WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice system mental

  1. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  2. How Do Youth with Mental Disorders Fare in the Juvenile Justice System?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Alison Cuellar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between mental health problems and justice outcomes. Several studies have documented that individuals with a variety of mental disorders are overrepresented in the justice system. This pattern could result if persons with mental disorders are more likely to commit crimes, or more likely to commit serious crimes, than persons without disorders. In addition, individuals with mental disorders may be more likely than those without disorders...

  3. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  4. Integrating the American criminal justice and mental health service systems to focus on victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2011-12-01

    Although most research and policy in the mental health and criminal justice arenas have operated independently of one another, there is a growing consensus suggesting the need for an integration of these two disparate, yet complementary systems. Furthermore, in light of the adverse mental health consequences that often accompany victimization experiences, it is apparent that these two systems should develop and foster overlapping services for crime victims. The research reviewed herein provides an examination of issues such as these, identifies some of the barriers that stand in the way of a successful integration of the two systems, and attempts to provide some guidance and direction for future integrated mental health and criminal justice system approaches. An outline of research gaps and directions for future study are offered for the integration of criminal justice and mental health systems, as such collaborations are likely to alleviate some of the deleterious mental health outcomes evident among crime victims and at the same time reduce the occurrence of repeat victimization.

  5. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  6. The Characteristics of Youth Referred for Mental Health Evaluation in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kenneth M.; Powell, Elaine; Strock, Melissa

    This study examined the demographic, service use, and juvenile justice history associated with clinical variables in a juvenile justice population. Records of 3,283 youth (ages 10 to 18) admitted to a juvenile corrections facility in a six-month period were reviewed. Of this group, 244 (8 percent) had been referred for mental health evaluation.…

  7. Children in the criminal justice and secure care systems: how their mental health needs are met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Z; Thornes, R; Bailey, S

    1998-10-01

    A study was made of the perceptions among relevant service providers of the mental health needs of young people considered for secure placement. Information was obtained in 1996 from 75% of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, social services children's services, youth justice, probation, secure units and young offender institutions in England and Wales. The findings confirm that highly disturbed young people, who may be a danger to themselves and others, may present to a wide range of services, and that their mental health needs are neither well recognized, widely understood, nor adequately met. Availability of appropriate levels and types of expertise and resource is patchy and strictly limited, within secure settings and in local community services across all agencies.

  8. Selecting a Method of Case Identification to Estimate the Involvement of People With Mental Illnesses in the Criminal Justice System: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa S; Wilson, Amy Blank

    2017-06-01

    Arrest and incarceration are a pervasive reality for people with mental illnesses. Wide variation, however, exists in the estimates of the percentage of people with mental illnesses who become involved in the criminal justice system. Researchers and practitioners need a variety of methods in their toolbox to maximize their ability to identify mental illness depending on available resources and needs. Yet, the benefits and costs of utilizing these different approaches have yet to be explored in the criminal justice literature. To begin exploring the utility of the different methods of case identification, we review the most commonly used approaches to identifying people with mental illnesses and end with a detailed examination of the use of behavior health records. The use of behavioral health records is a case identification method that has gained emerging support in criminal justice research in recent years.

  9. Patterns of mental health, substance abuse, and justice system involvement among youth aging out of child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Jeffrey; Goodkind, Sara; Pohlig, Ryan T; Schelbe, Lisa; Herring, David; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-07-01

    Although research on youth aging out of the child welfare system has increased, there has been limited focus on how their experiences vary. In particular, there is a need to examine patterns in the involvement of these youth in other systems, which indicate constellations of challenges facing these young people as they transition out of care and into adulthood. Using administrative data from a large birth cohort of individuals born between 1985 and 1994 whose families have been involved in the child welfare system, this article presents an analysis of the mental health, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and criminal justice system involvement of youth who have aged out of child welfare. Using a 2-step cluster analysis, we identify 5 subgroups of youth. Two of these groups, accounting for almost half of the youth, have little other system involvement and have child welfare care careers of relative stability. The other 3 groups, consisting of just over half of the youth, have much more extensive other system involvement, as well as care careers marked by instability and a greater proportion of time spent in congregate care.

  10. Disparities in justice and care: persons with severe mental illnesses in the U.S. immigration detention system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Kristen C; Pleasants, Gregory L; Penn, Joseph V; Stone, David C

    2010-01-01

    As the total number of persons held within the U.S. immigration detention system has grown, the number of detained persons with severe mental illnesses has grown correspondingly. Reports issued by the government, legal and human rights advocates, and the media have brought to light a problematic and growing detention system with pervasive legal and mental health care disparities. Described are the structure and funding of the U.S. immigration detention system, the legal state of affairs for immigration detainees with mental illnesses, and what is known about the present system of mental health care within the U.S. immigration detention system. Attention is given to the paucity of legal protections for immigration detainees with severe mental illnesses, such as no right to appointed legal counsel and no requirement for mental competence before undergoing deportation proceedings. A case example and discussion of potential alternatives to detention highlight the need for wide-ranging reform.

  11. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied.

  12. Addressing the Needs of the Criminal Defendant with Mental Retardation: The Special Educator as a Resource to the Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everington, Caroline; Luckasson, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The expertise of special educators can aid in providing justice for criminal defendants with mental retardation in such areas as identification of mental retardation, evaluations and habilitation concerning competence to stand trial or enter plea agreements, and provision of services to defendants in corrections programs. (Author/DB)

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of a preventive intervention for divorced families: reduction in mental health and justice system service use costs 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Patricia M; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Porter, Michele M; Jones, Sarah; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-05-01

    This cost-benefit analysis compared the costs of implementing the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive intervention for divorced families to monetary benefits saved in mental healthcare service use and criminal justice system costs. NBP was delivered when the offspring were 9-12 years old. Benefits were assessed 15 years later when the offspring were young adults (ages 24-27). This study estimated the costs of delivering two versions of NBP, a single-component parenting-after-divorce program (Mother Program, MP) and a two-component parenting-after-divorce and child-coping program (Mother-Plus-Child Program, MPCP), to costs of a literature control (LC). Long-term monetary benefits were determined from actual expenditures from past-year mental healthcare service use for mothers and their young adult (YA) offspring and criminal justice system involvement for YAs. Data were gathered from 202 YAs and 194 mothers (75.4 % of families randomly assigned to condition). The benefits, as assessed in the 15th year after program completion, were $1630/family (discounted benefits $1077/family). These 1-year benefits, based on conservative assumptions, more than paid for the cost of MP and covered the majority of the cost of MPCP. Because the effects of MP versus MPCP on mental health and substance use problems have not been significantly different at short-term or long-term follow-up assessments, program managers would likely choose the lower-cost option. Given that this evaluation only calculated economic benefit at year 15 and not the previous 14 (nor future years), these findings suggest that, from a societal perspective, NBP more than pays for itself in future benefits.

  14. Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

  15. Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristin; Fallon, John; Vogel, Sue; Teachout, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mental health evidence based practice, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health…

  16. Applying procedural justice theory to law enforcement's response to persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2007-06-01

    Procedural justice provides a framework for considering how persons with mental illness experience interactions with the police and how officer behaviors may shape cooperation or resistance. The procedural justice perspective holds that the fairness with which people are treated in an encounter with authority figures (such as the police) influences whether they cooperate or resist authority. Key components of a procedural justice framework include participation (having a voice), which involves having the opportunity to present one's own side of the dispute and be heard by the decision maker; dignity, which includes being treated with respect and politeness and having one's rights acknowledged; and trust that the authority is concerned with one's welfare. Procedural justice has its greatest impact early in the encounter, suggesting that how officers initially approach someone is extremely important. Persons with mental illness may be particularly attentive to how they are treated by police. According to this framework, people who are uncertain about their status (such as members of stigmatized groups) will respond most strongly to the fairness by which police exercise their authority. This article reviews the literature on police response to persons with mental illness. Procedural justice theory as it has been applied to mental health and justice system contexts is examined. Its application to encounters between police and persons with mental illness is discussed. Implications and cautions for efforts to improve police response to persons with mental illness and future research also are examined.

