WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile body size

  1. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  3. High prevalence of homing behaviour among juvenile coral-reef fishes and the role of body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Robert P.; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Adult coral-reef fishes display a remarkable ability to return home after being displaced. However, we know very little about homing behaviour in juvenile fishes. Homing behaviour in juvenile fishes is of interest because it will shape subsequent spatial distributions of adult fish communities. Comparing multiple species, families and functional groups allows us to distinguish between species-specific traits and more generalised, species-independent traits that may drive homing behaviour. Using displacement experiments of up to 150 m, we quantified homing behaviour of juvenile, newly recruited reef fishes of seven species in three families, including herbivorous parrotfishes and rabbitfishes, carnivorous wrasse and planktivorous damselfishes. All species showed the ability to home successfully, but success rates differed among species. Juvenile parrotfishes were the most successful (67% returning home), while return rates in the other species ranged from 10.5% ( Siganus doliatus) to 28.9% ( Coris batuensis). However, across all species body size appeared to be the main driver of homing success, rather than species-specific traits. With every cm increase in body size, odds of returning home almost tripled (170% increase) across all species. Interestingly, the probability of getting lost was not related to body size, which suggests that mortality was not a major driver of unsuccessful homing. Homing probability halved beyond displacement distances of 10 m and then remained stable. Higher likelihood of homing over short distances may suggest that different sensory cues are used to navigate. Overall, our results suggest that homing ability is a widespread trait among juvenile reef fishes. A `sense of home' and site attachment appear to develop early during ontogeny, especially above taxon-specific size thresholds. Hence, spatial flexibility exists only in a brief window after settlement, with direct implications for subsequent patterns of connectivity and ecosystem

  4. Otolith morphology and body size relationships for juvenile Sciaenidae in the Río de la Plata estuary (35-36°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Waessle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the family Sciaenidae have been reported inhabiting bottom waters of the Río de la Plata estuary. Of these juvenile stripped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri and banded ground drum (Paralonchurus brasiliensis are by far the most abundant. These species are also important prey of several top-predator species among large fishes, seabirds and mammals. In this study we provide new information regarding otolith morphology and body size relationships of juvenile sciaenid fish. The sagittae morphology of juvenile sciaenids showed strong changes in the course of their development (e.g. in overall shape and development of concrescences on the outer surface. Analysing the morphometric relationships, we concluded that otolith length and otolith mass are good indicators of fish standard length and fish weight in all species. If otolith length or mass is used to estimate fish length, the regression explained more than 97% of the variation in all species. All equations relating fish standard length and fish weight for juvenile stages of the species studied explained a very large proportion of the variance in the data. These data will help researchers studying food habits of top predators to determine size and weight of usually juvenile fish-prey from length, broad and/or weight of recovered otoliths.

  5. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30–460 g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mg O2 h−1...

  6. Overwinter body condition, mortality and parasite infection in two size classes of 0+ year juvenile European bitterling Rhodeus amarus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 555-568 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : energy reserves * parasite-induced mortality * size-dependent * young-of-the-year fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  7. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin J O'Gorman

    Full Text Available The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  8. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  9. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  10. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth-brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.E.REARDON; L.J.CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a) examine response (size and survival) to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers) and (b) explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced.Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.In the laboratory,first generation (F1) broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO.Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size,egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2) offspring.The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO,and juvenile size and survival were quantified.In the field survey,across stages,embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations.In the laboratory experiment,F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother's mouth did not differ in mass,length,survival regardless of development DO environment.However,juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother's mouth,exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO.Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother's mouthsupport predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia.There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months.Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development.This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes.

  11. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth- brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. REARDON, L.J. CHAPMAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a examine response (size and survival to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers and (b explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced. Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations. In the laboratory, first generation (F1 broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO. Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size, egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2 offspring. The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO, and juvenile size and survival were quantified. In the field survey, across stages, embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations. In the laboratory experiment, F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother’s mouth did not differ in mass, length, survival regardless of development DO environment. However, juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother’s mouth, exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO. Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother’s mouth support predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia. There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months. Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development. This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes [Current Zoology 58 (3: 401-412, 2012].

  12. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  13. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  14. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  15. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  16. How body mass and lifestyle affect juvenile biomass production in placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Grady, John M; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H

    2014-02-22

    In mammals, the mass-specific rate of biomass production during gestation and lactation, here called maternal productivity, has been shown to vary with body size and lifestyle. Metabolic theory predicts that post-weaning growth of offspring, here termed juvenile productivity, should be higher than maternal productivity, and juveniles of smaller species should be more productive than those of larger species. Furthermore because juveniles generally have similar lifestyles to their mothers, across species juvenile and maternal productivities should be correlated. We evaluated these predictions with data from 270 species of placental mammals in 14 taxonomic/lifestyle groups. All three predictions were supported. Lagomorphs, perissodactyls and artiodactyls were very productive both as juveniles and as mothers as expected from the abundance and reliability of their foods. Primates and bats were unproductive as juveniles and as mothers, as expected as an indirect consequence of their low predation risk and consequent low mortality. Our results point the way to a mechanistic explanation for the suite of correlated life-history traits that has been called the slow-fast continuum.

  17. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

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    David W E Hone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage. In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs" are known from both types of assemblages. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. CONCLUSIONS: The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  18. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, David W E; Farke, Andrew A; Watabe, Mahito; Shigeru, Suzuki; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav

    2014-01-01

    Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together) or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage). In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs") are known from both types of assemblages. Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered) aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  19. Detecting size and shape of bodies capacitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1980-01-01

    The size and shape of a body is determined by rolling it between the plates of capacitors and measuring the capacitance changes. A capacitor comprising two parallel, spaced wires inclined to the rolling direction and above and below the rolling body scans sections of the body along its longitudinal axis, another determines the body's lengths and a third comprising two non-parallel wires determines the position of the body. The capacitance changes are compared with those produced by a body of known size and shape so that the size and shape of the body can be determined. (author)

  20. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  1. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished...

  2. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    O?Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutiona...

  3. Explaining body size beliefs in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry has had much success in providing theoretical models for the causal origins of many delusional beliefs. Recently, it has been suggested that some anorexia nervosa patients' beliefs about their own body size should be considered delusions. As such, it seems high time the methods of cognitive neuropsychiatry were turned to modelling the false body size beliefs of anorexics. In this paper, I adopt an empiricist approach to modelling the causal origins of false body size beliefs in anorexia. Within the background of cognitive neuropsychiatry, empiricist models claim that abnormal beliefs are grounded by abnormal experiences bearing similar content. I discuss the kinds of abnormal experiences of body size anorexics suffer from which could ground their false beliefs about body size. These oversized experiences come in three varieties: false self-other body comparisons, spontaneous mental imagery of a fat body and distorted perception of affordances. Further theoretical and empirical research into the oversized experiences which anorexics suffer from presents a promising avenue for understanding and treating the disorder.

  4. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  5. Estimation of body-size traits by photogrammetry in large mammals to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p < 0.64) and was more strongly associated with maternal presence (p < 0.02) than winter snow depth (p < 0.18). These findings highlight the effects on survival of a social dynamic (the mother-young association) rather than body size and suggest a change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth.

  6. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  7. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  8. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Artificial fish schools : Collective effects of school size, body size, and body form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, H.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Individual-based models of schooling in fish have demonstrated that, via processes of self-organization. artificial fish may school in the absence of a leader or external stimuli, using local information only. We study for the first time how body size and body form of artificial fish affect school

  10. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  11. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  12. Body size, energy use, and community structure of small mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest, S.K. Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Body size has long been hypothesized to play a major role in community structure and dynamics. Two general hypotheses exist for how resources are distributed among body sizes: (1) resources are equally available and uniformly utilized across body sizes and (2) resources are differentially available to organisms of different body sizes, resulting in a nonuniform or modal distribution. It has also been predicted that the distri-bution of body sizes of species in a community should reflect the u...

  13. Cuticle deposition in imaginal disks: effects of juvenile hormone and fat body in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, H; Tomblin, C

    1972-08-04

    Wing disks from the last larval instar of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were successfully cultured in modified Grace's medium. 20-Hydroxyecdysone induced cuticle deposition in these disks in vitro. This response was enhanced by treating the medium with larval fat body and was inhibited by application of juvenile hormone.

  14. Mammal extinctions, body size, and paleotemperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, T M; Holroyd, P A; Rose, K D

    1994-10-25

    There is a general inverse relationship between the natural logarithm of tooth area (a body size indicator) of some fossil mammals and paleotemperature during approximately 2.9 million years of the early Eocene in the Bighorn Basin of northwest Wyoming. When mean temperatures became warmer, tooth areas tended to become smaller. During colder times, larger species predominated; these generally became larger or remained the same size. Paleotemperature trends also markedly affected patterns of local (and, perhaps, regional) extinction and immigration. New species appeared as immigrants during or near the hottest (smaller forms) and coldest (larger forms) intervals. Paleotemperature trend reversals commonly resulted in the ultimate extinction of both small forms (during cooling intervals) and larger forms (during warming intervals). These immigrations and extinctions mark faunal turnovers that were also modulated by sharp increases in sediment accumulation rate.

  15. Body size mediated coexistence in swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Ritchie, Mark E; Powell, James A

    2014-01-01

    Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  16. Body Size Mediated Coexistence in Swans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator, a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  17. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central

  18. Comparing fishers' and scientific estimates of size at maturity and maximum body size as indicators for overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, Elizabeth L; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-04-01

    We tested whether fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) of two fish life-history parameters, size at maturity (SAM) at maximum body size (MS), was comparable to scientific estimates (SEK) of the same parameters, and whether LEK influenced fishers' perceptions of sustainability. Local ecological knowledge was documented for 82 fishers from a small-scale fishery in Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, whereas SEK was compiled from the scientific literature. Size at maturity estimates derived from LEK and SEK overlapped for most of the 15 commonly harvested species (10 of 15). In contrast, fishers' maximum size estimates were usually lower than (eight species), or overlapped with (five species) scientific estimates. Fishers' size-based estimates of catch composition indicate greater potential for overfishing than estimates based on SEK. Fishers' estimates of size at capture relative to size at maturity suggest routine inclusion of juveniles in the catch (9 of 15 species), and fishers' estimates suggest that harvested fish are substantially smaller than maximum body size for most species (11 of 15 species). Scientific estimates also suggest that harvested fish are generally smaller than maximum body size (13 of 15), but suggest that the catch is dominated by adults for most species (9 of 15 species), and that juveniles are present in the catch for fewer species (6 of 15). Most Samaná fishers characterized the current state of their fishery as poor (73%) and as having changed for the worse over the past 20 yr (60%). Fishers stated that concern about overfishing, catching small fish, and catching immature fish contributed to these perceptions, indicating a possible influence of catch-size composition on their perceptions. Future work should test this link more explicitly because we found no evidence that the minority of fishers with more positive perceptions of their fishery reported systematically different estimates of catch-size composition than those with the more

  19. Evolution of body size in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin

    2005-10-07

    Body size is one of the most important traits of organisms and allows predictions of an individual's morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. However, explaining the evolution of complex traits such as body size is difficult because a plethora of other traits influence body size. Here I review what we know about the evolution of body size in a group of island reptiles and try to generalize about the mechanisms that shape body size. Galapagos marine iguanas occupy all 13 larger islands in this Pacific archipelago and have maximum island body weights between 900 and 12 000g. The distribution of body sizes does not match mitochondrial clades, indicating that body size evolves independently of genetic relatedness. Marine iguanas lack intra- and inter-specific food competition and predators are not size-specific, discounting these factors as selective agents influencing body size. Instead I hypothesize that body size reflects the trade-offs between sexual and natural selection. We found that sexual selection continuously favours larger body sizes. Large males establish display territories and some gain over-proportional reproductive success in the iguanas' mating aggregations. Females select males based on size and activity and are thus responsible for the observed mating skew. However, large individuals are strongly selected against during El Niño-related famines when dietary algae disappear from the intertidal foraging areas. We showed that differences in algae sward ('pasture') heights and thermal constraints on large size are causally responsible for differences in maximum body size among populations. I hypothesize that body size in many animal species reflects a trade-off between foraging constraints and sexual selection and suggest that future research could focus on physiological and genetic mechanisms determining body size in wild animals. Furthermore, evolutionary stable body size distributions within populations should be analysed to better

  20. Production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia fed three different commercial diets in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of feeding three commercial diets on production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum reared using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was evaluated in a 56 d growth trial. Juvenile cobia (29.2 +/= 0.7 g, mean weight +/= SE) were stocked into thr...

  1. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    logy, in explaining such natural genetic variation in D. melanogaster body size and development time. It is argued .... high latitudes were found to use limited food more effi- ciently, so ..... always associate fast development with small body size.

  2. Influences of sex, ontogeny and body size on the thermal ecology of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata, Liolaemidae) in a restinga remnant in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Variations in body temperature (Tb) of lizards can be partially explained by intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size. Liolaemus lutzae is a lizard species restricted to restingas in the Brazilian coast in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Herein, we studied sexual dimorphism and influences of sex, ontogeny, and body size to the Tb of L. lutzae. Adult males were larger than adult females, probably due to both intersexual selection and intra-sexual selection. There was intersexual difference in lizards' Tb (males hotter than females), but Tb did not differ after factored out for the effects of body size. The mean Tb of juvenile lizards was higher than that of adults after factored out for the effect of body mass. It is possible that adults may have excluded juveniles from microhabitats with better thermal regimes. Also, this might have occurred due to requirements of juveniles to maintain high growth rates. Forage searching for prey by juveniles also exposes them to high environmental temperatures. Juveniles also may have higher Tb than co-specific adults (relative to body mass) to favor prey capture. In absolute values, adult lizards tended to use microhabitats with lower temperatures than that used by juveniles, possibly to avoid risks of overheating and death. Body temperature and snout-vent length were positively related, as well as body temperature and body mass, presumably caused by the thermal inertia of the bodies (trend of a body to resist to changes in its temperature). Intrinsic factors such as sex, ontogeny and body size can affect the thermal ecology of L. lutzae, despite coastal habitat features to which they are exposed also influences the body temperature of active lizards in restinga habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relations between forest fragmentation and bird community body size and biodiversity and bird community body size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, F.

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Future Planet Studies, major biologie ABSTRACT Animal species with a larger body-size tend to have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Therefore it is likely that they are more affected by habitat fragmentation than small-bodied species. Body size of birds also seems to have a negative relation with species richness. This research has therefore looked into whether birds with a larger body-size are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by forest...

  4. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  5. Whole-body MRI in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, J.F.; Kramer, U.

    2011-01-01

    The imaging of systemic disorders without radiation exposure by whole-body MRI (wb-MRI) represents a paradigm shift for pediatric radiology. The reduction of multiple regional examinations, if necessary under sedation, results in a faster treatment start. Modern scanner techniques using automatic table movement and allowing the combination of multiple coil elements and synchronized signal recording with numerous independent receiving channels are the basic prerequisite for high-resolution wb-MRI. The main indications are the evaluation of multifocal bone involvement in different disorders, rheumatic disorders including fever of unknown origin or metastatic spread in solid tumors. Based on the research, there is currently no absolute indication. However, wb-MRI has been shown to yield a higher diagnostic performance than bone scintigraphy and comparable results to FDG-PET for the detection of bone metastases. Due to the low number of published studies, it is uncertain for which entity of solid tumors wb-MRI is the modality of choice and for which tumors wb-MRI will play only a complementary role in the diagnostic work-up. Methodical strategies, pitfalls in image analysis, indications and diagnostic accuracy will be discussed based on already published results as well as our own experience from over 400 examinations, thus providing an overview of the recent research as well as supplying relevant aspects of the daily routine in pediatric wb-MRI. (orig.)

  6. Carotid body size measured by computed tomographic angiography in individuals born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Melissa L; Welch, Brian T; Randall, Jess T; Petersen-Jones, Humphrey G; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2018-05-24

    We tested the hypothesis that the carotid bodies would be smaller in individuals born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared individuals born full term that did not receive oxygen therapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent head/neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) at the Mayo Clinic between 10 and 40 years of age (n = 2503). Patients were identified as premature ( body images captured during the CTA were performed. Carotid body visualization was possible in 43% of patients and 52% of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls but only 17% of juvenile preterm subjects (p = 0.07). Of the carotid bodies that could be visualized, widest axial measurements of the carotid bodies in individuals born prematurely (n = 7, 34 ± 4 weeks gestation, birth weight: 2460 ± 454 g; average size: 2.5 ± 0.2 cm) or individuals exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy (n = 3, 38 ± 2 weeks gestation, Average size: 2.2 ± 0.1 cm) were not different when compared to controls (2.3 ± 0.2 cm and 2.3 ± 0.2 cm, respectively, p > 0.05). Carotid body size, as measured using CTA, is not smaller in adults born prematurely or exposed to perinatal oxygen therapy when compared to sex, age, and BMI-matched controls. However, carotid body visualization was lower in juvenile premature patients. The decreased ability to visualize the carotid bodies in these individuals may be a result of their prematurity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as "dinosaur analogs") and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.

  8. Reproductive Biology and Its Impact on Body Size: Comparative Analysis of Mammalian, Avian and Dinosaurian Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as “dinosaur analogs”) and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time. PMID:22194835

  9. Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available Janis and Carrano (1992 suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis. First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as "dinosaur analogs" and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992 existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.

  10. Prey size selection and cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F F; Qin, J G

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer and examined the relationship between prey size selection and energy gain of cannibals. Prey handling time and capture success by cannibals were used to estimate the ratio of energy gain to energy cost in prey selection. Cannibals selected smaller prey despite its capability of ingesting larger prey individuals. In behavioural analysis, prey handling time significantly increased with prey size, but it was not significantly affected by cannibal size. Conversely, capture success significantly decreased with the increase of both prey and cannibal sizes. The profitability indices showed that the smaller prey provides the most energy return for cannibals of all size classes. These results indicate that L. calcarifer cannibals select smaller prey for more profitable return. The behavioural analysis, however, indicates that L. calcarifer cannibals attack prey of all size at a similar rate but ingest smaller prey more often, suggesting that prey size selection is passively orientated rather than at the predator's choice. The increase of prey escape ability and morphological constraint contribute to the reduction of intracohort cannibalism as fish grow larger. This study contributes to the understanding of intracohort cannibalism and development of strategies to reduce fish cannibalistic mortalities. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long‐term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long‐term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population.

  12. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  13. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  14. The discrepancy between emotional vs. rational estimates of body size, actual size, and ideal body ratings: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J K; Dolce, J J

    1989-05-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic college females were assessed on multiple aspects of body image. Subjects' estimation of the size of three body sites (waist, hips, thighs) was affected by instructional protocol. Emotional ratings, based on how they "felt" about their body, elicited ratings that were larger than actual and ideal size measures. Size ratings based on rational instructions were no different from actual sizes, but were larger than ideal ratings. There were no differences between actual and ideal sizes. The results are discussed with regard to methodological issues involved in body image research. In addition, a working hypothesis that differentiates affective/emotional from cognitive/rational aspects of body size estimation is offered to complement current theories of body image. Implications of the findings for the understanding of body image and its relationship to eating disorders are discussed.

  15. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  16. Risky business for a juvenile marine predator? Testing the influence of foraging strategies on size and growth rate under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Nigel E; DiBattista, Joseph D; Moore, Jonathan W; Ward, Eric J; Fisk, Aaron T; Kessel, Steven; Guttridge, Tristan L; Feldheim, Kevin A; Franks, Bryan R; Gruber, Samuel H; Weideli, Ornella C; Chapman, Demian D

    2017-04-12

    Mechanisms driving selection of body size and growth rate in wild marine vertebrates are poorly understood, thus limiting knowledge of their fitness costs at ecological, physiological and genetic scales. Here, we indirectly tested whether selection for size-related traits of juvenile sharks that inhabit a nursery hosting two dichotomous habitats, protected mangroves (low predation risk) and exposed seagrass beds (high predation risk), is influenced by their foraging behaviour. Juvenile sharks displayed a continuum of foraging strategies between mangrove and seagrass areas, with some individuals preferentially feeding in one habitat over another. Foraging habitat was correlated with growth rate, whereby slower growing, smaller individuals fed predominantly in sheltered mangroves, whereas larger, faster growing animals fed over exposed seagrass. Concomitantly, tracked juveniles undertook variable movement behaviours across both the low and high predation risk habitat. These data provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis that directional selection favouring smaller size and slower growth rate, both heritable traits in this shark population, may be driven by variability in foraging behaviour and predation risk. Such evolutionary pathways may be critical to adaptation within predator-driven marine ecosystems. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  18. Association between different phases of menstrual cycle and body image measures of perceived size, ideal size, and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André Luiz S; Dias, Marcelo Ricardo C; Damasceno, Vinícius O; Lamounier, Joel A; Gardner, Rick M

    2013-12-01

    The association between phases of the menstrual cycle and body image was investigated. 44 university women (M age = 23.3 yr., SD = 4.7) judged their perceived and ideal body size, and body dissatisfaction was calculated at each phase of the menstrual cycle, including premenstrual, menstrual, and intermenstrual. Participants selected one of nine figural drawings ranging from very thin to obese that represented their perceived size and ideal size. Body dissatisfaction was measured as the absolute difference between scores on perceived and ideal figural drawings. During each menstrual phase, anthropometric measures of weight, height, body mass index, circumference of waist and abdomen, and body composition were taken. There were no significant differences in any anthropometric measures between the three menstrual cycle phases. Perceived body size and body dissatisfaction were significantly different between menstrual phases, with the largest perceived body size and highest body dissatisfaction occurring during the menstrual phase. Ideal body size did not differ between menstrual phases, although participants desired a significantly smaller ideal size as compared to the perceived size.

  19. Evidence for the Higher Importance of Signal Size Over Body Size in Aposematic Signaling in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Remmel, Triinu; Tammarub, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    To understand the evolution of warning coloration, it is important to distinguish between different aspects of conspicuous color patterns. As an example, both pattern element size and body size of prey have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of warning signals. However, it is unclear whether the effect of body size is merely a side effect of proportionally increasing pattern elements, or if there is an effect of body size per se. These possibilities were evaluated by offering different s...

  20. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  1. MICROSPHERE SIZE INFLUENCES THE FOREIGN BODY REACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, J.; Hiemstra, C.; Petersen, A. H.; Zuidema, J.; van Beuge, M. M.; Rodriguez, S.; Lathuile, A. A. R.; Veldhuis, G. J.; Steendam, R.; Bank, R. A.; Popa, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (MSP) are attractive candidate vehicles for site-specific or systemic sustained release of therapeutic compounds. This release may be altered by the host's foreign body reaction (FBR), which is dependent on the characteristics of the

  2. Beyond body size: muscle biochemistry and body shape explain ontogenetic variation of anti-predatory behaviour in the lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Fábio Cury; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-predatory behaviour evolves under the strong action of natural selection because the success of individuals avoiding predation essentially defines their fitness. Choice of anti-predatory strategies is defined by prey characteristics as well as environmental temperature. An additional dimension often relegated in this multilevel equation is the ontogenetic component. In the tegu Salvator merianae, adults run away from predators at high temperatures but prefer fighting when it is cold, whereas juveniles exhibit the same flight strategy within a wide thermal range. Here, we integrate physiology and morphology to understand ontogenetic variation in the temperature-dependent shift of anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards. We compiled data for body shape and size, and quantified enzyme activity in hindlimb and head muscles, testing the hypothesis that morphophysiological models explain ontogenetic variation in behavioural associations. Our prediction is that juveniles exhibit body shape and muscle biochemistry that enhance flight strategies. We identified biochemical differences between muscles mainly in the LDH:CS ratio, whereby hindlimb muscles were more glycolytic than the jaw musculature. Juveniles, which often use evasive strategies to avoid predation, have more glycolytic hindlimb muscles and are much smaller when compared with adults 1-2 years old. Ontogenetic differences in body shape were identified but marginally contributed to behavioural variation between juvenile and adult tegus, and variation in anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards resides mainly in associations between body size and muscle biochemistry. Our results are discussed in the ecological context of predator avoidance by individuals differing in body size living at temperature-variable environments, where restrictions imposed by the cold could be compensated by specific phenotypes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Influence of body size on coexistence of bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyequien Abarca, E.; Boer, de W.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Theory suggests that body size is an important factor in determining interspecific competition and, ultimately, in structuring ecological communities. However, there is a lack of pragmatic studies linking body size and interspecific competition to patterns in ecological communities. The objective of

  4. Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruff, C. B.; Holt, B. M.; Sládek, Vladimír; Berner, M.; Murphy, W. A.; zur Nedden, D.; Seidler, H.; Recheis, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2006), s. 91-101 ISSN 0047-2484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/01/D018 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) SBR 9530828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : European prehistory * biomechanics * body mass Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.267, year: 2006

  5. Effects of exposure to bodies of different sizes on perception of and satisfaction with own body size: two randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Carnegie, Rebecca; Allward, Heather; Bacon, Emily; Lambe, Emily; Sapseid, Megan; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Skinner, Andy; Broome, Matthew R; Park, Rebecca; Harmer, Catherine J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-05-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent among women and associated with subsequent obesity and eating disorders. Exposure to images of bodies of different sizes has been suggested to change the perception of 'normal' body size in others. We tested whether exposure to different-sized (otherwise identical) bodies changes perception of own and others' body size, satisfaction with body size and amount of chocolate consumed. In Study 1, 90 18-25-year-old women with normal BMI were randomized into one of three groups to complete a 15 min two-back task using photographs of women either of 'normal weight' (Body Mass Index (BMI) 22-23 kg m -2 ), or altered to appear either under- or over-weight. Study 2 was identical except the 96 participants had high baseline body dissatisfaction and were followed up after 24 h. We also conducted a mega-analysis combining both studies. Participants rated size of others' bodies, own size, and satisfaction with size pre- and post-task. Post-task ratings were compared between groups, adjusting for pre-task ratings. Participants exposed to over- or normal-weight images subsequently perceived others' bodies as smaller, in comparison to those shown underweight bodies ( p  < 0.001). They also perceived their own bodies as smaller (Study 1, p  = 0.073; Study 2, p  = 0.018; mega-analysis, p  = 0.001), and felt more satisfied with their size (Study 1, p  = 0.046; Study 2, p  = 0.004; mega-analysis, p  = 0.006). There were no differences in chocolate consumption. This study suggests that a move towards using images of women with a BMI in the healthy range in the media may help to reduce body dissatisfaction, and the associated risk of eating disorders.

  6. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortes, Diego

    2015-10-29

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north–south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea.

  7. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  8. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), P trend <0.001 and 0.72 (0.64-0.80), P trend <0.001, respectively). The majority of the women (~85%) did not change body size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (P trend  = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data

  9. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  10. Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: The evolution of maximal body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Gary P.; Diamond, Jared; Flannery, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Among local faunas, the maximum body size and taxonomic affiliation of the top terrestrial vertebrate vary greatly. Does this variation reflect how food requirements differ between trophic levels (herbivores vs. carnivores) and with taxonomic affiliation (mammals and birds vs. reptiles)? We gathered data on the body size and food requirements of the top terrestrial herbivores and carnivores, over the past 65,000 years, from oceanic islands and continents. The body mass of the top species was found to increase with increasing land area, with a slope similar to that of the relation between body mass and home range area, suggesting that maximum body size is determined by the number of home ranges that can fit into a given land area. For a given land area, the body size of the top species decreased in the sequence: ectothermic herbivore > endothermic herbivore > ectothermic carnivore > endothermic carnivore. When we converted body mass to food requirements, the food consumption of a top herbivore was about 8 times that of a top carnivore, in accord with the factor expected from the trophic pyramid. Although top ectotherms were heavier than top endotherms at a given trophic level, lower metabolic rates per gram of body mass in ectotherms resulted in endotherms and ectotherms having the same food consumption. These patterns explain the size of the largest-ever extinct mammal, but the size of the largest dinosaurs exceeds that predicted from land areas and remains unexplained. PMID:11724953

  11. Sustained swimming improves fish dietary nutrient assimilation efficiency and body composition of juvenile Brycon amazonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustained swimming (SS usually promotes beneficial effects in growth and feed conversion of fishes. Although feed efficiency is improves at moderate water velocity, more information is required to determine the contributions of this factor on growth and body composition. Body composition and efficiency responses to the use of nutrients were determined in juvenile matrinxa Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 fed with two dietary amounts of protein, 28 or 38% of crude protein (CP, and subjected to sustained swimming at a constant speed of 1.5 body lengths s−1 (BL s−1 or let to free swimming. The fish body composition under SS and fed with 28% of dietary protein showed 22% of increased in bulk protein and a 26% of decrease in water content in the white muscle. Red muscle depicted 70% less water content and a 10% more lipid. Nutrient retention was enhanced in fish subjected to SS and a higher gain of ethereal extract sustained was observed in the white muscle of exercised fish fed with 38% CP. The interaction between swimming and dietary protein resulted in a larger bulk of lipid in red muscle. Fish fed with 28% CP under SS at 1.5 BL s−1 presented the best utilization of dietary nutrients and body composition. Thus, this fish farming procedure is proposed as a promising management strategy for rearing matrinxa.

  12. Taylor's law and body size in exploited marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Plank, Michael J; Law, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Taylor's law (TL), which states that variance in population density is related to mean density via a power law, and density-mass allometry, which states that mean density is related to body mass via a power law, are two of the most widely observed patterns in ecology. Combining these two laws predicts that the variance in density is related to body mass via a power law (variance-mass allometry). Marine size spectra are known to exhibit density-mass allometry, but variance-mass allometry has not been investigated. We show that variance and body mass in unexploited size spectrum models are related by a power law, and that this leads to TL with an exponent slightly <2. These simulated relationships are disrupted less by balanced harvesting, in which fishing effort is spread across a wide range of body sizes, than by size-at-entry fishing, in which only fish above a certain size may legally be caught.

  13. Association between vascular supply, stage and tumour size of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, Raghav; Rupa, V; Lukka, Vijay Kumar; Ahmed, Munawar; Moses, Vinu; Shyam Kumar, N K

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a highly vascular tumour seen in adolescent males. To study the vascular pattern of these tumours, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with JNA who underwent preoperative angiography. Most (82.2 %) of the 45 patients assessed were Radkowski stage III with a mean size of 5.29 cm. There was a significant association between tumour stage and size (p = 0.029). Ten different vessels were seen to supply these tumours. All tumours had primary supply from the distal third of the ipsilateral internal maxillary artery (IMA). Accessory vessel supply was chiefly from the Vidian branch of internal carotid artery (ICA) (55.6 %). Stage III tumours were supplied by a greater number of feeding vessels than earlier stage tumours (p < 0.01). Larger tumours were more likely to have ICA supply (p = 0.04). Bilateral supply was seen in 48.7 %. However, there was no predominance of bilateral over ipsilateral IMA supply even in advanced stage tumours. One patient in our series was found to have a caroticocavernous fistula. Residual or recurrent tumours were characterized by new vasculature (100 %) and greater accessory supply from the ipsilateral ICA (85.7 %). Our study highlights the fact that surgical planning cannot be dependent on staging alone and should include preoperative assessment of tumour vasculature by angiography.

