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article

  18. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide clopyralid to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Feltz, K P; Nelson, K J; Valle, J A

    2009-11-01

    Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a pyridine herbicide frequently used to control invasive, noxious weeds in the northwestern United States. Clopyralid exhibits low acute toxicity to fish, including the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). However, there are no published chronic toxicity data for clopyralid and fish that can be used in ecological risk assessments. We conducted 30-day chronic toxicity studies with juvenile rainbow trout exposed to the acid form of clopyralid. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for growth, calculated as the geometric mean of the no observable effect concentration (68 mg/L) and the lowest observable effect concentration (136 mg/L), was 96 mg/L. No mortality was measured at the highest chronic concentration tested (273 mg/L). The acute:chronic ratio, calculated by dividing the previously published 96-h acutely lethal concentration (96-h ALC(50); 700 mg/L) by the MATC was 7.3. Toxicity values were compared to a four-tiered exposure assessment profile assuming an application rate of 1.12 kg/ha. The Tier 1 exposure estimation, based on direct overspray of a 2-m deep pond, was 0.055 mg/L. The Tier 2 maximum exposure estimate, based on the Generic Exposure Estimate Concentration model (GEENEC), was 0.057 mg/L. The Tier 3 maximum exposure estimate, based on previously published results of the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems model (GLEAMS), was 0.073 mg/L. The Tier 4 exposure estimate, based on published edge-of-field monitoring data, was estimated at 0.008 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity data to estimated environmental concentrations of clopyralid indicates that the safety factor for rainbow trout exposed to clopyralid at labeled use rates exceeds 1000. Therefore, the herbicide presents little to no risk to rainbow trout or other salmonids such as the threatened bull trout.

  19. Environmental estrogens inhibit growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by modulating the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea M; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Martin, Lincoln E; Sheridan, Mark A

    2014-01-15

    Although environmental estrogens (EE) have been found to disrupt a wide variety of developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates, there is a paucity of information concerning their effects on organismal growth, particularly postembryonic growth. In this study, we exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol (E2) β-sitosterol (βS), or 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) to assess the effects of EE on overall organismal growth and on the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth factor (GH-IGF) system. EE treatment significantly reduced food conversion, body condition, and body growth. EE-inhibited growth resulted from alterations in peripheral elements of the GH-IGF system, which includes multiple GH receptors (GHRs), IGFs, and IGF receptors (IGFRs). In general, E2, βS, and NP reduced the expression of GHRs, IGFs, and IGFRs; however, the effects varied in an EE-, tissue-, element type-specific manner. For example, in liver, E2 was more efficacious than either βS, and NP in reducing GHR expression, and the effect of E2 was greater on GHR 1 than GHR2 mRNA. By contrast, in gill, all EEs affected GHR expression in a similar manner and there was no difference in the effect on GHR1 and GHR 2 mRNA. With regard to IGF expression, all EEs reduced hepatic IGF1 and IGF2 mRNA levels, whereas as in gill, only E2 and NP significantly reduced IGF1 and IGF2 expression. Lastly, E2 and NP reduced the expression of IGFR1A and IGFR1B mRNA expression similarly in gill and red and white muscle, whereas βS had no effect on expression of IGFR mRNAs. These findings indicate that EEs disrupt post-embryonic growth by reducing GH sensitivity, IGF production, and IGF sensitivity.

  20. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M K; Garver, K A; Conway, C; Elliott, D G; Kurath, G

    2009-07-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  1. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  2. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  3. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS FARMED IN ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Janči

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of fresh and cold smoked rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in the Adriatic sea by measuring water, fat, protein, salt and ash content, fatty acid profile with an emphasis on eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Physical characteristics were determined by pH and color measurements. Analysis was performed on homogenized fish muscles without skin and bones. Determination of moisture, ash, fat and protein was conducted according to AOAC (1995. Determination of fatty acid content of previously prepared methyl esters (HRN EN ISO 5509, 2004 was conducted by gas chromatography according to HRN EN ISO 5508 (1999. Results showed that fresh rainbow trout farmed in the Adriatic sea is an excellent protein source (21.21% but has slightly lower fat (5.21% and omega-3 fatty acid content (12.52 % compared to the results of other studies. Fat and omega-3 fatty acid content was not decreased by the process of cold smoking. Overall, fresh and smoked trout farmed in the Adriatic may be regarded as food high in nutritional value.

  4. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  5. Chromosome rearrangements and survival of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Nowosad, J; Goryczko, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the impact of spontaneous and X-radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements on survival rate of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Various doses of X irradiation (50, 150, 250, 350 Gy) were used for inactivation of nuclear DNA in oocytes. After the irradiation, eggs were inseminated with normal sperm from 4 males derived from a strain characterized by Robertsonian rearrangements and length polymorphism of the Y chromosome. The haploid zygotes were exposed to a high hydrostatic pressure (7000 psi) to duplicate the paternal DNA. Neither Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism nor the Y chromosome morphology impaired the viability of the androgenetic embryos and alevins. Moreover, survival of eyed embryos of the androgenetic rainbow trout increased significantly with increasing doses of oocyte X irradiation. After 6 months of rearing, only specimens from the 250 and 350 Gy variants survived. The number of fingerlings with remnants of the maternal genome in the forms of chromosome fragments was higher in the 250 Gy group. Intraindividual variation of chromosome fragment number was observed, and some individuals exhibited haploid/diploid mosaicism and body malformations. Individuals irradiated with less than 250 Gy died, presumably because of the conflict between intact paternally derived chromosomes and the residues of maternal genome in the form of chromosome fragments.

  6. Experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in cultured rainbowtrout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzeni Jula, Gh.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is the etiological agent of lactococcosis, an emerging disease which affects several fish species and causes important economic losses both in marine and freshwater aquaculture. Lactococcosis usually happens when water temperature increases over 15°C during the year. Normally, it causes a hyperacute and haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. This paper presents a procedure for producing experimental vaccine for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss lactococcosis including aspects such as pathogen characterization, pathogenicity, mass cultivation, safety, potency and field trial tests for immersion use. In the potency test, after challenging the vaccinated fish with live pathogenic bacteria (1×107 bacteria per milliliter of immersing solution and observing for 72 hours thereafter, 10% of fish died while the control group showed 60% mortality within the observation time. In the field trial from vaccination time onward till marketing of the fish, those mortalities that occurred in groups of vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish were recorded. Total death occurred in the vaccinated group was 11%, while in non vaccinated group this number was approaching 23%. This observation indicates a 50% reduction in mortality in the vaccinated group. This is the first report on experimental vaccine against lactococcosis in fish that is produced and tested in Iran.