  17. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  18. Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental health problems, including substance use, have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems when compared with veterans who do not have such problems. The review will also seek to identify veterans’ views and experiences on their contact with criminal justice services, what contributed to or influenced their contact and whether there are any differences, including international and temporal, in incidence, contact type, veteran type, their presenting health needs and reported experiences. Methods/design In this review we will adopt a methodological model similar to that previously used by other researchers when reviewing intervention studies. The model, which we will use as a framework for conducting a review of observational and qualitative studies, consists of two parallel synthesis stages within the review process; one for quantitative research and the other for qualitative research. The third stage involves a cross study synthesis, enabling a deeper understanding of the results of the quantitative synthesis. A range of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, will be systematically searched, from 1939 to present day, using a broad range of search terms that cover four key concepts: mental health, military veterans, substance misuse, and criminal justice. Studies will be screened against topic specific inclusion/exclusion criteria and then against a smaller subset of design specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted for those studies that meet the inclusion criteria, and all eligible studies will be critically appraised. Included

  19. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  20. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  1. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that

  2. Recent victimization increases risk for violence in justice-involved persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Binder, Renée L; McNiel, Dale E

    2014-04-01

    A large body of research has examined relationships between distal experiences of victimization and the likelihood of engaging in violence later in life. Less is known about the influence of recent violent victimization on risk for violence perpetration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine prospectively whether recent victimization in adulthood increases the risk of future violence. Specifically, the present study assessed the incremental validity of recent violent victimization in the prediction of future violence in a sample of justice-involved adults with serious mental illness. The study examined (a) whether recent experiences of violent victimization (i.e., within 6 months of the baseline assessment) predicted a greater likelihood of perpetrating violence in the next year, and (b) whether inclusion of recent victimization enhanced the predictive validity of a model of violence risk in a sample of justice-involved adults with severe mental illness (N = 167). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that exposure to recent violent victimization at the baseline assessment predicted a greater likelihood of engaging in violent behavior during the year follow-up period. Additionally, recent exposure to violence at the baseline assessment continued to explain a significant amount of variance in a model of future violence perpetration above the variance accounted for by well-established violence risk factors. Taken together, the findings suggest that recent victimization is important to consider in understanding and evaluating risk of violence by persons with mental disorders who are involved in the criminal justice system.

  3. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  4. Mental health courts: serving justice and promoting recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Ginger Lerner

    2010-01-01

    This article begins and ends with a call for more empirical research to understand the connection between societal views of mental illness and the legal system. The author asserts that changing social perceptions of mental illness certainly affect legal outcomes and commitment levels, but the degree remains unknown. This article explores the above two topics through the framework of the Circuit Court 'split' regarding the Constitutional rights of persons committed to state mental health institutions. A main facet of the 'split' is centered on the Circuits' disagreement about whether or not all mentally ill patients committed to institutions deserve the same Constitutional protections.

  5. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  6. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  7. Justice Delivered Locally : Systems, Challenges, and Innovations in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the research findings of the Justice Delivered Locally (JDL) initiative of Solomon Islands' Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, which was supported by the World Bank's Justice for the Poor (J4P) program. JDL supports the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) policy of reinvigorating local-level justice systems. This is based on an understanding that developmentally impor...

  8. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  9. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  10. Procedural justice in mental health courts: judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. Procedural justice in mental health courts: Judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23415372

  12. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  13. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  14. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  15. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  16. "Symptoms of something all around us": Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The

  17. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Intan Karangan

    2016-01-01

    ... No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law...

  18. POLICE INTERACTIONS WITH THE MENTALLY ILL: THE ROLE OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana B. Kara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Police encounters with mentally ill individuals that involve the use of force by police are relatively infrequent, but sometimes quite volatile. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, poorly funded and fragmented community treatment alternatives, plus increasingly restrictive civil commitment criteria have led to increased contacts with the police. Police need to exercise restraint when using force against individuals suffering from a mental disorder. There is a clear need for specialized crisis intervention police training for dealing with the mentally ill. Procedural justice theory offers a promising approach to improving police-citizen interactions. According to this framework, the fairness with which an individual is treated during an encounter by an authority figure, such as the police, can affect the perceived legitimacy of these interactions and any disposition that flows from them. This is particularly important regarding interactions between the police and those suffering from a mental disorder.

  19. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faries Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  20. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  1. [Justice in health care systems from an economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, J

    2004-01-01

    Due to rising health care expenditures international comparisons of health care systems are recently gaining more importance. These benchmarks can provide interesting information for improving health care systems. Many of these comparisons implicitly assume that countries have a universal understanding of justice. But this assumption is rather questionable. With regard to the existing cultural differences in the understanding of justice the transferability of elements of health care systems is not always assured. A transfer usually requires a thorough examination of the judicial systems in each country. This article analyses the influence of different judicial systems applying to health care. In this context theories of justice by Rawls, Nozick and Confucius representing the possible understanding of justice in different cultures are described and analysed with regards to their influence on health care systems. The example of financing health care shows that the three theories of justice have very different consequences for designing health care systems especially concerning the role of governments.

  2. Using a social justice approach to prevent the mental health consequences of heterosexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Connie R; Adams, Eve M

    2009-01-01

    Albee's social justice approach to prevention offers a framework for understanding the detrimental effect of heterosexism on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people. Minority stress models likewise address the role of discrimination and other social injustices in contributing to psychological distress in minority populations. This article describes Albee's framework in the context of minority stress theory as it applies to LGB people and suggests activities mental health professionals can engage in to help prevent the psychological consequences of heterosexism.

  3. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  4. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  5. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research.

  6. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  7. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  8. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal

  9. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  10. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  11. Health care for youth in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Youth in the juvenile correctional system are a high-risk population who, in many cases, have unmet physical, developmental, and mental health needs. Multiple studies have found that some of these health issues occur at higher rates than in the general adolescent population. Although some youth in the juvenile justice system have interfaced with health care providers in their community on a regular basis, others have had inconsistent or nonexistent care. The health needs of these youth are commonly identified when they are admitted to a juvenile custodial facility. Pediatricians and other health care providers play an important role in the care of these youth, and continuity between the community and the correctional facility is crucial. This policy statement provides an overview of the health needs of youth in the juvenile correctional system, including existing resources and standards for care, financing of health care within correctional facilities, and evidence-based interventions. Recommendations are provided for the provision of health care services to youth in the juvenile correctional system as well as specific areas for advocacy efforts.

  12. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali

    engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...... with the informal justice systems neither directly nor inadvertently reinforces existing societal or structural discrimination – a consideration that applies to working with formal justice systems as well. The study also examines the value of informal justice systems in offering, in certain contexts, flexible...

  13. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  15. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  17. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  18. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  19. Justice for All? A Report on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth in the New York Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Randi; Greenblatt, Andrea; Hass, Lauren; Kohn, Sally; Rana, Julianne

    The first-ever study of its kind, this report chronicles the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) youth in the New York juvenile justice system. This report combines existing social science research and personal interviews with juvenile justice professionals and LGBT youth and reveals that the system is plagued by…

  20. The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ - Reforming European Justice Systems - "Mission Impossible?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon T. Johnsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My paper concerns the Council of Europe’s work to improve justice in Europe. It explains and exemplifies a type of policy that the Council applies in its strive for implementing the demands of the European Human Rights Convention on the judicial systems in Europe.The Convention obliges all member states to put up efficient systems for remedying violations within their own national legal systems. If such systems are missing or do not provide sufficient redress, member states now accept that everyone is free to bring their case before the European Court of Human Rights ECtHR. Over the years the Court has produced extensive case law on violations of the provisions that protect people’s access to justice that develops and concretizes the general wordings used in the text of the ECHR. However, international complaint mechanisms are only one type of instrument for disseminating human rights. In addition to judicial instruments like the ECtHR, CoE also uses policy vehicles for implementation of human rights like the one I will focus upon; namely the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice – usually abbreviated CEPEJ – from the French version of its name. As one of several committees of CoE, it focuses on the development of the judicial systems of the member states.