  14. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  15. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  16. EFFECTS OF RATION SIZE AND TEMPERATURE ON MOULT INCREMENT AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS OF JUVENILE NOBLE CRAYFISH, ASTACUS ASTACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENAI B.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was carried out to test the combined effects of ration size (1 vs 3% body weight, b.w. and temperature (15 ± 2 vs 22 ± 2 °C on moult increment and metabolic parameters of 80 juvenile noble crayfish (Astacus astacus. The maximum daily consumption (Cmax and respiration rate (R were used to calculate the growth scope (i.e. the difference between maximum daily energy consumption and energy costs at a given temperature. The conversion of R into a food-equivalent unit allowed the comparison with Cmax. Results showed that crayfish obtained the maximum moult increment when fed 3% b.w. while temperature seemed to play a less relevant role on growth rate per moult, affecting only the moulting frequency. Crayfish A. astacus fed ad libitum showed a relative insensitivity to the metabolic parameters (oxygen uptake, R and Cmax within the analysed range of temperatures, possibly as a reflection of this “species” distribution across a broad variety of habitats with different thermal regimes. In the present study, A. astacus displayed characteristics proper of a K-selected species, as slow to moderate growth.

  17. No Effect of Featural Attention on Body Size Aftereffects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers’ point of subjective normality (PSN for bodies shifts towards narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention enhances the adaptation effect in faces. It is not known whether featural attention (attention directed to a specific aspect of the object affects the magnitude of adaptation effects in body stimuli. Here, we manipulate the attention of Caucasian observers to different featural information in body images, by asking them to rate the fatness or sex typicality of male and female bodies manipulated to appear fatter or thinner than average. PSNs for body fatness were taken at baseline and after adaptation, and a change in PSN (ΔPSN was calculated. A body size adaptation effect was found, with observers who viewed fat bodies showing an increased PSN, and those exposed to thin bodies showing a reduced PSN. However, manipulations of featural attention to body fatness or sex typicality produced equivalent results, suggesting that featural attention may not affect the strength of the body size aftereffect.

  18. No Effect of Featural Attention on Body Size Aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Bickersteth, Chloe; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers' point of subjective normality (PSN) for bodies shifts toward narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object) and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object) have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention enhances the adaptation effect in faces. It is not known whether featural attention (attention directed to a specific aspect of the object) affects the magnitude of adaptation effects in body stimuli. Here, we manipulate the attention of Caucasian observers to different featural information in body images, by asking them to rate the fatness or sex typicality of male and female bodies manipulated to appear fatter or thinner than average. PSNs for body fatness were taken at baseline and after adaptation, and a change in PSN (ΔPSN) was calculated. A body size adaptation effect was found, with observers who viewed fat bodies showing an increased PSN, and those exposed to thin bodies showing a reduced PSN. However, manipulations of featural attention to body fatness or sex typicality produced equivalent results, suggesting that featural attention may not affect the strength of the body size aftereffect.

  19. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  1. Assessment of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The number and the size of joints matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntson, Lillemor; Wernroth, Lisa; Fasth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA.......Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA....

  2. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  3. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  4. Adjusting parameters of aortic valve stenosis severity by body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minners, Jan; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2014-01-01

    stenosis (jet velocity ≥2.5 m/s) and related to outcomes in a second cohort of 1525 patients from the Simvastatin/Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. RESULTS: Whereas jet velocity and MPG were independent of body size, AVA was significantly correlated with height, weight, BSA and BMI (Pearson...... correlation coefficient (r) 0.319, 0.281, 0.317 and 0.126, respectively, all pcorrelation between AVA and body size...

  5. Body size distributions signal a regime shift in a lake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities of organisms, from mammals to microorganisms, have discontinuous distributions of body size. This pattern of size structuring is a conservative trait of community organization and is a product of processes that occur at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed whether body size patterns serve as an indicator of a threshold between alternative regimes. Over the past 7000 years, the biological communities of Foy Lake (Montana,USA) have undergone a major regime shift owing to climate change. We used a palaeoecological record of diatom communities to estimate diatom sizes, and then analysed the discontinuous distribution of organism sizes over time. We used Bayesian classification and regression tree models to determine that all time intervals exhibited aggregations of sizes separated by gaps in the distribution and found a significant change in diatom body size distributions approximately 150 years before the identified ecosystem regime shift. We suggest that discontinuity analysis is a useful addition to the suite of tools for the detection of early warning signals of regime shifts. Communities of organisms from mammals to microorganisms have discontinuous distributions of body size. This pattern of size structuring is a conservative trait of community organization and is a product of processes that occur at discrete spatial and temporal scales within ecosystems. Here, a paleoecological record of diatom community change is use

  6. Persistent directional selection on body size and a resolution to the paradox of stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Njal; Rowe, Locke

    2015-09-01

    Directional selection on size is common but often fails to result in microevolution in the wild. Similarly, macroevolutionary rates in size are low relative to the observed strength of selection in nature. We show that many estimates of selection on size have been measured on juveniles, not adults. Further, parents influence juvenile size by adjusting investment per offspring. In light of these observations, we help resolve this paradox by suggesting that the observed upward selection on size is balanced by selection against investment per offspring, resulting in little or no net selection gradient on size. We find that trade-offs between fecundity and juvenile size are common, consistent with the notion of selection against investment per offspring. We also find that median directional selection on size is positive for juveniles but no net directional selection exists for adult size. This is expected because parent-offspring conflict exists over size, and juvenile size is more strongly affected by investment per offspring than adult size. These findings provide qualitative support for the hypothesis that upward selection on size is balanced by selection against investment per offspring, where parent-offspring conflict over size is embodied in the opposing signs of the two selection gradients. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  8. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  9. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  10. Estimating the size of juvenile fish populations in southeastern coastal-plain estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Understanding the ecological significance of man's activities upon fishery resources requires information on the size of affected fish stocks. The objective of this paper is to provide information to evaluate and plan sampling programs designed to obtain accurate and precise estimates of fish abundance. Nursery habitats, as marsh--tidal creeks and submerged grass beds, offer the optimal conditions for estimating natural mortality rates for young-of-the-year fish in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coast estuaries. The area-density method of abundance estimation using quantitative gears is more feasible than either mark-recapture or direct-count techniques. The blockage method provides the most accurate estimates, while encircling devices enable highly mobile species found in open water to be captured. Drop nets and lift nets allow samples to be taken in obstructed sites, but trawls and seines are the most economical gears. Replicate samples are necessary to improve the precision of density estimates, while evaluation and use of gear-catch efficiencies is feasible and required to improve the accuracy of density estimates. Coefficients of variation for replicate trawl samples range from 50 to 150 percent, while catch efficiencies for both trawls and seines for many juvenile fishes range from approximately 30 to 70 percent

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of body size among early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Stock, Jay T

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of body size among the earliest members of the genus Homo (2.4-1.5Myr [millions of years ago]) is central to interpretations of their biology. It is widely accepted that Homo ergaster possessed increased body size compared with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, and that this may have been a factor involved with the dispersal of Homo out of Africa. The study of taxonomic differences in body size, however, is problematic. Postcranial remains are rarely associated with craniodental fossils, and taxonomic attributions frequently rest upon the size of skeletal elements. Previous body size estimates have been based upon well-preserved specimens with a more reliable species assessment. Since these samples are small (n Koobi Fora after 1.7Myr, indicating regional size variation. The significant body size differences between specimens from Koobi Fora and Olduvai support the cranial evidence for at least two co-existing morphotypes in the Early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of extreme body size disparity in monitor lizards (Varanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Schulte, James A; Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Many features of species' biology, including life history, physiology, morphology, and ecology are tightly linked to body size. Investigation into the causes of size divergence is therefore critical to understanding the factors shaping phenotypic diversity within clades. In this study, we examined size evolution in monitor lizards (Varanus), a clade that includes the largest extant lizard species, the Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis), as well as diminutive species that are nearly four orders of magnitude smaller in adult body mass. We demonstrate that the remarkable body size disparity of this clade is a consequence of different selective demands imposed by three major habitat use patterns-arboreality, terrestriality, and rock-dwelling. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships and ancestral habitat use and applied model selection to determine that the best-fitting evolutionary models for species' adult size are those that infer oppositely directed adaptive evolution associated with terrestriality and rock-dwelling, with terrestrial lineages evolving extremely large size and rock-dwellers becoming very small. We also show that habitat use affects the evolution of several ecologically important morphological traits independently of body size divergence. These results suggest that habitat use exerts a strong, multidimensional influence on the evolution of morphological size and shape disparity in monitor lizards. © 2011 The Author(s).

  13. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  14. Joint evolution of predator body size and prey-size preference.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Dieckmann, U.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the joint evolution of predator body size and prey-size preference based on dynamic energy budget theory. The predators' demography and their functional response are based on general eco-physiological principles involving the size of both predator and prey. While our model can account for

  15. Joint evolution of predator body size and prey-size preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Tineke; Kooi, Bob; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    We studied the joint evolution of predator body size and prey-size preference based on dynamic energy budget theory. The predators’ demography and their functional response are based on general eco-physiological principles involving the size of both predator and prey. While our model can account

  16. Seasonal body size reductions with warming covary with major body size gradients in arthropod species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    experience different developmental conditions. Yet, unlike other size patterns, these common seasonal temperature–size gradients have never been collectively analysed. We undertake the largest analysis to date of seasonal temperature-size gradients in multivoltine arthropods, including 102 aquatic...... and terrestrial species from 71 global locations. Adult size declines in warmer seasons in 86% of the species examined. Aquatic species show approximately 2.5-fold greater reduction in size per °C of warming than terrestrial species, supporting the hypothesis that greater oxygen limitation in water than in air...

  17. The influence of selenium and deiodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the influence of selenium and deodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight during three months. The experiment was carried out on 64 rats divided into eight groups with eight individual animals per group. Following groups were formed: 1. Se+PTU-IA- (control group, 2. Se+PTU+IA+, 3. Se+PTU+IA-, 4. Se+PTU- IA+, 5. Se-PTU-IA-, 6. Se-PTU+IA+, 7. Se-PTU+IA- and 8. Se-PTU-IA+. The groups labeled (Se+ were selenium adequate and they were fed with food that contained 0.334 mg Se/kg. The groups labeled (Se- were selenium deficient and obtained food with 0.031 mg Se/kg. As deiodinases blockers there were used propylthiouracil (PTU+ in a dose of 150 mg/L of drinking water and iopanoic acid (IA+ in a dose of 6 mg/100 g TM intraperitoneally. Body weight of experimental rats was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment there were taken blood samples of animals from all experimental groups and following parameters were determined: selenium concentration in blood, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH in blood plasma. Analysis of the samples showed that the animals from the groups treated with PTU had lower body weight in regard to the control group, as well as lower concentration of T3 and T4 in plasma. Selenium deficient rats had lower average body weight compared to the selenium adequate ones after three weeks, but there were no differences in thyroid hormones concentration. The lowest average body weight was noticed in selenium deficient rats groups treated with PTU. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31050 i br. TR31003

  18. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Delphia, Casey M; O'Neill, Ruth P

    2014-01-01

    Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size-body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F.), an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited) but that body size-oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees' immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1) the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte) and (2) the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female). Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here) or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1) smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2) comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3) larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids.

  19. Visual attention mediates the relationship between body satisfaction and susceptibility to the body size adaptation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Sturman, Daniel; Stevenson, Richard J; Mond, Jonathan; Brooks, Kevin R

    2018-01-01

    Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not. The reason for these individual difference is currently unknown. One possible explanation stems from the observation that women with lower levels of body satisfaction have been found to pay more attention to images of thin bodies. However, while attention has been shown to enhance visual adaptation effects in low (e.g. rotational and linear motion) and high level stimuli (e.g., facial gender), it is not known whether this effect exists in visual adaptation to body size. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is an indirect effect of body satisfaction on the direction and magnitude of the body fat adaptation effect, mediated via visual attention (i.e., selectively attending to images of thin over fat bodies or vice versa). Significant mediation effects were found in both men and women, suggesting that observers' level of body satisfaction may influence selective visual attention to thin or fat bodies, which in turn influences the magnitude and direction of visual adaptation to body size. This may provide a potential mechanism by which some individuals develop body size misperception-a risk factor for eating disorders, compulsive exercise behaviour and steroid abuse-while others do not.

  20. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Koen; Csiki, Zoltan; Rogers, Kristina Curry; Weishampel, David B; Redelstorff, Ragna; Carballido, Jose L; Sander, P Martin

    2010-05-18

    Sauropods were the largest terrestrial tetrapods (>10(5) kg) in Earth's history and grew at rates that rival those of extant mammals. Magyarosaurus dacus, a titanosaurian sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Romania, is known exclusively from small individuals (dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-bodied taxon. Here we present strong histological evidence that M. dacus was indeed a dwarf (phyletic nanoid). Bone histological analysis of an ontogenetic series of Magyarosaurus limb bones indicates that even the smallest Magyarosaurus specimens exhibit a bone microstructure identical to fully mature or old individuals of other sauropod taxa. Comparison of histologies with large-bodied sauropods suggests that Magyarosaurus had an extremely reduced growth rate, but had retained high basal metabolic rates typical for sauropods. The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size.

  1. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Mech, L David; Eberly, Lynn E

    2009-05-01

    1. Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle.

  2. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: Is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Eberly, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  3. Perception of biological motion from size-invariant body representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eLappe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The visual recognition of action is one of the socially most important and computationally demanding capacities of the human visual system. It combines visual shape recognition with complex non-rigid motion perception. Action presented as a point-light animation is a striking visual experience for anyone who sees it for the first time. Information about the shape and posture of the human body is sparse in point-light animations, but it is essential for action recognition. In the posturo-temporal filter model of biological motion perception posture information is picked up by visual neurons tuned to the form of the human body before body motion is calculated. We tested whether point-light stimuli are processed through posture recognition of the human body form by using a typical feature of form recognition, namely size invariance. We constructed a point-light stimulus that can only be perceived through a size-invariant mechanism. This stimulus changes rapidly in size from one image to the next. It thus disrupts continuity of early visuo-spatial properties but maintains continuity of the body posture representation. Despite this massive manipulation at the visuo-spatial level, size-changing point-light figures are spontaneously recognized by naive observers, and support discrimination of human body motion.

  4. The influence of personal BMI on body size estimations and sensitivity to body size change in anorexia spectrum disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri; Bester, Andre; Cairns, Paul; Tovee, Martin; Cornelissen, Piers

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the influence of personal BMI on body size estimation in 42 women who have symptoms of anorexia (referred to henceforth as anorexia spectrum disorders, ANSD), and 100 healthy controls. Low BMI control participants over-estimate their size and high BMI controls under-estimate, a pattern which is predicted by a perceptual phenomenon called contraction bias. In addition, control participants' sensitivity to size change declines as their BMI increase...

  5. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. O’Neill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size–body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F., an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited but that body size–oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees’ immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1 the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte and (2 the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female. Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1 smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2 comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3 larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids.

  6. Interspecific geographic range size-body size relationship and the diversification dynamics of Neotropical furnariid birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Michael, Oscar; Hernández, Cristián E; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Avaria-Llautureo, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2018-05-01

    Among the earliest macroecological patterns documented, is the range and body size relationship, characterized by a minimum geographic range size imposed by the species' body size. This boundary for the geographic range size increases linearly with body size and has been proposed to have implications in lineages evolution and conservation. Nevertheless, the macroevolutionary processes involved in the origin of this boundary and its consequences on lineage diversification have been poorly explored. We evaluate the macroevolutionary consequences of the difference (hereafter the distance) between the observed and the minimum range sizes required by the species' body size, to untangle its role on the diversification of a Neotropical species-rich bird clade using trait-dependent diversification models. We show that speciation rate is a positive hump-shaped function of the distance to the lower boundary. The species with highest and lowest distances to minimum range size had lower speciation rates, while species close to medium distances values had the highest speciation rates. Further, our results suggest that the distance to the minimum range size is a macroevolutionary constraint that affects the diversification process responsible for the origin of this macroecological pattern in a more complex way than previously envisioned. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song...... organisation. Here we investigated whether repertoire size in Eurasian blackbirds correlates with measures of body size, namely length of wing, 8th primary, beak and tarsus. So far, very few studies have investigated species with large repertoires and a flexible song organisation in this context. We found...... positive correlations, meaning that larger males had larger repertoires. Larger males may have better fighting abilities and, thus, advantages in territorial defence. Larger structural body size may also reflect better conditions during early development. Therefore, under the assumption that body size...

  8. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, Paulo; Schiesari, Luis; Yanagawa, Fernando I; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43-55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin.

  9. Deforestation and stream warming affect body size of Amazonian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Fernando I.; Jankowski, KathiJo; Navas, Carlos A.

    2018-01-01

    Declining body size has been suggested to be a universal response of organisms to rising temperatures, manifesting at all levels of organization and in a broad range of taxa. However, no study to date evaluated whether deforestation-driven warming could trigger a similar response. We studied changes in fish body size, from individuals to assemblages, in streams in Southeastern Amazonia. We first conducted sampling surveys to validate the assumption that deforestation promoted stream warming, and to test the hypothesis that warmer deforested streams had reduced fish body sizes relative to cooler forest streams. As predicted, deforested streams were up to 6 °C warmer and had fish 36% smaller than forest streams on average. This body size reduction could be largely explained by the responses of the four most common species, which were 43–55% smaller in deforested streams. We then conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that stream warming as measured in the field was sufficient to cause a growth reduction in the dominant fish species in the region. Fish reared at forest stream temperatures gained mass, whereas those reared at deforested stream temperatures lost mass. Our results suggest that deforestation-driven stream warming is likely to be a relevant factor promoting observed body size reductions, although other changes in stream conditions, like reductions in organic matter inputs, can also be important. A broad scale reduction in fish body size due to warming may be occurring in streams throughout the Amazonian Arc of Deforestation, with potential implications for the conservation of Amazonian fish biodiversity and food supply for people around the Basin. PMID:29718960

  10. Overestimation of body size in eating disorders and its association to body-related avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2015-06-01

    Body-related avoidance behavior, e.g., not looking in the mirror, is a common feature of eating disorders. It is assumed that it leads to insufficient feedback concerning one's own real body form and might thus contribute to distorted mental representation of one's own body. However, this assumption still lacks empirical foundation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between misperception of one's own body and body-related avoidance behavior in N = 78 female patients with Bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Body-size misperception was assessed using a digital photo distortion technique based on an individual picture of each participant which was taken in a standardized suit. In a regression analysis with body-related avoidance behavior, body mass index and weight and shape concerns as predictors, only body-related avoidance behavior significantly contributed to the explanation of body-size overestimation. This result supports the theoretical assumption that body-related avoidance behavior makes body-size overestimation more likely.

  11. Carotid body size on CTA: Correlation with comorbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.A.; Wiggins, R.H.; Fudim, M.; Engelman, Z.J.; Sobotka, P.A.; Shah, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can identify carotid body enlargement in patients with sympathetically mediated diseases. Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients obtaining CTAs of the cervical vasculature at University of Utah Health Sciences Center over a 6-month period was performed. Widest axial measurements of both carotid bodies were performed on a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Statistical analysis was then performed to compare the mean carotid body size between control patients and patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. Results: Measurements were performed on 288 patients, with 134 controls. Of the remaining 154, 72 patients had diabetes mellitus, 46 had congestive heart failure, and 130 had hypertension. The control patients had a mean carotid body diameter of 2.3 mm. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) 20–25% increase in mean diameter with diabetes mellitus (2.8 mm), hypertension (2.7 mm), and congestive heart failure (2.7 mm; p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study found a 20–25% larger mean carotid body size in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and congestive heart failure relative to controls. However, this small enlargement should not mimic other carotid body diseases, such as a paraganglionoma. Moreover, these findings further support the proposed functional relationship between the carotid body and sympathetically mediated disease states

  12. When bigger is not better: selection against large size, high condition and fast growth in juvenile lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, J D; Feldheim, K A; Gruber, S H; Hendry, A P

    2007-01-01

    Selection acting on large marine vertebrates may be qualitatively different from that acting on terrestrial or freshwater organisms, but logistical constraints have thus far precluded selection estimates for the former. We overcame these constraints by exhaustively sampling and repeatedly recapturing individuals in six cohorts of juvenile lemon sharks (450 age-0 and 255 age-1 fish) at an enclosed nursery site (Bimini, Bahamas). Data on individual size, condition factor, growth rate and inter-annual survival were used to test the 'bigger is better', 'fatter is better' and 'faster is better' hypotheses of life-history theory. For age-0 sharks, selection on all measured traits was weak, and generally acted against large size and high condition. For age-1 sharks, selection was much stronger, and consistently acted against large size and fast growth. These results suggest that selective pressures at Bimini may be constraining the evolution of large size and fast growth, an observation that fits well with the observed small size and low growth rate of juveniles at this site. Our results support those of some other recent studies in suggesting that bigger/fatter/faster is not always better, and may often be worse.

  13. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north-south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  15. The island rule of body size demonstrated on individual hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Freerk; Depoilly, Alexandre; Vernon, Philippe; Müller, Jörg; Bailey, Richard; Jarzabek-Müller, Andrea; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Under spatial isolation on oceanic islands, species tend to show extreme body sizes. From the point of view of many colonizers, individual hosts surrounded by phylogenetically distant neighbours are phylogenetically isolated. This study addresses for the first time how phylogenetic isolation

  16. Diabetes Awareness and Body Size Perceptions of Cree Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D.; Marshall, Dru; Raine, Kim; Ridley, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    Native American Indians and First Nations are predisposed to obesity and diabetes. A study was done to understand Cree schoolchildren's diabetes awareness and body size perceptions in two communities that had diabetes awareness-raising activities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Children (N = 203) in grades 4-6 were classified into weight…

  17. Paradoxical reproduction and body size in the rock lizard, Agama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-07-05

    Jul 5, 1993 ... The rock lizard Agama atra atra from Namaqualand differs in both body size and reproduction from other populations of this species occurring elsewhere in southern Africa. Both sexes from Namaqualand are significantly larger than their counterparts in the south-western Cape. While reproduction in this ...

  18. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were ...

  19. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we investigated whether stress caused by artificial bidirectional selection for body size has any effect on the levels of FA of different morphological traits in Drosophila ananassae. The realised heritability (h2) was higher in low-line females and high-line males, which suggests an asymmetrical response to ...

  20. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  1. Thermal phenotypic plasticity of body size in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... body size in Drosophila melanogaster: sexual dimorphism and genetic correlations. Jean R. David, Amir Yassin, Jean-Claude Moreteau, Helene Legout and Brigitte Moreteau. J. Genet. 90, 295–302. Table 1. Correlations between wing and thorax length at the within (n = 420) and between line level (n = 30). Temperature.

  2. Muzzle size, paranasal swelling size and body mass in Mandrillus leucophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Sarah; Morgan, Bethan J

    2006-04-01

    The drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), a forest-living Old World monkey, is highly sexually dimorphic, with males exhibiting extreme secondary sexual characteristics, including growth of paranasal swellings on the muzzle. In this study, the size of the secondary bone that forms the paranasal swellings on the muzzles of drills was assessed in relation to body mass proxies. The relationship between the overall size of the muzzle and surrogate measures of body mass was also examined. In female drills, muzzle breadth was positively correlated with two proxies of overall body mass, greatest skull length and upper M1 area. However, there was no such correlation in males. Paranasal swellings in males also appeared to have no significant relationship to body mass proxies. This suggests that secondary bone growth on the muzzles of male drills is independent of overall body size. Furthermore, this secondary bone appears to be vermiculate, probably developing rapidly and in an irregular manner, with no correlation in the sizes of paranasal swelling height and breadth. However, various paranasal swelling dimensions were related to the size of the muzzle. It is suggested that the growth of the paranasal swellings and possibly the muzzle could be influenced by androgen production and reflect testes size and sperm motility. The size and appearance of the paranasal swellings may thus be an indicator of reproductive quality both to potential mates and male competitors. Further work is required to investigate the importance of the paranasal swellings as secondary sexual characteristics in Mandrillus and the relationship between body size and secondary sexual characteristics. Attention should also be paid to the mechanisms and trajectories of facial growth in Mandrillus.

  3. Dynamics of body composition and bone in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Susanne; Ripperger, Peter; Dalla Pozza, Robert; Roth, Johannes; Häfner, Renate; Michels, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans Peter

    2010-01-01

    GH has a positive impact on growth, bone, and muscle development. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the effects of GH treatment on regional body composition and bone geometry at final height in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this longitudinal study, parameters of bone mineral density and geometry as well as muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) in the nondominant forearm were recorded using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at yearly intervals until final height in 12 patients (seven females) receiving GH treatment. Data at final height were compared with 13 patients (nine females) with JIA not treated with GH. Patients were treated with GH for a mean of 5.35 +/- 0.7 yr. Correcting for height, total bone CSA (+0.89 +/- 0.5 sd) and muscle CSA (+1.14 +/- 0.6 sd) increased significantly and normalized at final height. Compared with JIA patients without GH at final height, there was a significantly higher muscle CSA and a lower fat CSA in GH-treated patients. Additionally, in relation to total bone CSA, there was significantly more cortical and less marrow CSA in boys with GH treatment. During GH treatment, there was a significant increase and normalization of total bone and muscle CSA at final height. In accordance with an anabolic effect of GH, fat mass stabilized at the lower limit of healthy children. At final height, cortical and marrow CSA, relative to total bone CSA, were normalized in GH-treated patients.

  4. Habitat-dependent interactions between two size-classes of juvenile steelhead in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1997-01-01

    Abstract - The presence of small steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; averaging 55 mm fork length) influenced the growth of larger juvenile steelhead (90 mm fork length) during a 6-week experiment conducted in North Fork Caspar Creek, California, in summer 1994. In fenced replicate deep stream sections in this small stream, growth of the larger steelhead was greater in...

  5. Correlation between Leukocyte Numbers and Body Size of Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar; Otani, Maki; Kania, Per Walter

    2016-01-01

    wild and cultured fish and we show that the size of the leukocyte population increases exponentially with body size of rainbow trout. Four groups (5 fish/group) of naive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a mean body weight of 2 - 4 g (group I), 4 - 6 g (group II), 25 - 30 g (group III), and 650...... towards an antigen to be initiated even in fry. The number of leukocytes in individual fish at different developmental stages is likely to influence the capacity of the fish to respond simultaneously to several antigens (pathogens and vaccine components). This parameter may therefore be crucial for both...... - 780 g (group IV) were investigated. The number of lymphocytes was generally higher in head kidney compared to blood and spleen but they dominated in all samples (blood, head kidney and spleen) and their numbers increased exponentially with fish size. Percentages of lymphocytes in relation...

  6. Ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Paulus, H F; Schausberger, P

    2004-12-01

    In greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (both Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on F. occidentalis by P. persimilis and N. californicus. Here, it was tested whether the relevance of these factors changes during predator ontogeny. First, the predator (protonymphs and adult females of P. persimilis and N. californicus): prey (F. occidentalis first instars) body size ratios were measured. Second, the aggressiveness of P. persimilis and N. californicus towards F. occidentalis was assessed. Third, survival, development and oviposition of P. persimilis and N. californicus with F. occidentalis prey was determined. The body size ranking was P. persimilis females > N. californicus females > P. persimilis protonymphs > N. californicus protonymphs. Neoseiulus californicus females were the most aggressive predators, followed by highly aggressive N. californicus protonymphs and moderately aggressive P. persimilis protonymphs. Phytoseiulus persimilis females did not attack thrips. Frankliniella occidentalis larvae are an alternative prey for juvenile N. californicus and P. persimilis, enabling them to reach adulthood. Females of N. californicus but not P. persimilis sustained egg production with thrips prey. Within the guild studied here, N. californicus females are the most harmful predators for F. occidentalis larvae, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis juveniles. Phytoseiulus persimilis females are harmless to F. occidentalis.

  7. Body size and body esteem in women: The mediating role of possible self expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, S.E.; Pollet, T.V.; Vidal, J.

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy of acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy of acquiring a hoped-for thin self both mediate the impact of body size on women's body esteem. We also predicted that the mediating pathway through the feared fat self would be stronger than that through the hoped-for

  8. Body size and body esteem in women : The mediating role of possible self expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Vidal, Jose

    We predicted that an expectancy of acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy of acquiring a hoped-for thin self both mediate the impact of body size on women's body esteem. We also predicted that the mediating pathway through the feared fat self would be stronger than that through the hoped-for

  9. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Angel

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  10. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  11. Species-specific gradients of juvenile fish density and size in pelagic areas of temperate reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Ricard, Daniel; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Muška, Milan; Peterka, Jiří; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Marek; Tušer, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Vejřík, Lukáš; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 762, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-181 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : trawling * juvenile density * horizontal distribution * vertical distribution * tributary area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2015

  12. Notes on the hatching phases and the size of the juveniles in the Snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii (Bibron & Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilov, Vladislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2018-03-01

    Most of the studies dealing with the Snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii) treat predominantly aspects of the distribution and taxonomy of the species. In the present study we provide information concerning the mechanism of hatching in the Snake-eyed skink and the dimensions of the hatched specimens. We collected data from wild animals, as well as from indoor incubated juveniles. The present study provides the first data concerning the weight of the newly hatched juveniles of the species and discuss on potential misleading data concerning the size of the juveniles in A. kitaibelii.

  13. Life course variations in the heritability of body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, J.; Luan, J.A.; Sharp, S.J.

    aim was to use this approach to investigate the life course variations in heritability of body size. Methods: We analysed height, weight and body mass index variables at 11 time-points in 2,452 individuals (1,225 men, 1,227 women) born in 1946 and enrolled in the MRC National Survey of Health...... and Development (NSHD), with genotypes at 147,949 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on Metabochips which were subsequently imputed to 506,255 according to the 1000Genomes project. We obtained genome-wide kinship matrices using genotypes at SNPs on Metabochips and genotypes at all SNPs, which were used.......11(0-0.20), 0.10(0-0.22) for height, weight and body mass index, respectively. Variation in estimates was also seen between alternative procedures. Conclusion: This work supports the utility of large-scale genotype data in heritability estimation and highlights the age-related variability in genetic...