  7. Silver nanoparticles stimulate glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Labarre, Justine; Trudeau, Vance L; Moon, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are found in many consumer products yet their biological effects on non-target aquatic organisms are yet to be fully understood. This research aimed to investigate the effects of AgNPs on cell signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. We focused on the β-adrenoreceptor (AR), which mediates glycogenolysis, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), which mediates gluconeogenesis. These two receptors have been extensively studied in trout hepatocytes due to their key roles during the stress response to increase glucose availability (among other things), allowing the organisms to cope with the stressor. We show for the first time that AgNPs at a concentration of 1 μg/mL did not interfere with the function of either the β-AR or the GCR systems in rainbow trout hepatocytes, but at the concentration of 10 μg/mL AgNPs stimulated glycogenolysis which was apparently receptor-independent. This study suggests that AgNPs could affect hormone-regulated cell signaling pathways at a concentration of 10 μg/mL.

  8. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  9. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  10. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  11. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  12. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  13. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  14. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  15. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  16. Food and growth parameters of juvenile chinook in the central Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook, salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford area of the free-flowing central Columbia River, Washington consume almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The diet is dominated by midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). By numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) are of minor numerical importance with a combined utilization of 7% in 1968 and 15% in 1969. Distinctive features of food and feeding activity of juvenile chinook at Hanford are fourfold: (1) the fish utilize relatively few insect groups, predominantly Chironomidae; (2) they depend largely upon autochthonous river organisms; (3) they visually select living prey drifting, floating or swimming in the water; and (4) they are apparently habitat opportunists to a large extent. Analyses were made of variations in diet and numbers of insects consumed between six sampling stations distributed along a 38 km section of the river. Data are provided on feeding intensity, fish lengths, length-weight relationships, and coefficients of condition. Seasonal changes in river temperature and discharge, as well as variations in regulated flow levels are environmental features influencing feeding, growth, and emigration of fish in the Hanford environs.

  17. An inherited magnetic map guides ocean navigation in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Scanlan, Michelle M; Billman, Eric J; O'Neil, Joseph P; Couture, Ryan B; Quinn, Thomas P; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-02-17

    Migratory marine animals exploit resources in different oceanic regions at different life stages, but how they navigate to specific oceanic areas is poorly understood. A particular challenge is explaining how juvenile animals with no prior migratory experience are able to locate specific oceanic feeding habitats that are hundreds or thousands of kilometers from their natal sites. Although adults reproducing in the vicinity of favorable ocean currents can facilitate transport of their offspring to these habitats, variation in ocean circulation makes passive transport unreliable, and young animals probably take an active role in controlling their migratory trajectories. Here we experimentally demonstrate that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) respond to magnetic fields like those at the latitudinal extremes of their ocean range by orienting in directions that would, in each case, lead toward their marine feeding grounds. We further show that fish use the combination of magnetic intensity and inclination angle to assess their geographic location. The "magnetic map" of salmon appears to be inherited, as the fish had no prior migratory experience. These results, paired with findings in sea turtles, imply that magnetic maps are phylogenetically widespread and likely explain the extraordinary navigational abilities evident in many long-distance underwater migrants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guiding out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with pulsed direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-physical stimuli can deter or guide fish without affecting water flow or navigation and therefore have been investigated to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers and to control movement of invasive fish. Upstream fish migration can be blocked or guided without physical structure by electrifying the water, but directional downstream fish guidance with electricity has received little attention. We tested two non-uniform pulsed direct current electric systems, each having different electrode orientations (vertical versus horizontal), to determine their ability to guide out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both systems guided significantly more juvenile sea lamprey to a specific location in our experimental raceway when activated than when deactivated, but guidance efficiency decreased at the highest water velocities tested. At the electric field setting that effectively guided sea lamprey, rainbow trout were guided by the vertical electrode system, but most were blocked by the horizontal electrode system. Additional research should characterize the response of other species to non-uniform fields of pulsed DC and develop electrode configurations that guide fish over a range of water velocity.

  19. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and

  20. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal (Nez Perce Tribe)

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major

  1. In-reservoir behavior, dam passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead from Detroit Reservoir and Dam to Portland, Oregon, February 2013-February 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    In the second year of 2 years of study, the movements of juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through Detroit Reservoir, passing Detroit Dam, and migrating downstream to Portland, Oregon, were studied during a 1-year-long period beginning in February 2013. The primary purpose of the study was to provide empirical data to inform decisions about future alternatives for improving downstream passage of salmonids at Detroit Dam. A secondary purpose was to design and assess the performance of a system to detect juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic transmitters migrating in the Willamette River. Inferences about fish migration were made from detections of juvenile fish of hatchery origin at least 95 millimeters in fork length surgically implanted with an acoustic transmitter and released during the spring (March–May) and fall (September–November) of 2013. Detection sites were placed throughout the reservoir, near the dam, and at two sites in the North Santiam River and at three sites in the Willamette River culminating at Portland, Oregon. We based most inferences on an analysis period up to the 90th percentile of tag life (68–78 days after release, depending on species and season), although a small number of fish passed after that period as late as April 8, 2014. Chinook salmon migrated from the tributaries of release to the reservoir in greater proportion than steelhead, particularly in the fall. The in-reservoir migration behaviors and dam passage of the two species were similar during the spring study, but during the fall study, few steelhead reached the reservoir and none passed the dam within the analysis period. Migrations in the reservoir were directed and non-random, except in the forebay. Depths of fish within 25 meters of the dam were deeper in the day than at night for Chinook salmon and similar in the day and night for steelhead; steelhead generally were at shallower depths