  1. Victims and the criminal justice system in India: Need for a paradigm shift in the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murugesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until 1970s the victims of crime were a forgotten entity in the criminal justice system. The attitude began to change as the discipline of victimology came into its own. The past few decades have witnessed a revolution in the way society deals with victims of crime. Many countries have now recognized the need to provide services to victims to help them recover from the effects of crime and assist them in their dealings with the criminal justice system. But in India, there has not been any significant improvement in the position of victims in the criminal justice system. The present paper has attempted to examine the position of victims of crime in India and the criminal justice system. The paper also emphasizes the need to provide assistance to crime victims. The authors of the present paper have also suggested some of the immediate steps that are to be implemented by the law enforcement agencies in India to improve the position of victims in the criminal justice system. .

  2. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali;

    Providing accessible justice is a state obligation under international human rights standards, but this obligation does not require that all justice be provided through formal justice systems. If done in ways to respect and uphold human rights, the provision of justice through informal justice...... systems is not against human rights standards and can be a mechanism to enhance the fulfilment of human rights obligations by delivering accessible justice to individuals and communities where the formal justice system does not have the capacity or geographical reach. This study seeks to identify how...... engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...

  3. Is there an internal justice system at CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    The problem of assessing the internal justice system was recently once again in the spotlight in the Common System of the United Nations, in particular the UN, and its subsidiary bodies. The question evidently arises at CERN, even if the Management would be offended by this diagnosis. What leads the Staff Association to raise this issue?

  4. What influences perceptions of procedural justice among people with mental illness regarding their interactions with the police?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Desmarais, Sarah L; Greaves, Caroline; Parent, Richard; Verdun-Jones, Simon; Brink, Johann

    2014-04-01

    According to procedural justice theory, a central factor shaping perceptions about authority figures and dispute resolution processes is whether an individual believes they were treated justly and fairly during personal encounters with agents of authority. This paper describes findings from a community-based participatory research study examining perceptions of procedural justice among sixty people with mental illness regarding their interactions with police. The degree to which these perceptions were associated with selected individual (e.g., socio-demographic characteristics), contextual (e.g., neighborhood, past experiences), and interactional (e.g., actions of the officer) factors was explored. The results of regression analyses indicate that the behavior of police officers during the interactions appears to be the key to whether or not these interactions are perceived by people with mental illness as being procedurally just. Implications of these findings for improving interactions between the police and people with mental illness are discussed.

  5. 76 FR 64108 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of...

  6. Integrated Justice: An Information Systems Approach to Justice Sector Case Management and Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Curtis Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated Case Management Systems are still at an early stage of adoption in many developing countries. These are frequently standalone systems implemented with donor financing, and they often fail due to capacity constraints or as a consequence of short-term, project-based funding. But there are examples of developing countries overcoming these pitfalls and producing innovative solutions that surpass government practices in more developed countries. The Integrated Electronic Case Management System (IECMS, developed and implemented by the Ministry of Justice of Rwanda from 2015-2016, is one such innovation. This system has progressed rapidly in its level of adoption and integration between law enforcement, the prosecutor’s office, courts, and corrections. This paper will discuss the key system functionalities and the implementation methodology, including both the benefits and shortcomings of this approach, with the goal of applying lessons learned in future installations. Foremost among the successes of this project were the integrated Sector Wide Approach, the thorough business process re-engineering, and strong ownership by the Rwandan Justice Sector staff. Particularly instructive will be the analysis of the integrated approach, covering five institutions with a single system in less than two years. However, the particular success in this case may not be replicable for governments with a more decentralized approach.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  8. Parental involvement with the criminal justice system and the effects on their children: a collaborative model for researching vulnerable families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Bree; Smyth, J McGregor; Mandell, Donald J; Doan, Thao; Donina, Katerina; Hoven, Christina W

    2012-01-01

    Despite the existing body of research examining the effects of imprisonment on incarcerated adults, as of yet, there is no solid empirical evidence for understanding the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system involvement (CJSI) on children and families. Accordingly, Columbia University-New York State's Child Psychiatric Epidemiology Group (CPEG), supported by a strong collaboration with The Bronx Defenders, a holistic public defender providing free legal representation, is conducting a longitudinal study examining the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system on this population. The study aims to understand, over time, the impact of parental CJSI on their children's mental health, including the effects of the collateral legal damage of CJSI (such as eviction and deportation), substance use, the development of risky behaviors leading to the child's potential involvement with the criminal justice system, as well as protective factors and identification of potential intervention points, which has the ability to inform public policy.

  9. Health Disparities and the Criminal Justice System: An Agenda for Further Research and Action

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, Ingrid A.; Redmond, Nicole; Steiner, John F.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2011-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be involved with the criminal justice system than whites in the USA, critical scientific gaps exist in our understanding of the relationship between the criminal justice system and the persistence of racial/ethnic health disparities. Individuals engaged with the criminal justice system are at risk for poor health outcomes. Furthermore, criminal justice involvement may have direct or indirect effects on health and health care. Racial/eth...

  10. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  11. Questioning fairness: the relationship of mental health and psychopathic characteristics with young offenders' perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Erika K; Shaffer, Catherine S; Viljoen, Jodi L

    2017-10-01

    Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to perceive it as legitimate and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, when individuals come into contact with the legal system, they are not blank slates - they have beliefs and personality characteristics that may systematically influence such perceptions. Our aim was to establish the extent to which demographic characteristics, legal history and clinical features, including personality characteristics, systematically influenced the degree to which young people experience the justice system as fair and legitimate. Self-report, file and interview data were collected from ninety-two 12 to 17-year-olds on probation in Western Canada. Substance use and traumatic experiences were inversely correlated with perceptions of procedural justice and legal legitimacy. Young people with higher scores on interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial facets of the psychopathy checklist: youth version believed less strongly in the legitimacy of the law, but regression analyses confirmed that only history of trauma was independently associated with perceived procedural justice and legitimacy. Those in the youngest age group were more likely to have positive perceptions of justice than older youths, but demographics and legal history otherwise did not relate to outcomes. Our findings suggest that examining the relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and offending without taking intra-individual variables into account may neglect important influences on those relationships. Other research has begun to show that young people who do not accept the law as legitimate or the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to offend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Why does interactional justice promote organizational loyalty, job performance, and prevent mental impairment? The role of social support and social stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior.

  13. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  14. 76 FR 22919 - National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop AGENCY... for their own travel arrangements and lodging. Please visit the Web site below to submit...

  15. The Effects of Pacifist Norms of the Japanese Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Zenn, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on pacifist norms in Japan may have left irreparable effects on the countrys ability to police organized crime. Japans pacifist culture is due in no small part to its tumultuous history, but to fully understand the impact these and other norms have on domestic police and legal institutions we need study the evolution of this societys criminal element over the last several decades and measure the effectiveness of the justice system in Japan. The major areas of research for this pr...

  16. Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy

    This article, the second in a five-part series, explores leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system to effect change in service provision. The article discusses different leadership styles and distinguishes management from leadership. Factors that influence change are outlined, as is the need for emotional intelligence, teamwork and collaborative working. Change management, negotiating ability and conflict management are important skills that nurses should develop to become effective leaders.

  17. Communicating to promote justice in the modern health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, G L

    1996-01-01

    The systemic prejudices and biases that often limit the effectiveness of health care delivery are examined. How the inherent imbalance in control between consumers and providers of health care, based on the micropolitics of sharing relevant health information, perpetuates a system of marginalization and alienation within health care delivery systems is discussed. Communication barriers that often confront many stigmatized groups of health care consumers, such as the poor, people with AIDS, minorities, the ill elderly, and women, are identified. Such prejudicial treatment is framed within a cultural ideologies model, leading to identification of communication strategies for promoting justice in the modern health care system and enhancing the quality of health care delivery.

  18. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... National Association of Social Workers-Zimbabwe/Author(s) ... systems, professionals, institutions and treatment specifically applicable to children ..... community involvement in administration and management of child welfare.

  19. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  20. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Velicogna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislation and case law are only some examples that are spurring judicial administrations around the world to rethink their current functions and activities. ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, thus helping judiciaries to provide adequate services. As many empirical examples show, this is, however, not always the case. The interaction between technology and highly regulated organisations, such as courts, may often lead to unexpected results. Europe, with its different institutional settings and experiences, allows the exploration of a variety of solutions that can be implemented to support the administration of justice. Most importantly, it also provides the opportunities for a unique insight into the dynamics and problems that may characterize such experiences. This article seeks to provide an empirically derived account on the uses of ICT within the courts and for judicial data interchange. The article is based on data collected through several research projects by the Research Institute on Judicial Systems of the Italian National Research Council, in partnership with other European institutions, including Universities and Ministries of Justice.