  14. Choosing representative body sizes for reference adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1975 the International Commission on Radiological Protection published a report on Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23), and a task group of the ICRP is now revising that report. Currently 'Reference Man [adult male] is defined as being between 20-30 years of age, weighing 70 kg, is 170 cm in height, is a Caucasian and is a Western European or North American in habitat and custom' (ICRP 23, p. 4). A reference adult female (58 kg, 160 cm) was also defined and data on the fetus and children were given, but with less detail and fewer specific reference values because the focus of the ICRP at that time was on young male radiation workers. The 70-kg Reference Man (earlier called Standard Man) has been used in radiation protection for 40 years, including the dosimetric schema for nuclear medicine, and this 70-kg reference has been used since at least the 1920's in physiological models. As is well known, humans in most parts of the world have increased in size (height and weight) since this standard was first adopted. Taking modern European populations as a reference and expanding the age range to 20-50 years, the author now suggests 176 cm height and 73-75 kg weight for adult males and 163 cm and about 60 kg for adult females would be more appropriate. The change in height is particularly important because many anatomical and physiological parameters - e.g., lean body mass, skeletal weight, total body water, blood volume, respiratory volumes - are correlated more closely with height than with weight. The difference in lean body mass between Asian and Caucasian persons, for example, is largely or wholly due to the difference in body height. Many equations for mean body water and other whole-body measures use body height as the only or the most important parameter, and so it is important that reference body height be chosen well

  15. Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of a Novel SNP Associated with Body Color Transparency in Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Noguchi, Daiki; Nakayama, Kei; Takagi, Motohiro

    2018-03-23

    We previously reported a body color deformity in juvenile red sea bream, which shows transparency in the juvenile stage because of delayed chromatophore development compared with normal individuals, and this finding suggested a genetic cause based on parentage assessments. To conduct marker-assisted selection to eliminate broodstock inheriting the causative gene, developing DNA markers associated with the phenotype was needed. We first conducted SNP mining based on AFLP analysis using bulked-DNA from normal and transparent individuals. One SNP was identified from a transparent-specific AFLP fragment, which significantly associated with transparent individuals. Two alleles (A/G) were observed in this locus, and the genotype G/G was dominantly observed in the transparent groups (97.1%) collected from several production lots produced from different broodstock populations. A few normal individuals inherited the G/G genotype (5.0%), but the A/A and A/G genotypes were dominantly observed in the normal groups. The homologs region of the SNP was searched using a medaka genome database, and intron 12 of the Nell2a gene (located on chromosome 6 of the medaka genome) was highly matched. We also mapped the red sea bream Nell2a gene on the previously developed linkage maps, and this gene was mapped on a male linkage group, LG4-M. The newly found SNP was useful in eliminating broodstock possessing the causative gene of the body color transparency observed in juvenile stage of red sea bream.

  16. Body Size as a Driver of Scavenging in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Healy, Kevin; Ruxton, Graeme D; Jackson, Andrew L

    2016-06-01

    Theropod dinosaurs dominated Earth's terrestrial ecosystem as a diverse group of predators for more than 160 million years, yet little is known about their foraging ecology. Maintaining a balanced energy budget presented a major challenge for therapods, which ranged from the chicken-sized Microraptor up to the whale-sized Giganotosaurus, in the face of intense competition and the demands of ontogenetic growth. Facultative scavenging, a behavior present in almost all modern predators, may have been important in supplementing energetically expensive lifestyles. By using agent-based models based on the allometric relationship between size and foraging behaviors, we show that theropods between 27 and 1,044 kg would have gained a significant energetic advantage over individuals at both the small and large extremes of theropod body mass through their scavenging efficiency. These results were robust to rate of competition, primary productivity, and detection distance. Our models demonstrate the potential importance of facultative scavenging in theropods and the role of body size in defining its prevalence in Mesozoic terrestrial systems.

  17. Different behaviour-body length correlations in two populations of juvenile three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Gunnar; Martins, Henrique Ramalho; Trovo, Rafael Arnoni; Chapman, Ben B

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural variation among individuals has received a lot of attention by behavioural ecologists in the past few years. Its causes and consequences are becoming vast areas of research. The origin and maintenance of individual variation in behaviour within and among populations is affected by many facets of the biotic and abiotic environment. Here, two populations of lab-reared juvenile three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are tested for three behaviours (boldness, exploration, and sociability). Given the identical rearing conditions, the only difference between these populations is the parental habitat. In both populations, correlations between behaviour and body length are found. Interestingly, these differ between the populations. In one population body length was negatively correlated with exploratory behaviour, while in the other one body length correlated negatively with sociability. Considering the identical environment these juvenile fish were exposed to, these findings suggest a potential (epi)genetic foundation for these correlations and shows that, in three-spined sticklebacks, the proximate basis for correlations between body length and behaviour appears quite malleable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  19. Silk elasticity as a potential constraint on spider body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Corcobado, Guadalupe; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2010-10-07

    Silk is known for its strength and extensibility and has played a key role in the radiation of spiders. Individual spiders use different glands to produce silk types with unique sets of proteins. Most research has studied the properties of major ampullate and capture spiral silks and their ecological implications, while little is known about minor ampullate silk, the type used by those spider species studied to date for bridging displacements. A biomechanical model parameterised with available data shows that the minimum radius of silk filaments required for efficient bridging grows with the square root of the spider's body mass, faster than the radius of minor ampullate silk filaments actually produced by spiders. Because the morphology of spiders adapted to walking along or under silk threads is ill suited for moving on a solid surface, for these species there is a negative relationship between body mass and displacement ability. As it stands, the model suggests that spiders that use silk for their displacements are prevented from attaining a large body size if they must track their resources in space. In particular, silk elasticity would favour sexual size dimorphism because males that must use bridging lines to search for females cannot grow large. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival.

  1. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin Pujolar

    Full Text Available In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers. Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  2. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, Jose Martin; Locatello, Lisa; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers). Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  3. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Wilson

    Full Text Available Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  4. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  5. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wallago attu is one of the large freshwater catfish found in Pakistan. The rapid growth and high nutritional quality encouraged investigation into the aquaculture potential of this excellent food fish. It was observed that body size had a positive influence on percent ash, percent fat and percent protein contents (wet weight) but ...

  6. Body Size of Male Youth Soccer Players: 1978-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Figueiredo, António J; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15. A third-order polynomial was fitted to the mean heights and weights across the age range for each interval, while the Preece-Baines model 1 was fitted to the grand means of mean heights and mean weights within each chronological year to estimate ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity for each time interval. Third-order polynomials applied to all data points and estimates based on the Preece-Baines model applied to grand means for each age group provided similar fits. Both indicated secular changes in body size between the two intervals. Secular increases in height and weight between 1978-99 and 2000-15 were especially apparent between 13 and 16 years of age, but estimated ages at peak height velocity (13.01 and 12.91 years) and peak weight velocity (13.86 and 13.77 years) did not differ between the time intervals. Although the body size of youth soccer players increased between 1978-99 and 2000-15, estimated ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity did not change. The increase in height and weight likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions, in addition to the selectivity of soccer reflected in systematic selection and retention of players advanced in maturity status, and exclusion of late maturing players beginning at about 12-13 years of age. Enhanced training programs aimed at the development of strength and power are probably an additional factor contributing to secular increases in body weight.

  7. Patient size and x-ray transmission in body CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Huda, Walter; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Roskopf, Marsha L

    2004-04-01

    Physical characteristics were obtained for 196 patients undergoing chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations. Computed tomography sections for these patients having no evident pathology were analyzed to determine patient dimensions (AP and lateral), together with the average attenuation coefficient. Patient weights ranged from approximately 3 kg to about 120 kg. For chest CT, the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) fell from about -120 HU for newborns to about -300 HU for adults. For abdominal CT, the mean HU for children and normal-sized adults was about 20 HU, but decreased to below -50 HU for adults weighing more than 100 kg. The effective photon energy and percent energy fluence transmitted through a given patient size and composition was calculated for representative x-ray spectra at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV tube potentials. A 70-kg adult scanned at 120 kVp transmits 2.6% of the energy fluence for chest and 0.7% for abdomen CT examinations. Reducing the patient size to 10 kg increases transmission by an order of magnitude. For 70 kg patients, effective energies in body CT range from approximately 50 keV at 80 kVp to approximately 67 keV at 140 kVp; increasing patient size from 10 to 120 kg resulted in an increase in effective photon energy of approximately 4 keV. The x-ray transmission data and effective photon energy data can be used to determine CT image noise and image contrast, respectively, and information on patient size and composition can be used to determine patient doses.

  8. Emaciated mannequins: a study of mannequin body size in high street fashion stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Aveyard, Paul

    2017-01-01

    There is concern that the body size of fashion store mannequins are too thin and promote unrealistic body ideals. To date there has been no systematic examination of the size of high street fashion store mannequins. We surveyed national fashion retailers located on the high street of two English cities. The body size of 'male' and 'female' mannequins was assessed by two blinded research assistants using visual rating scales. The average female mannequin body size was representative of a very underweight woman and 100% of female mannequins represented an underweight body size. The average male mannequin body size was significantly larger than the average female mannequin body size. Only 8% of male mannequins represented an underweight body size. The body size of mannequins used to advertise female fashion is unrealistic and would be considered medically unhealthy in humans.

  9. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Metric Characters and Body Indices of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research was performed on juvenile sterlets (Acipenser ruthenus, aged between 346-431 days, maintained in five round pools (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h-100 cm and fed with a commercial extruded pellet (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE. Body weight and total body length on 30 individuals from each tank were determined every two weeks. Weighing and somatic measurements achieved at the end of experimental period (standard length-l, body weight-G, maximum body high–H, maximum body perimeter (Pmax, head length–lh,, caudal peduncle length-lp allowed us to calculate the following body indices: profile index, thickness index, Fulton index, Kiselev index, meat index. Statistical analysis was performed by using the SPPS IBM 22 and Minitab 16 software. Data were reported as Mean±Sx at a significant level of p<0.05. Testing differences between means was realized by ANOVA completed with post-hoc Tukey test. Results obtained led to conclude that specimens analyzed had a good maintenance and feeding, an adequate development, a high proportion of meat, an elongated body and a straight back, and they are eligible for selection.

  11. Prey size spectra and prey availability of larval and small juvenile cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the prey preference characteristics of cod larvae and assess preference variability in relation to species and size composition of copepod prey. A further aim is to examine the hypothesis that dietary prey size spectra remain the same during the larval ...... were indicated, dependent on location. The findings illustrate the usefulness of coupling dietary prey size spectra and biomass spectra of available prey sizes during studies of ichthyoplankton feeding ecology. (C) 1997 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  12. Body size diversity and frequency distributions of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Steele

    Full Text Available Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size diversity in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We test for divergence, phylogenetic autocorrelation and among-clade partitioning of body size space. Neotropical cichlids show low phylogenetic autocorrelation and divergence within and among taxonomic levels. Three distinct regions of body size space were identified from body size frequency distributions at various taxonomic levels corresponding to subclades of the most diverse tribe, Geophagini. These regions suggest that lineages may be evolving towards particular size optima that may be tied to specific ecological roles. The diversification of Geophagini appears to constrain the evolution of body size among other Neotropical cichlid lineages; non-Geophagini clades show lower species-richness in body size regions shared with Geophagini. Neotropical cichlid genera show less divergence and extreme body size than expected within and among tribes. Body size divergence among species may instead be present or linked to ecology at the community assembly scale.

  13. Being Barbie: The Size of One’s Own Body Determines the Perceived Size of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoort, Björn; Guterstam, Arvid; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A classical question in philosophy and psychology is if the sense of one's body influences how one visually perceives the world. Several theoreticians have suggested that our own body serves as a fundamental reference in visual perception of sizes and distances, although compelling experimental evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. In contrast, modern textbooks typically explain the perception of object size and distance by the combination of information from different visual cues. Here, we describe full body illusions in which subjects experience the ownership of a doll's body (80 cm or 30 cm) and a giant's body (400 cm) and use these as tools to demonstrate that the size of one's sensed own body directly influences the perception of object size and distance. These effects were quantified in ten separate experiments with complementary verbal, questionnaire, manual, walking, and physiological measures. When participants experienced the tiny body as their own, they perceived objects to be larger and farther away, and when they experienced the large-body illusion, they perceived objects to be smaller and nearer. Importantly, despite identical retinal input, this “body size effect” was greater when the participants experienced a sense of ownership of the artificial bodies compared to a control condition in which ownership was disrupted. These findings are fundamentally important as they suggest a causal relationship between the representations of body space and external space. Thus, our own body size affects how we perceive the world. PMID:21633503

  14. Body size of young Australians aged five to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, N E; Maller, R A; Gilmour, A I

    1986-10-20

    In 1983-1984, 4578 Perth primary and secondary schoolchildren were studied. The selected sample was broadly representative of the ethnic groups that make up the Perth population and of the different social ranks within that population. The age, sex, weight, height, country of birth of the child and the parents, and occupation of the father were recorded for each subject. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) increased with age. Age and sex were the most important determinants of body size. However, children of lower social rank and those with a southern European background were over-represented among the overweight children (greater than the 90th centile for BMI), particularly in adolescence. Children with an Asian background who were 11 years of age and younger were over-represented among the underweight children (less than or equal to the 10th centile for BMI). Results from this study indicate a continuing, though small (1.5 cm to 1.6 cm), secular increase in height over the past 13 to 14 years.

  15. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Anne; Geuss, Michael N; Mölbert, Simone C; Giel, Katrin E; Streuber, Stephan; Romero, Javier; Black, Michael J; Mohler, Betty J

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1), but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a). The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  16. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thaler

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI, on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1, but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a. The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  17. Patterns of diversity in soft-bodied meiofauna: dispersal ability and body size matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martínez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far

  18. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Duck Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40% and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%. Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

  19. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to increase

  20. The Relationship of Body Size and Adiposity to Source of Self-Esteem in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncur, Breckann; Bailey, Bruce W.; Lockhart, Barbara D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Perkins, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies looking at self-esteem and body size or adiposity generally demonstrate a negative relationship. However, the relationship between the source of self-esteem and body size has not been examined in college women. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body size and adiposity to source of…

  1. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Meillère

    Full Text Available Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability. In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  2. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  3. Lean body mass as a determinant of thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Males have a larger thyroid gland than females, and this has been related to the difference in body weight. In view of the different body composition of men and women, we hypothesized that lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid volume than body weight. A cross-sectional study in an area

  4. Selective predation for low body condition at the larval-juvenile transition of a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Andrew S; McCormick, Mark I

    2004-03-01

    Mortality is known to be high during the transition from larval to juvenile life stages in organisms that have complex life histories. We are only just beginning to understand the processes that influence which individuals survive this period of high mortality, and which traits may be beneficial. Here we document a field experiment that examines the selectivity of predation immediately following settlement to the juvenile population in a common tropical fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae). Newly metamorphosed fish were tagged and randomly placed onto replicated patches of natural habitat cleared of resident fishes. After exposure to transient predators for 3 days, fish were recollected and the attributes of survivors from patch reefs that sustained high mortality were compared to individuals from patch reefs that experienced low mortality. Seven characteristics of individuals, which were indicative of previous and present body condition, were compared between groups. Predation was found to be selective for fish that grew slowly in the latter third of their larval phase, were low in total lipids, and had a high standardized weight (Fulton's K). Traits developed in the larval phase can strongly influence the survival of individuals over this critical transition period for organisms with complex life cycles.

  5. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (juvenile hyaline fibromatosis). Whole-body MR findings in two siblings with different subcutaneous nodules distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglione, Davide; Terranova, Maria Chiara; Picone, Dario; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Salerno, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (juvenile hyaline fibromatosis) is a rare, progressive, autosomal recessive disorder whose main hallmark is the deposition of amorphous hyaline material in soft tissues, with an evolutionary course and health impairment. It may present involvement of subcutaneous or periskeletal soft tissue, or may develop as a visceral infiltration entity with poor prognosis. Very few radiological data about this inherited condition have been reported, due to the extreme rarity of disease. We herein present a case of two siblings, affected by different severity of the disease, with different clinical features. They were examined by whole-body MR (WBMR) in order to assess different lesions localization, to rule out any visceral involvement and any other associated anomalies and to define patients' management. (orig.)

  6. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (juvenile hyaline fibromatosis). Whole-body MR findings in two siblings with different subcutaneous nodules distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglione, Davide; Terranova, Maria Chiara; Picone, Dario; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Biotecnologie Mediche, Palermo (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (juvenile hyaline fibromatosis) is a rare, progressive, autosomal recessive disorder whose main hallmark is the deposition of amorphous hyaline material in soft tissues, with an evolutionary course and health impairment. It may present involvement of subcutaneous or periskeletal soft tissue, or may develop as a visceral infiltration entity with poor prognosis. Very few radiological data about this inherited condition have been reported, due to the extreme rarity of disease. We herein present a case of two siblings, affected by different severity of the disease, with different clinical features. They were examined by whole-body MR (WBMR) in order to assess different lesions localization, to rule out any visceral involvement and any other associated anomalies and to define patients' management. (orig.)

  7. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  8. No Effect of Featural Attention on Body Size Aftereffects

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Ian D.; Bickersteth, Chloe; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers’ point of subjective normality (PSN) for bodies shifts toward narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object) and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object) have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention...

  9. Optimum sample length for estimating anchovy size distribution and the proportion of juveniles per fishing set for the Peruvian purse-seine fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Joo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The length distribution of catches represents a fundamental source of information for estimating growth and spatio-temporal dynamics of cohorts. The length distribution of caught is estimated based on samples of catched individuals. This work studies the optimum sample size of individuals at each fishing set in order to obtain a representative sample of the length and the proportion of juveniles in the fishing set. For that matter, we use anchovy (Engraulis ringens length data from different fishing sets recorded by observers at-sea from the On-board Observers Program from the Peruvian Marine Research Institute. Finally, we propose an optimum sample size for obtaining robust size and juvenile estimations. Though the application of this work corresponds to the anchovy fishery, the procedure can be applied to any fishery, either for on board or inland biometric measurements.

  10. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Enquobahrie, Daniel A. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Simpson, Christopher [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [Department of Family Medicine & Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Williams, Michelle A. [Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log{sub 2}-transformed Cd (log{sub 2}-Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log{sub 2}-Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m{sup 3} (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m{sup 3} (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated

  11. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  12. Glenoid version and size: does gender, ethnicity, or body size play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piponov, Hristo Ivanov; Savin, David; Shah, Neal; Esposito, Domenic; Schwartz, Brian; Moretti, Vincent; Goldberg, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Variations in glenoid morphology among patients of different gender, body habitus, and ethnicity have been of interest for surgeons. Understanding these anatomical variations is a critical step in restoring normal glenohumeral structure during shoulder reconstruction surgery. Retrospective review of 108 patient shoulder CT scans was performed and glenoid version, AP diameter and height were measured. Statistical multiple regression models were used to investigate the ability of gender and ethnicity to predict glenoid AP diameter, height, and version independently of patient weight and height. The mean glenoid AP diameter was 24.7 ± 3.5, the mean glenoid height was 31.7 ± 3.7, and the mean glenoid version was 0.05 ± 9.05. According to our regression models, males would be expected to exhibit 8.4° more glenoid retroversion than females (p = 0.003) and have 2.9 mm larger glenoid height compared to females (p = 0.002). The predicted male glenoid AP diameter was 3.4 mm higher than that in females (p variations in glenoid size and version are observed among ethnicities, larger sample size ethnic groups will be necessary to explore the precise relations. Surgeons should consider gender and ethnic variations in the pre-operative planning and surgical restoration of the native glenohumeral relationship. Anatomic Study.

  13. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  14. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of ancestry and body size on sonographic ulnar nerve dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Jessie T.; Phillips, Maureen; Thoirs, Kerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that geographic ancestry and body size have on ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve size measured at the elbow. Materials and methods: We performed anthropometric measurements of body size and ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow on 13 Vietnamese and 24 European participants. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of body size and geographic ancestry on ulnar nerve size. Results: BMI had the greatest impact on ulnar nerve size. The short axis diameter was least resilient, and the long axis diameter was the most resilient to the effects of body size and geographic ancestry. Discussion: The long axis diameter has an apparent immunity to the influences of overall body size, arm size, or geographic ancestry and has the most potential as a sensitive discriminator between normal nerves and nerves affected by ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

  16. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  17. Correlates of self-worth and body size dissatisfaction among obese Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Mackey, Eleanor Race; Armstrong, Bridget; Jaramillo, Ana; Palmer, Matilde M

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined self-worth and body size dissatisfaction, and their association with maternal acculturation among obese Latino youth enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program. Upon entry to the program, a sample of 113 participants reported global self-worth comparable to general population norms, but lower athletic competence and perception of physical appearance. Interestingly, body size dissatisfaction was more prevalent among younger respondents. Youth body size dissatisfaction was associated with less acculturated mothers and higher maternal dissatisfaction with their child's body size. By contrast, although global self-worth was significantly related to body dissatisfaction, it was not influenced by mothers' acculturation or dissatisfaction with their own or their child's body size. Obesity intervention programs targeted to Latino youth need to address self-worth concerns among the youth as well as addressing maternal dissatisfaction with their children's body size. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between inaccurate estimation of body size and obesity in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of inaccurate estimation of own body size among Brazilian schoolchildren of both sexes aged 7-10 years, and to test whether overweight/obesity; excess body fat and central obesity are associated with inaccuracy. Methods: Accuracy of body size estimation was assessed using the Figure Rating Scale for Brazilian Children. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations. Results: The overall prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation was 76%, with 34% of the children underestimating their body size and 42% overestimating their body size. Obesity measured by body mass index was associated with underestimation of body size in both sexes, while central obesity was only associated with overestimation of body size among girls. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest there is a high prevalence of inaccurate body size estimation and that inaccurate estimation is associated with obesity. Accurate estimation of own body size is important among obese schoolchildren because it may be the first step towards adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  19. Body size ideals and dissatisfaction in Ghanaian adolescents: role of media, lifestyle and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, N; Amenyah, S D

    2017-05-01

    To inspire effective health promotion campaigns, we tested the relationship of ideal body size and body size dissatisfaction with (1) the potential resulting health-influencing factors diet, physical activity and well-being; and (2) with media as a potential influencer of body ideals. This is a cross-sectional study in 370 Ghanaian adolescents (aged 11-18 years). Questionnaires included disordered eating (EAT26), diet quality (FFQ), physical activity (IPAQ), well-being (KINDL) and media influence on appearance (SATAQ: pressure, internalisation and information). Ideal body size and body size dissatisfaction were assessed using the Stunkard figure rating scale. Body mass index (BMI), skinfolds and waist were measured. Linear regressions were adjusted for gender, age and parental education. Also, mediation was tested: 'can perceived media influence play a role in the effects of actual body size on body size dissatisfaction?'. Body size dissatisfaction was associated with lower well-being and more media influence (pressure and internalisation) but not with physical activity, diet quality or disordered eating. An underweight body size ideal might worsen disordered eating but was not significantly related to the other predictors of interest. Only a partial mediation effect by media pressure was found: especially overweight adolescents felt media pressure, and this media pressure was associated with more body size dissatisfaction. To prevent disordered eating and low well-being, health messages should include strategies that reduce body size dissatisfaction and increase body esteem by not focussing on the thin body ideal. Changing body size ideals in the media might be an appropriate way since media pressure was a mediator in the BMI-dissatisfaction relation. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Body experiences, emotional competence, and psychosocial functioning in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Meini, Antonella; Molinaro, Anna; Cattalini, Marco; Oggiano, Silvia; Fazzi, Elisa; Neri, Francesca; Plebani, Alessandro; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-08-01

    We investigated self-image, psychological functioning, and quality of life in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Thirty-nine children with JIA were compared with 80 healthy peers. We first administered the Human Figure Drawing Test (HFDT) to all subjects; children also completed standardized questionnaires evaluating health-related quality of life (PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales) and the main aspects of psychological functioning: anxiety (SAFA-A) and depression (CDI). Parents were asked to complete the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the PEDSQL 4.0. For each patient with JIA, clinical notes were gathered and a global disease assessment (visual analog scale--VAS) was performed. Compared to healthy peers, patients with JIA reported reduced maturity quotients at HFDT, more depressive traits, greater anxiety, and lower health-related quality of life. Among the subjects with JIA, HFDT revealed that adolescents had a greater impairment in all areas investigated. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the physical well-being rated by VAS and the perception of poorer quality of life in patients, mostly in the psychosocial domains. Children and adolescents with JIA exhibit emotional difficulties and a delay of psychological development leading to low self-esteem, a distorted self-image, more anxiety and depression traits, and a worse quality of life, when compared to healthy subjects.

  1. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Key Points SummaryWe report how blood pressure, cardiac output and vascular resistance are related to height, weight, body surface area (BSA, and body mass index (BMI in healthy young adults at supine rest and standing.Much inter-subject variability in young adult's blood pressure, currently attributed to health status, may actually result from inter-individual body size differences.Each cardiovascular variable is linearly related to height, weight and/or BSA (more than to BMI.When supine, cardiac output is positively related, while vascular resistance is negatively related, to body size. Upon standing, the change in vascular resistance is positively related to size.The height/weight relationships of cardiac output and vascular resistance to body size are responsible for blood pressure relationships to body size.These basic components of blood pressure could help distinguish normal from abnormal blood pressures in young adults by providing a more effective scaling mechanism.Introduction: Effects of body size on inter-subject blood pressure (BP variability are not well established in adults. We hypothesized that relationships linking stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR with body size would account for a significant fraction of inter-subject BP variability.Methods: Thirty-four young, healthy adults (19 men, 15 women participated in 38 stand tests during which brachial artery BP, heart rate, SV, CO, TPR, and indexes of body size were measured/calculated.Results: Steady state diastolic arterial BP was not significantly correlated with any index of body size when subjects were supine. However, upon standing, the more the subject weighed, or the taller s/he was, the greater the increase in diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure strongly correlated with body weight and height both supine and standing. Diastolic and systolic BP were more strongly related to height, weight and body surface area than to body mass

  2. Season, molt, and body size influence mercury concentrations in grebes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2017-10-01

    We studied seasonal and physiological influences on mercury concentrations in western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (A. occidentalis) across 29 lakes and reservoirs in California, USA. Additionally, at three of these lakes, we conducted a time series study, in which we repeatedly sampled grebe blood mercury concentrations during the spring, summer, and early fall. Grebe blood mercury concentrations were higher among males (0.61 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than females (0.52 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), higher among Clark's grebes (0.58 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than western grebes (0.51 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), and exhibited a strong seasonal pattern (decreasing by 60% from spring to fall). Grebe blood THg concentrations exhibited a shallow, inverse U-shaped pattern with body size, and was lowest among the smallest and largest grebes. Further, the relationship between grebe blood mercury concentrations and wing primary feather molt exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern, where mercury concentrations were highest among birds that had not yet begun molting, decreased approximately 24% between pre-molt and late molt, and increased approximately 19% from late molt to post-molt. Because grebes did not begin molting until mid-summer, lower grebe blood mercury concentrations observed in late summer and early fall were consistent with the onset of primary feather molt. However, because sampling date was a much stronger predictor of grebe mercury concentrations than molt, other seasonally changing environmental factors likely played a larger role than molt in the seasonal variation in grebe mercury concentrations. In the time series study, we found that seasonal trends in grebe mercury concentrations were not consistent among lakes, indicating that lake-specific variation in mercury dynamics influence the overall seasonal decline in grebe blood mercury concentrations. These results highlight the importance of accounting for sampling date, as well as ecological processes

  3. Season, molt, and body size influence mercury concentrations in grebes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied seasonal and physiological influences on mercury concentrations in western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (A. occidentalis) across 29 lakes and reservoirs in California, USA. Additionally, at three of these lakes, we conducted a time series study, in which we repeatedly sampled grebe blood mercury concentrations during the spring, summer, and early fall. Grebe blood mercury concentrations were higher among males (0.61 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than females (0.52 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), higher among Clark's grebes (0.58 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than western grebes (0.51 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), and exhibited a strong seasonal pattern (decreasing by 60% from spring to fall). Grebe blood THg concentrations exhibited a shallow, inverse U-shaped pattern with body size, and was lowest among the smallest and largest grebes. Further, the relationship between grebe blood mercury concentrations and wing primary feather molt exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern, where mercury concentrations were highest among birds that had not yet begun molting, decreased approximately 24% between pre-molt and late molt, and increased approximately 19% from late molt to post-molt. Because grebes did not begin molting until mid-summer, lower grebe blood mercury concentrations observed in late summer and early fall were consistent with the onset of primary feather molt. However, because sampling date was a much stronger predictor of grebe mercury concentrations than molt, other seasonally changing environmental factors likely played a larger role than molt in the seasonal variation in grebe mercury concentrations. In the time series study, we found that seasonal trends in grebe mercury concentrations were not consistent among lakes, indicating that lake-specific variation in mercury dynamics influence the overall seasonal decline in grebe blood mercury concentrations. These results highlight the importance of accounting for sampling date, as well as ecological processes that may

  4. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  5. Body shape and size depictions of African American women in JET magazine, 1953-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The evolution of body size in extant groups of North American freshwater fishes: speciation, size distributions, and Cope's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Page, Lawrence M

    2003-03-01

    Change in body size within an evolutionary lineage over time has been under investigation since the synthesis of Cope's rule, which suggested that there is a tendency for mammals to evolve larger body size. Data from the fossil record have subsequently been examined for several other taxonomic groups to determine whether they also displayed an evolutionary increase in body size. However, we are not aware of any species-level study that has investigated the evolution of body size within an extant continental group. Data acquired from the fossil record and data derived from the evolutionary relationships of extant species are not similar, with each set exhibiting both strengths and weaknesses related to inferring evolutionary patterns. Consequently, expectation that general trends exhibited in the fossil record will correspond to patterns in extant groups is not necessarily warranted. Using phylogenetic relationships of extant species, we show that five of nine families of North American freshwater fishes exhibit an evolutionary trend of decreasing body size. These trends result from the basal position of large species and the more derived position of small species within families. Such trends may be caused by the invasion of small streams and subsequent isolation and speciation. This pattern, potentially influenced by size-biased dispersal rates and the high percentage of small streams in North America, suggests a scenario that could result in the generation of the size-frequency distribution of North American freshwater fishes.

  7. Effects of TV screen size on consumption and body dissatisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Becker, E.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Research Question: Previous research showed that exposure to pictures with slim women predicted higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to pictures with normal weight women. The present study investigated experimentally whether these findings could be expanded to television, by comparing

  8. Variation of Body Size in Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Associations with Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunshan; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Life history characteristics help us to determine the ability of invasive species to establish and thrive in an exotic environment. However, so far, there have been very few reports concerning geographic variation in the body size of invasive insects and the associations between body size variation and population biology. In this study, we surveyed the geographic variation in body size of an invasive agricultural pest, the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleopte...

  9. A comparison of larval density and low dose rate irradiation effects on amphibian body size at metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K.; Scott, D.E.; Tsyusko, O.; Coughlin, D.P.; Hinton, T.G.