  2. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  3. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  4. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  5. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  6. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  7. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  8. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  9. Stress does not inhibit induced vitellogenesis in juvenile rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, A.R.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a widely used biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure in male fishes. In female fishes Vtg can be negatively affected by stress independent of declines in estrogen. However, few data are available on the effect of stress in male fish abnormally producing Vtg, such as when exposed to xenoestrogens. The objective for these studies was to determine the effects of stress on fish forced to produce Vtg. Three weeks prior to the experiment immature juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were acclimated to the experimental tanks and fed a maintenance ration. We induced Vtg synthesis by injecting 17??-estradiol (E2) 7 days prior to experimentation. Treatments in duplicate tanks were: (1) no stressor; (2) stressor; (3) E 2; (4) E2 and stressor. Plasma was collected at time = 0 for baseline measurements from eight fish per tank and Vtg was significantly elevated in treated fish compared to uninjected controls. Water was drained from the stressor tanks then refilled to a level that just covered the backs of the fish. Eight fish were sampled again at 4 and 9 h, and 1, 7, and 14 days of continuous stress. Stressor tanks were refilled with water to pre-stress levels and the fish were sampled after another 2 weeks. Cortisol was significantly elevated from the unstressed fish at 4 h; however, plasma Vtg in the E 2-stimulated fish was not affected by the stressor at any timepoint. These results indicate that fish capture procedures employed in the field or caging experiments likely do not lead to false negative results when plasma Vtg is used as a biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure. It also suggests that the energetic load induced by stress is insufficient to cause a reduction in Vtg, during a continuous E2 administration, at least within the timepoints examined in this study. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  10. Behavior, passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon from Detroit Reservoir to Portland, Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-11-16

    An evaluation was conducted to estimate dam passage survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Detroit Dam during a period of spill. To estimate dam passage survival, we used a paired-release recapture study design and released groups of tagged fish upstream (997 fish) and downstream (625 fish) of Detroit Dam. A total of 43 fish (6.8 percent) passed Detroit Dam from the upstream release group and passage occurred through regulating outlets (54.8 percent), spill bays (31.0 percent), and turbines (14.3 percent). We do not present dam passage survival estimates from 2014 because these estimates would have been highly uncertain due to the low number of fish that passed Detroit Dam during the study. Secondary objectives were addressed using data collected from tagged fish that were released at the downstream release site.

  11. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  12. Diel horizontal migration in streams: juvenile fish exploit spatial heterogeneity in thermal and trophic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Ruff, Casey P.; Brooks, Gabriel T.; Bentley, Kale E.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily timescales to explore how individuals integrated across spatial variation in food abundance and water temperature. Juvenile coho salmon made feeding forays into cold habitats with abundant food, and then moved long distances (350–1300 m) to warmer habitats that accelerated their metabolism and increased their assimilative capacity. This behavioral thermoregulation enabled fish to mitigate trade-offs between trophic and thermal resources by exploiting thermal heterogeneity. Fish that exploited thermal heterogeneity grew at substantially faster rates than did individuals that assumed other behaviors. Our results provide empirical support for the importance of thermal diversity in lotic systems, and emphasize the importance of considering interactions between animal behavior and habitat heterogeneity when managing and restoring ecosystems.

  13. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  14. Mortality, Transmitter Retention, Growth, and Wound Healing in Juvenile Salmon Injected with Micro Acoustic Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Stephanie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Walker, Ricardo W.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Eppard, M. Brad; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam G.

    2016-07-28

    A cylindrical acoustic transmitter (AT; 0.2 g) has been developed for injection into the peritoneum of fish. Laboratory studies can provide tagging guidelines to minimize the effect of implantation techniques and transmitter burden (relative weight of the transmitter to the weight of the fish) in fish before a transmitter is used in field studies. The goal of this study was to examine response variables (mortality, transmitter expulsion, growth, wound area) of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha; 65–104 mm fork length [FL]) injected with an AT along a wide range of sizes that could lead to a guideline for minimizing tagging effects. The overarching goal was to determine a minimum size threshold for fish that can be injected, while minimizing adverse transmitter effects. Juveniles (n = 700) were separated into four treatments: (1) acoustic transmitter injection (AT), (2) AT and a passive integrated transponder tag injection (AT+PIT), (3) visual implant elastomer injection (Marked control), and (4) unmarked (Unmarked control). Fish were evaluated weekly for four weeks, and again at the end of the study (60 d post-tagging). Fish injected with an AT or an AT+PIT experienced greater mortality than Marked controls. By 60 d post-tagging, transmitter expulsion was 44% for AT fish and 20% for AT+PIT fish. Fish injected with an AT or an AT+PIT grew (FL and weight gain) significantly less than Marked controls, and no minimum size thresholds were detected. Finally, initial size (FL) significantly affected wound area in AT and AT+PIT fish. A size threshold was only identified on Day 7 (85.1 mm) for AT+PIT fish, indicating that wound areas in fish < 85.1 mm were larger than wound areas of fish > 85.1 mm. This research suggests that injecting juveniles with an AT or an AT+PIT had a greater effect on smaller fish than larger fish.

  15. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  16. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  17. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  18. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  19. Effects of Habitat Enhancement on Steelhead Trout and Coho Salmon Smolt Production, Habitat Utilization, and Habitat Availability in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H.; Reeves, Gordon H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1987-06-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1986 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1986) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station (see Appendix 2). The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat

  20. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  1. The integration of in vivo and in vitro metabolism assays to investigate the stereoselective behaviors of benalaxyl in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xu; Yao, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The bioconcentration and elimination of racemic benalaxyl (BX) in trout liver microsomes and in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated to determine whether the fish can bioconcentrate and degrade this fungicide enantioselectively. Both enantiomers of BX were extracted with organic solvents and evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the microsomes, BX degradation followed first-order kinetics, and the S-(+) enantiomer of BX was eliminated twice as rapidly as the R-(-) enantiomer, resulting in residues enriched for R-(-)-BX. In vivo experiment, chiral analysis showed an obvious selective bioconcentration of BX based on statistically altered enantiomer fractions (EFs) in the fish compared with the values in the water. The R-(-)-BX was initially preferentially bioconcentrated by rainbow trout and then dissipated more slowly than its antipode. The mean half-lives for individual enantiomers were calculated as 31.6 h for R-(-)-BX and 20.3 h for the S-(+)-form. The results of the study showed that the degradation of BX enantiomers was stereoselective in rainbow trout.