  1. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (Devolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Jones

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on youth justice and the prevention of re-offending. This is problematic in a number of ways explored in the paper, not least because the duties in the Welsh Constitution obligate the Welsh Assembly Government to ensure equality of opportunity for all and equality of treatment of both Welsh and English. Can a successful devolved fit-for-purpose criminal justice system for Wales be created?

  2. Dare To Dream--Juvenile Justice. A Guide to Planning Your Future for Students in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne; Webb, Kristine; Beutel, Adory; Perkins, Dollean; Bailey, Mary

    This workbook is designed to help Florida students in the juvenile justice system plan for their desired postschool outcomes. It includes activities to help students make good decisions that will affect their entry into adult life. "Dare to Know" boxes are found throughout the workbook and provide important information to students to…

  3. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-02-18

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  4. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD within the National Health Service (NHS. UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH, Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs, whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards

  5. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  6. Designing and Implementing e-Justice Systems: Some Lessons Learned from EU and Canadian Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Lupo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to justice has become an important issue in many justice systems around the world. Increasingly, technology is seen as a potential facilitator of access to justice, particularly in terms of improving justice sector efficiency. The international diffusion of information systems (IS within the justice sector raises the important question of how to insure quality performance. The IS literature has stressed a set of general design principles for the implementation of complex information technology systems that have also been applied to these systems in the justice sector. However, an emerging e-justice literature emphasizes the significance of unique law and technology concerns that are especially relevant to implementing and evaluating information technology systems in the justice sector specifically. Moreover, there is growing recognition that both principles relating to the design of information technology systems themselves (“system design principles”, as well as to designing and managing the processes by which systems are created and implemented (“design management principles” can be critical to positive outcomes. This paper uses six e-justice system examples to illustrate and elaborate upon the system design and design management principles in a manner intended to assist an interdisciplinary legal audience to better understand how these principles might impact upon a system’s ability to improve access to justice: three European examples (Italian Trial Online; English and Welsh Money Claim Online; the trans-border European Union e-CODEX and three Canadian examples (Ontario’s Integrated Justice Project (IJP, Ontario’s Court Information Management System (CIMS, and British Columbia’s eCourt project.

  7. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  8. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  9. Using System Dynamics to Develop Organizational Learning Process; the Neighbourhood Justice Centre in Yarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Haslett

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Neighbourhood Justice Centre (NJC in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood is a first for Australia and reflects a universal growing interest in addressing the underlying causes of criminal behaviour and disadvantage as well as improving access to justice.By Tim Hasslet, School of Integrative Systems, University of Queensland, Chris Ballenden, Ponte Consulting; Saroj Godbole, Ponte Consulting; Kerry Walker, Director, Neighbourhood Justice Centre, Melbourne

  10. Confronting the Crisis in the Criminal Justice System. Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Sara

    Experts agree that the U.S. criminal justice system faces a crisis, yet there is a broad range of views as to its sources, consequences, and solutions. There seems to be a public perception that the individual rights guaranteed accused criminals by the U.S. Constitution prevents the criminal justice system from functioning properly. It is…

  11. 77 FR 10573 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... Programs (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  12. 75 FR 31815 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE),...

  13. 76 FR 8778 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Official (DFO),...

  14. 76 FR 38209 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Justice. ACTION... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal Advisory...; Phone: (703) 418-6800. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee...

  15. 78 FR 51747 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  16. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  17. Facilitating Trainees' Multicultural Development and Social Justice Advocacy through a Refugee/Immigrant Mental Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Schale, Codi L.; Khamphakdy-Brown, Supavan

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored trainees' experiences in an outreach program for refugee/immigrant women to examine if those experiences facilitated the development of multicultural competency and social justice advocacy. Twelve students were interviewed, and their responses yielded 3 categories: development of cultural knowledge,…

  18. Justice Dispensation through the Alternative Dispute Resolution System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of India in its 222nd report emphasized the need for Alternative Disputes Resolution (ADR for the dispensation of justice, because the courts are inaccessible owing to various factors, e.g., poverty, social and political backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, procedural formalities and inordinate delay in judgments. During the ancient period the disputes were resolved in an informal manner by neutral third persons or people’s court in villages and it continued till the middle of the 20th century. Unfortunately, after the Independence of India in 1947, this system was dissuaded and the government permitted to continue the adversarial system of justice. In 1980, a committee was set up. It recommended Lok Adalats (People’s Courts. In 1987, the Legal Services Authorities Act was enacted. This Act obligates the states to provide free legal aid to poor persons. Besides this, the Act provides for the establishment of permanent Lok Adalats.This is one of the important modes of ADR. Lok Adalats have been established in all the districts of the country. They bring conciliatory settlement in complicated cases arising out of matrimonial, landlord-tenants, property, insurance and commercial disputes. There are four methods of ADR, viz., negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. Mediation and arbitration are widely preferred. They are alternatives to litigation. The Arbitration Act for the first time was enacted in 1889 and it was subsequently amended many times. On the objections raised by the Supreme Court of India and also on the adoption of UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, in 1996 Arbitration and Conciliation Act was enacted. This law is almost the same as is almost in all the countries.Further, the Government of India established International Centre for Alternative Disputes Resolution (CADR with the objectives of promotion, propagation, and popularizing the settlement of domestic and

  19. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  20. Why focus on mental health systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global situation for people with mental illness – in developing and developed countries – is dire. Legislative and human rights protections are frequently lacking. Mental health budgets are inadequate. There are insufficient numbers of skilled policy makers, managers and clinicians. Communities are poorly informed about mental health and illness and not well organised for purposes of advocacy. In most of the world, mental health services are inaccessible or of poor quality. Most people who would benefit from psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation do not have affordable access to such services. Leadership – at all levels – for mental health system development needs to be greatly strengthened. While mental health research attention and funds are devoted predominantly to neuroscience and clinical research, we believe that the highest global mental health research priority is mental health systems research. There is an urgent need to focus on the development of effective, appropriate, affordable mental health services. The evidence base for such development is currently weak. The International Journal of Mental Health Systems aims to stimulate greater attention to the central importance of building functioning mental health systems. Rapid publication and global reach through open access will make this journal a resource for all those who wish to contribute to such development.

  1. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  2. The role of stigma and uncertainty in moderating the effect of procedural justice on cooperation and resistance in police encounters with persons with mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Within social psychology, procedural justice theory has been used to understand variations in compliance with legal authorities such as police. Thus, it may help explain variation in cooperation and compliance in encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness (SMI), which are often fraught with difficulty and risk. In this paper, we examine the extent to which perceptions of procedural justice among persons with SMI are associated with self-reported levels of cooperation and resistance in encounters with police. We also examine stigma and encounter type as potential moderators of the procedural justice effect. 154 persons with serious mental illness who reported a police contact within the past year were interviewed using the newly developed Police Contact Experience Survey (PCES), which includes questions about the characteristics of the contact, perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and degree of cooperation and resistance. Participants also completed the Link Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale (PDS). Findings suggest that greater PPJ is associated with more cooperation and less resistance. The effect on cooperation, however, is moderated by both perceived stigma and the type of encounter. The direct effect of perceived stigma (PDS) on cooperation was unexpected, with higher perceived stigma associated with greater cooperation. Findings underline the importance of both procedurally just treatment in police interactions with vulnerable individuals and further efforts to reduce the stigma of mental illness.

  3. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  4. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  5. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  6. Principles of justice as a basis for conceptualizing a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J H

    1977-01-01

    This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed.