    2008-07-01

    Amphibian larvae undergo substantial morphological and physiological changes as they metamorphose into adults. This period of rapid change and enhanced cell division could increase their sensitivity to external stressors. In this study, we were interested in possible differences between natural and anthropogenic stressor effects during the period just prior to metamorphosis. We studied this by exposing late-stage Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles in different larval densities to four irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1) from 137Cs. Life history traits important for population dynamics, such as body size at metamorphosis and development rate, were measured. Results suggest that the ecological factor larval density had a much more profound effect on juvenile body size at metamorphosis than low-dose rate radiation. The development rate measured as age at metamorphosis was not effected by the two stressors. Radiation had no impact on the endpoints we measured; giving credence to the IAEA guidance that a dose rate smaller than 10 mGy d-1 is protective of aquatic biota. (author)(tk)

  10. A comparison of larval density and low dose rate irradiation effects on amphibian body size at metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, K.; Scott, D.E.; Tsyusko, O.; Coughlin, D.P.; Hinton, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Amphibian larvae undergo substantial morphological and physiological changes as they metamorphose into adults. This period of rapid change and enhanced cell division could increase their sensitivity to external stressors. In this study, we were interested in possible differences between natural and anthropogenic stressor effects during the period just prior to metamorphosis. We studied this by exposing late-stage Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles in different larval densities to four irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d -1 ) from 137 Cs. Life history traits important for population dynamics, such as body size at metamorphosis and development rate, were measured. Results suggest that the ecological factor larval density had a much more profound effect on juvenile body size at metamorphosis than low-dose rate radiation. The development rate measured as age at metamorphosis was not effected by the two stressors. Radiation had no impact on the endpoints we measured; giving credence to the IAEA guidance that a dose rate smaller than 10 mGy d -1 is protective of aquatic biota. (author)(tk)

  11. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the ‘best’ for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus. The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298459

  12. Half-body irradiation-experience of size cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, H. de; Aguilar, P.B.; Nadalin, W.; Weissberger, Y.; Scaff, L.A.M.; Lins, J.R.B.

    1990-01-01

    From 1983 to 1989, six patients with disseminated neoplastic disease non-responsive to conventional therapy were treated with palliative antialgic means. Three patients with breast cancer, two with prostate and one with Ewing's sarcoma received a total of eight treatments. The irradiation was first administered to the half-body presenting worst symptomatology. Total single dose of 800 cGy was delivered to the lower half-body and 600 cGy to the upper half-body. Pain relief was observed 24 to 48 hours after the irradiation in all patients. The haematological tolerance was good and deaths of these patients were not related to complications due to the radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Big or fast: two strategies in the developmental control of body size

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhout, H. Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Adult body size is controlled by the mechanisms that stop growth when a species-characteristic size has been reached. The mechanisms by which size is sensed and by which this information is transduced to the growth regulating system are beginning to be understood in a few species of insects. Two rather different strategies for control have been discovered; one favors large body size and the other favors rapid development.

  14. Stereometrical analysis of number and size of prolamellar bodies during pea chloroplast development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mostowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plastid prolamelar bodies in dark-grown pea seedlings undergo gradual transformation and decay after illumination with low intensity light. Random micrographs do not give direct information concerning the sizes and average numbers of prolamellar bodies in a plastid. These values were obtained after evaluation by a stereometrical method from the ratio of polamellar bodies sizes to the plastid size and from the frequency of prolamellar body sections of a given diameter. Plastids of dark-grown seedlings contained on the average at least one prolamellar body. After illumination the size of the bodies decreased rapidly owing to dispersion into primary thylakoids and split into much smaller numerous prolamellar bodies.

  15. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  16. Body size mediated starvation resistance in an insect predator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gergs, A.; Jager, T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Individual organisms have to endure transient periods of low-food supply with consequences for growth, reproduction and survival. To resist starvation, animals usually store resources in their bodies: the larger the animals are, the more resources they can carry, but the more energy they

  17. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... food availability and others (Oliveira et al., 2003). Body ... have reported high protein and low fat content in fish due to increasing depth. ... Collected fish were kept in plastic container and transported alive to the laboratory for ...

  18. Blouse sizing using self-reported body dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual

  19. Body size and allometric variation in facial shape in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jacinda R; Manyama, Mange F; Cole, Joanne B; Gonzalez, Paula N; Percival, Christopher J; Liberton, Denise K; Ferrara, Tracey M; Riccardi, Sheri L; Kimwaga, Emmanuel A; Mathayo, Joshua; Spitzmacher, Jared A; Rolian, Campbell; Jamniczky, Heather A; Weinberg, Seth M; Roseman, Charles C; Klein, Ophir; Lukowiak, Ken; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt

    2018-02-01

    Morphological integration, or the tendency for covariation, is commonly seen in complex traits such as the human face. The effects of growth on shape, or allometry, represent a ubiquitous but poorly understood axis of integration. We address the question of to what extent age and measures of size converge on a single pattern of allometry for human facial shape. Our study is based on two large cross-sectional cohorts of children, one from Tanzania and the other from the United States (N = 7,173). We employ 3D facial imaging and geometric morphometrics to relate facial shape to age and anthropometric measures. The two populations differ significantly in facial shape, but the magnitude of this difference is small relative to the variation within each group. Allometric variation for facial shape is similar in both populations, representing a small but significant proportion of total variation in facial shape. Different measures of size are associated with overlapping but statistically distinct aspects of shape variation. Only half of the size-related variation in facial shape can be explained by the first principal component of four size measures and age while the remainder associates distinctly with individual measures. Allometric variation in the human face is complex and should not be regarded as a singular effect. This finding has important implications for how size is treated in studies of human facial shape and for the developmental basis for allometric variation more generally. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Male songbird indicates body size with low-pitched advertising songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Hall

    Full Text Available Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised.

  1. Male songbird indicates body size with low-pitched advertising songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle L; Kingma, Sjouke A; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised.

  2. Chickens from lines artificially selected for juvenile low and high body weight differ in glucose homeostasis and pancreas physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, L H; Zhang, W; Zhao, X; Honaker, C F; Zhang, S; Cline, M A; Siegel, P B; Gilbert, E R

    2014-06-01

    Artificial selection of White Plymouth Rock chickens for juvenile (day 56) body weight resulted in two divergent genetic lines: hypophagic low weight (LWS) chickens and hyperphagic obese high weight (HWS) chickens, with the latter more than 10-fold heavier than the former at selection age. A study was designed to investigate glucose regulation and pancreas physiology at selection age in LWS chickens and HWS chickens. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests revealed differences in threshold sensitivity to insulin and glucose clearance rate between the lines. Results from real-time PCR showed greater pancreatic mRNA expression of four glucose regulatory genes (preproinsulin, PPI; preproglucagon, PPG; glucose transporter 2, GLUT2; and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, Pdx1) in LWS chickens, than HWS chickens. Histological analysis of the pancreas revealed that HWS chickens have larger pancreatic islets, less pancreatic islet mass, and more pancreatic inflammation than LWS chickens, all of which presumably contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink (Morethia boulengeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Damian R; Banks, Sam C; Piggott, Maxine P; Cunningham, Ross B; Crane, Mason; MacGregor, Christopher; McBurney, Lachlan; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Ecogeographical rules help explain spatial and temporal patterns in intraspecific body size. However, many of these rules, when applied to ectothermic organisms such as reptiles, are controversial and require further investigation. To explore factors that influence body size in reptiles, we performed a heuristic study to examine body size variation in an Australian lizard, Boulenger's Skink Morethia boulengeri from agricultural landscapes in southern New South Wales, south-eastern Australia. We collected tissue and morphological data on 337 adult lizards across a broad elevation and climate gradient. We used a model-selection procedure to determine if environmental or ecological variables best explained body size variation. We explored the relationship between morphology and phylogenetic structure before modeling candidate variables from four broad domains: (1) geography (latitude, longitude and elevation), (2) climate (temperature and rainfall), (3) habitat (vegetation type, number of logs and ground cover attributes), and (4) management (land use and grazing history). Broad phylogenetic structure was evident, but on a scale larger than our study area. Lizards were sexually dimorphic, whereby females had longer snout-vent length than males, providing support for the fecundity selection hypothesis. Body size variation in M. boulengeri was correlated with temperature and rainfall, a pattern consistent with larger individuals occupying cooler and more productive parts of the landscape. Climate change forecasts, which predict warmer temperature and increased aridity, may result in reduced lizard biomass and decoupling of trophic interactions with potential implications for community organization and ecosystem function.

  4. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  5. The bold and the beautiful. Influence of body size of televised media models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exposure to televised thin and average size models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake were examined. Normal weight female students (N=104) were exposed to a 30-min movie clip featuring beautiful girls. Half of them viewed the movie clip in normal screen size (4:3) and the

  6. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  7. Effect of host plant on body size of Frankliniella occidentalis and its correlation with reproductive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogel, de W.J.; Bosco, D.; Hoek, van der M.; Mollema, C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different host plants on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) body size was investigated. Thrips from three different populations, from the Netherlands, Italy, and USA, achieved greater body sizes when reared on cucumber than on bean. The same thrips grew

  8. Some like it hot... : the evolution and genetics of temperature dependent body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochdanovits, Z. (Zoltán)

    2003-01-01

    Body size is one of the most obvious and most important characteristic of any organism. A thorough understanding of how and why a certain individual obtains a specific body size, given its evolutionary history and ecological context, is a fundamental question in biology. One special case of

  9. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  10. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  11. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  12. Neural substrate of body size: illusory feeling of shrinking of the waist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Henrik Ehrsson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments.

  13. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  14. Breaking Haller's rule: brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der E.; Smid, H.M.; Chittka, L.; Huigens, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, Haller's rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals. However, through

  15. Factors determining the average body size of geographically separated Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Anufriieva, Elena V.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, asignificant negative correlation between female body size a...

  16. Rule reversal: Ecogeographical patterns of body size variation in the common treeshrew (Mammalia, Scandentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Millien, Virginie; Woodman, Neal; Olson, Link E.

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of ecogeographical “rules” that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller‐bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small‐bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf. The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, is an excellent candidate for study and was used to test these two rules simultaneously for the first time in treeshrews. This species is distributed on the Malay Peninsula and several offshore islands east, west, and south of the mainland. Using craniodental dimensions as a proxy for body size, we investigated how island size, distance from the mainland, and maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands relate to body size of 13 insular T. glis populations while also controlling for latitude and correlation among variables. We found a strong negative effect of latitude on body size in the common treeshrew, indicating the inverse of Bergmann's rule. We did not detect any overall difference in body size between the island and mainland populations. However, there was an effect of island area and maximum sea depth on body size among island populations. Although there is a strong latitudinal effect on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules.

  17. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Narsaiya, Marcus S; Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-12-01

    Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra) in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  18. The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Rideout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals show sex differences in body size. For example, in Drosophila, females are larger than males. Although Drosophila is widely used as a model to study growth, the mechanisms underlying this male-female difference in size remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for the sex determination gene transformer (tra in promoting female body growth. Normally, Tra is expressed only in females. We find that loss of Tra in female larvae decreases body size, while ectopic Tra expression in males increases body size. Although we find that Tra exerts autonomous effects on cell size, we also discovered that Tra expression in the fat body augments female body size in a non cell-autonomous manner. These effects of Tra do not require its only known targets doublesex and fruitless. Instead, Tra expression in the female fat body promotes growth by stimulating the secretion of insulin-like peptides from insulin producing cells in the brain. Our data suggest a model of sex-specific growth in which body size is regulated by a previously unrecognized branch of the sex determination pathway, and identify Tra as a novel link between sex and the conserved insulin signaling pathway.

  19. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  20. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  1. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  2. Migrate small, sound big: functional constraints on body size promote tracheal elongation in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M R; Witt, C C

    2014-06-01

    Organismal traits often represent the outcome of opposing selection pressures. Although social or sexual selection can cause the evolution of traits that constrain function or survival (e.g. ornamental feathers), it is unclear how the strength and direction of selection respond to ecological shifts that increase the severity of the constraint. For example, reduced body size might evolve by natural selection to enhance flight performance in migratory birds, but social or sexual selection favouring large body size may provide a countervailing force. Tracheal elongation is a potential outcome of these opposing pressures because it allows birds to convey an auditory signal of exaggerated body size. We predicted that the evolution of migration in cranes has coincided with a reduction in body size and a concomitant intensification of social or sexual selection for apparent large body size via tracheal elongation. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine the relationships among migration distance, body mass and trachea length in cranes. As predicted, we found that migration distance correlated negatively with body size and positively with proportional trachea length. This result was consistent with our hypothesis that evolutionary reductions in body size led to intensified selection for trachea length. The most likely ultimate causes of intensified positive selection on trachea length are the direct benefits of conveying a large body size in intraspecific contests for mates and territories. We conclude that the strength of social or sexual selection on crane body size is linked to the degree of functional constraint. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Women Build Long Bones With Less Cortical Mass Relative to Body Size and Bone Size Compared With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Karl J; Bigelow, Erin M R; Schlecht, Stephen H

    2015-08-01

    The twofold greater lifetime risk of fracturing a bone for white women compared with white men and black women has been attributed in part to differences in how the skeletal system accumulates bone mass during growth. On average, women build more slender long bones with less cortical area compared with men. Although slender bones are known to have a naturally lower cortical area compared with wider bones, it remains unclear whether the relatively lower cortical area of women is consistent with their increased slenderness or is reduced beyond that expected for the sex-specific differences in bone size and body size. Whether this sexual dimorphism is consistent with ethnic background and is recapitulated in the widely used mouse model also remains unclear. We asked (1) do black women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with black men; (2) do white women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with white men; and (3) do female mice build bones with reduced cortical area compared with male mice? Bone strength and cross-sectional morphology of adult human and mouse bone were calculated from quantitative CT images of the femoral midshaft. The data were tested for normality and regression analyses were used to test for differences in cortical area between men and women after adjusting for body size and bone size by general linear model (GLM). Linear regression analysis showed that the femurs of black women had 11% lower cortical area compared with those of black men after adjusting for body size and bone size (women: mean=357.7 mm2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 347.9-367.5 mm2; men: mean=400.1 mm2; 95% CI, 391.5-408.7 mm2; effect size=1.2; pbone size (women: mean=350.1 mm2; 95% CI, 340.4-359.8 mm2; men: mean=394.3 mm2; 95% CI, 386.5-402.1 mm2; effect size=1.3; pbone size (female: mean=0.73 mm2; 95% CI, 0.71-0.74 mm2; male: mean=0.70 mm2; 95% CI, 0.68-0.71 mm2; effect size=0.74; p=0.04, GLM). Female femurs are not simply a more slender version of male

  4. Body Size Adaptations to Altitudinal Climatic Variation in Neotropical Grasshoppers of the Genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Altitudinal clines in body size can result from the effects of natural and sexual selection on growth rates and developing times in seasonal environments. Short growing and reproductive seasons constrain the body size that adults can attain and their reproductive success. Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium. The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments. Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females. These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group. PMID:26684616

  5. Complete and rapid reversal of the body color pattern in juveniles of the convict surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marc; Salis, Pauline; Laudet, Vincent; Lecchini, David

    2018-03-01

    Color polymorphism is widespread in animals and can be associated with temporary adjustments to environmental variables (phenotypic plasticity). In teleost fishes, one of the most remarkable examples of color plasticity is background adaptation in flatfishes. However, such rapid and complete changes in body color and pattern remain relatively unreported in other species. The convict surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus is a gregarious species whose body color pattern consists of black vertical bars on a whitish body. Here, we describe an entirely reverse body color pattern (white vertical bars on a blackish body) that we observed in some A. triostegus juveniles in a nursery area at Moorea Island, French Polynesia. In aquaria, we determined that change from one color pattern to the other is rapid, reversible, and corresponds to phenotypic plasticity associated with aggressive behavior.

  6. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  7. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  8. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Triglycerides in the Human Kidney Cortex: Relationship with Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Lotan, Yair; Zhang, Jianning; Rosenthal, Tara R.; Rogers, John T.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI) is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis) has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04). Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis) in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis. PMID:25170827

  10. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  11. Body Size, Extinction Risk and Knowledge Bias in New World Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Bruno; Villalobos, Fabricio; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2014-01-01

    Extinction risk and body size have been found to be related in various vertebrate groups, with larger species being more at risk than smaller ones. We checked whether this was also the case for snakes by investigating extinction risk–body size relationships in the New World's Colubroidea species. We used the IUCN Red List risk categories to assign each species to one of two broad levels of threat (Threatened and Non-Threatened) or to identify it as either Data Deficient or Not-Evaluated by the IUCN. We also included the year of description of each species in our analysis as this could affect the level of threat assigned to it (earlier described species had more time to gather information about them, which might have facilitated their evaluation). Also, species detectability could be a function of body size, with larger species tending to be described earlier, which could have an impact in extinction risk–body size relationships. We found a negative relationship between body size and description year, with large-bodied species being described earlier. Description year also varied among risk categories, with Non-Threatened species being described earlier than Threatened species and both species groups earlier than Data Deficient species. On average, Data Deficient species also presented smaller body sizes, while no size differences were detected between Threatened and Non-Threatened species. So it seems that smaller body sizes are related with species detectability, thus potentially affecting both when a species is described (smaller species tend to be described more recently) as well as the amount of information gathered about it (Data Deficient species tend to be smaller). Our data also indicated that if Data Deficient species were to be categorized as Threatened in the future, snake body size and extinction risk would be negatively related, contrasting with the opposite pattern commonly observed in other vertebrate groups. PMID:25409293

  12. A pilot study on body image, attractiveness and body size in Gambians living in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Grey, P; Nyan, O A; Prentice, A M

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the attitudinal and perceptual components of body image and its link with body mass index (BMI) in a sample of urban Gambians. We also looked at cross-cultural differences in body image and views on attractiveness between Gambians and Americans. Four groups of 50 subjects were assessed: men 14- 25y (YM); women 14-25y (YW); men 35-50y (OM); women 35-50y (OW). Socio-economic status, education, healthy lifestyle and western influences were investigated. Height and weight were measured. Body dissatisfaction was assessed with the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Perceptions of body image and attractiveness were assessed using the Body Image Assessment for Obesity (BIA-O) and Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Different generations of Gambians had very different perceptions and attitudes towards obesity. Current body size was realistically perceived and largely well tolerated. Older women had a higher body discrepancy (current minus ideal body size) than other groups (pbody size until they were overweight (BMI=27.8 kg/m2), whilst OM, YM and YW started to be concerned at a BMI respectively of 22.9, 19.8 and 21.5 kg/m2. A cross-cultural comparison using published data on FRS showed that Gambians were more obesity tolerant than black and white Americans. The Gambia is a country in the early stage of demographic transitions but in urban areas there is an increase in obesity prevalence. Inherent tensions between the preservation of cultural values and traditional habits, and raising awareness of the risks of obesity, may limit health interventions to prevent weight gain.

  13. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  14. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis. We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard-sized

  15. Low level of polyandry constrains phenotypic plasticity of male body size in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Walzer, Andreas; Murata, Yasumasa; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males, is more common than previously anticipated and potentially provides both direct and indirect fitness benefits to females. The level of polyandry (defined by the lifetime number of male mates of a female) is an important determinant of the occurrence and intensity of sexual selection acting on male phenotypes. While the forces of sexual selection acting on phenotypic male traits such as body size are relatively well understood, sexual selection acting on phenotypic plasticity of these traits is unexplored. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing the link between polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size in two sympatric plant-inhabiting predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. These two species are similar in life history, ecological niche requirements, mating behavior, polygyny and female body size plasticity but strikingly differ in the level of both polyandry and phenotypic plasticity of male body size (both lower in P. persimilis). We hypothesized that deviations from standard body size, i.e. the size achieved under favorable conditions, incur higher costs for males in the less polyandrous P. persimilis. To test our hypotheses, we conducted two experiments on (i) the effects of male body size on spermatophore transfer in singly mating females and (ii) the effects of mate sequence (switching the order of standard-sized and small males) on mating behavior and paternity success in doubly mating females. In P. persimilis but not N. californicus, small males transferred fewer but larger spermatophores to the females; in both species, females re-mated more likely with standard-sized following small than small following standard-sized males; in P. persimilis, first standard-sized males sired a higher proportion of offspring produced after re-mating by the female than first small males, whereas in N. californicus the paternity success of small and standard-sized males was

  16. Body size and growth in 0- to 4-year-old children and the relation to body size in primary school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, T; Renders, C M; Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; HiraSing, R.A.; van Buuren, S.; Seidell, J C

    Excess weight in early life is believed to increase susceptibility to obesity, and in support of such theory, excess weight and fast weight gain in early childhood have been related to overweight later in life. The aim of this study was to review the literature on body size and growth in 0- to

  17. Body size and growth in 0- to 4-year-old children and the relation to body size in primary school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, T.; Renders, C.M.; Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Hirasing, R.A.; Buuren, S. van; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Excess weight in early life is believed to increase susceptibility to obesity, and in support of such theory, excess weight and fast weight gain in early childhood have been related to overweight later in life. The aim of this study was to review the literature on body size and growth in 0- to

  18. Tracking from the tropics reveals behaviour of juvenile songbirds on their first spring migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A McKinnon

    Full Text Available Juvenile songbirds on spring migration travel from tropical wintering sites to temperate breeding destinations thousands of kilometres away with no prior experience to guide them. We provide a first glimpse at the migration timing, routes, and stopover behaviour of juvenile wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina on their inaugural spring migration by using miniaturized archival geolocators to track them from Central America to the U.S. and Canada. We found significant differences between the timing of juvenile migration and that of more experienced adults: juveniles not only departed later from tropical wintering sites relative to adults, they also became progressively later as they moved northward. The increasing delay was driven by more frequent short stops by juveniles along their migration route, particularly in the U.S. as they got closer to breeding sites. Surprisingly, juveniles were just as likely as adults to cross the Gulf of Mexico, an open-water crossing of 800-1000 km, and migration route at the Gulf was not significantly different for juveniles relative to adults. To determine if the later departure of juveniles was related to poor body condition in winter relative to adults, we examined percent lean body mass, fat scores, and pectoral muscle scores of juvenile versus adult birds at a wintering site in Belize. We found no age-related differences in body condition. Later migration timing of juveniles relative to adults could be an adaptive strategy (as opposed to condition-dependent to avoid the high costs of fast migration and competition for breeding territories with experienced and larger adults. We did find significant differences in wing size between adults and juveniles, which could contribute to lower flight efficiency of juveniles and thus slower overall migration speed. We provide the first step toward understanding the "black box" of juvenile songbird migration by documenting their migration timing and en route performance.

  19. The effects of meal size, body size and temperature on gastric evacuation in pikeperch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koed, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Prey size had no effect on the gastric evacuation rate of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca. The gastric evacuation was adequately described applying an exponent of 0.5 in the power model. Applying length instead of weight of pikeperch in the gastric evacuation model resulted in a change of estim...

  20. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  1. Factors determining the average body size of geographically separated Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-03-01

    Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, a significant negative correlation between female body size and the altitude of habitats was found by comparing body size in populations from different regions. Individuals from environments with highly varying abiotic parameters, e.g. temporary reservoirs, had a larger body size than individuals from permanent water bodies. The changes in average body mass in populations were at 11.4 times, whereas, those in individual metabolic activities were at 6.2 times. Moreover, two size groups of A. salinus in the Crimean and the Siberian lakes were observed. The ratio of female length to male length fluctuated between 1.02 and 1.30. The average size of A. salinus in populations and its variations were determined by both genetic and environmental factors. However, the parities of these factors were unequal in either spatial or temporal scales.

  2. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. Fidler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1 Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2 Do MPA size and (3 age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time.

  3. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  4. Climate change and body size shift in Mediterranean bivalve assemblages: unexpected role of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Rafał; Albano, Paolo G; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-08-16

    Body size is a synthetic functional trait determining many key ecosystem properties. Reduction in average body size has been suggested as one of the universal responses to global warming in aquatic ecosystems. Climate change, however, coincides with human-enhanced dispersal of alien species and can facilitate their establishment. We address effects of species introductions on the size structure of recipient communities using data on Red Sea bivalves entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. We show that the invasion leads to increase in median body size of the Mediterranean assemblage. Alien species are significantly larger than native Mediterranean bivalves, even though they represent a random subset of the Red Sea species with respect to body size. The observed patterns result primarily from the differences in the taxonomic composition and body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools. In contrast to the expectations based on the general temperature-size relationships in marine ectotherms, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea indirectly leads to an increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in bivalve assemblages by accelerating the entry and spread of tropical aliens. These results underscore complex interactions between changing climate and species invasions in driving functional shifts in marine ecosystems. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The body size of the oil-collecting bee Tetrapedia diversipes (Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto da Silva,Carlos; Silva,Adriana; Duran Cordeiro,Guaraci; Alves dos Santos ,Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The body size of bees can affect their fitness in many ways. There is an indirect relationship between the size of the mother and the size of her progeny. This is so because large mothers use larger nests and brood cells and have higher foraging capacity than small mothers, and consequently large mothers supply a larger amount of food to their larvae, which grow larger. We analyzed the relationship between body size of individual oil-collecting bees of the species Tetrapedia diversipes and th...

  6. Stocking density effects on production characteristics and body composition of market size cobia, Rachycentron canadum, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production density in excess of a critical threshold can result in a negative relationship between stocking density and fish production. This study was conducted to evaluate production characteristics of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum, reared to market size in production-scale recirculating aq...

  7. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .

  8. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Gerson

    2005-01-01

    ...). The training program will focus on breast cancer etiology, specifically the interrelationships between hormones, diet, body size, and breast cancer among Hispanic women in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV...

  9. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  10. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  11. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  12. Environmental, biological and anthropogenic effects on grizzly bear body size: temporal and spatial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Scott E; Cattet, Marc R L; Boulanger, John; Cranston, Jerome; McDermid, Greg J; Shafer, Aaron B A; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-09-08

    Individual body growth is controlled in large part by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of, and competition for, resources. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos L.) are an excellent species for studying the effects of resource heterogeneity and maternal effects (i.e. silver spoon) on life history traits such as body size because their habitats are highly variable in space and time. Here, we evaluated influences on body size of grizzly bears in Alberta, Canada by testing six factors that accounted for spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environments during maternal, natal and 'capture' (recent) environments. After accounting for intrinsic biological factors (age, sex), we examined how body size, measured in mass, length and body condition, was influenced by: (a) population density; (b) regional habitat productivity; (c) inter-annual variability in productivity (including silver spoon effects); (d) local habitat quality; (e) human footprint (disturbances); and (f) landscape change. We found sex and age explained the most variance in body mass, condition and length (R(2) from 0.48-0.64). Inter-annual variability in climate the year before and of birth (silver spoon effects) had detectable effects on the three-body size metrics (R(2) from 0.04-0.07); both maternal (year before birth) and natal (year of birth) effects of precipitation and temperature were related with body size. Local heterogeneity in habitat quality also explained variance in body mass and condition (R(2) from 0.01-0.08), while annual rate of landscape change explained additional variance in body length (R(2) of 0.03). Human footprint and population density had no observed effect on body size. These results illustrated that body size patterns of grizzly bears, while largely affected by basic biological characteristics (age and sex), were also influenced by regional environmental gradients the year before, and of, the individual's birth thus illustrating silver spoon effects. The magnitude of the silver

  13. Evolution of bill size in relation to body size in toucans and hornbills (Aves: Piciformes and Bucerotiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin L. Hughes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that the bill of the Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776, has a specialized role in heat dissipation suggests a new function for the large and light-weight bill of the toucan family (Piciformes: Ramphastidae. A prediction of this hypothesis is that bill length in toucans will increase with body mass at a rate greater than the isometric expectation. This hypothesis was tested in a phylogenetic context with measurements of skeletal elements in adult males of 21 toucan species. In these species, 64.3% of variance in relative skeletal measurements was accounted for by the contrast between bill and body size. Maxilla length and depth increased with body mass at a greater than isometric rate relative to both body mass and other linear skeletal measures. By contrast, no such trend was seen in a parallel analysis of 24 hornbill species (Bucerotiformes, sometimes considered ecological equivalents of toucans. The unique relationship between bill size and body mass in toucans supports the hypothesis that the evolution of a heat dissipation function has been a persistent theme of bill evolution in toucans.

  14. Life course evolution of body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Le Guélennec, Marine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure

    2018-04-15

    Although adult obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer survival, data on adiposity at different periods in life and its lifelong evolution are scarce. Our aims were to assess the associations between breast cancer survival and body size during childhood, puberty and early adulthood and body size trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Self-assessed body size at age 8, at puberty, at age 20-25 and at age 35-40 and trajectories of body size of 4,662 breast cancer survivors from the prospective E3N cohort were studied in relation to risk of death from any cause, death from breast cancer and second invasive cancer event using multivariate Cox regression models. Four trajectories of body size were identified (T1 "moderate increase," T2 "stable/low increase," T3 "increase at puberty" and T4 "constantly high"). Compared with stable body size, an increase in body size during adult life was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.01-1.60) and an increased risk of second invasive cancer event (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.06-1.47). Silhouettes at various ages were not associated with survival. Our results suggest that the evolution of body size from childhood to adulthood has a long-term influence on breast cancer survival. Although these results need to be confirmed, this work sheds light on the need to combine lifelong approaches to current BMI to better identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk of recurrence or second primary cancer, or of death. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Obesity Bias in Children: The Role of Actual and Perceived Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how children perceive their body size and whether their actual or perceived body size can explain their anti-fat views. Four hundred and fourteen 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10-year-old children were read short vignettes depicting two characters, one possessing a positive and the other a negative quality. Following each…

  16. How acoustic signals scale with individual body size: common trends across diverse taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael L. Rodríguez; Marcelo Araya-Salas; David A. Gray; Michael S. Reichert; Laurel B. Symes; Matthew R. Wilkins; Rebecca J. Safran; Gerlinde Höbel

    2015-01-01

    We use allometric analysis to explore how acoustic signals scale on individual body size and to test hypotheses about the factors shaping relationships between signals and body size. Across case studies spanning birds, crickets, tree crickets, and tree frogs, we find that most signal traits had low coefficients of variation, shallow allometric scalings, and little dispersion around the allometric function. We relate variation in these measures to the shape of mate preferences and the level of...

  17. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  18. Can foraging ecology drive the evolution of body size in a diving endotherm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available Within a single animal species, different morphs can allow for differential exploitation of foraging niches between populations, while sexual size dimorphism can provide each sex with access to different resources. Despite being potentially important agents of evolution, resource polymorphisms, and the way they operate in wild populations, remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine how trophic factors can select for different body sizes between populations and sexes in a diving endotherm. Dive depth and duration are positively related to body size in diving birds and mammals, a relationship explained by a lower mass-specific metabolic rate and greater oxygen stores in larger individuals. Based on this allometry, we predict that selection for exploiting resources situated at different depths can drive the evolution of body size in species of diving endotherms at the population and sexual level. To test this prediction, we studied the foraging ecology of Blue-eyed Shags, a group of cormorants with male-biased sexual size dimorphism from across the Southern Ocean. We found that mean body mass and relative difference in body mass between sexes varied by up to 77% and 107% between neighbouring colonies, respectively. Birds from colonies with larger individuals dived deeper than birds from colonies with smaller individuals, when accounting for sex. In parallel, males dived further offshore and deeper than females and the sexual difference in dive depth reflected the level of sexual size dimorphism at each colony. We argue that body size in this group of birds is under intense selection for diving to depths of profitable benthic prey patches and that, locally, sexual niche divergence selection can exaggerate the sexual size dimorphism of Blue-eyed Shags initially set up by sexual selection. Our findings suggest that trophic resources can select for important geographic micro-variability in body size between populations and sexes.