  2. Effects of somatostatin on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis and seawater adaptation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, J.; Kittilson, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Sheridan, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to contribute to the seawater (SW) adaptability of euryhaline fish both directly and indirectly through insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study examined the role of somatostatin-14 (SS-14), a potent inhibitor of GH, on the GH-IGF-1 axis and seawater adaptation. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected intraperitoneally with SS-14 or saline and transferred to 20??ppt seawater. A slight elevation in plasma chloride levels was accompanied by significantly reduced gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in SS-14-treated fish compared to control fish 12??h after SW transfer. Seawater increased hepatic mRNA levels of GH receptor 1 (GHR 1; 239%), GHR 2 (48%), and IGF-1 (103%) in control fish 12??h after transfer. Levels of GHR 1 (155%), GHR 2 (121%), IGF-1 (200%), IGF-1 receptor A (IGFR1A; 62%), and IGFR1B (157%) increased in the gills of control fish 12??h after transfer. SS-14 abolished or attenuated SW-induced changes in the expression of GHR, IGF-1, and IGFR mRNAs in liver and gill. These results indicate that SS-14 reduces seawater adaptability by inhibiting the GH-IGF-1 axis. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  4. Effects of sex steroids on indices of protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) white muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of 17-estradiol (E2), testosterone, and 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on protein turnover and proteolytic gene expression were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myocytes and white muscle tissue. E2 reduced rates of protein synthesis and increased rates of protein degr...

  5. Carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishmeal may contain “unknown growth factors” that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. As fishmeal levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds are reduced, the dietary loss of these compounds may contribute to growth reductions. One such compound, identified in fishmeal...

  6. Generation-scale movement patterns of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) in a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2011-01-01

    Movements by stream fishes have long been the subject of study and controversy. Although much discussion has focused on what proportion of fish adopt mobility within particular life stages, a larger issue involves the lifetime movements of individuals. I evaluated movements of different sizes and ages of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus...

  7. Estrogenic effect of propylparaben (propylhydroxybenzoate) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after exposure via food and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Andersen, Dorthe N; Pedersen, Knud L

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effect of propylparaben was investigated in a rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss test system. Propylparaben was administered orally to sexually immature rainbow trout every second day for up to 10 days in doses between 7 and 1830 mg kg(-1) 2 d(-1) and in the water at 50 and 225 micr...

  8. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katinic, P.J.; Patterson, D.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs¿>¿130¿days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods r

  9. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  10. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...... and subsequent intermittent-flow respirometry, suggesting that this procedural treatment may stress animals...

  11. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  12. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  13. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    -channel' was extended westward and connected to Bradbury Slough to create a second outlet to the main river. New intertidal channels were constructed from the existing 'T-channel' and tidal mudflats became inundated at high tide to increase rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids. The restoration action resulted in a 95-percent increase in available juvenile salmon rearing habitat. We collected juvenile salmon and other fishes at Crims Island and a nearby reference site using beach seines and fyke nets annually from March through August during all years. Benthic invertebrates were collected with sediment corers and drift invertebrates were collected with neuston nets. Juvenile salmon stomach contents were sampled using lavage. Vegetation and sediments characteristics were surveyed and we conducted a topographic/bathymetric survey using a RTK (real time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system). The fish assemblage at Crims Island, composed primarily of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), non-native banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinus), subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (hereinafter referred to as subyearlings), and small numbers of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), did not differ appreciably pre- and post-restoration. Subyearlings were the primary salmonid collected and were seasonally abundant from April through May during all years. The abundance of juvenile salmon declined seasonally as water temperature exceeded 20 degrees C in the Reference site by mid-June; however, subyearlings persisted at the Mainstem site and in subtidal channels of the Restoration site through the summer in water temperatures exceeding 22 degrees C. Residence times of subyearlings in Crims Island backwaters generally were short consisting of one or two tidal cycles. Median residence time was longer in the Restoration site than in the Reference site pre- and post-restoration. Small (mean = 55.7 millimeters) subyea

  14. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  15. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  16. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J G; Andersen, E W; Ersbøll, B K; Nielsen, M E

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least partially due to the low temperature of about 8.5 °C during the first 100 days. The inflammation phase lasted more than 14 days, and the genes relating to production and remodeling of new extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited a delayed but prolonged upregulation starting 1-2 weeks post-wounding and lasting until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis partially regenerated. Scales had not regenerated even after one year. CD163 is a marker of "wound healing"-type M2c macrophages in mammals. M2 macrophage markers are as yet poorly described in fish. The pattern of CD163 expression in the present study is consistent with the expected timing of presence of M2c macrophages in the wound. CD163 may thus potentially prove a valuable marker of M2 macrophages - or a subset hereof - in fish. We subjected a group of fish to

  17. Serotonin-induced brain glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Mancebo, María J; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the serotonin-mediated control of cerebral glycogen levels in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of serotonin (5-HT) to normoglycemic trout (time and dose response) decreased glycogen levels in the brain and increased brain glycogen phosphorylase activity (time response). In hypoglycemic fish (that had been fasted for 5 and 10 days), there was a time-dependent decrease in brain glycogen levels; under these conditions, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also reduced the brain glycogen content in fish that had been fasted for 5 days. In fish with local cerebral hypoglycemia (induced by 2-DG administration), the glycogen levels decreased and, as above, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also lowered the glycogen content. In hyperglycemic fish, 5-HT did not affect glycogen levels. Administration of receptor agonists 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT), 5-HT1B (anpirtoline and CP93129) or 5-HT2 (α-m-5-HT) decreased the brain glycogen levels. This effect was antagonized by the administration of receptor antagonists 5-HT1A (WAY100135 and NAN190), 5-HT1B (NAS181) and 5-HT2B/C (SB206553). Administration of the receptor agonists (±)-DOI (5-HT2A/2C), m-CPP (5-HT2B/2C), BW723C86 (5-HT2B) and WAY 161503 (5-HT2C) led to decreases in the levels of brain glycogen. We found that 5-HT is involved in the modulation of brain glycogen homeostasis in the rainbow trout, causing a glycogenolytic effect when fish are in a normoglycemic or hypoglycemic state, but not when they are in a hyperglycemic state. 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5HT2B and 5-HT2C-like receptors appeared to be involved in the glycogenolytic action of 5-HT, although the effect mediated by 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B was apparently stronger.