  7. And justice for all: Examining corruption as a contextual source of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurzen, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, I focus on the relationship between corruption and mental health as measured by the level of depressive symptoms. I use data collected by the European Social Survey in 2006, 2012 and 2014 from 99,159 individuals that lived in 24 European countries. I employ two types of analyses: static analyses, i.e., multilevel models estimated in each wave, and dynamic analyses, i.e., fixed effects models for pseudo-panel data. Both static and dynamic analyses suggested that corruption had a detrimental effect on mental health. However, the results were not robust in models where the country's wealth was accounted for. Furthermore, this study presents evidence that the level of societal corruption is detrimental especially for the mental health of religious persons and individuals that experience material adversity. Regarding a potentially different effect of corruption on mental health between western and eastern European countries, no significant differences were found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Right to mental health in prison system: reflections on the process of deinstitutionalization of the HCTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to discuss the close relationship between mental health, the criminal justice system and the prison system, whose specific interfaces are the HCTP (Hospital de Custódia e Tratamento Psiquiátrico, or Judicial Psychiatric Hospital) conflict and the person with mental disorder in conflict with the law. There will be presented extensive discussions on the Penal Execution Law and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law, as well as cross-sector actions taken by the judiciary and the federal government (Brazilian National Health System - SUS and National Social Assistance System - SUAS) to bring the criminal justice system and the prison system to the anti-asylum combat. Two successful experiences in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás will also be presented for they reflect the emergence of a new strategy on public health policy: The Evaluation Service and Monitoring Therapeutic Measures for the Person with Mental Disorder in Conflict with the Law, device connector between systems, willing to operate in the process of deinstitutionalization of people with mental disorders of HCPT.

  9. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  10. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-09-28

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).

  11. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velicogna, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line

  12. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZERTY

    of procedural law in juvenile justice matters was the Criminal Procedure Ordinance. 2 ..... He may in particular order a social investigation into the material and .... shall be carried out in conformity with the rules of ordinary law. 47. The place of ...

  13. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velicogna, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislat

  14. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  15. Key figures on the Dutch criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Berghuis, A.C.; Hooff, P. van

    1991-01-01

    This note contains statistical information on victimization rates, rates of reporting to the police, number of registered crimes and clearance rate, number of known suspects and known juvenile suspects, sentencing and dismissal rates, prison sentences, juvenile detention, state expenditure on police and justice, and number of employed people.

  16. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  17. The Evaluation of the Practical Implementation of Social Justice by the Judicial System of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a sociological research, the author of this article aims to identify the beliefs and the attitudes of a group of BA and MA students enrolled in university programs of Juridical Science, regarding their apprehension of the principles of justice - as the central value of the Romanian judicial system. This would contribute to the implementation of justice in the actual Romanian economic, political, and judicial structure. The data analysis provides the necessary information for comprehending the extensions of justice and injustice within the specific social context. A real distance between reality and the political doctrines, and the classical and post-modern philosophical theories of justice as well can be noticed. The resulting conclusions could provide solid settings in order to develop a number of strategies/public policies to shape a more honest society.

  18. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  19. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  20. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  1. La justice en France et l'apparell judiciaire (Justice in France and the Judiciary System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jean-Noel

    1980-01-01

    Describes in some detail the modern French judicial system, including the personnel involved; the structure of civil, criminal, and public law; and penal procedure. Modern criticism of this system is discussed. (AM)

  2. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  4. MANUALS OF POSTMODERN LIFE: THE REGULATION OF LIVING BY THE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Felix Barbosa de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We live, today, the growing intervention of the Justice system in different areas through policies that would give further effect to the management of relational conflicts and the protection of individual rights. Considering this scenario, this article sought to analyze such a move life adjustment through three productions of the Brazilian Justice system: the Parents’ Divorce Booklet; the Family Booklet - No to parental alienation; and the class guide Count to 10 in schools. From the analysis of contents of such materials was possible to develop a discussion on the ways of life in the context of Postmodernity, particularly with regard to the so-called crisis of authority figures, especially those more directly linked to education and socialization of children and adolescents. It was concluded that the booklets examined, and the Justice system have contributed to the weakening of those positions of authority and consequently with the regulation of living.

  5. Indian legal system and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep

    2013-01-01

    Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and/or welfare of the society. United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was adopted in 2006, which marks a paradigm shift in respect of disabilities (including disability due to mental illness) from a social welfare concern to a human right issue. The new paradigm is based on presumption of legal capacity, equality and dignity. Following ratification of the convention by India in 2008, it became obligatory to revise all the disability laws to bring them in harmony with the UNCRPD. Therefore, the Mental Health Act – 1987 and Persons with Disability Act – 1995 are under process of revision and draft bills have been prepared. Human right activists groups are pressing for provisions for legal capacity for persons with mental illness in absolute terms, whereas the psychiatrists are in favor of retaining provisions for involuntary hospitalization in special circumstances. PMID:23858251

  6. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  7. Children's perspectives on crime and the criminal justice system: main findings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available that they have not. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the children who participated in this pilot study clearly stated a need for training with regard to the criminal justice system (policing, the court proceedings, and the prison system). The rationale for training...

  8. Explaining Ethnic Inequality in the Juvenile Justice System, an analysis of the outcomes of Dutch Prosecutorial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of the treatment of minorities in criminal justice systems show that ethnic minorities are punished more harshly. This paper aims to explain ethnic inequality in prosecutorial decision making in the Dutch juvenile justice system. Based on statistical analyses of 409 case files, it emerg

  9. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system ...

  10. The ICC at the centre ofan international criminal justice system: current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teles, Patrícia Galvão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Criminal Court (ICC has entered into its second decade of operations and has established itself at the centre of an international criminal justice system, comprising also domestic jurisdictions and other international courts and tribunals. However, many challenges continue to face the ICC and, indeed, such challenges are part of its own features and stem from the specificities of international law and relations. In this article, we shall discuss, in light of recent events, four of such challenges: 1 Universality; 2 Complementarity; 3 Cooperation; and 4 the Crime of Aggression. These challenges illustrate how the ICC and international criminal justice inhabit both the cultures of justice and politics and how these two aspects have to be taken into account in order for such challenges to be overcome, so that the mission of a permanent and central instrument for the fight against impunity, that historically started in Rome in 1998, becomes an inherent part of today’s world.

  11. Failure after Farrell: Violence and Inadequate Mental Health Care in California's Division of Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Nisha; Webster, Erica

    2016-01-01

    From its inception in 1891 to present day, California's state youth corrections system has been mired in violence and abuse. In 1914, IQ testing and eugenics at state juvenile facilities resulted in the forced sterilization of poor, primarily non-white youth. In 1939, the suspicious suicide of a 13-year-old boy, the maltreatment of Latino youth,…

  12. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  13. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carballo Pineiro (Laura); J. Nieva Fenoll (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Spanish justice system has been shaken by the econom- ic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help

  14. Explaining attitudes towards the justice system in the UK and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); J.W. Raine (John)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Summary__ _Objectives_ The main objective of this study was to analyse citizens’ attitudes towards the justice system and their determinants, both in the UK and internationally. Based on a literature review and an analysis of existing opinion data, it maps common reasons

  15. Psychology and the criminal justice system: A reply to Haney and Zimbardo

    OpenAIRE

    Lykken, David T.

    1999-01-01

    A reply to Haney & Zimbardo's recent article in the American Psychologist in which they claim that America's crime problem would be largely solved if the criminal justice system had only taken heed of the lessons learned decades ago in the Stanford Prison Project.

  16. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  17. Criminal Justice System Involvement and Continuity of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors associated with persistent offending. This analysis examines the part that criminal justice system involvement plays in persistent offending. Seven waves of data collected on 153 boys as part of the Iowa Youth and Families Project were used to test a structural equation model…

  18. Social Theory and the significance of free will in our system of criminal justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwitters, R.

    2016-01-01

    Free will is a key assumption of our system of criminal justice. However, the assumption of a free will is questioned by the rapidly growing empirical findings of the neuro and the brain sciences. These indicate that human behavior is driven by subconscious forces beyond the free will. In this text

  19. Special Education Advocacy in the Juvenile Justice System: Perspectives from Probation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Dalmage, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Although students with disabilities are over-represented in the juvenile justice system and frequently receive poor educational services, few studies have examined strategies to increase compliance with student needs and individualized education programs. In this study, we conducted interviews with eight probation officers in the Advocacy Unit of…

  20. Manpower and Education for Criminal Justice in Florida: Assessment and Projected Needs of the System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. System of Florida, Tallahassee.