  19. Body size satisfaction and physical activity levels among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Lee, Chong-Do; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Macera, Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Body size satisfaction may be an important factor associated with physical activity. We analyzed data from the 2002 National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS), a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of body size satisfaction on being regularly active. Participants were aged > or =18 years with complete data on weight, race/ethnicity, physical activity level, and body size satisfaction (n = 10,021). More than half of men (55.8%) and women (53.3%) who reported being very satisfied with the body size were regularly active. After adjustment for covariates, participants who reported being somewhat or not satisfied with their body size had a 13 and 44% lower odds of being regularly active, respectively, compared with those very satisfied with their body size. When stratified by race/ethnicity, this association remained in whites (P for trend physical activity than those less satisfied. Further research is needed to explore predictors of physical activity to reduce health disparities.

  20. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Preston

    Full Text Available Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology.

  1. Illusory Changes in Body Size Modulate Body Satisfaction in a Way That Is Related to Non-Clinical Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  2. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Yann; Saner, Philippe; Philipson, Christopher; Bagchi, Robert; Ong, Robert C; Hector, Andy

    2010-07-19

    The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  3. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South‑West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the ...

  4. Oxygen no longer plays a major role in Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, H.; Sachson, W.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    When observing the long-term relationship between atmospheric oxygen and the maximum size in organisms across the Geozoic (~3.8 Ga - present), it appears that as oxygen increases, organism size grows. However, during the Phanerozoic (541 Ma - Present) oxygen levels varied, so we set out to test the hypothesis that oxygen levels drive patterns marine animal body size evolution. Expected decreases in maximum size due to a lack of oxygen do not occur, and instead, body size continues to increase regardless. In the oxygen data, a relatively low atmospheric oxygen percentage can support increasing body size, so our research tries to determine whether lifestyle affects body size in marine organisms. The genera in the data set were organized based on their tiering, motility, and feeding, such as a pelagic, fully-motile, predator. When organisms fill a certain ecological niche to take advantage of resources, they will have certain life modes, rather than randomly selected traits. For example, even in terrestrial environments, large animals have to constantly feed themselves to support their expensive terrestrial lifestyle which involves fairly consistent movement, and the structural support necessary for that movement. Only organisms with access to high energy food sources or large amounts of food can support themselves, and that is before they expend energy elsewhere. Organisms that expend energy frugally when active or have slower metabolisms in comparison to body size have a more efficient lifestyle and are generally able to grow larger, while those who have higher energy demands like predators are limited to comparatively smaller sizes. Therefore, in respect to the fossil record and modern measurements of animals, the metabolism and lifestyle of an organism dictate its body size in general. With this further clarification on the patterns of evolution, it will be easier to observe and understand the reasons for the ecological traits of organisms today.

  5. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... water content. There was no significant influence of sex on body composition of W. attu. .... determined in duplicate for each fish using 1 g sub samples in a ... fish was calculated using a formula K = 100 x W/L3 by the method.

  6. Brief Report: Body Image in Autism--Evidence from Body Size Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kosuke; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Hakarino, Koichiro; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction and communication. First-hand accounts written by individuals with ASD have shown the existence of other atypical characteristics such as difficulties with body awareness. However, few studies have examined whether such atypicalities are found more generally…

  7. The effect of body size evolution and ecology on encephalization in cave bears and extant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitschegger, Kristof

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of larger brain volumes relative to body size in Mammalia is the subject of an extensive amount of research. Early on palaeontologists were interested in the brain of cave bears, Ursus spelaeus, and described its morphology and size. However, until now, it was not possible to compare the absolute or relative brain size in a phylogenetic context due to the lack of an established phylogeny, comparative material, and phylogenetic comparative methods. In recent years, many tools for comparing traits within phylogenies were developed and the phylogenetic position of cave bears was resolved based on nuclear as well as mtDNA. Cave bears exhibit significantly lower encephalization compared to their contemporary relatives and intraspecific brain mass variation remained rather small. Encephalization was correlated with the combined dormancy-diet score. Body size evolution was a main driver in the degree of encephalization in cave bears as it increased in a much higher pace than brain size. In Ursus spelaeus, brain and body size increase over time albeit differently paced. This rate pattern is different in the highest encephalized bear species within the dataset, Ursus malayanus. The brain size in this species increased while body size heavily decreased compared to its ancestral stage. Early on in the evolution of cave bears encephalization decreased making it one of the least encephalized bear species compared to extant and extinct members of Ursidae. The results give reason to suspect that as herbivorous animals, cave bears might have exhibited a physiological buffer strategy to survive the strong seasonality of their environment. Thus, brain size was probably affected by the negative trade-off with adipose tissue as well as diet. The decrease of relative brain size in the herbivorous Ursus spelaeus is the result of a considerable increase in body size possibly in combination with environmental conditions forcing them to rest during winters.

  8. Body size and the timing of egg production in parasitoid wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Jervis, M.

    2003-01-01

    In insects several key fitness-related variables are positively correlated with intraspecific variation in body size, but little is known about size-related variation in the timing of egg production within species. Female insects are known to vary in the degree to which they concentrate egg

  9. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  10. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  11. A critical evaluation of the insect body size model and causes of metamorphosis in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect body size model posits that adult size is determined by growth rate and the duration of growth during the larval stage of development. Within the model, growth rate is regulated by many mechanistic elements that are influenced by both internal and external factors. However, the duration o...

  12. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Huttenlocker

    Full Text Available The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1 active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2 geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns.

  13. Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlocker, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the ‘Lilliput effect,’ a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  14. A Prospective Investigation of Body Size, Body Fat Composition and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luisa Saldana; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Morris, Jessica S; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil

    2017-12-19

    Obesity has been consistently associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk, but this relationship is weaker among women. In the UK Biobank, we investigated the associations between body size (body mass index [BMI], height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and body fat composition (total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage) measurements with colorectal cancer risk among 472,526 men and women followed for 5.6 years on average. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for developing colorectal cancer (2,636 incident cases) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among men, when the highest and lowest fifths were compared, BMI (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.13-1.61; P trend  body fat percentage (HR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P trend  = 0.002), and trunk fat percentage (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.58; P trend  = 0.002) were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk. For women, only waist-to-hip ratio (HR for highest versus lowest fifth = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.08-1.65; P trend  = 0.005) was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. Greater body size (overall and abdominal adiposity) was positively associated with colorectal cancer development in men. For women, abdominal adiposity, rather than overall body size, was associated with a greater colorectal cancer risk.

  15. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  16. Genetics of human body size and shape: body proportions and indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, Gregory; Roset, A; Yakovenko, K; Trofimov, S; Kobyliansky, E

    2002-01-01

    The study of the genetic component in morphological variables such as body height and weight, head and chest circumference, etc. has a rather long history. However, only a few studies investigated body proportions and configuration. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent of the possible genetic effects on the inter-individual variation of a number of body configuration indices amenable to clear functional interpretation. Two ethnically different pedigree samples were used in the study: (1) Turkmenians (805 individuals) from Central Asia, and (2) Chuvasha (732 individuals) from the Volga riverside, Russian Federation. To achieve the aim of the present study we proposed three new indices, which were subjected to a statistical-genetic analysis using modified version of "FISHER" software. The proposed indices were: (1) an integral index of torso volume (IND#1), an index reflecting a predisposition of body proportions to maintain a balance in a vertical position (IND#2), and an index of skeletal extremities volume (IND#3). Additionally, the first two principal factors (PF1 and PF2) obtained on 19 measurements of body length and breadth were subjected to genetic analysis. Variance decomposition analysis that simultaneously assess the contribution of gender, age, additive genetic effects and effects of environment shared by the nuclear family members, was applied to fit variation of the above three indices, and PF1 and PF2. The raw familial correlation of all study traits and in both samples showed: (1) all marital correlations did not differ significantly from zero; (2) parent-offspring and sibling correlations were all positive and statistically significant. The parameter estimates obtained in variance analyses showed that from 40% to 75% of inter-individual variation of the studied traits (adjusted for age and sex) were attributable to genetic effects. For PF1 and PF2 in both samples, and for IND#2 (in Chuvasha pedigrees), significant common sib

  17. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus . Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis ; medium level in N. californicus ). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus , consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  18. Body size and lean mass of brown bears across and within four diverse ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Grant V.; Gustine, David; Mangipane, Buck A.; Joly, Kyle; Leacock, William; Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Erlenbach, Joy; Sorum, Mathew; Cameron, Matthew; Belant, Jerrold L.; Cambier, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Variation in body size across populations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) is largely a function of the availability and quality of nutritional resources while plasticity within populations reflects utilized niche width with implications for population resiliency. We assessed skull size, body length, and lean mass of adult female and male brown bears in four Alaskan study areas that differed in climate, primary food resources, population density, and harvest regime. Full body-frame size, as evidenced by asymptotic skull size and body length, was achieved by 8 to 14 years of age across populations and sexes. Lean body mass of both sexes continued to increase throughout their life. Differences between populations existed for all morphological measures in both sexes, bears in ecosystems with abundant salmon were generally larger. Within all populations, broad variation was seen in body size measures of adults with females displaying roughly a 2-fold difference in lean mass and males showing a 3- to 4-fold difference. The high level of intraspecific variation seen across and within populations suggests the presence of multiple life-history strategies and niche variation relative to resource partitioning, risk tolerance or aversion, and competition. Further, this level of variation indicates broad potential to adapt to changes within a given ecosystem and across the species’ range.

  19. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  20. Body size mediated coexistence of consumers competing for resources in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, A.; Angelis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Body size is a major phenotypic trait of individuals that commonly differentiates co-occurring species. We analyzed inter-specific competitive interactions between a large consumer and smaller competitors, whose energetics, selection and giving-up behaviour on identical resource patches scaled with individual body size. The aim was to investigate whether pure metabolic constraints on patch behaviour of vagile species can determine coexistence conditions consistent with existing theoretical and experimental evidence. We used an individual-based spatially explicit simulation model at a spatial scale defined by the home range of the large consumer, which was assumed to be parthenogenic and semelparous. Under exploitative conditions, competitive coexistence occurred in a range of body size ratios between 2 and 10. Asymmetrical competition and the mechanism underlying asymmetry, determined by the scaling of energetics and patch behaviour with consumer body size, were the proximate determinant of inter-specific coexistence. The small consumer exploited patches more efficiently, but searched for profitable patches less effectively than the larger competitor. Therefore, body-size related constraints induced niche partitioning, allowing competitive coexistence within a set of conditions where the large consumer maintained control over the small consumer and resource dynamics. The model summarises and extends the existing evidence of species coexistence on a limiting resource, and provides a mechanistic explanation for decoding the size-abundance distribution patterns commonly observed at guild and community levels. ?? Oikos.

  1. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  2. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  3. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  5. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  6. AN AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO MODELING MAMMALIAN EVOLUTION: HOW RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION AND PREDATION AFFECT BODY SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE KANDLER; JEROEN B. SMAERS

    2012-01-01

    Macro-evolutionary investigations into cross-scale patterns of body size variation have put many of the pieces of the evolutionary body size puzzle in place. To further tackle micro- and meso-scale process-based reasons underlying changes in body size, researchers compare natural populations across different habitat structures, assessing which habitat structures correspond to which changes in body size variation. The complex multi-scale dynamics underlying the effect of the external environme...

  7. The non-linear relationship between body size and function in parrotfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokrantz, J.; Nyström, M.; Thyresson, M.; Johansson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Parrotfishes are a group of herbivores that play an important functional role in structuring benthic communities on coral reefs. Increasingly, these fish are being targeted by fishermen, and resultant declines in biomass and abundance may have severe consequences for the dynamics and regeneration of coral reefs. However, the impact of overfishing extends beyond declining fish stocks. It can also lead to demographic changes within species populations where mean body size is reduced. The effect of reduced mean body size on population dynamics is well described in literature but virtually no information exists on how this may influence important ecological functions. The study investigated how one important function, scraping (i.e., the capacity to remove algae and open up bare substratum for coral larval settlement), by three common species of parrotfishes ( Scarus niger, Chlorurus sordidus, and Chlorurus strongylocephalus) on coral reefs at Zanzibar (Tanzania) was influenced by the size of individual fishes. There was a non-linear relationship between body size and scraping function for all species examined, and impact through scraping was also found to increase markedly when fish reached a size of 15 20 cm. Thus, coral reefs which have a high abundance and biomass of parrotfish may nonetheless be functionally impaired if dominated by small-sized individuals. Reductions in mean body size within parrotfish populations could, therefore, have functional impacts on coral reefs that previously have been overlooked.

  8. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-11-02

    Many animals rely on their escape performance during predator encounters. Because of its dependence on body size and temperature, escape velocity is fully characterized by three measures, absolute value, size-corrected value, and its response to temperature (thermal sensitivity). The primary target of the selection imposed by predators is poorly understood. We examined predator (dragonfly larva)-imposed selection on prey (newt larvae) body size and characteristics of escape velocity using replicated and controlled predation experiments under seminatural conditions. Specifically, because these species experience a wide range of temperatures throughout their larval phases, we predict that larvae achieving high swimming velocities across temperatures will have a selective advantage over more thermally sensitive individuals. Nonzero selection differentials indicated that predators selected for prey body size and both absolute and size-corrected maximum swimming velocity. Comparison of selection differentials with control confirmed selection only on body size, i.e., dragonfly larvae preferably preyed on small newt larvae. Maximum swimming velocity and its thermal sensitivity showed low group repeatability, which contributed to non-detectable selection on both characteristics of escape performance. In the newt-dragonfly larvae interaction, body size plays a more important role than maximum values and thermal sensitivity of swimming velocity during predator escape. This corroborates the general importance of body size in predator-prey interactions. The absence of an appropriate control in predation experiments may lead to potentially misleading conclusions about the primary target of predator-imposed selection. Insights from predation experiments contribute to our understanding of the link between performance and fitness, and further improve mechanistic models of predator-prey interactions and food web dynamics.

  9. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R.

    2001-01-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  10. Dependence of a whole body counting efficiency on body size and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia; Campos, Vicente P.; Berti, Eduardo A.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    An approach is described to evaluate the counting efficiency dependence, on the geometry measurement and on the material density, for whole body measurement. The counting efficiency is evaluated using Monte Carlo Method to simulate the history of the photons, from its emission to its total absorption or escape from the detector. Theoretical calculations of the counting efficiency are presented for two phantoms of the BOMAB family. The phantoms are considered to be filled with water and with a material constituted as described by Snyder et al. (author)

  11. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41) or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40). Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs) measured. Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  12. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  13. Tradeoffs in the evolution of caste and body size in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence P McGlynn

    Full Text Available The efficient investment of resources is often the route to ecological success, and the adaptability of resource investment may play a critical role in promoting biodiversity. The ants of the "hyperdiverse" genus Pheidole produce two discrete sterile castes, soldiers and minor workers. Within Pheidole, there is tremendous interspecific variation in proportion of soldiers. The causes and correlates of caste ratio variation among species of Pheidole remain enigmatic. Here we test whether a body size threshold model accounts for interspecific variation in caste ratio in Pheidole, such that species with larger body sizes produce relatively fewer soldiers within their colonies. We evaluated the caste ratio of 26 species of Pheidole and found that the body size of workers accounts for interspecific variation in the production of soldiers as we predicted. Twelve species sampled from one forest in Costa Rica yielded the same relationship as found in previously published data from many localities. We conclude that production of soldiers in the most species-rich group of ants is regulated by a body size threshold mechanism, and that the great variation in body size and caste ratio in Pheidole plays a role in niche divergence in this rapidly evolving taxon.

  14. A macroevolutionary explanation for energy equivalence in the scaling of body size and population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damuth, John

    2007-05-01

    Across a wide array of animal species, mean population densities decline with species body mass such that the rate of energy use of local populations is approximately independent of body size. This "energetic equivalence" is particularly evident when ecological population densities are plotted across several or more orders of magnitude in body mass and is supported by a considerable body of evidence. Nevertheless, interpretation of the data has remained controversial, largely because of the difficulty of explaining the origin and maintenance of such a size-abundance relationship in terms of purely ecological processes. Here I describe results of a simulation model suggesting that an extremely simple mechanism operating over evolutionary time can explain the major features of the empirical data. The model specifies only the size scaling of metabolism and a process where randomly chosen species evolve to take resource energy from other species. This process of energy exchange among particular species is distinct from a random walk of species abundances and creates a situation in which species populations using relatively low amounts of energy at any body size have an elevated extinction risk. Selective extinction of such species rapidly drives size-abundance allometry in faunas toward approximate energetic equivalence and maintains it there.

  15. Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans body size and male tail development by the novel gene lon-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korswagen Hendrik C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In C. elegans and other nematode species, body size is determined by the composition of the extracellular cuticle as well as by the nuclear DNA content of the underlying hypodermis. Mutants that are defective in these processes can exhibit either a short or a long body size phenotype. Several mutations that give a long body size (Lon phenotype have been characterized and found to be regulated by the DBL-1/TGF-β pathway, that controls post-embryonic growth and male tail development. Results Here we characterize a novel gene affecting body size. lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that is highly conserved in Rhabditid nematodes. lon-8 regulates larval elongation as well as male tail development. In both processes, lon-8 appears to function independently of the Sma/Mab pathway. Rather, lon-8 genetically interacts with dpy-11 and dpy-18, which encode cuticle collagen modifying enzymes. Conclusion The novel gene lon-8 encodes a secreted product of the hypodermis that controls body size and male ray morphology in C. elegans. lon-8 genetically interacts with enzymes that affect the composition of the cuticle.

  16. Heritability of body size in the polar bears of Western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, René M; Davis, Corey S; Richardson, Evan S; Lunn, Nicholas J; Coltman, David W

    2018-04-18

    Among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), fitness is dependent on body size through males' abilities to win mates, females' abilities to provide for their young and all bears' abilities to survive increasingly longer fasting periods caused by climate change. In the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation (near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada), polar bears have declined in body size and condition, but nothing is known about the genetic underpinnings of body size variation, which may be subject to natural selection. Here, we combine a 4449-individual pedigree and an array of 5,433 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide the first quantitative genetic study of polar bears. We used animal models to estimate heritability (h 2 ) among polar bears handled between 1966 and 2011, obtaining h 2 estimates of 0.34-0.48 for strictly skeletal traits and 0.18 for axillary girth (which is also dependent on fatness). We genotyped 859 individuals with the SNP array to test for marker-trait association and combined p-values over genetic pathways using gene-set analysis. Variation in all traits appeared to be polygenic, but we detected one region of moderately large effect size in body length near a putative noncoding RNA in an unannotated region of the genome. Gene-set analysis suggested that variation in body length was associated with genes in the regulatory cascade of cyclin expression, which has previously been associated with body size in mice. A greater understanding of the genetic architecture of body size variation will be valuable in understanding the potential for adaptation in polar bear populations challenged by climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  18. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Flajšman

    Full Text Available We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults, hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea, although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  19. Body size shifts and early warning signals precede the historic collapse of whale stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Christopher F; Blanchard, Julia L; Nash, Kirsty L; Hindell, Mark A; Ozgul, Arpat

    2017-06-22

    Predicting population declines is a key challenge in the face of global environmental change. Abundance-based early warning signals have been shown to precede population collapses; however, such signals are sensitive to the low reliability of abundance estimates. Here, using historical data on whales harvested during the 20th century, we demonstrate that early warning signals can be present not only in the abundance data, but also in the more reliable body size data of wild populations. We show that during the period of commercial whaling, the mean body size of caught whales declined dramatically (by up to 4 m over a 70-year period), leading to early warning signals being detectable up to 40 years before the global collapse of whale stocks. Combining abundance and body size data can reduce the length of the time series required to predict collapse, and decrease the chances of false positive early warning signals.

  20. Comparison of organ doses in human phantoms: variations due to body size and posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xu; Xiang-Hong, Jia; Xue-Jun, Yu; Zhan-Chun, Pan; Qian, Liu; Chun-Xin, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Organ dose calculations performed using human phantoms can provide estimates of astronauts' health risks due to cosmic radiation. However, the characteristics of such phantoms strongly affect the estimation precision. To investigate organ dose variations with body size and posture in human phantoms, a non-uniform rational B-spline boundary surfaces model was constructed based on cryo-section images. This model was used to establish four phantoms with different body size and posture parameters, whose organs parameters were changed simultaneously and which were voxelised with 4x4x4 mm"3 resolution. Then, using Monte Carlo transport code, the organ doses caused by ≤500 MeV isotropic incident protons were calculated. The dose variations due to body size differences within a certain range were negligible, and the doses received in crouching and standing-up postures were similar. Therefore, a standard Chinese phantom could be established, and posture changes cannot effectively protect astronauts during solar particle events. (authors)

  1. From the Cover: Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Karr, Jered A.

    2012-07-01

    Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flying insects that have high metabolic oxygen demands. Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO2) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects.

  2. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  3. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  4. Body size and premolar evolution in the early-middle eocene euprimates of Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katrina E; Rose, Kenneth D; Perry, Jonathan M G

    2014-01-01

    The earliest euprimates to arrive in North America were larger-bodied notharctids and smaller-bodied omomyids. Through the Eocene, notharctids generally continued to increase in body size, whereas omomyids generally radiated within small- and increasingly mid-sized niches in the middle Eocene. This study examines the influence of changing body size and diet on the evolution of the lower fourth premolar in Eocene euprimates. The P4 displays considerable morphological variability in these taxa. Despite the fact that most studies of primate dental morphology have focused on the molars, P4 can also provide important paleoecological insights. We analyzed the P4 from 177 euprimate specimens, representing 35 species (11 notharctids and 24 omomyids), in three time bins of approximately equal duration: early Wasatchian, late Wasatchian, and Bridgerian. Two-dimensional surface landmarks were collected from lingual photographs, capturing important variation in cusp position and tooth shape. Disparity metrics were calculated and compared for the three time bins. In the early Eocene, notharctids have a more molarized P4 than omomyids. During the Bridgerian, expanding body size range of omomyids was accompanied by a significant increase in P4 disparity and convergent evolution of the semimolariform condition in the largest omomyines. P4 morphology relates to diet in early euprimates, although patterns vary between families. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cultural constructions of "obesity": understanding body size, social class and gender in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnitzky, Adina K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Body Size in Mercury Accumulation Biokinetic of Cockle Shell (Anadara Granosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyu Retno Prihatiningsih

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury biokinetic in cockle shell (Anadara granosa) through water pathway has been investigated under laboratory condition. The objective of research is to find the effect of body size in mercury biokinetic of Anadara granosa and to find bioindicator based on biokinetic parameter. The research shows that body size of Anadara granosa give an effect to concentration factor and could barrier mercury contaminant. Concentration factor for size 1.9, 2.5 and 3.9 cm of biota moving high and reach steady state condition after 24 days. Concentration factor of Anadara granosa in size 1.9, 2.5 and 3.9 is 0.1476, 0.1645 and 0.2573 day. Based on mechanism of mercury biokinetic process, it was proof that Anadara granosa is an ideal invertebrate for bioindicator. (author)

  7. Island Rule, quantitative genetics and brain-body size evolution in Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Raia, Pasquale

    2017-06-28

    Colonization of islands often activate a complex chain of adaptive events that, over a relatively short evolutionary time, may drive strong shifts in body size, a pattern known as the Island Rule. It is arguably difficult to perform a direct analysis of the natural selection forces behind such a change in body size. Here, we used quantitative evolutionary genetic models, coupled with simulations and pattern-oriented modelling, to analyse the evolution of brain and body size in Homo floresiensis , a diminutive hominin species that appeared around 700 kya and survived up to relatively recent times (60-90 kya) on Flores Island, Indonesia. The hypothesis of neutral evolution was rejected in 97% of the simulations, and estimated selection gradients are within the range found in living natural populations. We showed that insularity may have triggered slightly different evolutionary trajectories for body and brain size, which means explaining the exceedingly small cranial volume of H. floresiensis requires additional selective forces acting on brain size alone. Our analyses also support previous conclusions that H. floresiensis may be most likely derived from an early Indonesian H. erectus , which is coherent with currently accepted biogeographical scenario for Homo expansion out of Africa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Tactic changes in dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus sneaker males: effects of body size and nest availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, T; Kaneko, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2013-02-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine the effects of nest availability and body size on changes in male mating tactics from sneaking to nest-holding in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus. In the field, the body size of nest-holding males decreased from early to mid-breeding season, suggesting the possibility of a change in the tactics of sneaker males to nest-holding. Many sneaker males did not use vacant spawning nests even when size-matched nests were available, but they continued to reproduce as sneakers. Similarly, in aquarium experiments with available vacant nests, some sneaker males became nest-holders irrespective of their body size, but some did not. These results showed that nest availability is not a limiting factor for changes in tactics by sneaker males in this species. Because tactic-unchanged sneaker males were co-housed with larger nest-holding males in the tanks, the body size of nearby nest-holding males may have affected the decision to change tactics for sneaker males. Moreover, smaller individuals among tactic-changed males tended to spend more time until spawning, probably because they had relatively larger costs and smaller benefits of reproduction as nest-holding males compared to larger males. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Body size and symbiotic status influence gonad development in Aiptasia pallida anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Judith F; Murphy, Grant K; Roark, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Pale anemones ( Aiptasia pallida ) coexist with dinoflagellates (primarily Symbiodinium minutum ) in a mutualistic relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these symbionts in gonad development of anemone hosts. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones were subjected to light cycles that induced gametogenesis. These anemones were then sampled weekly for nine weeks, and gonad development was analyzed histologically. Anemone size was measured as mean body column diameter, and oocytes or sperm follicles were counted for each anemone. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the influence of body size and symbiotic status on whether gonads were present and on the number of oocytes or sperm follicles produced. Body size predicted whether gonads were present, with larger anemones being more likely than smaller anemones to develop gonads. Both body size and symbiotic status predicted gonad size, such that larger and symbiotic anemones produced more oocytes and sperm follicles than smaller and aposymbiotic anemones. Overall, only 22 % of aposymbiotic females produced oocytes, whereas 63 % of symbiotic females produced oocytes. Similarly, 6 % of aposymbiotic males produced sperm follicles, whereas 60 % of symbiotic males produced sperm follicles. Thus, while gonads were present in 62 % of symbiotic anemones, they were present in only 11 % of aposymbiotic anemones. These results indicate that dinoflagellate symbionts influence gonad development and thus sexual maturation in both female and male Aiptasia pallida anemones. This finding substantiates and expands our current understanding of the importance of symbionts in the development and physiology of cnidarian hosts.

  10. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  11. Body size and shape misperception and visual adaptation: An overview of an emerging research paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Kirsten L; Mond, Jonathan; Stephen, Ian D; Mitchison, Deborah; Stevenson, Richard J; Hay, Phillipa; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-12-01

    Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception. The implications of these studies for our understanding of the neural and cognitive representation of human bodies, along with their implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Understanding mismatches in body size, speed and power among adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lyndon M; Naughton, Geraldine A; Denny, Greg; Patton, Declan; Hartwig, Tim; Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    With adolescent sport increasingly challenged by mismatches in size, new strategies are important to maximize participation. The objectives were to (1) improve the understanding of mismatches in physical size, speed and power in adolescent rugby union players, (2) explore associations between size and performance with demographic, playing-history, and injury profiles, and (3) explore the applicability of existing criteria for age/body mass-based dispensation (playing-down) strategies. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and eighty-five male community rugby union players were recruited from three Australian states selected to represent community-based U12, U13, U14 and U15 players. Body mass, stature, speed (10, 30, and 40 m sprints) and lower-leg power (relative peak power and relative peak force) were measured. Independent student t-tests, linear regressions and Chi square analyses were undertaken. Mean values in age groups for size, speed and power masked considerable overlap in the ranges within specific age groups of adolescent rugby players. Only a small proportion of players (approximately 5%) shared the highest and lowest tertiles for speed, relative peak power and body mass. Physical size was not related to injury. The mean body mass of current community rugby union players was above the 75th percentile on normative growth-charts. The notion that bigger, faster, and more powerful characteristics occur simultaneously in adolescent rugby players was not supported in the present study. Current practices in body mass-based criteria for playing down an age group lack a sufficient evidence for decision-making. Dispensation solely based on body mass may not address mismatch in junior rugby union. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  14. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  15. Physiological Assessment and Behavioral Interaction of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : The Relationship of Fish Size and Growth to Smoltification in Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, Brian R.; Larsen, Donald A.; Lee-Pawlak, Beeda; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative influence of size and growth rate on downstream migratory disposition and physiology in yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) smolts. A group of juvenile chinook salmon was size graded into small and large categories with half the fish in each group reared at an elevated temperature, resulting in four distinct treatment groups: Large Warm (LW), Large Cool (LC), Small Warm (SW), and Small Cool (SC). Fish from warm-water treatment groups displayed significantly higher growth rates than cool-water groups. Fish were tagged and released into a natural creek where downstream movement was monitored. For each of the two releases, fish that migrated past a weir within the first 5 days postrelease had significantly higher spring growth rates than fish that did not migrate within that period. Significant differences in length for the same fish were only found in the second release. Also for the second release, fish from the warm water treatment groups were recovered in higher proportions than fish from cool water groups. The results indicate that increased growth rate in the spring has a positive relation to downstream migratory disposition. Furthermore, there is a relation between smolt size and migration; however, this relation is weaker than that found between growth rate and migration.

  16. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  18. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  19. The genetic basis of natural variation in mushroom body size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Cappuyns, Elisa; Ayroles, Julien F; Magwire, Michael M; Vulsteke, Veerle; Clements, Jason; Mackay, Trudy F C; Callaerts, Patrick

    2015-12-11

    Genetic variation in brain size may provide the basis for the evolution of the brain and complex behaviours. The genetic substrate and the selective pressures acting on brain size are poorly understood. Here we use the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to map polymorphic variants affecting natural variation in mushroom body morphology. We identify 139 genes and 39 transcription factors and confirm effects on development and adult plasticity. We show correlations between morphology and aggression, sleep and lifespan. We propose that natural variation in adult brain size is controlled by interaction of the environment with gene networks controlling development and plasticity.