  18. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  19. Performance of a surface bypass structure to enhance juvenile steelhead passage and survival at Lower Granite Dam, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of efforts to recover stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss in Pacific Northwest rivers is to increase passage efficacy and survival of juveniles past hydroelectric dams. As part of this effort, we evaluated the efficacy of a prototype surface bypass structure, the removable spillway weir (RSW), installed in a spillbay at Lower Granite Dam, Washington, on the Snake River during 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006. Radio-tagged juvenile steelhead were released upstream from the dam and their route of passage through the turbines, juvenile bypass, spillway, or RSW was recorded. The RSW was operated in an on-or-off condition and passed 3–13% of the total discharge at the dam when it was on. Poisson rate models were fit to the passage counts of hatchery- and natural-origin juvenile steelhead to predict the probability of fish passing the dam. Main-effect predictor variables were RSW operation, diel period, day of the year, proportion of flow passed by the spillway, and total discharge at the dam. The combined fish passage through the RSW and spillway was 55–85% during the day and 37–61% during the night. The proportion of steelhead passing through nonturbine routes was 95% when the RSW was on during the day. The ratio of the proportion of steelhead passed to the proportion of water passing the RSW was from 6.3:1 to 10.0:1 during the day and from 2.7:1 to 5.2:1 during the night. Steelhead passing through the RSW exited the tailrace about 15 min faster than fish passing through the spillway. Mark–recapture single-release survival estimates for steelhead passing the RSW ranged from 0.95 to 1.00. The RSW appeared to be an effective bypass structure compared with other routes of fish passage at the dam.

  20. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  1. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  2. Count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), River Temperature, and River Height in the Pilgrim River, Nome, Alaska, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset is the daily count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) passing through a fish counting weir on the Pilgrim River from 2003 to 2014. Also, included in...

  3. Vertebrae classification models - Validating classification models that use morphometrics to identify ancient salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae to species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using morphometric characteristics of modern salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) vertebrae, we have developed classification models to identify salmonid vertebrae to the...

  4. Rhabdoviruss-Induced Fish-Specific Microribonucleic Acids in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    The fish rhabdovirus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), causes significant mortality in farmed fish. The potential threat from wildlife marine reservoir of VHSV to sea-farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) demands disease protection measures. Identification of biomarkers during infe...

  5. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  6. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  7. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  8. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  9. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  10. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  12. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  13. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  14. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  15. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  16. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  17. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  18. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  19. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  20. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  1. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  2. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  3. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  4. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  5. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake River Dams and Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven G.

    1998-02-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the fourth year of a multi-year study to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake River. Actively migrating smolts were collected near the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and at Lower Granite Dam, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, and released to continue their downstream migration. Individual smolts were subsequently detected at PIT-tag detection facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release (SR) and Paired-Release (PR) Models. Timing of releases of tagged hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss) from the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) from Lower Granite Dam in 1996 spanned the major portion of their juvenile migrations. Specific research objectives in 1996 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival in the Snake River using the Single-Release and Paired-Release Models throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations, (2) evaluate the performance of the survival-estimation models under prevailing operational and environmental conditions in the Snake River, and (3) synthesize results from the 4 years of the study to investigate relationships between survival probabilities, travel times, and environmental factors such as flow levels and water temperature.

  7. Climate regimes and water temperature changes in the Columbia River: bioenergetic implications for predators of juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    We examined how climatic regime shifts may have affected predation rates on juvenile Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis, also called northern pikeminnow), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in the Columbia River. During 1933-1996, oceanic, coastal, and freshwater indices of climate were highly correlated, and an index for the Columbia River Basin suggested that climate shifts may have occurred about 1946, 1958, 1969, and 1977. Summer water temperature varied as much as 2??C between climate periods. We used a bioenergetics model for northern squawfish, the most important piscivore, to predict that predation on salmonids would have been 26-31% higher during two periods with relatively warm spring-summer water temperatures (1933-1946, 1978-1996) than during an extremely cold period (1947-1958). Predicted predation rates of northern squawfish were 68-96% higher in the warmest year compared with the coldest year. Predation rates of smallmouth bass and walleye on juvenile salmonids varied among climate periods similar to rates predicted for northern squawfish. Climatic effects need to be understood in both freshwater and nearshore marine habitats, since growth rates of salmon populations are especially sensitive to mortality during early life stages.

  8. Marine-entry timing and growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon in Alaskan waters of the Chukchi and northern Bering seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Stacy L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the Arctic has implications for influences on juvenile Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta early life-history patterns, such as altered timing of marine entry and/or early marine growth. Sagittal otoliths were used to estimate marine entry dates and daily growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon collected during surface trawl surveys in summers 2007, 2012, and 2013 in the Chukchi and northern Bering seas. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to discriminate between freshwater and marine sagittal growth on the otoliths, and daily growth increments were counted to determine marine-entry dates and growth rates to make temporal and regional comparisons of juvenile Chum Salmon characteristics. Marine-entry dates ranged from mid-June to mid-July, with all region and year combinations exhibiting similar characteristics in entry timing (i.e. larger individuals at the time of capture entered the marine environment earlier in the growing season than smaller individuals in the same region/year), as well as similar mean marine-entry dates. Juvenile Chum Salmon growth rates were on average 4.9% body weight per day in both regions in summers 2007 and 2012, and significantly higher (6.8% body weight per day) in the Chukchi Sea in 2013. These results suggest that juvenile Chum Salmon in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas currently exhibit consistent marine-entry timing and early marine growth rates, despite some differences in environmental conditions between regions and among years. This study also provides a baseline of early marine life-history characteristics of Chum Salmon for comparisons with future climate change studies in these regions.

  9. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  10. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  11. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida.......During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout...... of fry and larger fish. All isolates of F. psychrophilum showed proteolytic activities; however, a few isolates, belonging to serotype Fp(T) did not degrade elastin and were not associated with mortality. Increasing resistance problems to oxytetracycline were demonstrated. More than half of the F...

  12. Study of Some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fry

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Rauoof CHALKOO; Imtiyaz Ahmed SHEIKH; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Shaukath Ali MIR

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to investigate of some hematological and biochemical factors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in Kashmir. About 50 pools of blood samples from diseased fry were collected within 30 months from November 2008 till March 2011 from three hatchery farms. In addition 30 pools of blood samples as control group were collected randomly from same farms. Each blood samples were examined for whole blood examination and blood enzymes measurement. It consist of total leukocyte...