    This document provides an overview of manpower and needs for criminal justice education in Florida. Following introductory material, Part II presents the current status of criminal justice manpower in the state in terms of quantity, type and educational attainment. This section profiles the personnel of the three major systems--police services,…

  1. Studying the Relationship between Incivility in Work Environment and Perceived Organizational Justice in Rafsanjan Executive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaaddini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Statistical society of the research includes 1737 employees in Rafsanjan executive systems from which 321 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. The instruments of measuring are two questionnaires. Questionnaire of incivility in work environment designed and made by researcher for which validity and reliability are obtained 0.92 and 0.94 respectively. To measure the questionnaire of organizational justice the questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Reliability of both questionnaires was obtained 0.92 and 0.74 by Cronbach Alpha respectively. To test hypotheses Kendal and Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by spss statistical software. Regarding obtained results it is determined that there is a meaningful, reverse relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Based on the results of the research it is suggested that decreasing incivility in work environment provides conditions of perceiving justice and fair in organizations.

  2. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ethnic differences in mental health among incarcerated youths: Do Moroccan immigrant boys show less psychopathology than native Dutch boys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, V.C.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.; van der Ende, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among incarcerated youth. However, whereas ethnic minority youths are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, limited research is available on their mental health. In this study, differences in mental health problems between incarcerated adolescents

  4. Ethnic differences in mental health among incarcerated youths: Do Moroccan immigrant boys show less psychopathology than native Dutch boys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Veen (Violaine); G. Stevens (Gonneke); T. Doreleijers (Theo); J. van der Ende (Jan); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPsychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among incarcerated youth. However, whereas ethnic minority youths are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, limited research is available on their mental health. In this study, differences in mental health problems between incarcerated

  5. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  6. “好生活”、“精神健康”与社会公正%"Good Life", "Mental Health" and Social Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖巍

    2011-01-01

    从公共健康伦理角度理解,“好生活”就是“精神健康”的生活.尽管人们对于什么是“精神健康”也会争论不休,但毋庸置疑的是精神健康构成好生活和幸福感的底线保障,而社会公正又是一个社会或个体具有良好精神健康状态的伦理基础.%From a ethical perspective of public health, the author's definition is the life of " mental health". Despite there will be a debate on what is a " mental health" , but no doubt is that mental health is the baseline of good life and happiness. The social justice is the ethical foundation that keeps the society or individual in a good mental health status.

  7. Minority Overrepresentation in the Juvenile Justice System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on the Causes of Minority Overrepresentation and the Plight of Minority Youth in Inner Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The United States Senate's Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice heard testimony on minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and the sentencing of minorities within that system. In particular, the Subcommittee heard testimony from eight witnesses who suggested short- and long-term approaches for helping to eliminate racial bias in the…

  8. New mental health indicators provide a snapshot on performance of the mental health system in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Carolyn; Couris, Chantal; Leeb, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Although the general hospital remains an important place for stabilizing crises, most services for mental illnesses are provided in outpatient/community settings. In the absence of comprehensive data at the community level, data that are routinely collected from general hospitals can provide insights on the performance of mental health services for people living with mental illness or poor mental health. This article describes three new indicators that provide a snapshot on the performance of the mental health system in Canada: self-injury hospitalization rate, 30-day readmission rate for mental illness and percentage of patients with repeat hospitalizations for mental illness. Findings suggest a need for the early detection and treatment of mental illnesses and for optimal transitions between general hospitals and community services.

  9. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  10. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  11. Improving mental health systems in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education, safety and security, justice, public transport, infrastructure, social ... inpatient facility negates the requirement of community based services. Likewise, in .... only through direct engagement with government individually and through ...

  12. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  13. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  14. The current status organization justice and the relationship of organizational justice emotional exhaustion and mental health among nurses%护士组织公平感现状及其与情绪耗竭和心理健康的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 姜潮

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解护士组织公平感现状及其与情绪耗竭和心理健康的关系.方法:分层方便抽取辽宁省4所三级医院、7所二级医院共813名护士进行问卷调查,采用LISREL 8.7软件进行路径分析,探讨护士组织公平感现状及其与情绪耗竭和心理健康的关系.结果:护士的分配公平感较差;组织不公平感对护士情绪耗竭产生直接影响,对心理健康通过情绪耗竭的中介作用产生间接影响;领导不公平感对护士心理健康产生直接和间接影响.结论:组织不公平感对护士的情绪耗竭和心理健康均有负性影响,通过调整结果分配和提高领导公平感可以降低护士的情绪耗竭,提高其心理健康水平.%Objective: To study the current status of organization justice and the relationship of organizational justice, emotional exhaustion and mental health among nurses. Method: Totally 813 nurses from 4 Third Grade hospitals and 7 Second Grade hospitals in Liaoning province were recruited by convenience sampling and investigated by Organizational Justice Questionnaire, Emotional Exhaustion Scale from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), and Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10). LISREL 8.7 was used to do path analysis. We explored the current status of organization justtica and the relationship of organizational justice, emotional exhaustion and mental health. Results:The distributive justice among nurses was low. Organizational injustice had a direct impact on emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion played an intermediary role between organizational justice and mental health. Leadership injustice had a direct and indirect impact on mental health. CondusionsrOrganizational injustice has a negative impact on emotional exhaustion and mental health. It is necessary for the manager to improve nurses' mental health status by enhancing distributive justice and leadership justice.

  15. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  16. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzadini Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  17. Females in the Juvenile Justice System: Who Are They and How Do They Fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Increasing numbers of female youth involved in the juvenile justice system highlight the need to examine this population. This study enumerates distinct profiles of risk and protection among juvenile court-involved females, examining young adult outcomes associated with these profiles. Administrative data on 700 participants were drawn from multiple service sectors in a Midwest metropolitan region. Latent class and Pearson chi-square analyses were used. Five unique classes were identified; these classes were associated with young adult outcomes. One class of impoverished African American females was most likely to experience problematic young adult outcomes but least likely to have received juvenile justice services. Findings highlight the heterogeneity in the female juvenile court population and discrepancies between service needs and service receipt.

  18. Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System: Plenary Papers of the Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 3 (1999). Research Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Beth E.; Tsenin, Kay; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This publication presents three papers from a 1999 conference on criminal justice research and evaluation. The papers reveal real-life implications of research for a situation of growing urgency. Research has uncovered a link between the victimization of women and their criminal behavior. The papers propose that justice system practice can be…

  19. Justice systems and ICT
    What can be learned from Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Velicogna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislation and case law are only some examples that are spurring judicial administrations around the world to rethink their current functions and activities. ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, thus helping judiciaries to provide adequate services. As many empirical examples show, this is, however, not always the case. The interaction between technology and highly regulated organisations, such as courts, may often lead to unexpected results. Europe, with its different institutional settings and experiences, allows the exploration of a variety of solutions that can be implemented to support the administration of justice. Most importantly, it also provides the opportunities for a unique insight into the dynamics and problems that may characterize such experiences. This article seeks to provide an empirically derived account on the uses of ICT within the courts and for judicial data interchange. The article is based on data collected through several research projects by the Research Institute on Judicial Systems of the Italian National Research Council, in partnership with other European institutions, including Universities and Ministries of Justice.

  20. The Effects of Pacifist Norms on the Japanese Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    be seen as the parent , the people as the children and the policemen as the ‘nurses’ of the children .” 28 The military were the guardians of external...establishing a central national authoritarian government. Territorial governors and their families were relocated, with wives and children kept at... homosexuality had been previously accepted.35 The system of trafficking began to adapt, and persons became as common as any other commodity in a colonial

  1. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  2. Support System for Mental Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals.

  3. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  4. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)

  5. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  6. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented.

  7. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Martin

    2014-01-27

    The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a

  8. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  9. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  10. Applying a global justice lens to health systems research ethics: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-03-01

    Recent scholarship has considered what, if anything, rich people owe to poor people to achieve justice in global health and the implications of this for international research. Yet this work has primarily focused on international clinical research. Health systems research is increasingly being performed in low and middle income countries and is essential to reducing global health disparities. This paper provides an initial description of the ethical issues related to priority setting, capacity-building, and the provision of post-study benefits that arise during the conduct of such research. It presents a selection of issues discussed in the health systems research literature and argues that they constitute ethical concerns based on their being inconsistent with a particular theory of global justice (the health capability paradigm). Issues identified include the fact that priority setting for health systems research at the global level is often not driven by national priorities and that capacity-building efforts frequently utilize one-size-fits-all approaches.