  20. Are rates of species diversification and body size evolution coupled in the ferns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testo, Weston L; Sundue, Michael A

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between phenotypic evolution and lineage diversification is a central goal of evolutionary biology. To extend our understanding of the role morphological evolution plays in the diversification of plants, we examined the relationship between leaf size evolution and lineage diversification across ferns. We tested for an association between body size evolution and lineage diversification using a comparative phylogenetic approach that combined a time-calibrated phylogeny and leaf size data set for 2654 fern species. Rates of leaf size change and lineage diversification were estimated using BAMM, and rate correlations were performed for rates obtained for all families and individual species. Rates and patterns of rate-rate correlation were also analyzed separately for terrestrial and epiphytic taxa. We find no significant correlation between rates of leaf area change and lineage diversification, nor was there a difference in this pattern when growth habit is considered. Our results are consistent with the findings of an earlier study that reported decoupled rates of body size evolution and diversification in the Polypodiaceae, but conflict with a recent study that reported a positive correlation between body size evolution and lineage diversification rates in the tree fern family Cyatheaceae. Our findings indicate that lineage diversification in ferns is largely decoupled from shifts in body size, in contrast to several other groups of organisms. Speciation in ferns appears to be primarily driven by hybridization and isolation along elevational gradients, rather than adaptive radiations featuring prominent morphological restructuring. The exceptional diversity of leaf morphologies in ferns appears to reflect a combination of ecophysiological constraints and adaptations that are not key innovations. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  1. BODY SIZE AND HAREM SIZE IN MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: MANIPULATING SELECTION WITH SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Langston, Nancy; Gori, Dave

    1996-10-01

    We experimentally manipulated the strength of selection in the field on red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to test hypotheses about contrasting selective forces that favor either large or small males in sexually size dimorphic birds. Selander (1972) argued that sexual selection favors larger males, while survival selection eventually stabilizes male size because larger males do not survive as well as smaller males during harsh winters. Searcy (1979a) proposed instead that sexual selection may be self limiting: male size might be stabilized not by overwinter mortality, but by breeding-season sexual selection that favors smaller males. Under conditions of energetic stress, smaller males should be able to display more and thus achieve higher reproductive success. Using feeders that provisioned males or females but not both, we produced conditions that mimicked the extremes of natural conditions. We found experimental support for the hypothesis that when food is abundant, sexual selection favors larger males. But even under conditions of severe energetic stress, smaller males did not gain larger harems, as the self-limiting hypothesis predicted. Larger males were more energetically stressed than smaller males, but in ways that affected their future reproductive output rather than their current reproductive performance. Stressed males that returned had smaller wings and tails than those that did not return; among returning stressed males, relative harem sizes were inversely related to wing and tail length. Thus, male body size may be stabilized not by survival costs during the non-breeding season, nor by energetic costs during the breeding season, but by costs of future reproduction that larger males pay for their increased breeding-season effort. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Body Size of Contemporary Youth in Different Parts of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Howard V.

    1969-01-01

    Based on body size measurements accumulated between 1950-1960, comparisons were made of 13-year-old girls and 15-year-old boys from North and South America, northern, central, and southwest Asia, Oceania, Australia, Africa, the Near East, and Europe. (DO)

  3. Association between body size and blood pressure in children from different ethnic origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LA de Hoog, Marieke; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years) from different ethnic origins. Method: Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923), Turkish (n=99), Moroccan (n=187), Black-African (n=67) and Black-Caribbean (n=121). Data on

  4. The art of being small : brain-body size scaling in minute parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma

    2017-01-01

    Haller’s rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains than large animals. This brain-body size relationship may enable small animals to maintain similar levels of brain performance as large animals. However, it also causes small animals to spend an exceptionally large proportion

  5. Variation in male body size and reproductive allocation in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, M.; den Boer, S. P. A.; Nash, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    species. In 2008 and 2009, we revisited a Panamanian population of Atta colombica leafcutter ants to partially repeat and complement a study of more than 15 years ago. We compared within- and between-colony variation in male body size (mass and width of head, mesosoma and gaster) and sperm characteristics...

  6. Childhood Body Size and the Risk of Malignant Melanoma in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyle, Kathrine D; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2017-01-01

    years and age 13 years had a significantly increased MM risk compared with children who grew taller between those ages. Birth weight was positively associated with MM. We conclude that associations between body size and MM originate early in life and are driven largely by height and birth weight...

  7. Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence, and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Craig C; Pratt, Renae C; Bank, Sarah; Bourke, Gayleen; Bragg, Jason G; Doughty, Paul; Keogh, J Scott; Laver, Rebecca J; Potter, Sally; Teasdale, Luisa C; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Oliver, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia-Gehyra nana and close relatives-we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing, and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages and infer their divergence history and patterns of morphological evolution. Gehyra nana is found to include nine divergent lineages and is paraphyletic with four other species from the Kimberley region of north-west Australia. Across these 13 taxa, 12 of which are restricted to rocky habitats, several lineages overlap geographically, including on the diverse Kimberley islands. Morphological evolution is dominated by body size shifts, and both body size and shape have evolved gradually across the group. However, larger body size shifts are observed among overlapping taxa than among closely related parapatric lineages of G. nana, and sympatric lineages are more divergent than expected at random. Whether elevated body size differences among sympatric lineages are due to ecological sorting or character displacement remains to be determined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Density, body size, and reproduction of feral house mice on Gough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-02

    May 2, 1991 ... 1992,27(1). Density, body size, and reproduction of feral house mice on Gough Island ... and mean monthly air temperatures (at sea level) range between 9°C ..... Concern about the adverse effect of introduced mice on island.

  9. The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ruminants to reach, for food when fed through barriers. ... The barrier allowed the neck to pass through, but not the shoulders. It was hypothesized that goats would have larger reach than sheep and that for each species, horizontal reach forwards, F, ...

  10. Body size and the rate of spread of invasive ladybird beetles in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemptinne, J. L.; Magro, A.; Evans, E.W.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2012), s. 595-605 ISSN 1387-3547 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Invasiveness * Body size * Reproductive rate * Coccinella septempunctata * Harmonia axyridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012

  11. Associations among body size across the life course, adult height and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, L V; Missmer, S A; Bijon, A; Gusto, G; Gelot, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Mesrine, S; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Kvaskoff, M

    2017-08-01

    Are body size across the life course and adult height associated with endometriosis? Endometriosis is associated with lean body size during childhood, adolescence and adulthood; tall total adult height; and tall sitting height. The literature suggests that both adult body size and height are associated with endometriosis risk, but few studies have investigated the role of body size across the life course. Additionally, no study has investigated the relationships between components of height and endometriosis. We used a nested case-control design within E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale), a prospective cohort of French women. Data were updated every 2-3 years through self-administered questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were computed using logistic regression models adjusted for a priori confounding factors. A total of 2416 endometriosis cases were reported as surgically ascertained among the 61 208 included women. The odds of endometriosis were lower among women who reported having a large versus lean body size at 8 years (P for trend = 0.003), at menarche (P for trend endometriosis compared to those in the lowest (endometriosis. Endometriosis cases may be prone to misclassification; however, we restricted our case definition to surgically-confirmed cases, which showed a high validation rate. Body size is based on retrospective self-report, which may be subject to recall bias. The results of this study suggest that endometriosis is positively associated with lean body size across the life course and total adult height. They also suggest that components of height are associated with endometriosis, which should be investigated further. The Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (MGEN); the European Community; the French League against Cancer (LNCC); Gustave Roussy; the French Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm). L.V.F. was supported by a T32 grant (#HD060454) in reproductive, perinatal and pediatric

  12. Beauty, body size and wages: Evidence from a unique data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffice, Sonia; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2016-09-01

    We analyze how attractiveness rated at the start of the interview in the German General Social Survey is related to weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), separately by gender and accounting for interviewers' characteristics or fixed effects. We show that height, weight, and BMI all strongly contribute to male and female attractiveness when attractiveness is rated by opposite-sex interviewers, and that anthropometric characteristics are irrelevant to male interviewers when assessing male attractiveness. We also estimate whether, controlling for beauty, body size measures are related to hourly wages. We find that anthropometric attributes play a significant role in wage regressions in addition to attractiveness, showing that body size cannot be dismissed as a simple component of beauty. Our findings are robust to controlling for health status and accounting for selection into working. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  14. Does the experience of ownership over a rubber hand change body size perception in anorexia nervosa patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Anouk; Smeets, Monique A M; Postma, Albert; van Elburg, Annemarie; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients show disturbances in body size experience. Here, malleability of body representation was assessed by inducing the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Specifically the impact of the illusion on body size estimation was investigated.Thirty AN patients and thirty healthy females

  15. Interactive effects of body-size structure and adaptive foraging on food-web stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Lotta; Drossel, Barbara; Brose, Ulrich; Guill, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Body-size structure of food webs and adaptive foraging of consumers are two of the dominant concepts of our understanding how natural ecosystems maintain their stability and diversity. The interplay of these two processes, however, is a critically important yet unresolved issue. To fill this gap in our knowledge of ecosystem stability, we investigate dynamic random and niche model food webs to evaluate the proportion of persistent species. We show that stronger body-size structures and faster adaptation stabilise these food webs. Body-size structures yield stabilising configurations of interaction strength distributions across food webs, and adaptive foraging emphasises links to resources closer to the base. Moreover, both mechanisms combined have a cumulative effect. Most importantly, unstructured random webs evolve via adaptive foraging into stable size-structured food webs. This offers a mechanistic explanation of how size structure adaptively emerges in complex food webs, thus building a novel bridge between these two important stabilising mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda G Boothroyd

    Full Text Available Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byproduct of mere exposure. Here we test the relative importance of these two explanations for variation in body preferences. Two studies were conducted where female observers were exposed to pictures of high or low BMI women which were either aspirational (healthy, attractive models in high status clothes or non-aspirational (eating disordered patients in grey leotards, or to combinations thereof, in order to manipulate their body-weight preferences which were tested at baseline and at post-test. Overall, results showed good support for visual diet effects (seeing a string of small or large bodies resulted in a change from pre- to post-test whether the bodies were aspirational or not and also some support for the associative learning explanation (exposure to aspirational images of overweight women induced a towards preferring larger bodies, even when accompanied by equal exposure to lower weight bodies in the non-aspirational category. Thus, both influences may act in parallel.

  17. German and English Bodies: No Evidence for Cross-Linguistic Differences in Preferred Orthographic Grain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Schmalz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that words and nonwords with many body neighbours (i.e., words with the same orthographic body, e.g., 'cat, brat, at' are read faster than items with fewer body neighbours. This body-N effect has been explored in the context of cross-linguistic differences in reading where it has been reported that the size of the effect differs as a function of orthographic depth: readers of English, a deep orthography, show stronger facilitation than readers of German, a shallow orthography. Such findings support the psycholinguistic grain size theory, which proposes that readers of English rely on large orthographic units to reduce ambiguity of print-to-speech correspondences in their orthography. Here we re-examine the evidence for this pattern and find that there is no reliable evidence for such a cross-linguistic difference. Re-analysis of a key study (Ziegler et al., 2001, analysis of data from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007, and a large-scale analysis of nine new experiments all support this conclusion. Using Bayesian analysis techniques, we find little evidence of the body-N effect in most tasks and conditions. Where we do find evidence for a body-N effect (lexical decision for nonwords, we find evidence against an interaction with language.

  18. Adaptive evolution of body size subject to indirect effect in trophic cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Meng; Hao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    Trophic cascades represent a classic example of indirect effect and are wide-spread in nature. Their ecological impact are well established, but the evolutionary consequences have received even less theoretical attention. We theoretically and numerically investigate the trait (i.e., body size of consumer) evolution in response to indirect effect in a trophic cascade system. By applying the quantitative trait evolutionary theory and the adaptive dynamic theory, we formulate and explore two different types of eco-evolutionary resource-consumer-predator trophic cascade model. First, an eco-evolutionary model incorporating the rapid evolution is formulated to investigate the effect of rapid evolution of the consumer's body size, and to explore the impact of density-mediate indirect effect on the population dynamics and trait dynamics. Next, by employing the adaptive dynamic theory, a long-term evolutionary model of consumer body size is formulated to evaluate the effect of long-term evolution on the population dynamics and the effect of trait-mediate indirect effect. Those models admit rich dynamics that has not been observed yet in empirical studies. It is found that, both in the trait-mediated and density-mediated system, the body size of consumer in predator-consumer-resource interaction (indirect effect) evolves smaller than that in consumer-resource and predator-consumer interaction (direct effect). Moreover, in the density-mediated system, we found that the evolution of consumer body size contributes to avoiding consumer extinction (i.e., evolutionary rescue). The trait-mediate and density-mediate effects may produce opposite evolutionary response. This study suggests that the trophic cascade indirect effect affects consumer evolution, highlights a more comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary force. The modeling approaches provide avenue for study on indirect effects from an evolutionary perspective

  19. Nasonia Parasitic Wasps Escape from Haller's Rule by Diphasic, Partially Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling and Selective Neuropil Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Jitte; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is

  20. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Knapp

    Full Text Available In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.

  1. Size Effect of the 2-D Bodies on the Geothermal Gradient and Q-A Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, M.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Using numerical models we have investigated some of the criticisms on the Q-A plot of related to the effect of size of the body on the slope and reduced heat flow. The effects of horizontal conduction depend on the relative difference of radioactivity between the body and the country rock (assuming constant thermal conductivity). Horizontal heat transfer due to different 2-D bodies was numerically studied in order to quantify resulting temperature differences at the Moho and errors on the predication of Qr (reduced heat flow). Using the two end member distributions of radioactivity, the step model (thickness 10km) and exponential model, different 2-D models of horizontal scale (width) ranging from 10 -500 km were investigated. Increasing the horizontal size of the body tends to move observations closer towards the 1-D solution. A temperature difference of 50 oC is produced (for the step model) at Moho between models of width 10 km versus 500 km. In other words the 1-D solution effectively provides large scale averaging in terms of heat flow and temperature field in the lithosphere. For bodies’ ≤ 100 km wide the geotherms at shallower levels are affected, but at depth they converge and are 50 oC lower than that of the infinite plate model temperature. In case of 2-D bodies surface heat flow is decreased due to horizontal transfer of heat, which will shift the Q-A point vertically downward on the Q-A plot. The smaller the size of the body, the more will be the deviation from the 1-D solution and the more will be the movement of Q-A point downwards on a Q-A plot. On the Q-A plot, a limited points of bodies of different sizes with different radioactivity contrast (for the step and exponential model), exactly reproduce the reduced heat flow Qr. Thus the size of the body can affect the slope on a Q-A plot but Qr is not changed. Therefore, Qr ~ 32 mWm-2 obtained from the global terrain average Q-A plot represents the best estimate of stable continental mantle heat

  2. Three-month-old human infants use vocal cues of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Wertz, Annie E; Bryant, Gregory A; Wynn, Karen

    2017-06-14

    Differences in vocal fundamental ( F 0 ) and average formant ( F n ) frequencies covary with body size in most terrestrial mammals, such that larger organisms tend to produce lower frequency sounds than smaller organisms, both between species and also across different sex and life-stage morphs within species. Here we examined whether three-month-old human infants are sensitive to the relationship between body size and sound frequencies. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we found that infants looked longer at stimuli inconsistent with the relationship-that is, a smaller organism producing lower frequency sounds, and a larger organism producing higher frequency sounds-than at stimuli that were consistent with it. This effect was stronger for fundamental frequency than it was for average formant frequency. These results suggest that by three months of age, human infants are already sensitive to the biologically relevant covariation between vocalization frequencies and visual cues to body size. This ability may be a consequence of developmental adaptations for building a phenotype capable of identifying and representing an organism's size, sex and life-stage. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Porters of the eastern hills of Nepal: Body size and load weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malville, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    This study documents the activities of 635 porters transporting goods along three traditional trade routes of eastern Nepal. Nearly 95% of the porters were male. They ranged in age from 10-65 years, and most of them had begun to perform long-distance portage at 12-15 years of age. Mean body mass and height of adult males in the combined sample (n = 438) was 49.7 +/- 5.0 kg and 155.5 +/- 6.5 cm, respectively. Adult males age 20-49 years carried loads of 73 +/- 15 kg, equivalent to 146% +/- 30% of body mass. Body size of adult males was not a strong predictor of load weight. The correlation between body mass and load was r = 0.24 (P porters to carry such large loads in spite of their small body size is the ability to pace themselves by making frequent rest stops. Heart rate monitoring of 26 adult male commercial porters demonstrated how porters regulate heart rate and energy expenditure by resting the load every two to three minutes on the T-headed walking stick (tokma) and by setting the load periodically on load-resting platforms (chautaras) for longer recovery periods. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:1-11, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    ), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program...... effects under the assumptions of no nonadditive effect. The pattern of age trends was inconsistent. However, when significant there was a decrease in heritability with advancing age. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that adult body size, shape, and composition are highly heritable in both women and men...

  6. Balancing the dilution and oddity effects: decisions depend on body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolen M Rodgers

    Full Text Available Grouping behaviour, common across the animal kingdom, is known to reduce an individual's risk of predation; particularly through dilution of individual risk and predator confusion (predator inability to single out an individual for attack. Theory predicts greater risk of predation to individuals more conspicuous to predators by difference in appearance from the group (the 'oddity' effect. Thus, animals should choose group mates close in appearance to themselves (eg. similar size, whilst also choosing a large group.We used the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a well known model species of group-living freshwater fish, in a series of binary choice trials investigating the outcome of conflict between preferences for large and phenotypically matched groups along a predation risk gradient. We found body-size dependent differences in the resultant social decisions. Large fish preferred shoaling with size-matched individuals, while small fish demonstrated no preference. There was a trend towards reduced preferences for the matched shoal under increased predation risk. Small fish were more active than large fish, moving between shoals more frequently. Activity levels increased as predation risk decreased. We found no effect of unmatched shoal size on preferences or activity.Our results suggest that predation risk and individual body size act together to influence shoaling decisions. Oddity was more important for large than small fish, reducing in importance at higher predation risks. Dilution was potentially of limited importance at these shoal sizes. Activity levels may relate to how much sampling of each shoal was needed by the test fish during decision making. Predation pressure may select for better decision makers to survive to larger size, or that older, larger fish have learned to make shoaling decisions more efficiently, and this, combined with their size relative to shoal-mates, and attractiveness as prey items influences shoaling

  7. Mammal body size evolution in North America and Europe over 20 Myr: similar trends generated by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Eronen, Jussi T; Janis, Christine M; Saarinen, Juha J; Silvestro, Daniele; Fritz, Susanne A

    2017-02-22

    Because body size interacts with many fundamental biological properties of a species, body size evolution can be an essential component of the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here we investigate how body size evolution can be linked to the clade-specific diversification dynamics in different geographical regions. We analyse an extensive body size dataset of Neogene large herbivores (covering approx. 50% of the 970 species in the orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla) in Europe and North America in a Bayesian framework. We reconstruct the temporal patterns of body size in each order on each continent independently, and find significant increases of minimum size in three of the continental assemblages (except European perissodactyls), suggesting an active selection for larger bodies. Assessment of trait-correlated birth-death models indicates that the common trend of body size increase is generated by different processes in different clades and regions. Larger-bodied artiodactyl species on both continents tend to have higher origination rates, and both clades in North America show strong links between large bodies and low extinction rate. Collectively, our results suggest a strong role of species selection and perhaps of higher-taxon sorting in driving body size evolution, and highlight the value of investigating evolutionary processes in a biogeographic context. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. The tempo and mode of evolution: body sizes of island mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Pasquale; Meiri, Shai

    2011-07-01

    The tempo and mode of body size evolution on islands are believed to be well known. It is thought that body size evolves relatively quickly on islands toward the mammalian modal value, thus generating extreme cases of size evolution and the island rule. Here, we tested both theories in a phylogenetically explicit context, by using two different species-level mammalian phylogenetic hypotheses limited to sister clades dichotomizing into an exclusively insular and an exclusively mainland daughter nodes. Taken as a whole, mammals were found to show a largely punctuational mode of size evolution. We found that, accounting for this, and regardless of the phylogeny used, size evolution on islands is no faster than on the continents. We compared different selection regimes using a set of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models to examine the effects of insularity of the mode of evolution. The models strongly supported clade-specific selection regimes. Under this regime, however, an evolutionary model allowing insular species to evolve differently from their mainland relatives performs worse than a model that ignores insularity as a factor. Thus, insular taxa do not experience statistically different selection from their mainland relatives. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. PELOLOSAN IKAN KURISI (Nemipterus japonicus MELALUI JUVENILE AND TRASH EXLUDER DEVICES PADA JARING ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hufiadi Hufiadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama pada perikanan jaring arad adalah banyaknya jumlah hasil tangkap sampingan berukuran kecil yang belum layak tangkap. Dalam upaya untuk mengurangi tangkapan ikan muda yang belum layak tangkap telah dilakukan observasi dan ujicoba operasi penangkapan melalui penggunaan perangkat juvenile and trash exluder devices pada alat tangkap jaring arad yang dioperasikan nelayan di Pekalongan. Perangkat juvenile and trash exluder devices yang digunakan dibedakan pada ukuran jarak antar kisi, yaitu 10,0; 17,5; dan 25,4 mm. Analisis selektivitas kisi menggunakan model kurva logistik dengan bantuan solver pada Microsoft Excel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan juvenile and trash exluder devices pada jaring arad dapat meloloskan ikan kurisi (Nemipterus spp. berukuran kecil. Ukuran jarak antar kisi 25,4 mm mempunyai selektivitas yang paling baik terhadap ikan kurisi berdasarkan atas ukuran panjang baku dan jarak antar kisi 17,5 mm mempunyai selektivitas paling baik berdasarkan atas ukuran lingkar tubuh ikan kurisi.   The serius problem on bottom mini trawl has the large number caught of bycatch caught especially for juvenile and trash fish. Improvement to reduce catches of juvenile was conducted through observation and experimental fishing using juvenile and trash exluder devices of mini bottom trawl in Pekalongan. The juvenile and trash excluder devices (juvenile and trash exluder devices in the experimental fishing with different space bar of the juvenile and trash exluder devices i.e. 10.0; 17.5; and 25.4 mm. The selectivity analysis of logistic curve by using solver on Microsoft Excel was applied. The results showed that juvenile and trash excluder devices might reduce catches of threadfin breams juvenile. Where as 25.4 space bar had the best selectivity based on the size of threadfin breams fork length and 17.5 mm space bar had the best selectivity based on the size of threadfin breams body girth.

  10. Dissociating object-based from egocentric transformations in mental body rotation: effect of stimuli size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Moreau, David; Jarraya, Mohamed; Lejeune-Poutrain, Laure; Molinaro, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The effect of stimuli size on the mental rotation of abstract objects has been extensively investigated, yet its effect on the mental rotation of bodily stimuli remains largely unexplored. Depending on the experimental design, mentally rotating bodily stimuli can elicit object-based transformations, relying mainly on visual processes, or egocentric transformations, which typically involve embodied motor processes. The present study included two mental body rotation tasks requiring either a same-different or a laterality judgment, designed to elicit object-based or egocentric transformations, respectively. Our findings revealed shorter response times for large-sized stimuli than for small-sized stimuli only for greater angular disparities, suggesting that the more unfamiliar the orientations of the bodily stimuli, the more stimuli size affected mental processing. Importantly, when comparing size transformation times, results revealed different patterns of size transformation times as a function of angular disparity between object-based and egocentric transformations. This indicates that mental size transformation and mental rotation proceed differently depending on the mental rotation strategy used. These findings are discussed with respect to the different spatial manipulations involved during object-based and egocentric transformations.

  11. Body size, skills, and income: evidence from 150,000 teenage siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Petter; Nystedt, Paul; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-run labor market penalty of teenage overweight and obesity using unique and large-scale data on 150,000 male siblings from the Swedish military enlistment. Our empirical analysis provides four important results. First, we provide the first evidence of a large adult male labor market penalty for being overweight or obese as a teenager. Second, we replicate this result using data from the United States and the United Kingdom. Third, we note a strikingly strong within-family relationship between body size and cognitive skills/noncognitive skills. Fourth, a large part of the estimated body-size penalty reflects lower skill acquisition among overweight and obese teenagers. Taken together, these results reinforce the importance of policy combating early-life obesity in order to reduce healthcare expenditures as well as poverty and inequalities later in life.

  12. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  13. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  14. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010 and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year, higher parity order (>2.31, more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg and larger previous litter size (>1.65 showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm, body length (>54.86 cm, withers height (>48.85 cm, croup height (>50.67 cm, distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus.

  15. Secular trends of body sizes in Korean children and adolescents: from 1965 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An anthropometric survey is one of the most important approaches to use when evaluating the health status of children. Secular trends in body sizes, such as height, weight, head circumference, chest circumference, and body mass index showed significant changes over 40 years in Korea. A series of periodic surveys were conducted in 1967, 1975, 1985, 1997, and 2005 by the Korean Pediatric Society and Ministry of Health and Welfare. The quality of data from school health examinations and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has improved, so we can use them now as resources for anthropometric analysis. The final height differences between 1965 and 1997 were 4.5 cm both in boys (168.9 cm in 1965; 173.4 cm in 1997 and girls (155.9 cm in 1965; 160.4 cm in 1997. The differences between 1997 and 2005 were 0.9 cm in boys (174.3cm in 2005 and 0.8 cm in girls (161.2 cm in 2005. There was no difference in final height measurements between 2005 and 2010. An increase in body size at earlier teen ages was pronounced during these decades compared to the previous generation; however, little change has been identified more recently. Body size has been increasing, and obesity has become more prevalent. Systems that gather data should be updated in order to cope with these secular trends. In an upcoming era of secular trends that would be in a slow transition, several surveys that include body measurements should be prepared to meet future needs.

  16. Common Noctule Bats Are Sexually Dimorphic in Migratory Behaviour and Body Size but Not Wing Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teague O'Mara

    Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.

  17. Effects of constant and cyclical thermal regimes on growth and feeding of juvenile cutthroat trout of variable sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Dunham, J.B.; Hayes, J.P.; Vinyard, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of constant (12, 18, and 24 A?C) and cyclical (daily variation of 15a??21 and 12a??24 A?C) thermal regimes on the growth and feeding of Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) of variable sizes were examined. Higher constant temperatures (i.e., 24 A?C) and more variable daily temperatures (i.e., 12a??24 A?C daily cycle) negatively affected growth rates. As fish mass increased (from 0.24 to 15.52 g) the effects of different thermal regimes on mass growth became more pronounced. Following 14 days exposure to the thermal regimes, feeding rates of individual fish were assessed during acute exposure (40 min) to test temperatures of 12, 18, and 24 A?C. Feeding rate was depressed during acute exposure to 24 A?C, but was not significantly affected by the preceding thermal regime. Our results indicate that even brief daily exposure to higher temperatures (e.g., 24 A?C) can have considerable sublethal effects on cutthroat trout, and that fish size should be considered when examining the effects of temperature.

  18. crm-1 facilitates BMP signaling to control body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wong Yan; Fat, Ko Frankie Chi; Eng, Cheah Kathryn Song; Lau, Chow King

    2007-11-01

    We have identified in Caenorhabditis elegans a homologue of the vertebrate Crim1, crm-1, which encodes a putative transmembrane protein with multiple cysteine-rich (CR) domains known to have bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) binding activity. Using the body morphology of C. elegans as an indicator, we showed that attenuation of crm-1 activity leads to a small body phenotype reminiscent of that of BMP pathway mutants. We showed that the crm-1 loss-of-function phenotype can be rescued by constitutive supply of sma-4 activity. crm-1 can enhance BMP signaling and this activity is dependent on the presence of the DBL-1 ligand and its receptors. crm-1 is expressed in neurons at the ventral nerve cord, where the DBL-1 ligand is produced. However, ectopic expression experiments reveal that crm-1 gene products act outside the DBL-1 producing cells and function non-autonomously to facilitate dbl/sma pathway signaling to control body size.

  19. The role of underestimating body size for self-esteem and self-efficacy among grade five children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Khan, Mohammad K A; Austin, S Bryn; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    Underestimating body size hinders healthy behavior modification needed to prevent obesity. However, initiatives to improve body size misperceptions may have detrimental consequences on self-esteem and self-efficacy. Using sex-specific multiple mixed-effect logistic regression models, we examined the association of underestimating versus accurate body size perceptions with self-esteem and self-efficacy in a provincially representative sample of 5075 grade five school children. Body size perceptions were defined as the standardized difference between the body mass index (BMI, from measured height and weight) and self-perceived body size (Stunkard body rating scale). Self-esteem and self-efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating were self-reported. Most of overweight boys and girls (91% and 83%); and most of obese boys and girls (93% and 90%) underestimated body size. Underestimating weight was associated with greater self-efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating among normal-weight children (odds ratio: 1.9 and 1.6 for boys, 1.5 and 1.4 for girls) and greater self-esteem among overweight and obese children (odds ratio: 2.0 and 6.2 for boys, 2.0 and 3.4 for girls). Results highlight the importance of developing optimal intervention strategies as part of targeted obesity prevention efforts that de-emphasize the focus on body weight, while improving body size perceptions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  1. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  2. Circulating omentin-1 might be associated with metabolic health status in different phenotypes of body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shahab; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Mohammadi, Chonur; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Maghbooli, Zhila

    2017-12-01

    Adipokines are mediators of body composition and are involved in obesity complications. This study aimed to assess the association of circulating omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 with body composition indices and metabolic health status (MHS) in different phenotypes of body size. A total of 350 subjects were included in the current cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured using a body composition analyzer, and serum concentrations of omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 were assessed by ELISA kits. Circulating omentin-1 was significantly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.01) and marginally (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.00-1.75, P = 0.06) associated with MHS in the overweight and obese subjects, respectively. But no association was seen between omentin-1 and MHS in normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of vaspin and RBP-4 were not correlated with MHS. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between circulating omentin-1 and body mass index (BMI) as well as fat percentage (P = 0.02) in the MHS group. Serum vaspin concentrations were not related to body composition components in both groups. In addition, in the MHS group, circulating RBP-4 was positively correlated with fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (p body water (TBW) (p < 0.0001). In contrast, in the metabolically unhealthy group, RBP-4 was negatively correlated with fat percentage, FM, and BMI (p < 0.0001) and was positively correlated with FFM and TBW (p < 0.0001). This study showed that circulating levels of omentin-1 are useful predictors of metabolic health status in overweight and obese people.

  3. My 'Fat Girl Complex': a preliminary investigation of sexual health and body image in women of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Sonya; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2013-01-01

    Women of size who inhabit non-normative bodies may have different experiences with body image and sexual health than women of average body size. In this exploratory study, we interviewed four women of size recruited from a larger mixed-methodological study of body image and sexuality. Each woman was interviewed twice on topics of body image, sexuality and sexual health. Reconstructive Horizon Analysis was used to analyse the content of the interviews. Women who expressed that their bodies had inherent personal and social value regardless of size did not articulate connections between body size and their sexual health. However, those women who looked externally for validation of their attractiveness struggled with acceptance of their sexuality and bodies and spoke of ways in which their body size and appearance hindered them from having the sexually healthy lives that they wanted. Findings highlight two important components of women's sexual health as participants related them to body image: the right to pleasure and the right to engage only in wanted sexual activity. Participants described how negative body attitudes affected both of these aspects of their sexual health. Interventions targeting weight-based stigma may offer a means of indirectly promoting sexual health and autonomy in women.