  13. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) culture water recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Sánchez O; Wilmer Sanguino O.; Ariel Gómez C.; Roberto García C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tu...

  14. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Ruiz-Gomez, Maria; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Huntingford, Felicity A.; Sørensen, Christina; Pottinger, Thomas G.; Bakken, Morten; Winberg, Svante; Korzan, Wayne J.; Øverli, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented in vertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) and a high responsive (HR) strain. A suite of behavioural traits is associated with this physiological difference, with LR (proactive) fish feeding more rapidly after transfer to a new environment and...

  15. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  16. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  17. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  18. Environmental conditions and prey-switching by a seabird predator impact juvenile salmon survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brian K.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Henderson, Mark J.; Warzybok, Pete; Jahncke, Jaime; Bradley, Russell W.; Huff, David D.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Nelson, Peter; Field, John C.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Due to spatio-temporal variability of lower trophic-level productivity along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), predators must be capable of switching prey or foraging areas in response to changes in environmental conditions and available forage. The Gulf of the Farallones in central California represents a biodiversity hotspot and contains the largest common murre (Uria aalge) colonies along the CCE. During spring, one of the West Coast's most important Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations out-migrates into the Gulf of the Farallones. We quantify the effect of predation on juvenile Chinook salmon associated with ecosystem-level variability by integrating long-term time series of environmental conditions (upwelling, river discharge), forage species abundance within central CCE, and population size, at-sea distribution, and diet of the common murre. Our results demonstrate common murres typically forage in the vicinity of their offshore breeding sites, but in years in which their primary prey, pelagic young-of-year rockfish (Sebastes spp.), are less available they forage for adult northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) nearshore. Incidentally, while foraging inshore, common murre consumption of out-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon, which are collocated with northern anchovy, increases and population survival of the salmon is significantly reduced. Results support earlier findings that show timing and strength of upwelling, and the resultant forage fish assemblage, is related to Chinook salmon recruitment variability in the CCE, but we extend those results by demonstrating the significance of top-down impacts associated with these bottom-up dynamics. Our results demonstrate the complexity of ecosystem interactions and impacts between higher trophic-level predators and their prey, complexities necessary to quantify in order to parameterize ecosystem models and evaluate likely outcomes of ecosystem management options.

  19. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening

  20. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  1. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  2. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  3. Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, as Influenced by Habitat Enhancement, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, John (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Heller, David A. (Mount Hood National Forest, Gresham, OR)

    1986-09-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1985 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (19824986) to be financed by Forest Service funds. Several factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin were identified during the first year of the study, and the scope of the habitat improvement effort was subsequently enlarged. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to provide additional funding for work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) Evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat Improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. Several prototype enhancement projects were constructed and tested during the first three years of the study. The Intention was to identify successful techniques that could then be broadly applied within the bash. This stepwise procedure has been largely successful in identifying the most promising enhancement techniques for the Fish Creek

  4. The density dilemma: limitations on juvenile production in threatened salmon populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W.; Copeland, Timothy; Venditti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Density-dependent processes have repeatedly been shown to have a central role in salmonid population dynamics, but are often assumed to be negligible for populations at low abundances relative to historical records. Density dependence has been observed in overall spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha production, but it is not clear how patterns observed at the aggregate level relate to individual populations within the basin. We used a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach to explore the degree of density dependence in juvenile production for nine Idaho populations. Our results indicate that density dependence is ubiquitous, although its strength varies between populations. We also investigated the processes driving the population-level pattern and found density-dependent growth and mortality present for both common life-history strategies, but no evidence of density-dependent movement. Overwinter mortality, spatial clustering of redds and limited resource availability were identified as potentially important limiting factors contributing to density dependence. The ubiquity of density dependence for these threatened populations is alarming as stability at present low abundance levels suggests recovery may be difficult without major changes. We conclude that density dependence at the population level is common and must be considered in demographic analysis and management.

  5. Physiological Stress Responses to Prolonged Exposure to MS-222 and Surgical Implantation in Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Skalski, John R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Eppard, Matthew B. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-17

    While many studies have investigated the effects of transmitters on fish condition, behavior, and survival, to our knowledge, no studies have taken into account anesthetic exposure time in addition to tag and surgery effects. We investigated stress responses to prolonged MS-222 exposure after stage 4 induction in surgically implanted juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Survival, tag loss, plasma cortisol concentration, and blood Na+, K+, Ca2+, and pH were measured immediately following anesthetic exposure and surgical implantation and 1, 7, and 14 days post-treatment. Despite the prolonged anesthetic exposure, 3-15 minutes post Stage 4 induction, there were no mortalities or tag loss in any treatment. MS-222 was effective at delaying immediate cortisol release during surgical implantation; however, osmotic disturbances resulted, which were more pronounced in longer anesthetic time exposures. From day 1 to day 14, Na+, Ca2+, and pH significantly decreased, while cortisol significantly increased. The cortisol increase was exacerbated by surgical implantation. There was a significant interaction between MS-222 time exposure and observation day for Na+, Ca2+, K+, and pH; variations were seen in the longer time exposures, although not consistently. In conclusion, stress response patterns suggest stress associated with surgical implantation is amplified with increased exposure to MS-222.

  6. Nonlethal gill biopsy does not affect juvenile chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.; Shively, R.S.; Holmberg, G.S.; Sheer, M.B.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using gastric and surgical transmitter implantation, we compared radio-tagged juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (T(O)) with tagged fish also having a gill biopsy (T(B)) to determine biopsy effects on fish implanted with radio transmitters. We found no evidence during the 21-d period to suggest that a gill biopsy reduced survival, growth, or gross condition of the tagged-biopsy group, regardless of transmitter implantation technique. We recorded 100% survival of all treatment groups. Relative growth rates of T(O) and T(B) fish did not differ significantly. Leukocrit and lysozyme levels were not significantly different among groups, suggesting that no signs of infection were present. Our findings suggest that small chinook salmon can tolerate the combination of transmitter implantation and gill biopsy without compromising condition relative to fish receiving only the transmitter. We believe a gill biopsy can be used in field telemetry studies, especially when physiological data are needed in addition to behavioral data.