  11. Building a Comprehensive Mental Health System for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunaku, Ngozi; Gilkerson, Linda; Ahlers, Therese

    2006-01-01

    Onunaku, Ahlers, and Gilkerson describe Illinois's effort to build infant mental health capacity within the Part C Early Intervention system and Wisconsin's effort to build capacity for infant and early childhood mental health services statewide across all systems that serve children. Because of multiple funding streams, families often experience…

  12. Clinical and Management Requirements for Computerized Mental Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levinton, Paula H.; Dunning, Tessa F.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information requirements of mental health providers are sufficiently different from those of other health care managers to warrant a different approach to the development of management information systems (MIS). Advances in computer technology and increased demands for fiscal accountability have led to developing integrated mental health information systems (MHIS) that support clinical and management requirements.

  13. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  14. Measuring Perceived Procedural Justice and Coercion among Persons with Mental Illness in Police Encounters: The Police Contact Experience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…

  15. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  16. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Katherine Kopinak, MHSc, MSc., RN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system into a different culture, specifically a developing country such as Uganda. It draws upon an extensive literature review and the author’s work in Uganda to identify the lessons learned as well as the challenges of introducing a western-oriented mental health system in a totally new cultural milieu. Results: There is recognition by the national government that the challenges faced in mental health services poses serious public health and development concerns. Efforts have and are being made to improve services using the Western model to diagnose and treat, frequently with practitioners who are unfamiliar with the language, values and culture. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Uganda can continue to implement the Western mental health practice model which emanates from a different cultural base, based on the medical model and whose tenets are currently being questioned, or establish a model based on their needs with small baseline in-country surveys that focus on values, beliefs, resiliency, health promotion and recovery. The latter approach will lead to a more efficient mental health system with improved care, better outcomes and overall mental health services to Ugandan individuals and communities.

  17. Navigating the Rolling Hills of Justice: Mental Disabilities, Employment and the Evolving Jurisprudence of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylonis, Lauren; Wylonis, Nina T; Sadoff, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Mental illness and disability affect millions of individuals yearly in the U.S. The most important legislation protecting the mentally disabled in the workplace in the U.S. over the last half century has been the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its associated legislation and guidance. Although the employee should first request reasonable accommodation with the employer, evaluation by a mental health professional is one of the initial steps for individuals who report significant psychiatric symptoms that are impairing their functioning at work in the U.S.. Important regulations and laws in the United States that are essential knowledge to performing thorough mental disability evaluations include the ADA and Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), Social Security Disability, Workers' Compensation, and private disability insurance. These laws differ in applicability and in their definitions of disability. Social Security Disability is applicable to workers who have long-term impairments regardless of whether the disability arose on or off the job, while Worker's Compensation is specific to persons with work-related illness and injuries that occur on the job (Reno, Williams, & Sengupta, ). The Social Security definition of a disabled person is a person who is not "able to engage in any substantial gainful activity because of a medically-determinable physical or mental impairment(s): that is expected to result in death, or that has lasted or is expected to last for a continuous period of at least 12 months" (Social Security Red Book, ). However, the Workers' Compensation definition of what illnesses/injuries are compensated, the level of benefits and who provides the insurance are state-specific. Due to these differences in definition of disability, it is essential for the mental health professional performing a mental disability evaluation to clarify with the referral source or referring agency which legislation and laws they feel are

  18. The Exploration of the System of Criminal Justice Statistics%刑事司法统计制度初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2015-01-01

    Criminal justice statistics is a science of judicial measurement , and the system of criminal justice statistics is the regulation of the activities of Criminal Justice Statistics .China is still lack of specialized system of criminal justice statistics .Today, when the data has the absolute right to speak , all the governance model adjustment and management results show should depend on the data .There-fore, it is urgent to establish a system of criminal justice statistics .%刑事司法统计制度是规范刑事司法统计活动的上层建设,而我国目前尚缺乏专门的刑事司法统计制度。在数据拥有绝对话语权的今天,所有的治理模式调整和治理结果展现都有赖于数据,因而亟需建立刑事司法统计制度。

  19. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in identifying the issues and provide recommendations, with the main goal of improvement of the legislation and its best implementation in practice by the criminal justice instances, particularly by the prosecution and the court. Through the conclusions derived by this article is intended to exert the right pressure towards state authorities, to improve and better orient criminal policy and to increase the use of alternatives to the precautionary measure of “jail arrest” and imprisonment.

  20. Sexuality knowledge, attitudes, and practices of young women in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Morgan-Kidd, Jayne; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Wood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents in the juvenile justice system have many risk behaviors that endanger their immediate and future health. They are a vulnerable and often overlooked population for whom pediatric nurses working in community settings can provide important prevention services. To develop an intervention targeted to the specific sexual risk behaviors of young women in a juvenile detention center, this study was designed to assess baseline levels of knowledge, values, and behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 100 adolescent girls (ages 13-17 years, mean 14.8) largely from Hispanic backgrounds (74%) who were detained in the juvenile justice system completed a simplified version of the Mathtech sexuality questionnaire. Correct answers and a brief educational program were provided at the completion of the questionnaire. Results suggest that the overwhelming majority of this population is sexually active (94%) and has inadequate knowledge of basic information on sexuality (mean knowledge score, 10.9 out of possible 18 points). While many young women indicated a belief in the importance of contraception (91%), fewer were comfortable going to a clinic for birth control (46%) or had used a reliable method in the past month (37%). Work that will help to increase knowledge, clarify values, and shape healthy behaviors is essential for this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  1. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  2. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...

  3. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  4. Public Engagement with the Criminal Justice System in the Age of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Katherine Larson Rose

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exemplified by the landmark trial of O.J. Simpson, news media coverage of criminal cases in the United States is now regularly dominated by tabloid style coverage, complete with fixation on the victims and accused in criminal cases. Investigators have shown that such coverage of criminal proceedings is linked to decreasing levels of public trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. What is not yet understood is how rapid changes to the media universe in terms of online news sources and social networking are impacting coverage of criminal proceedings and public understanding of the criminal justice system. By surveying the American public on their news consumption habits, participation in social networking, knowledge and opinions of highly publicized criminal cases, and perceptions of the legitimacy of the justice system, we offer one of the first analyses of social media’s impact on public interaction with the criminal justice system. Ultimately we find little evidence that social media is enhancing citizen knowledge about or confidence in the criminal justice system, but we do uncover strong evidence that social media engagement with criminal trials leads to a greater desire for vengeance and encouragement of vigilante attitudes and behavior. Como demostró el emblemático juicio a O.J. Simpson, la cobertura mediática de los casos penales en los Estados Unidos está dominada de forma regular por una cobertura de estilo sensacionalista, centrando su atención en las víctimas y acusados de los casos criminales. Investigaciones han demostrado que esta cobertura de los procesos criminales está relacionada con un menor nivel de confianza del público en el sistema de justicia criminal. Todavía no se conoce con qué rapidez están impactando los cambios en el universo de los medios de comunicación que han llegado de la mano de las fuentes de información en línea y las redes sociales, en la cobertura de los procesos criminales y la

  5. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  6. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  7. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  8. Offending Behavior, Drug Use, and Mental Health Among Foreign-Born versus U.S. Born Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M

    2016-12-30

    Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.