  4. Microgeographic body size variation in a high elevation Andean anole (Anolis mariarum; Squamata, Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Bock

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-specific body size variation is common and often is assumed to be adaptive. Studies of body size variation among sites should include or consider environmental and ecological variables in their designs. Additionally, reciprocal transplant or common garden studies will support which variables are really contributing to the observed body size variation. This study analyzed the microgeographic body size variation in Anolis mariarum, a small lizard endemic to Antioquia, Colombia. Parameters such as body size, shape, and lepidosis variation were quantified in 217 adult A. mariarum, belonging to six populations separated by less than 80km. Results showed that significant body size variation was not related to differences among sites in mean annual temperature, but covaried with mean annual precipitation, with the largest individuals occurring in dryer sites. Mark-recapture data obtained from 115 individuals from both the wettest and dryest sites from October 2004 to April 2005 showed that growth rates were higher at the latter. Eight males from each site were captured at the end of the mark- recapture study and reared for two months under identical conditions in a common garden study. Individuals from both sites grew faster when reared in the laboratory with food provided ad libitum. Although growth rates of males from the two populations did not differ significantly in the laboratory, males from the dryest site still maintained a significantly larger asymptotic body size in their growth trajectories. Multivariate analyses also demonstrated that both males and females from the six populations differed in terms of body shape and lepidosis. However, only female body size was found to covary significantly with an environmental gradient (precipitation. A. mariarum does not conform to Bergmann’s rule, but the relationship found between mean body size and asympotic growth with mean annual precipitation at these sites needs further analysis

  5. Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of alizarin red S (ARS marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1 12 hours of immersion and 2 immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (pEl uso de alizarina roja S (ARS para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamientos: 1 Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2 Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas, sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de

  6. Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri in contrasting environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S Leung

    Full Text Available Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat, with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat. We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs and time-depth recorders (TDRs on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010 and Otago (2009-2010. Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can

  7. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  8. Evidence for soft bounds in Ubuntu package sizes and mammalian body masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Marco; Mandrà, Salvatore; Bassetti, Bruno; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2013-12-24

    The development of a complex system depends on the self-coordinated action of a large number of agents, often determining unexpected global behavior. The case of software evolution has great practical importance: knowledge of what is to be considered atypical can guide developers in recognizing and reacting to abnormal behavior. Although the initial framework of a theory of software exists, the current theoretical achievements do not fully capture existing quantitative data or predict future trends. Here we show that two elementary laws describe the evolution of package sizes in a Linux-based operating system: first, relative changes in size follow a random walk with non-Gaussian jumps; second, each size change is bounded by a limit that is dependent on the starting size, an intriguing behavior that we call "soft bound." Our approach is based on data analysis and on a simple theoretical model, which is able to reproduce empirical details without relying on any adjustable parameter and generates definite predictions. The same analysis allows us to formulate and support the hypothesis that a similar mechanism is shaping the distribution of mammalian body sizes, via size-dependent constraints during cladogenesis. Whereas generally accepted approaches struggle to reproduce the large-mass shoulder displayed by the distribution of extant mammalian species, this is a natural consequence of the softly bounded nature of the process. Additionally, the hypothesis that this model is valid has the relevant implication that, contrary to a common assumption, mammalian masses are still evolving, albeit very slowly.

  9. Body Size and the Risk of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Women: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anand; Curhan, Gary C; Paik, Julie M; Wang, Molin; Taylor, Eric N

    2017-09-01

    Greater body weight and fat mass have been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone levels and a higher prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPTH) in women. However, prospective studies to evaluate whether greater body size associates with a higher incidence of developing P-HPTH have not been reported. We investigated whether greater body size was independently associated with a higher risk for developing P-HPTH in women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 85,013 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study I followed for up to 26 years. Body size was measured via multiple metrics: weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Weight and BMI were assessed every 2 years from 1986 to 2012, and WC was assessed in 1986, 1996, and 2000. Detailed dietary and demographic exposures were quantified via validated biennial questionnaires. Incident cases of P-HPTH were confirmed by individual medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate whether WC, weight, and BMI were independent risk factors for developing P-HPTH. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, comorbidities, medications, intakes of calcium and vitamin D, and exposure to ultraviolet light. We confirmed 491 incident cases of P-HPTH during 2,128,068 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted relative risks for incident P-HPTH increased across quartiles of WC: Q1, ref; Q2, 1.34 (0.97, 1.86); Q3, 1.70 (1.24, 2.31); Q4, 2.27 (1.63, 3.18); p trend < 0.001. Similarly, the multivariable-adjusted risks for incident P-HPTH increased across quartiles of weight: Q1, ref; Q2, 1.23 (0.92, 1.65); Q3, 1.63 (1.24, 2.14); Q4, 1.65 (1.24, 2.19); p trend < 0.001. A similar but statistically non-significant trend was observed across quartiles of BMI (p trend = 0.07). In summary, body size may be an independent and modifiable risk factor for developing P-HPTH in women. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American

  10. Mammalian collection on Noah's Ark: the effects of beauty, brain and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available The importance of today's zoological gardens as the so-called "Noah's Ark" grows as the natural habitat of many species quickly diminishes. Their potential to shelter a large amount of individuals from many species gives us the opportunity to reintroduce a species that disappeared in nature. However, the selection of animals to be kept in zoos worldwide is highly selective and depends on human decisions driven by both ecological criteria such as population size or vulnerability and audience-driven criteria such as aesthetic preferences. Thus we focused our study on the most commonly kept and bred animal class, the mammals, and we asked which factors affect various aspects of the mammalian collection of zoos. We analyzed the presence/absence, population size, and frequency per species of each of the 123 mammalian families kept in the worldwide zoo collection. Our aim was to explain these data using the human-perceived attractiveness of mammalian families, their body weight, relative brain size and species richness of the family. In agreement with various previous studies, we found that the body size and the attractiveness of mammals significantly affect all studied components of the mammalian collection of zoos. There is a higher probability of the large and attractive families to be kept. Once kept, these animals are presented in larger numbers in more zoos. On the contrary, the relative mean brain size only affects the primary selection whether to keep the family or not. It does not affect the zoo population size or the number of zoos that keep the family.

  11. The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of electrostatic charging of small and intermediate sized bodies in the solar system is reviewed. These bodies include planetary, interplanetary and cometary dust as well as cometary nuclei (at large heliocentric distances), asteroids and the larger bodies in the Saturnian ring system. While this charging has both physical and dynamical consequences for the small dust grains, it has only physical consequences for the larger bodies. The main physical consequences for the small grains are electrostatic erosion (''chipping'') and disruption, whereas for the larger bodies they include electrostatic levitation and blow-off of fine loose dust from their surfaces. A large variety of solar system phenomena, recently observed by the Pioneer and Voyager deep space probes as well as the HEOS-2 earth satellite, are explained in terms of these processes. Certain peculiar features observed in the dust tails of comets as well as the spatial orientation of the zodiacal dust cloud may also be explained along these lines. The possible electrostatic erosion of the dust mantles of new comets as well as the electrostatic 'polishing' of the smaller asteroids are also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Change in body size and mortality: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A; Baglietto, Laura; MacInnis, Robert J; Hodge, Allison M; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R

    2014-01-01

    The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994) to wave 2 (2003-2007) in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40-69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease) identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47), weight (1.80; 1.54-2.11), or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15-1.57) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57-3.65) but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults.

  13. Microclimatic Divergence in a Mediterranean Canyon Affects Richness, Composition, and Body Size in Saproxylic Beetle Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Buse

    Full Text Available Large valleys with opposing slopes may act as a model system with which the effects of strong climatic gradients on biodiversity can be evaluated. The advantage of such comparisons is that the impact of a change of climate can be studied on the same species pool without the need to consider regional differences. The aim of this study was to compare the assemblage of saproxylic beetles on such opposing slopes at Lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel (also known as "Evolution Canyon" with a 200-800% higher solar radiation on the south-facing (SFS compared to the north-facing slope (NFS. We tested specific hypotheses of species richness patterns, assemblage structure, and body size resulting from interslope differences in microclimate. Fifteen flight-interception traps per slope were distributed over three elevation levels ranging from 50 to 100 m a.s.l. Richness of saproxylic beetles was on average 34% higher on the SFS compared with the NFS, with no detected influence of elevation levels. Both assemblage structure and average body size were determined by slope aspect, with more small-bodied beetles found on the SFS. Both the increase in species richness and the higher prevalence of small species on the SFS reflect ecological rules present on larger spatial grain (species-energy hypothesis and community body size shift hypothesis, and both can be explained by the metabolic theory of ecology. This is encouraging for the complementary use of micro- and macroclimatic gradients to study impacts of climate warming on biodiversity.

  14. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  17. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  19. [The relationship between adolescent body size and health promoting behavior and biochemical indicator factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chen, Min-Li; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2012-06-01

    Tainan City has the third highest prevalence of junior high school student obesity of all administrative districts in Taiwan. School nurses play an important role in promoting student health. Understanding the factors that significantly impact student weight is critical to designing effective student health promotion programs. This study explored the relationships between health promotion behavior and serum biomarker variables and body size. Researchers used a cross-sectional descriptive study design and stratified cluster random sampling. Subjects were 7th graders who received an in-school health checkup with blood test at 41 public junior high schools in Tainan City between July 2010 and May 2011. Research instruments included the adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale, serum biochemical profile and BMI (body mass index). Obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 726 students who participated in this study, 22.2% were underweight and 23.8% were overweight or obese. Higher AHP scores correlated with better biomarkers and body size. Multivariate analysis found factors that increased the risk of being overweight included: being male, having a father with a relatively low level of education, playing video games frequently, and doing little or no exercise (odds ratio = 1.93, 1.75, 1.07, 1.04, respectively). Participants with relatively healthy behaviors had better biomarkers and a lower risk of being overweight. Findings can support the development of evidence-based school programs to promote student health.

  20. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I. M.; Mølgaard, C.; Main, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    predictor of kidney volume was lean body mass, overruling height, weight, and surface area. When total kidney volume was related to lean body mass as a ratio, the gender difference in kidney size was no longer significant. A strong negative correlation was found between fat body mass and kidney volume...

  1. Craniomandibular form and body size variation of first generation mouse hybrids: A model for hominin hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kerryn A; Ritzman, Terrence B; Humphreys, Robyn A; Percival, Christopher J; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F 1 ) hybrids. The three parent taxa in our analysis represent lineages that diverged over approximately the same period as the human/Neanderthal/Denisovan lineages and their hybrids are variably successful in the wild. Comparisons of body size, as quantified by long bone measurements, are also presented to determine whether the identified phenotypic effects of hybridization are localized to the cranium or represent overall body size changes. The results indicate that hybrid cranial and mandibular sizes, as well as limb length, exceed that of the parent taxa in all cases. All three F 1 hybrid crosses display similar patterns of size and form variation. These results are generally consistent with earlier studies on primates and other mammals, suggesting that the effects of hybridization may be similar across very different scenarios of hybridization, including different levels of hybrid fitness. This paper serves to supplement previous studies aimed at identifying F 1 hybrids in the fossil record and to introduce further research that will explore hybrid morphologies using mice as a proxy for better understanding hybridization in the hominin fossil record. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in the arcuate nucleus of juvenile Phodopus sungorus alters seasonal body weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham K; Benzler, Jonas; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Boucsein, Alisa; Stöhr, Sigrid; Steger, Juliane; Culmsee, Carsten; Barrett, Perry; Tups, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    The profound seasonal cycle in body weight exhibited by the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is associated with the development of hypothalamic leptin resistance during long day photoperiod (LD, 16:8 h light dark cycle), when body weight is elevated relative to short day photoperiod (SD, 8:16 h light dark cycle). We previously have shown that this seasonal change in physiology is associated with higher levels of mRNA for the potent inhibitor of leptin signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of LD hamsters relative to hamsters in SD. The alteration in SOCS3 gene expression preceded the body weight change suggesting that SOCS3 might be the molecular switch of seasonal body weight changes. To functionally characterize the role of SOCS3 in seasonal body weight regulation, we injected SOCS3 expressing recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 (rAAV2-SOCS3) constructs into the ARC of leptin sensitive SD hamsters immediately after weaning. Hamsters that received rAAV2 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rAAV2-EGFP) served as controls. ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression led to a significant increase in body weight over a period of 12 weeks without fully restoring the LD phenotype. This increase was partially due to elevated brown and white adipose tissue mass. Gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin was increased while thyroid hormone converting enzyme DIO3 mRNA levels were reduced in SD hamsters with SOCS3 overexpression. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression partially overcomes the profound seasonal body weight cycle exhibited by the hamster which is associated with altered pro-opiomelanocortin and DIO3 gene expression.

  3. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  4. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  5. Generating size-controlled embryoid bodies using laser direct-write

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A D; Corr, D T; Unser, A M; Xie, Y; Chrisey, D B

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type. One common method to differentiate ESCs in vitro is through embryoid bodies (EBs), three-dimensional cellular aggregates that spontaneously self-assemble and generally express markers for the three germ layers, endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. It has been previously shown that both EB size and 2D colony size each influence differentiation. We hypothesized that we could control the size of the EB formed by mouse ESCs (mESCs) by using a cell printing method, laser direct-write (LDW), to control both the size of the initial printed colony and the local cell density in printed colonies. After printing mESCs at various printed colony sizes and printing densities, two-way ANOVAs indicated that the EB diameter was influenced by printing density after three days (p = 0.0002), while there was no effect of the printed colony diameter on the EB diameter at the same timepoint (p = 0.74). There was no significant interaction between these two factors. Tukey's honestly significant difference test showed that high-density colonies formed significantly larger EBs, suggesting that printed mESCs quickly aggregate with nearby cells. Thus, EBs can be engineered to a desired size by controlling printing density, which will influence the design of future differentiation studies. Herein, we highlight the capacity of LDW to control the local cell density and colony size independently, at prescribed spatial locations, potentially leading to better stem cell maintenance and directed differentiation. (paper)

  6. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca).

  7. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  8. Ecological and evolutionary influences on body size and shape in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Glaberman, Scott; Tarroso, Pedro; Caccone, Adalgisa; Claude, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Oceanic islands are often inhabited by endemic species that have undergone substantial morphological evolutionary change due to processes of multiple colonizations from various source populations, dispersal, and local adaptation. Galápagos marine iguanas are an example of an island endemic exhibiting high morphological diversity, including substantial body size variation among populations and sexes, but the causes and magnitude of this variation are not well understood. We obtained morphological measurements from marine iguanas throughout their distribution range. These data were combined with genetic and local environmental data from each population to investigate the effects of evolutionary history and environmental conditions on body size and shape variation and sexual dimorphism. Our results indicate that body size and shape are highly variable among populations. Sea surface temperature and island perimeter, but not evolutionary history as depicted by phylogeographic patterns in this species, explain variation in body size among populations. Conversely, evolutionary history, but not environmental parameters or island size, was found to influence variation in body shape among populations. Finally, in all populations except one, we found strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape in which males are larger, with higher heads than females, while females have longer heads than males. Differences among populations suggest that plasticity and/or genetic adaptation may shape body size and shape variation in marine iguanas. This study will help target future investigations to address the contribution of plasticity versus genetic adaptation on size and shape variation in marine iguanas.

  9. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  10. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Conclusions/Significance Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism – females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males – and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size. PMID:24265745

  11. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walzer

    Full Text Available Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs.Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons.Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  12. Impact simulation in the gravity regime: Exploring the effects of parent body size and internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, P. G.; Durda, D. D.; Enke, B.; Bagatin, A. Campo; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.; Bottke, W. F.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we extend the systematic investigation of impact outcomes of 100-km-diameter targets started by Durda et al. (2007) and Benavidez et al. (2012) to targets of D = 400 km using the same range of impact conditions and two internal structures: monolithic and rubble-pile. We performed a new set of simulations in the gravity regime for targets of 400 km in diameter using these same internal structures. This provides a large set of 600 simulations performed in a systematic way that permits a thorough analysis of the impact outcomes and evaluation of the main features of the size frequency distribution due mostly to self-gravity. In addition, we use the impact outcomes to attempt to constrain the impact conditions of the asteroid belt where known asteroid families with a large expected parent body were formed. We have found fairly good matches for the Eunomia and Hygiea families. In addition, we identified a potential acceptable match to the Vesta family from a monolithic parent body of 468 km. The impact conditions of the best matches suggest that these families were formed in a dynamically excited belt. The results also suggest that the parent body of the Eunomia family could be a monolithic body of 382 km diameter, while the one for Hygiea could have a rubble-pile internal structure of 416 km diameter.

  13. Insect temperature-body size trends common to laboratory, latitudinal and seasonal gradients are not found across altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2018-01-01

    Body size affects rates of most biological and ecological processes, from individual performance to ecosystem function, and is fundamentally linked to organism fitness. Within species, size at maturity can vary systematically with environmental temperature in the laboratory and across seasons...... altitude. Although the general direction of body size clines along altitudinal gradients has been examined previously, to our knowledge altitude-body size (A-S) clines have never been synthesised quantitatively, nor compared with temperature-size (T-S) responses measured under controlled laboratory......, as well as over latitudinal gradients. Recent meta-analyses have revealed a close match in the magnitude and direction of these size gradients in various arthropod orders, suggesting that these size responses share common drivers. As with increasing latitude, temperature also decreases with increasing...

  14. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Diet composition and body size in insect herbivores: Why do small species prefer young leaves?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2005), s. 665-681 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007106; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1112; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 041 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) DEB-97-07928; National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : body size * constraint * diet composition Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2005

  16. Chromosomal inversions effect body size and shape in different breeding resources in Drosophila buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Iriarte, P J; Norry, F M; Hasson, E R

    2003-07-01

    The cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii provides an excellent model for the study of reaction norms across discrete environments because it breeds on rotting tissues (rots) of very different cactus species. Here we test the possible effects of second chromosome inversions on body size and shape (wing loading) across suitable natural breeding substrates. Using homokaryotypic stocks derived from several lines homozygous for four naturally occurring chromosomal inversions, we show that arrangements significantly affect size-related traits and wing loading. In addition, karyotypes show differing effects, across natural breeding resources, for wing loading. The 2st and 2jz(3) arrangements decrease and the 2j arrangement increases wing loading. For thorax length and wing loading, karyotypic correlations across host plants are slightly lower in females than in males. These results support the hypothesis that these traits have a genetic basis associated with the inversion polymorphism.

  17. Relative size of the eye and orbit: an evolutionary and craniofacial constraint model for examining the etiology and disparate incidence of juvenile-onset myopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    The principal aim of this research is to provide a new model for investigating myopia in humans, and contribute to an understanding of the degree to which modern variation and evolutionary change in orbital and overall craniofacial morphology may help explain the common eye form association with this condition. Recent research into long and short-term evolution of the human orbit reveals a number of changes in this feature, and particularly since the Upper Paleolithic. These include a reduction in orbital depth, a decrease in anterior projection of the upper and lower orbital margins, and most notably, a reduction in orbital volume since the Holocene in East Asia. Reduced orbital volume in this geographic region could exacerbate an existing trend in recent hominin evolution toward larger eyes in smaller orbits, and may help explain the unusually high frequency of myopia in East Asian populations. The objective of the current study is to test a null hypothesis of no relationship between a ratio of orbit to eye volume and spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) in a sample of Chinese adults, and examine how relative size of the eye within the orbit relates to SER between the sexes and across the sample population. Analysis of the orbit, eye, and SER reveals a strong relationship between relative size of the eye within the orbit and the severity of myopic refractive error. An orbit/eye ratio of 3 for females and 3.5 for males (or an eye that occupies approximately 34% and 29% of the orbit, respectively), designates a clear threshold at which myopia develops, and becomes progressively worse as the eye continues to occupy a greater proportion of the orbital cavity. These results indicate that relative size of the eye within the orbit is an important factor in the development of myopia, and suggests that individuals with large eyes in small orbits lack space for adequate development of ocular tissues, leading to compression and distortion of the lithesome globe

  18. Isointegral analysis of body surface maps for the assessment of location and size of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonooka, I.; Kubota, I.; Watanabe, Y.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S.

    1983-01-01

    To estimate the location and size of myocardial infarction (MI), an isointegral mapping technique was adopted from among various body surface electrocardiographic mapping techniques. QRS isointegral and departure maps were made in 35 patients with MI. These patients were separated into 3 groups, based on the location of MI: anterior, inferior, and anterior plus inferior. The severity and location of MI were estimated by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and the degree of scintigraphic defect was represented by a defect score. The extent of MI was expected to be reflected on the QRS isointegral maps as a distribution of negative QRS complex time-integral values. However, the extent and the location of MI were hardly detectable by the original maps. A departure mapping technique was then devised to observe the distribution of departure index on the body surface. Particular attention was given to the area where the departure index was less than -2, and this area was expected to reflect the location and size of specific abnormality of isointegral map due to MI. There were strong correlations between departure area and defect score in the anterior and inferior MI cases (r . 0.88 and r . 0.79, respectively). However, patients with anterior MI plus inferior MI showed no such correlation. Q-wave mapping was compared with QRS isointegral mapping, and QRS isointegral mapping was found to be more accurate in the estimation of the location and size of MI than Q wave mapping. Thus, QRS isointegral mapping, especially departure mapping, is more useful and convenient for detecting the location and size of MI than methods such as isopotential and Q wave mapping

  19. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40)); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0)), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry.

  20. How Big Is It Really? Assessing the Efficacy of Indirect Estimates of Body Size in Asian Elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Chapman

    Full Text Available Information on an organism's body size is pivotal in understanding its life history and fitness, as well as helping inform conservation measures. However, for many species, particularly large-bodied wild animals, taking accurate body size measurements can be a challenge. Various means to estimate body size have been employed, from more direct methods such as using photogrammetry to obtain height or length measurements, to indirect prediction of weight using other body morphometrics or even the size of dung boli. It is often unclear how accurate these measures are because they cannot be compared to objective measures. Here, we investigate how well existing estimation equations predict the actual body weight of Asian elephants Elephas maximus, using body measurements (height, chest girth, length, foot circumference and neck circumference taken directly from a large population of semi-captive animals in Myanmar (n = 404. We then define new and better fitting formulas to predict body weight in Myanmar elephants from these readily available measures. We also investigate whether the important parameters height and chest girth can be estimated from photographs (n = 151. Our results show considerable variation in the ability of existing estimation equations to predict weight, and that the equations proposed in this paper predict weight better in almost all circumstances. We also find that measurements from standardised photographs reflect body height and chest girth after applying minor adjustments. Our results have implications for size estimation of large wild animals in the field, as well as for management in captive settings.

  1. The influence of tested body size upon longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    Low ultrasonic frequencies are used in nondestructive testing of heterogeneous materials,such as concrete,rocks and timber.When frequencies are low enough,size and shape of tested bodies may influence measured longitudinal pulse velocities(geometric dispersion).A simplified mathematical model is developed from known experimental and theoretical results obtained for elastic wave propagation in rods of uniform circular cross section.Wave propagation is described by a spatial averaged dilatational field in an approach which is named quasi fluid.A formula is obtained which relates group velocity with an effective lateral size of the body,with transducers a frequency,with a non-dimensional parameter and with asymptotic P-wave velocity.In principle it can be applied to bars of any uniform cross section.The limitations of this formula are discussed in relation to path length,threshold of detection,patterns of radiation and reception and other variables.A more general formula is proposed.Practical application of this formula is briefly exemplified using some experimental data obtained by the author.The problem of longitudinal pulse propagation in reinforcing steel bars embedded in concrete is briefly considered

  2. What prolongs a butterfly's life?: Trade-offs between dormancy, fecundity and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Haeler

    Full Text Available In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies' life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h, thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13. Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels.

  3. Body size of commom opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied 1826 (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae on southern brazilian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. Salvador

    Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.

  4. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  5. Habitat structure and body size distributions: Cross-ecosystem comparison for taxa with determinate and indeterminate growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kirsty L.; Allen, Craig R.; Barichievy, Chris; Nystrom, Magnus; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat structure across multiple spatial and temporal scales has been proposed as a key driver of body size distributions for associated communities. Thus, understanding the relationship between habitat and body size is fundamental to developing predictions regarding the influence of habitat change on animal communities. Much of the work assessing the relationship between habitat structure and body size distributions has focused on terrestrial taxa with determinate growth, and has primarily analysed discontinuities (gaps) in the distribution of species mean sizes (species size relationships or SSRs). The suitability of this approach for taxa with indeterminate growth has yet to be determined. We provide a cross-ecosystem comparison of bird (determinate growth) and fish (indeterminate growth) body mass distributions using four independent data sets. We evaluate three size distribution indices: SSRs, species size–density relationships (SSDRs) and individual size–density relationships (ISDRs), and two types of analysis: looking for either discontinuities or abundance patterns and multi-modality in the distributions. To assess the respective suitability of these three indices and two analytical approaches for understanding habitat–size relationships in different ecosystems, we compare their ability to differentiate bird or fish communities found within contrasting habitat conditions. All three indices of body size distribution are useful for examining the relationship between cross-scale patterns of habitat structure and size for species with determinate growth, such as birds. In contrast, for species with indeterminate growth such as fish, the relationship between habitat structure and body size may be masked when using mean summary metrics, and thus individual-level data (ISDRs) are more useful. Furthermore, ISDRs, which have traditionally been used to study aquatic systems, present a potentially useful common currency for comparing body size distributions

  6. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Karimi

    Full Text Available Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15N and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13C. Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

  7. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  8. The effect of fast created inbreeding on litter size and body weights in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H and a control line (K maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed (HK and used as a basis for the experiment. Within the HK cross, full sib, cousin or random mating were practised for two generations in order to create new inbreeding (IBF at a fast rate. In the first generation of systematic mating, old inbreeding was regenerated in addition to creation of new inbreeding from the mating design giving total inbreeding (IBT. The number of pups born alive (NBA and body weights of the animals were then analysed by a model including both IBT and IBF. The IBT of the dam was in the present study found to reduce the mean NBA with -0.48 (± 0.22 (p F was -0.42 (± 0.27. For the trait NBA per female mated, the effect of IBT was estimated to be -0.45 (± 0.29 per 10% increase in the inbreeding coefficient and the effect of IBF was -0.90 (± 0.37 (p F of the dam could be found on sex-ratio and body weights at three and six weeks of age in a population already adjusted for IBT.

  9. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  10. Clinical correlation of radiological spinal stenosis after standardization for vertebral body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athiviraham, A.; Yen, D.; Scott, C.; Soboleski, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, adjusted with an internal control for vertebral body size, and disability from lumbar stenosis. Materials and methods: one hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients with clinical and radiological confirmation of neural impingement secondary to lumbar stenosis were enrolled prospectively. Thecal sac anteroposterior (AP) diameter (TSD) and cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral body AP dimension (VBD) were determined. These parameters were then correlated with patients' symptoms using the modified Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) disability score. Results: No statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the TSD and RMQ score (p = 0.433), between the CSA and RMQ score (p = 0.124), or between the TSD:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = 0.109). There was a significant positive correlation between the CSA:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = .036), and therefore, there was no statistical support for an inverse relationship between the two. There was a significant difference in mean RMQ scores when the patients were divided into those with CSA greater than or equal to 70 mm 2 and those less than 70 mm 2 , with T = -2.104 and p = 0.038. Conclusion: The degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, even with the use of an internal control of vertebral body size and standardized disability questionnaires, does not correlate with clinical symptoms. However, patients with more severe stenosis below a CSA critical threshold of 70 mm 2 , have significantly greater functional disability

  11. Effects of treatment of the fat body trophocytes of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides nurse workers and virgin queens in culture by juvenile hormone III and ecdysterone (20-HE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-De-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Berger, Bruno; Poiani, Silvana Beani; Paulino Simões, Zilá Luz; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2013-01-01

    The fat body (FB) consists of two types of cells: throphocytes and oenocytes. Throphocytes are related to intermediary metabolism storing lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins while oenocytes play role in the lipids and lipoproteins production. The vitellogenin is the precursor of egg yolk (vitelline) and is synthesized on FB. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of hormones acting in bee reproduction, as juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdisteroids (20 HE) on FB cells, where vitellogenin is synthesized. For the study were chose nurse workers that in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides present activated ovaries and produce eggs, and virgin queens whose ovaries are not yet activated, presenting only previtellogenic follicles. FB trophocytes from these classes of bees were cultivated in media containing different amounts of JH and 20-HE. The effects on trophocytes cytoplasm reserves of lipids, proteins, and activity of acid phosphatase were compared by observing preparations from cultured FB, treated and control, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the hormones effects are related to the bee's caste and functional ovary stage. The role of acid phosphatase on mobilization of the trophocyte reserves was also determined. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Juvenile Breast Hypertrophy: A Successful Breast Reduction of 14.9% Body Weight without Recurrence in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hisham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hypertrophy of the breast (JHB is a rare and relentless disease affecting women in the peripubertal period. We present a 13-year-old girl with massive bilateral JHB, successfully treated with a breast reduction and free nipple graft technique. A total of 7300 grams of breast tissue had been removed, accounting for 14.9% of the patient’s total body weight. Prophylactic hormonal therapy was not commenced. During the 5-year follow-up period, there was no recurrence and the patient remains satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. A recent meta-analysis study indicates that subcutaneous mastectomy is associated with reduced risk of recurrence, but it is more deforming and the aesthetic result is inferior to a reduction mammaplasty. In patients treated with the latter technique, some evidence exists suggesting that the use of a free nipple graft is associated with a less frequent risk of recurrence than a pedicle technique. This present case is unique as it demonstrates the clinical course of this patient at a considerably longer follow-up period than most reported studies. We adhered to the limited available evidence and highlight the long-term reliability of breast reduction with free nipple grafting as the first line surgical option in JHB, eliminating the need for repeated surgeries.

  13. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  14. The use of lead isotope analysis to identify potential sources of lead toxicosis in a juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with ventricular foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Klein, Dana; McRuer, David; Slabe, Vincent; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    A male juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia with a left humeral fracture a large quantity of anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus, a blood lead level of 0.616 ppm, and clinical signs consistent with chronic lead toxicosis. Because of the poor prognosis for recovery and release, the eagle was euthanatized. Lead isotope analysis was performed to identify potential anthropogenic sources of lead in this bird. The lead isotope ratios in the eagle's femur (0.8773), liver (0.8761), and kidneys (0.8686) were most closely related to lead paint (0.8925), leaded gasoline (0.8450), and zinc smelting (0.8240). The lead isotope ratios were dissimilar to lead ammunition (0.8179) and the anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus. This case report documents foreign body ingestion in a free-ranging bald eagle and demonstrates the clinical utility of lead isotope analysis to potentially identify or exclude anthropogenic sources of lead poisoning in wildlife patients.

  15. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Rodríguez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Methods Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts’ exposure to the parasite’s dispersive stages. Results Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm than large molecrabs (<15 mm. Independently of seagull density, large molecrabs carried significantly more parasites than small molecrabs. The analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. Conclusions These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation—a characteristic of indirect host

  16. Niche expansion, body size, and survival in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, M; Wrege, Peter H

    2000-07-01

    Foraging theory predicts that dietary niche breadth should expand as resource availability decreases. However, Galápagos marine iguanas often die during algae shortages (El Niños) although land plants abound where they rest and reproduce. On Seymour Norte island, a subpopulation of iguanas exhibited unique foraging behavior: they consistently included the succulent beach plant B. maritima in their diet. We investigated the consequences of land-plant feeding for body size and survival. Batis-eaters supplemented their algae diet both before and after intertidal zone foraging, and more Batis was eaten during tides unfavorable for intertidal zone foraging (dawn and dusk). Larger, energy-constrained iguanas fed more on land than did smaller animals. Compared to intertidal zone algae, Batis was 39% lower in caloric content (1.6 vs. 2.6 kcal g -1 dry mass), 56% lower in protein (8.3 vs. 18.9% dry mass) and 57% lower in nitrogen (1.3 vs. 3.0% dry mass). In spite of its lower nutrient value, iguanas that supplemented their diet with this plant were able to attain nearly twice the body size of other iguanas on the island. Age estimates indicate that many Batis-eaters survived repeated El Niño episodes during which animals of their relative size-class experienced high mortality on other islands. The larger animals were, however, completely dependent upon this supplementary source of food to maintain condition, and all perished in the 1997-1998 El Niño when high tides inundated and killed Batis on Seymour Norte Island. We hypothesize that Batis feeding developed as a local foraging tradition, and that dietary conservatism and strong foraging site fidelity explain why the inclusion of land plants in the diet has been observed in only a single population. Ultimately, a unique algae-adapted hindgut morphology and physiology may limit a switch from marine to terrestrial diet.