  7. Seasonal variation in habitat use of juvenile Steelhead in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, Emily W.; Johnson, James H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined seasonal-habitat use by subyearling and yearling Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout or Steelhead) in Trout Brook, a tributary of the Salmon River, NY. We determined daytime fish-habitat use and available habitat during August and October of the same year and observed differences in habitat selection among year classes. Water depth and cover played the greatest role in Steelhead habitat use. During summer and autumn, we found yearling Steelhead in areas with deeper water and more cover than where we observed subyearling Steelhead. Both year classes sought out areas with abundant cover during both seasons; this habitat was limited within the stream reach. Subyearling Steelhead were associated with more cover during autumn, even though available cover within the stream reach was greater during summer. Principal component analysis showed that variation in seasonal-habitat use was most pronounced for subyearling Steelhead and that yearling Steelhead were more selective in their habitat use than subyearling Steelhead. The results of this study contribute to a greater understanding of how this popular sportfish is adapting to a new environment and the factors that may limit juvenile Steelhead survival. Our findings provide valuable new insights into the seasonal-habitat requirements of subyearling and yearling Steelhead that can be used by fisheries managers to enhance and protect the species throughout the Great Lakes region.

  8. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  9. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  10. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  11. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  12. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  13. Effects of summer flow augmentation on the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon. Annual report 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  14. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Device in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2010 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2012-09-10

    In 2010, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) conducted a compliance monitoring study—the Lower Columbia River Acoustic Transmitter Investigations of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics 2010 (Carlson et al. in preparation)—for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District. The purpose of the compliance study was to evaluate juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) passage routes and survival through the lower three Columbia River hydroelectric facilities as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp; NOAA Fisheries 2008) and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Fish Accords; 3 Treaty Tribes and Action Agencies 2008).

  15. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  16. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  17. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  18. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  19. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sturrock

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87Sr/(86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000 and drier (2003 year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10% and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%. These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  20. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  1. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  2. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  3. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  5. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  8. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  9. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  10. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  11. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  12. Spatial ecological processes and local factors predict the distribution and abundance of spawning by steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss across a complex riverscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Falke

    Full Text Available Processes that influence habitat selection in landscapes involve the interaction of habitat composition and configuration and are particularly important for species with complex life cycles. We assessed the relative influence of landscape spatial processes and local habitat characteristics on patterns in the distribution and abundance of spawning steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, a threatened salmonid fish, across ∼15,000 stream km in the John Day River basin, Oregon, USA. We used hurdle regression and a multi-model information theoretic approach to identify the relative importance of covariates representing key aspects of the steelhead life cycle (e.g., site access, spawning habitat quality, juvenile survival at two spatial scales: within 2-km long survey reaches (local sites and ecological neighborhoods (5 km surrounding the local sites. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion, models that included covariates describing ecological neighborhoods provided the best description of the distribution and abundance of steelhead spawning given the data. Among these covariates, our representation of offspring survival (growing-season-degree-days, °C had the strongest effect size (7x relative to other predictors. Predictive performances of model-averaged composite and neighborhood-only models were better than a site-only model based on both occurrence (percentage of sites correctly classified = 0.80±0.03 SD, 0.78±0.02 vs. 0.62±0.05, respectively and counts (root mean square error = 3.37, 3.93 vs. 5.57, respectively. The importance of both temperature and stream flow for steelhead spawning suggest this species may be highly sensitive to impacts of land and water uses, and to projected climate impacts in the region and that landscape context, complementation, and connectivity will drive how this species responds to future environments.

  13. Spatial ecological processes and local factors predict the distribution and abundance of spawning by steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across a complex riverscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Jordan, Christopher E.; McNyset, Kris M.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2013-01-01

    Processes that influence habitat selection in landscapes involve the interaction of habitat composition and configuration and are particularly important for species with complex life cycles. We assessed the relative influence of landscape spatial processes and local habitat characteristics on patterns in the distribution and abundance of spawning steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a threatened salmonid fish, across ~15,000 stream km in the John Day River basin, Oregon, USA. We used hurdle regression and a multi-model information theoretic approach to identify the relative importance of covariates representing key aspects of the steelhead life cycle (e.g., site access, spawning habitat quality, juvenile survival) at two spatial scales: within 2-km long survey reaches (local sites) and ecological neighborhoods (5 km) surrounding the local sites. Based on Akaike’s Information Criterion, models that included covariates describing ecological neighborhoods provided the best description of the distribution and abundance of steelhead spawning given the data. Among these covariates, our representation of offspring survival (growing-season-degree-days, °C) had the strongest effect size (7x) relative to other predictors. Predictive performances of model-averaged composite and neighborhood-only models were better than a site-only model based on both occurrence (percentage of sites correctly classified = 0.80±0.03 SD, 0.78±0.02 vs. 0.62±0.05, respectively) and counts (root mean square error = 3.37, 3.93 vs. 5.57, respectively). The importance of both temperature and stream flow for steelhead spawning suggest this species may be highly sensitive to impacts of land and water uses, and to projected climate impacts in the region and that landscape context, complementation, and connectivity will drive how this species responds to future environments.

  14. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  15. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. The impact of level of the stocking density on the haematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematological indices are important parameters for the evaluation of fish physiological status.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate how level of the stocking density influence the bloodphysiology of of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in a recirculating system. Theexperiment was conducted over a period of 33 days. A number of 254 rainbow trout with an averageweight of 29.51 ± 1.32 g were divided into four rearing units in order to create different stockingdensities: in B1-2.64 kg/m3, with an average weight of 31.68 g/ex, B2 – 5.16 kg/m3 with an averageweight of 30.39 g/ex, B3 – 7.12 kg/m3 with an average weight of 28.52 g/ex and B4- 9.42 kg/m3 with anaverage weight of 27.46 g. The sampling of O. mykiss blood from the four variants before and after theexperimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cell counts (RBCc,haematocrit values (Ht, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, meancorpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC weremeasured and analyzed, with routine methods used in fish hematology (Blaxhall & Daisley 1973;Svobodova 2001. Some hematological indicators (Hb, MCV, MCH had been influenced by the stockingdensity. The results of our research provide a contribution to the knowledge of the hematologicalparameters of the rainbow trout reared in different level of stocking densities, under the recirculatingsystems condition.

  17. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  18. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  19. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  20. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  1. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  2. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan B Furey

    Full Text Available Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004-2008 and 2010-2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait. While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20-40% of sockeye and 30-50% of steelhead exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the

  3. Variation in Sensory Profile of Individual Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Same Production Batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    The variation in sensory profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), belonging to the same aquaculture production batch and handled the same way, was explored by using objective sensory profiling on heat-treated minced fillets. In addition, quality index, mechanical texture, pH, fat, and water...... found between individuals in 2 of the 3 groups and between the groups. No differences were found in quality index neither between individuals nor groups. A significant negative correlation between lipid content and firm texture was observed, but in general, the chemical and physical measurements could...

  4. Prophylactic effect of levamisole on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss against Yersinia ruckeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ispir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in the relative percentage of survival (RPS rate of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to 5, 10 and 25µg ml-1 levamisole for 2 h against Yersinia ruckeri was investigated. The average weight of the 120 fish used in this study was 6.3g. Upon challenge with a virulent strain, the relative survival percentage of respectively 83.3%, 86.7% and 76.6% was recorded. The results suggest that the application of levamisole in fish farms could increase resistance to infection of fish and offer economic benefits.

  5. Modelling the Effects of Radioactive Effluent on Thunnus orientalis and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the Pacific Ocean by the radioactive pollutants released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised legitimate concerns over the viability of marine wildlife. We develop a modified Crank-Nicholson method to approximate a solution to the diffusion-advection-decay equation in time and three spatial dimensions to explore the extent of the effects of the radioactive effluent on two marine species: the Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis and the Pacific Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

  6. Paternal Association of Increased Susceptibility to Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaastrup, P.; Hørlyck, Viggo; Olesen, Niels Jørgen;

    1991-01-01

    Farming of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe is hampered by unacceptably heavy losses due to the severe infectious disease viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Strain-dependent variation of VHS resistance exists. A long-term breeding programme to increase VHS resistance in rainbow...... trout has been started in Denmark. This programme will be based on experimental VHS challenge of the parental fish (n = 84) as well as their normal and gynogenetic offspring (16 fullsib F1 groups). We found a paternal influence on the average VHS resistance of the offspring; partial regression...

  7. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were done in order to achieve a reproducible method that can be used to infect rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causal agent of coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. The main method investigated was intraperitoneal injection......, and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin- degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony- forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes...

  8. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...... compared to -30°C or higher resulted in a reduced level of secondary lipid oxidation (TBARS). No advantage was gained by using temperatures below -40°C for frozen storage of trout regarding any of the properties investigated....

  9. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; LaPatra, Scott E

    2010-10-01

    Ciliated protists were isolated from the ovarian fluid of apparently healthy adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) maintained in freshwater. The organism was identified as Pseudocohnilembus persalinus based on morphometric and morphological analysis of silver-stained specimens obtained from culture and on analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence of this organism also was characterized. This ciliate has been reported previously as free living only in saline environments and as an endosymbiont in a marine teleost, the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout.

  10. Calcium-dependent behavioural responses to acute copper exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, the present study demonstrated that: (1) calcium (Ca) increased the range of copper (Cu) concentrations that O. mykiss avoided; (2) Ca conserved the maintenance of pre-exposure swimming activity during inescapable acute (10 min) Cu exposure. Data showed...... their spontaneous swimming speed, whereas no response was observed in O. mykiss acclimated and tested at high Ca concentration. Collectively, the data support the conclusion that in O. mykiss the behavioural responses to acute Cu exposure are Ca-dependent....

  11. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout.

  12. Coronary ligation reduces maximum sustained swimming speed in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, A P; Steffensen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The maximum aerobic swimming speed of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was measured before and after ligation of the coronary artery. Coronary artery ligation prevented blood flow to the compact layer of the ventricular myocardium, which represents 30% of the ventricular mass, and produced...... a statistically significant 35.5% reduction in maximum swimming speed. We conclude that the coronary circulation is important for maximum aerobic swimming and implicit in this conclusion is that maximum cardiac performance is probably necessary for maximum aerobic swimming performance....

  13. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at energy cost during migration.

  14. Excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): recovery in normoxia and hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Steffensen, John Fleng; Aarestrup, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a number of fish species may perform brief excursions into severe hypoxia and return to water with a higher oxygen content. The term severe hypoxia describes oxygen conditions that are below the critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), defined here as the oxygen threshold...... at which the standard metabolic rate becomes dependent upon the ambient oxygen content. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), this study quantified the excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) occurring after exposure to oxygen availability below S(crit). Tests showed that S...

  15. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida....... fry syndrome/coldwater disease were recorded. Infections caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum occurred most frequently, but only one outbreak of enteric redmouth disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and one of furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida were recorded during the monitoring...

  16. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  17. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  18. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  19. Postprandial changes in plasma growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-binding proteins in coho salmon fasted for varying periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Munetaka; Cooper, Kathleen A; Dickhoff, Walton W; Beckman, Brian R

    2009-08-01

    We examined postprandial changes in circulating growth hormone (GH), insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in yearling coho salmon under different feeding regimes. Fish were initially fasted for 1 day, 1 wk, or 3 wk. Fasted fish were then fed, and blood was collected at 4-h intervals over 26 h. After the various periods of fasting, basal levels of insulin were relatively constant, whereas those of IGF-I, IGFBPs and GH changed in proportion to the duration of the fast. A single meal caused a rapid, large increase in the circulating insulin levels, but the degree of the increase was influenced by the fasting period. IGF-I showed a moderate increase 2 h after the meal but only in the regularly fed fish. Plasma levels of 41-kDa IGFBP were increased in all groups within 6 h after the single meal. The fasting period did not influence the response of 41-kDa IGFBP to the meal. IGFBP-1 and GH decreased after the meal to the same extent among groups regardless of the fasting period. The present study shows that insulin and IGF-I respond differently to long (weeks)- and short (hours)-term nutritional changes in salmon; insulin maintains its basal level but changes acutely in response to food intake, whereas IGF-I adjusts its basal levels to the long-term nutritional status and is less responsive to acute nutritional input. IGFBPs maintain their sensitivity to food intake, even after prolonged fasting, suggesting their critical role in the nutritional regulation of salmon growth.

  20. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.