  17. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Valdivia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence) and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts' exposure to the parasite's dispersive stages. Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm) than large molecrabs (analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation-a characteristic of indirect host-parasite interactions-and subsequent increasing mortality rates over ontogeny underpin size-dependent host-parasite dynamics.

  18. Depictive and metric body size estimation in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölbert, Simone Claire; Klein, Lukas; Thaler, Anne; Mohler, Betty J; Brozzo, Chiara; Martus, Peter; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    A distorted representation of one's own body is a diagnostic criterion and core psychopathology of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Despite recent technical advances in research, it is still unknown whether this body image disturbance is characterized by body dissatisfaction and a low ideal weight and/or includes a distorted perception or processing of body size. In this article, we provide an update and meta-analysis of 42 articles summarizing measures and results for body size estimation (BSE) from 926 individuals with AN, 536 individuals with BN and 1920 controls. We replicate findings that individuals with AN and BN overestimate their body size as compared to controls (ES=0.63). Our meta-regression shows that metric methods (BSE by direct or indirect spatial measures) yield larger effect sizes than depictive methods (BSE by evaluating distorted pictures), and that effect sizes are larger for patients with BN than for patients with AN. To interpret these results, we suggest a revised theoretical framework for BSE that accounts for differences between depictive and metric BSE methods regarding the underlying body representations (conceptual vs. perceptual, implicit vs. explicit). We also discuss clinical implications and argue for the importance of multimethod approaches to investigate body image disturbance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographic variation in body size and its relationship with environmental gradients in the Oriental Garden Lizard, Calotes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Linmiao; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhang, Yueyun; Xu, Yongli; Cai, Bo; Jiang, Ni; Huang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Patterns of geographic variation in body size are predicted to evolve as adaptations to local environmental gradients. However, many of these clinal patterns in body size, such as Bergmann's rule, are controversial and require further investigation into ectotherms such as reptiles on a regional scale. To examine the environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, topography and primary productivity) that shaped patterns of geographic variation in body size in the reptile Calotes versicolor , we sampled 180 adult specimens (91 males and 89 females) at 40 locations across the species range in China. The MANOVA results suggest significant sexual size dimorphism in C. versicolor ( F 23,124  = 11.32, p  body size of C. versicolor differed for males and females, but mechanisms related to heat balance and water availability hypotheses were involved in both sexes. Temperature seasonality, precipitation of the driest month, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the driest quarter were the most important predictors of variation in body size in males, whereas mean precipitation of the warmest quarter, mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the wettest month were most important for body size variation in females. The discrepancy between patterns of association between the sexes suggested that different selection pressures may be acting in males and females.

  20. Many-body localization in disorder-free systems: The importance of finite-size constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papić, Z., E-mail: zpapic@perimeterinstitute.ca [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Stoudenmire, E. Miles [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Abanin, Dmitry A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Recently it has been suggested that many-body localization (MBL) can occur in translation-invariant systems, and candidate 1D models have been proposed. We find that such models, in contrast to MBL systems with quenched disorder, typically exhibit much more severe finite-size effects due to the presence of two or more vastly different energy scales. In a finite system, this can artificially split the density of states (DOS) into bands separated by large gaps. We argue for such models to faithfully represent the thermodynamic limit behavior, the ratio of relevant coupling must exceed a certain system-size depedent cutoff, chosen such that various bands in the DOS overlap one another. Setting the parameters this way to minimize finite-size effects, we study several translation-invariant MBL candidate models using exact diagonalization. Based on diagnostics including entanglement and local observables, we observe thermal (ergodic), rather than MBL-like behavior. Our results suggest that MBL in translation-invariant systems with two or more very different energy scales is less robust than perturbative arguments suggest, possibly pointing to the importance of non-perturbative effects which induce delocalization in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Body size and obesity patterns in Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton; Padez, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    In many developing countries overweight, obesity and obesity-related morbidity are becoming a problem of increasing public health importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in body size and body composition with age in adults of the Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon as well as to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 20-75 years, taking into account recent trends for the whole country. Caboclo are genetically and culturally admixed rural peasant groups that live along the Amazon River and its tributaries in Brazil, and there are few previous studies of their health and lifestyle. A total of 304 subjects (149 males and 155 females) from two socioecologically different areas were studied. Height, weight and skinfolds (tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured; international intervals (WHO) for overweight and obesity were used. Women showed significantly lower values than men for height, weight, upper arm circumference and fat-free mass and higher values for triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds and body fat (%). In the overall sample combined overweight and obesity was 47.8% in men and 50.8% in women. When compared to recent values published for the Northern region and for the whole of Brazil, 20.5% of Caboclo women aged 20-75 years were obese, which is higher than all other populations, including other rural samples. Caboclo men showed the highest rates of obesity (9.1%) and overweight (39.1%) of any rural population from the country, including Northern Brazil. The results suggest an effect of increased Western lifestyle influence on the body composition of these Caboclo populations. Considering that these are rural populations with limited access to education and health care, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with low socio-economic status makes them a vulnerable group that deserves a higher level of attention by the country's public health authorities.

  2. Myonuclear domain size and myosin isoform expression in muscle fibres from mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Karlsson, Patrick; Lindblad, Joakim; Qaisar, Rizwan; Aare, Sudhakar; Bengtsson, Ewert; Larsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study of myonuclear domain (MND) size in mammalian species representing a 100,000-fold difference in body mass, ranging from 25 g to 2500 kg, was undertaken to improve our understanding of myonuclear organization in skeletal muscle fibres. Myonuclear domain size was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions in a total of 235 single muscle fibre segments at a fixed sarcomere length. Irrespective of species, the largest MND size was observed in muscle fibres expressing fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, but in the two smallest mammalian species studied (mouse and rat), MND size was not larger in the fast-twitch fibres expressing the IIA MyHC isofom than in the slow-twitch type I fibres. In the larger mammals, the type I fibres always had the smallest average MND size, but contrary to mouse and rat muscles, type IIA fibres had lower mitochondrial enzyme activities than type I fibres. Myonuclear domain size was highly dependent on body mass in the two muscle fibre types expressed in all species, i.e. types I and IIA. Myonuclear domain size increased in muscle fibres expressing both the beta/slow (type I; r = 0.84, P fast IIA MyHC isoform (r = 0.90; P muscle fibre type, independent of species. However, myosin isoform expression is not the sole protein determining MND size, and other protein systems, such as mitochondrial proteins, may be equally or more important determinants of MND size.

  3. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  5. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  6. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    OpenAIRE

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life i...

  7. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  8. Body Image Issues In Lithuanian Magazines Aimed For Children And Adolescents In Relation To Body Mass Index And Body Size Perception Of 16-19 Y. Old Girls During The Last 15 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Tutkuviene, Janina

    2017-01-01

    Mass media plays an important role in forming body image and makes the significant impact on body size perception in children and adolescents. The aim of present study was to reveal trends in depiction of body image cues in Lithuanian magazines aimed for children and adolescents in relation to changes of real body mass index (BMI) and body size perception of 16-19 y. old girls in the year 2000 and the 2015. Three popular journals published both in the year 2000 and the 2015, were chosen for i...

  9. Attention biases in preoccupation with body image: An ERP study of the role of social comparison and automaticity when processing body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Peet, Krista; Uusberg, Andero; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2018-03-17

    Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs. high concurrent working memory load were analyzed. Women with high preoccupation exhibited an earlier bias to larger bodies of both self and peer. During later processing stages, they exhibited a stronger bias to enlarged as well as reduced self-images and a lack of sensitivity to size-modifications of the peer-image. Working memory load did not affect these biases systematically. Current findings suggest that preoccupation with body image involves an earlier attention bias to weight increase cues and later over-engagement with own figure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Body size distribution demonstrates flexible habitat shift of green turtle (Chelonia mydas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green turtles (Chelonia mydas, listed as Endangered on the IUCN redlist, have a broad migration area and undergo a habitat shift from the pelagic (hatchling to neritic (growth zones. We studied habitat utilisation of the coastal feeding grounds around Okinawajima Island, Japan, in 103 green turtles. The western and eastern turtle aggregations off Okinawa had homogeneous genetic compositions, but different body size distributions. The western coastal feeding ground supported larger individuals than the eastern coastal feeding ground. Thus, green turtles appear to prefer different feeding grounds during their growth, and have a flexible habitat shift including a secondary habitat shift from east to west around Okinawajima Island after they are recruited to the coastal habitats. This study suggests maintaining coastal habitat diversity is important for green turtle conservation.

  11. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  13. Intraspecific Allometry of Basal Metabolic Rate : Relations with Body Size, Temperature, Composition, and Circadian Phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Strijkstra, Arjen; Verhulst, Simon

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in homeotherms has been treated in the literature primarily by comparison between species of mammals or birds. This paper focuses on the intraindividual changes in BMR when body mass (W) varies with different maintenance regimens. BMR

  14. Variations in leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. Sicuro

    2015-10-01

    , the longer hind foot of male leopard cats is the main feature of sexual dimorphism among P. b. bengalensis (and probably among P. b. horsfieldii too. External body measurements also indicated the absence of sexual dimorphism among individuals of P. b. borneoensis. Inter-subspecific skull comparisons provided a morphometric basis for differentiating some subspecies. Prionailurus b. horsfieldii and P. b. bengalensis were distinguished only by a subtle difference in PM4 size, indicating that overall skull morphology does not appear to support their separate taxonomical status, in spite of the marked differences reported in their coat patterns. Geological events affecting the Sunda Shelf connection between the Sunda Islands and the mainland during the Last Glacial Maximum seem to have influenced directly the morphological pattern shown by leopard cat subspecies nowadays.

  15. C. elegans serine-threonine kinase KIN-29 modulates TGFβ signaling and regulates body size formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In C. elegans there are two well-defined TGFβ-like signaling pathways. The Sma/Mab pathway affects body size morphogenesis, male tail development and spicule formation while the Daf pathway regulates entry into and exit out of the dauer state. To identify additional factors that modulate TGFβ signaling in the Sma/Mab pathway, we have undertaken a genetic screen for small animals and have identified kin-29. Results kin-29 encodes a protein with a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase and a novel C-terminal domain. The kinase domain is a distantly related member of the EMK (ELKL motif kinase family, which interacts with microtubules. We show that the serine-threonine kinase domain has in vitro activity. kin-29 mutations result in small animals, but do not affect male tail morphology as do several of the Sma/Mab signal transducers. Adult worms are smaller than the wild-type, but also develop more slowly. Rescue by kin-29 is achieved by expression in neurons or in the hypodermis. Interaction with the dauer pathway is observed in double mutant combinations, which have been seen with Sma/Mab pathway mutants. We show that kin-29 is epistatic to the ligand dbl-1, and lies upstream of the Sma/Mab pathway target gene, lon-1. Conclusion kin-29 is a new modulator of the Sma/Mab pathway. It functions in neurons and in the hypodermis to regulate body size, but does not affect all TGFβ outputs, such as tail morphogenesis.

  16. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Garzke

    Full Text Available Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5 and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  17. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  18. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected

  19. Effects of temperature and body size on radiocaesium retention in brown trout, Salmo trutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Njastad, O.; Naeumann, R.

    1992-01-01

    The elimination rate of radiocaesium in brown trout Salmo trutta L. was determined in the laboratory at four water temperatures (range 4.4 -15.6 0 C). In the experiments three or four homogeneous size-groups of fish (mean weights 23-496g) were studied at each temperature. The brown trout received acute oral doses of 134 Cs and were killed at intervals for radioactivity counting. The retention versus time curves were composed of two distinct exponential components. The long-lived component was quantitatively the most important for retention of radiocaesium. Elimination rate increased with increasing water temperature and decreased with increasing body weight. The biological half-life of 134 Cs (T b , days) was related to fresh body weight (W, g) and water temperature (t, 0 C) by the equation: T b = 290 x W 0.176 x e -0.106 x t . The elimination rate of Cs could be predicted from weight-specific metabolic rate as given by Elliott's equations for brown trout. (author)

  20. Milk Lacking α-Casein Leads to Permanent Reduction in Body Size in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Huber, Reinhard C.; Lillico, Simon G.; Carlisle, Ailsa; Robinson, Claire J.; Neil, Claire; Petrie, Linda; Sorensen, Dorte B.; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate. We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight. PMID:21789179

  1. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Milk lacking α-casein leads to permanent reduction in body size in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F Kolb

    Full Text Available The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate.We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight.

  3. Measures of Body Size and Composition and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Maria G.; Yee, Laura M.; Biggs, Mary L.; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Siscovick, David S.; Gottdiener, John S.; Rosenberg, Michael A.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Various anthropometric measures, including height, have been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). This raises questions about the appropriateness of using ratio measures such as body mass index (BMI), which contains height squared in its denominator, in the evaluation of AF risk. Among older adults, the optimal anthropometric approach to risk stratification of AF remains uncertain. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures were obtained from 4,276 participants (mean age = 72.4 years) free of cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up (1989–2008), 1,050 cases of AF occurred. BMI showed a U-shaped association, whereas height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and fat-free mass were linearly related to incident AF. The strongest adjusted association occurred for height (per each 1-standard-deviation increment, hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.51), which exceeded all other measures, including weight (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.29). Combined assessment of log-transformed weight and height showed regression coefficients that departed from the 1 to −2 ratio inherent in BMI, indicating a loss of predictive information. Risk estimates for AF tended to be stronger for hip circumference than for waist circumference and for fat-free mass than for fat mass, which was explained largely by height. These findings highlight the prominent role of body size and the inadequacy of BMI as determinants of AF in older adults. PMID:27188936

  4. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera: Carabidae in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between two ground beetles species Epomis dejeani Dejean, 1831 and E. circumscriptus Duftschmid, 1812. We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults' length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females.

  5. Body-size trends of the extinct giant shark Carcharocles megalodon: a deep-time perspective on marine apex predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Balk, Meghan A

    2015-06-01

    The extinct shark Carcharocles megalodon is one of the largest marine apex predators ever to exist. Nonetheless, little is known about its body-size variations through time and space. Here, we studied the body-size trends of C. megalodon through its temporal and geographic range to better understand its ecology and evolution. Given that this species was the last of the megatooth lineage, a group of species that shows a purported size increase through time, we hypothesized that C. megalodon also displayed this trend, increasing in size over time and reaching its largest size prior to extinction. We found that C. megalodon body-size distribution was left-skewed (suggesting a long-term selective pressure favoring larger individuals), and presented significant geographic variation (possibly as a result of the heterogeneous ecological constraints of this cosmopolitan species) over geologic time. Finally, we found that stasis was the general mode of size evolution of C. megalodon (i.e., no net changes over time), contrasting with the trends of the megatooth lineage and our hypothesis. Given that C. megalodon is a relatively long-lived species with a widely distributed fossil record, we further used this study system to provide a deep-time perspective to the understanding of the body-size trends of marine apex predators. For instance, our results suggest that (1) a selective pressure in predatory sharks for consuming a broader range of prey may favor larger individuals and produce left-skewed distributions on a geologic time scale; (2) body-size variations in cosmopolitan apex marine predators may depend on their interactions with geographically discrete communities; and (3) the inherent characteristics of shark species can produce stable sizes over geologic time, regardless of the size trends of their lineages.

  6. Size-dependent plastic deformation of twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Startt, Jacob K.; Payne, Thomas G.; Deo, Chaitanya S.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with face-centered cubic metals, twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic (BCC) systems are much less explored partly due to the more complicated plastic deformation behavior and a lack of reliable interatomic potentials for the latter. In this paper, the fault energies predicted by two semi-empirical interatomic potentials in BCC tungsten (W) are first benchmarked against density functional theory calculations. Then, the more accurate potential is employed in large scale molecular dynamics simulations of tensile and compressive loading of twinned nanopillars in BCC W with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. A single crystal, a twinned crystal, and single crystalline nanopillars are also studied as references. Analyses of the stress-strain response and defect nucleation reveal a strong tension-compression asymmetry and a weak pillar size dependence in the yield strength. Under both tensile and compressive loading, plastic deformation in the twinned nanopillars is dominated by dislocation slip on {110} planes that are nucleated from the intersections between the twin boundary and the pillar surface. It is also found that the cross sectional shape of nanopillars affects the strength and the initial site of defect nucleation but not the overall stress-strain response and plastic deformation behavior.

  7. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recru...

  8. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  9. SENSITIVITY OF BODY SWAY PARAMETERS DURING QUIET STANDING TO MANIPULATION OF SUPPORT SURFACE SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabon Nejc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The centre of pressure (COP movement during stance maintenance on a stable surface is commonly used to describe and evaluate static balance. The aim of our study was to test sensitivity of individual COP parameters to different stance positions which were used to address size specific changes in the support surface. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study. They carried out three 60-second repetitions of each of the five balance tasks (parallel stance, semi-tandem stance, tandem stance, contra-tandem stance, single leg stance. Using the force plate, the monitored parameters included the total COP distance, the distance covered in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, the maximum oscillation amplitude in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, the total frequency of oscillation, as well as the frequency of oscillation in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The parameters which describe the total COP distance were the most sensitive to changes in the balance task, whereas the frequency of oscillation proved to be sensitive to a slightly lesser extent. Reductions in the support surface size in each of the directions resulted in proportional changes of antero-posterior and medio- lateral directions. The frequency of oscillation did not increase evenly with the increase in the level of difficulty of the balance task, but reached a certain value, above which it did not increase. Our study revealed the monitored parameters of the COP to be sensitive to the support surface size manipulations. The results of the study provide an important source for clinical and research use of the body sway measurements.

  10. Endothermy in African platypleurine cicadas: the influence of body size and habitat (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Villet, Martin H; Phillips, Polly K

    2004-01-01

    The platypleurine cicadas have a wide distribution across Africa and southern Asia. We investigate endothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy in 11 South African species from five genera, with comparisons to the lone ectothermic platypleurine we found, in an attempt to ascertain any influence that habitat and/or body size have on the expression of endothermy in the platypleurine cicadas. Field measurements of body temperature (T(b)) show that these animals regulate T(b) through endogenous heat production. Heat production in the laboratory elevated T(b) to the same range as in animals active in the field. Maximum T(b) measured during calling activity when there was no access to solar radiation ranged from 13.2 degrees to 22.3 degrees C above ambient temperature in the five species measured. The mean T(b) during activity without access to solar radiation did not differ from the mean T(b) during diurnal activity. All platypleurines exhibit a unique behavior for cicadas while warming endogenously, a temperature-dependent telescoping pulsation of the abdomen that probably functions in ventilation. Platypleurines generally call from trunks and branches within the canopy and appear to rely on endothermy even when the sun is available to elevate T(b), in contrast to the facultative endothermy exhibited by New World endothermic species. The two exceptions to this generalization we found within the platypleurines are Platypleura wahlbergi and Albanycada albigera, which were the smallest species studied. The small size of P. wahlbergi appears to have altered their thermoregulatory strategy to one of facultative endothermy, whereby they use the sun when it is available to facilitate increases in T(b). Albanycada albigera is the only ectothermic platypleurine we found. The habitat and host plant association of A. albigera appear to have influenced the choice of ectothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy, as the species possesses the metabolic machinery to elevate to the T

  11. Despite Buffers, Experimental Forest Clearcuts Impact Amphibian Body Size and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Forest buffers are a primary tool used to protect wetland-dependent wildlife. Though implemented widely, buffer efficacy is untested for most amphibian species. Consequently, it remains unclear whether buffers are sufficient for maintaining amphibian populations and if so, how wide buffers should be. We present evidence from a six-year, landscape-scale experiment testing the impacts of clearcutting, buffer width, and hydroperiod on body size and condition and biomass of breeding adults for two amphibian species at 11 vernal pools in the northeastern United States. We randomly assigned treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) across pools, clearcut to create buffers, and captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs. Clearcuts strongly and negatively impacted size, condition, and biomass, but wider buffers mitigated effect magnitude and duration. Among recaptured individuals, for example, 30m-treatment salamanders were predicted to be about 9.5 mm shorter than, while 100m-treatment salamanders did not differ in length from, reference-treatment salamanders. Similarly, among recaptured frogs, mean length in the 30m treatment was predicted to decrease by about 1 mm/year, while in the 100m and reference treatments, length was time-invariant. Some, but not all, metrics recovered with time. For example, female new-captured and recaptured salamanders were predicted, respectively and on average, to weigh 4.5 and 7 g less in the 30m versus reference treatment right after the cut. While recaptured-female mass was predicted to recover by 9.5 years post-cut, new-captured-female mass did not recover. Hydroperiod was an important mediator: in the 100m treatment, cutting predominately affected pools that were stressed hydrologically. Overall, salamanders and female frogs were impacted more than male frogs. Our results highlight the importance of individualized metrics like body size, which can reveal sublethal effects and illuminate mechanisms by which habitat

  12. Despite Buffers, Experimental Forest Clearcuts Impact Amphibian Body Size and Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Forest buffers are a primary tool used to protect wetland-dependent wildlife. Though implemented widely, buffer efficacy is untested for most amphibian species. Consequently, it remains unclear whether buffers are sufficient for maintaining amphibian populations and if so, how wide buffers should be. We present evidence from a six-year, landscape-scale experiment testing the impacts of clearcutting, buffer width, and hydroperiod on body size and condition and biomass of breeding adults for two amphibian species at 11 vernal pools in the northeastern United States. We randomly assigned treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer across pools, clearcut to create buffers, and captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs. Clearcuts strongly and negatively impacted size, condition, and biomass, but wider buffers mitigated effect magnitude and duration. Among recaptured individuals, for example, 30m-treatment salamanders were predicted to be about 9.5 mm shorter than, while 100m-treatment salamanders did not differ in length from, reference-treatment salamanders. Similarly, among recaptured frogs, mean length in the 30m treatment was predicted to decrease by about 1 mm/year, while in the 100m and reference treatments, length was time-invariant. Some, but not all, metrics recovered with time. For example, female new-captured and recaptured salamanders were predicted, respectively and on average, to weigh 4.5 and 7 g less in the 30m versus reference treatment right after the cut. While recaptured-female mass was predicted to recover by 9.5 years post-cut, new-captured-female mass did not recover. Hydroperiod was an important mediator: in the 100m treatment, cutting predominately affected pools that were stressed hydrologically. Overall, salamanders and female frogs were impacted more than male frogs. Our results highlight the importance of individualized metrics like body size, which can reveal sublethal effects and illuminate mechanisms by

  13. The thermal environment of the nest affects body and cell size in the solitary red mason bee (Osmia bicornis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, Justyna; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Many ectotherms grow larger at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This pattern, known as the temperature-size rule, is often accompanied by plastic changes in cell size, which can mechanistically explain the thermal dependence of body size. However, the theory predicts that thermal plasticity in cell size has adaptive value for ectotherms because there are different optimal cell-membrane-to-cell-volume ratios at different temperatures. At high temperatures, the demand for oxygen is high; therefore, a large membrane surface of small cells is beneficial because it allows high rates of oxygen transport into the cell. The metabolic costs of maintaining membranes become more important at low temperatures than at high temperatures, which favours large cells. In a field experiment, we manipulated the thermal conditions inside nests of the red mason bee, a solitary bee that does not regulate the temperature in its nests and whose larvae develop under ambient conditions. We assessed the effect of temperature on body mass and ommatidia size (our proxy of cell size). The body and cell sizes decreased in response to a higher mean temperature and greater temperature fluctuations. This finding is in accordance with predictions of the temperature-size rule and optimal cell size theory and suggests that both the mean temperature and the magnitude of temperature fluctuations are important for determining body and cell sizes. Additionally, we observed that males of the red mason bee tend to have larger ommatidia in relation to their body mass than females, which might play an important role during mating flight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  15. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproduction and High Caloric Diet Consumption on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Health of Juvenile Mouse Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L.; Ramírez, Francisco; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A.; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring’s weight and cardiovascular performance at ∼7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high fructose corn syrup (HF) or maintenance chow (5% fat; LF). Dams were subdivided into no-ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten’s medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at sacrifice (55 ± 0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by sacrifice. Males had greater MAP than females (p=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (p<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (p<0.05) and diet (p<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (p=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed. PMID:24163396

  16. Effects of the use of assisted reproduction and high-caloric diet consumption on body weight and cardiovascular health of juvenile mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenewerk, Angela L; Ramírez, Francisco Í; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Martínez-Lemus, Luis A; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity and the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are two suboptimal developmental environments that can lead to offspring obesity and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that these environments independently and synergistically adversely affect the offspring's weight and cardiovascular performance at ~7 weeks of age. Mice were fed either 24% fat and 17.5% high-fructose (HF) corn syrup or maintenance chow (5% fat; low-fat, no-fructose (LF)). Dams were subdivided into no ART and ART groups. ART embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium and transferred into pseudopregnant recipients consuming the same diet as the donor. Offspring were fed the same diet as the mother. Body weights (BW) were measured weekly and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was collected through carotid artery catheterization at killing (55±0.5 days old). Expression of genes involved in cardiovascular remodeling was measured in thoracic aorta using qRT-PCR, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured intracellularly and extracellularly in mesenteric resistance arteries. ART resulted in increased BW at weaning. This effect decreased over time and diet was the predominant determinant of BW by killing. Males had greater MAP than females (P=0.002) and HF consumption was associated with greater MAP regardless of sex (P<0.05). Gene expression was affected by sex (P<0.05) and diet (P<0.1). Lastly, the use of ART resulted in offspring with increased intracellular ROS (P=0.05). In summary, exposure to an obesogenic diet pre- and/or post-natally affects weight, MAP, and gene expression while ART increases oxidative stress in mesenteric resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, no synergistic effects were observed.

  17. Body size distribution in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as a possible monitoring method of environmental impacts of transgenic maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumo, Davide di; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the obligatory post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops in Europe, there are no available standards on methods. Our aim was to examine the suitability of using changes in carabid body size distribution as a possible monitoring method. The sampling was carried...... informative Lorenz asymmetry coefficients. A total of 6339 carabids belonging to 38 species were captured and indentified. The analysis detected a shift in size distribution between months but no important differences in the assemblages in Bt vs. non-Bt maize plots were found. We concluded that an increasing...... body size trend from spring to autumn was evident, and the use of a multilevel analysis was important to correctly interpret the body size distribution. Therefore, the proposed methods are indeed sensitive to subtle changes in the structure of the carabid assemblages, and they have the potential...

  18. Binge size increases with body mass index in women with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Janet L; Kissileff, Harry R; Devlin, Michael J; Zimmerli, Ellen; Walsh, B Timothy

    2002-10-01

    To determine whether meal size is related to body mass index (BMI) in obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED). Five groups of subjects each consumed two laboratory-test meals on nonconsecutive days. Forty-two women, categorized by BMI and BED diagnosis, were instructed to "binge" during one meal and to eat "normally" during another. Eighteen women had BMI values >38 kg/m(2) (more-obese) and 17 had BMI values between 28 to 32 kg/m(2) (less-obese). Twelve of the more-obese and nine of the less-obese individuals met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV criteria for BED. Seven normal-weight women also participated as controls. Subjects with BED ate significantly more in both meals than subjects without BED. Binge meals were significantly larger than normal meals only among subjects with BED. The more-obese subjects with BED ate significantly more than the less-obese subjects with BED, but only when they were asked to binge. Intake of the binge meal was significantly, positively correlated with BMI among subjects with BED. Subjects with BED reported significantly higher satiety ratings after the binge than after the normal meal, but subjects without BED reported similar ratings after both meals. Regardless of instructions and diagnosis, obese subjects consumed a significantly higher percentage of energy from fat (38.5%) than did normal-weight subjects (30.8%). During binge meals, the energy intake of subjects with BED is greater than that of individuals of similar body weight without BED and is positively correlated with BMI.

  19. Body size at birth and blood pressure among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C M; Egger, P; Dada, O; Delgado, H; Kylberg, E; Lavin, P; Tang, G H; von Hertzen, H; Shiell, A W; Barker, D J

    2001-02-01

    Studies in developed countries have shown that reduced fetal growth is related to raised blood pressure in childhood and adult life. Little is known about this association in developing countries, where fetal growth retardation is common. In 1994-1995, we measured blood pressure in 1570 3-6-year-old children living in China, Guatemala, Chile, Nigeria and Sweden. We related their blood pressure to patterns of fetal growth, as measured by body proportions at birth. The children were all born after 37 weeks gestation and weighed more than 2.5 kg at birth. In each country, blood pressure was positively related to the child's current weight. After adjusting for this and gender, systolic pressure was inversely related to size at birth in all countries except Nigeria. In Chile, China and Guatemala, children who were proportionately small at birth had raised systolic pressure. For example, in Chile, systolic pressure adjusted for current weight increased by 4.9 mmHg (95% CI : 2.1, 7.7) for every kilogram decrease in birthweight, by 1 mmHg (95% CI : 0.4, 1.6) for every centimetre decrease in birth length, and by 1.3 mmHg (95% CI : 0.4, 2.2) for every centimetre decrease in head circumference at birth. In Sweden, systolic pressure was higher in children who were disproportionately small, that is thin, at birth. Systolic pressure increased by 0.3 mmHg (95% CI : 0.0, 0.6) for every unit (kg/m3) decrease in ponderal index at birth. These associations were independent of the duration of gestation. Raised blood pressure among children in three samples from China, Central and South America is related to proportionate reduction in body size at birth, which results from reduced growth throughout gestation. The relation between fetal growth and blood pressure may be different in African populations. Proportionately reduced fetal growth is the prevalent pattern of fetal growth retardation in developing countries, and is associated with chronic undernutrition among women. Improvement

  20. The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia-Woei; Lin, Ching-Ling; Tsai, Yen-An; Chang, Chia-Huang; Liao, Kai-Wei; Yu, Ching-Jung; Yang, Winnie; Lee, Ming-Jun; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Yin-Han; Lin, Fang-Ru; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Lee, Meng-Chih; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ching-Chang; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2015-10-01

    Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 μg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 μg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection

  1. Body size mediates social and environmental effects on nest building behaviour in a fish with paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Lindström, Kai; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-07-01

    Body size, social setting, and the physical environment can all influence reproductive behaviours, but their interactions are not well understood. Here, we investigated how male body size, male-male competition, and water turbidity influence nest-building behaviour in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a marine fish with exclusive paternal care. We found that environmental and social factors affected the nest characteristics of small and large males differently. In particular, association between male size and the level of nest elaboration (i.e. the amount of sand piled on top of the nest) was positive only under clear water conditions. Similarly, male size and nest entrance size were positively associated only in the absence of competition. Such interactions may, in turn, help to explain the persistence of variation in reproductive behaviours, which-due to their importance in offspring survival-are otherwise expected to be under strong balancing selection.

  2. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  3. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal ri