  9. Justice for the average Joe: the role of envy and the mentalizing network in the deservingness of others' misfortunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Powell, Caitlin A J; Smith, Richard H; Joseph, Jane E; Kedia, Gayannėe; Combs, David J Y; DeWall, C Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The misfortunes of enviable individuals are met by observers with pleasure whereas those of "average", non-enviable individuals elicit pain. These responses are mirrored in deservingness judgments, as enviable individuals' misfortunes are perceived as deserved and those of non-enviable individuals perceived as undeserved. However, the neural underpinnings of these deservingness disparities remain unknown. To explore this phenomenon, we utilized fMRI to test the hypotheses that (A) non-enviable targets' misfortunes would be associated with activation of brain regions that mediate empathic responding (pain matrix, mentalizing network) and not for enviable targets and (B) that activation of those regions would predict decreases in deservingness judgments. Supporting our first hypothesis, the misfortunes of non-enviable targets (as opposed to good fortunes) were associated with activation of the mentalizing network: medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, temporal-parietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes. Supporting our second hypothesis, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activation from this contrast was negatively correlated with subsequent reports of how much the non-enviable target deserved his/her misfortune. These findings suggest that non-enviable individuals' misfortunes are perceived as unjust due, in part, to the recruitment of the mentalizing network.

  10. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  11. Law Enforcement Efforts Against Contempt Of Court As The Judges Shield In Indonesian Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Baroto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contempt of court basically is one of criminal offenses against the administration of justice which as a whole deals with the criminal justice system. The contempt of court cases that occurred in Indonesia but the enforcement of the law against the contempt of court is an issue that is never-ending. The provisions of contempt of court are necessary to ensure the position trust authority and integrity of the court in the judicial process including all matters relating to the judicial process. Guarantee that once the public interest to take action against any violation as an endorsement of the judicial process the rights of the public to ensure a fair trial and protecting privacy. On the other hand there is also a public interest that cant be ignored in any democratic society namely the right to freedom of speech and expression. A manifestation of contempt of court is a speech writing pictures or other expressions that can be categorized as a contempt of court. In other words contempt of court is a restriction of the right to freedom of speech opinion and expression. How to limit the collision of the purposes of enforcing the provisions of contempt of court with the right to freedom of speech freedom of opinion and expression. Preparation of deeds category and procedures for enforcement of contempt of court must be specifically and carefully.

  12. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  13. "Donde esta la justicia?" A Call to Action on Behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System. Building Blocks for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Francisco A.; Walker, Nancy E.

    This report documents the disparate and unfair treatment of Latino/a youth in the U.S. justice system, describing barriers to collection of comprehensive information and potential means for overcoming these barriers. Data came from surveys of juvenile justice system directors in several states and the District of Columbia. The report describes how…

  14. Social and organizational impacts of the electronic processing system of the brazilian superior tribunal of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Soares de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the social and organizational impacts of the Electronic Processing System (EPS implemented in 2008 by the Brazilian Superior Tribunal of Justice (STJ. This system is part of a wider transformation process involving the implementation of a new management model at the STJ. The theoretical framework is based on the Technology Enactment Theory and other studies on the role of technological innovations in public organizations (Fountain, 2005; Freitas, 2012. The main goal of the research is to identify the most significant factors facilitating or inhibiting the innovation adoption. Results show different impacts of the EPS on professional groups and organizations. Political, cultural and economic aspects influence stakeholders’ perceptions of the innovation, including its sustainability, time and costs savings that impact the rate of adoption and the realization of benefits both to users and the organization investing in its development.

  15. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  16. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  17. Neglected organization and management issues in mental health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R

    1992-10-01

    Fragmented and often uncoordinated public services for the more severely mentally ill are often characteristic of the current U.S. mental health system. The creation of local mental health authorities has been promoted as part of a solution, as has happened in Wisconsin at the county level and is championed in the ongoing Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded innovative service sites for severely mentally ill adults. There are indications that these innovative mental health authorities will fall short of fulfilling their promise. Basic principles from the management and organizations literature are used to identify several organization and management issues that may have been neglected. These include resource management, attention to system goals, monitoring and feedback, and the promotion of desirable interorganizational cultures.

  18. Care and treatment of the mentally ill in the United States: historical developments and reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H

    1986-03-01

    Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields.

  19. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  20. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  1. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  2. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  3. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn

    2004-01-01

    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  4. Toward Good Practice for Diversion: The Development of Minimum Standards in the South African Child Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Amelia; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    South Africa has alarmingly high crime rates and a significant proportion of offences are committed by juveniles. Recent legislation seeks to protect children by providing for their diversion out of the criminal justice system. The primary objective of this paper is to describe research undertaken to develop minimum standards for diversion…

  5. The role of criminal justice system in treating drug abusers: the Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong; Huang, Kaicheng

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the role of China's criminal justice system in treating drug abusers and provides a preliminary assessment of the mandatory treatment centers administered by police and reeducation-through-labor camps managed by correction agencies in China. The exploration and assessment are conducted using data collected from recent surveys of drug users in several mandatory treatment centers and a reeducation-through-labor camp in a large city of China in 2009. The data reveal that the treatment involvement levels of drug users in these mandatory treatment centers and reeducation-through-labor camps varied and their perceptions of the treatments they had received for their recovery seem fairly positive. The implication of these findings was discussed in the context of Chinese social and legal tradition.

  6. The relationship of victim injury to the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M

    2012-08-01

    A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.

  7. Costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed literature to estimate the costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Canadian Criminal Justice System (CJS), and to update the total costs of FASD in Canada. The results suggest FASD is costlier than previous estimates. The costs of FASD associated with the CJS are estimated at $3.9 billion a year, with $1.2 billion for police, $0.4 billion for court, $0.5 billion for correctional services, $1.6 billion for victims, and $0.2 billion for third-party. The updated total costs of FASD in Canada are $9.7 billion a year, of which CJS accounts for 40%, healthcare 21%, education 17%, social services 13%, and others 9%.

  8. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  9. Imposed Stories: Prisoner Self-narratives in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Hall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which offenders are required to provide very particular accounts of themselves and to self-narrate in confined ways. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in the New South Wales justice system, it explores how the stories that offenders are made to accept and tell about themselves often bear little relationship to their own reflections. It analyses how, despite the expectations of judges and prison authorities, these self-narratives are not products of an offender’s soul-searching concerning his past actions and experience; rather they are products of an official legal narrative being imposed on an offender whose capacity to own and enact such a narrative is already seriously compromised.

  10. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Service Receipt and Mental Disorders in Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Brimhall, Kim C; Lim, Caroline; Lecklitner, Greg; Olson, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Use of administrative data from child welfare (CW) and mental health systems in Los Angeles County provided a unique opportunity to more closely examine mental health needs of children dually served by these systems. This study examined the presence of mental disorders and correlates of receipt of mental health services by diagnostic classification in this population. Data were obtained for 3,191 children receiving services from Los Angeles County's Department of Children and Family Services and Department of Mental Health (DMH) between July 2011 and July 2012. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models examined the relationship between sociodemographic and CW-related characteristics and receipt of outpatient services by clinician-diagnosed mental disorder. Of the 3,191 referred children, 68% met criteria for one of the four diagnostic classifications. Mood disorders were the most common diagnosis (30%), followed by anxiety disorders (20%), behavior disorders (9%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9%). Children with prior DMH involvement received more services regardless of diagnosis. Older children (ages ≥15) received more services than younger children, whereas younger children were more likely to receive family therapy. Race-ethnicity did not play a significant role in predicting service receipt. The unique mental health needs of CW-involved children were exemplified by the differences found in the percentages of children with diagnoses of mental disorders between this sample and children in the general population. Because of family and placement disruptions among CW-involved children, it is important that the provision of individual therapy is not overlooked in favor of family therapy.

  12. The Convergence of the Mentally Disordered and the Jail Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, William H.; Briar, Katharine Hooper

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the prevalence and implications of the mentally ill, developmentally disabled, substance abuser, and other mentally impaired offenders in the jail system. Argues for more systematic attention by service providers in the community and criminal justice personnel to the disabling conditions that may precipitate and reinforce criminal…

  13. [Mental fatigue electroencephalogram signals analysis based on singular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin; Yang, Yong; Xu, Lei

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, the contribution of the largest principal component and the number of principal component needed for accumulative contribution 95% are selected as indices of electroencephalogram (EEG) in mental fatigue state in order to investigate the relationship between these parameters and mental fatigue. The experimental results showed that the contribution of the largest principal component of EEG signals increased in the prefrontal, frontal and central areas, while the number of principal component needed for accumulative contribution decreased by 95% with the increasing mental fatigue level. The parameters of singular system of EEG signals can be regarded as useful features for the estimation of mental fatigue and have larger application value in the study of mental fatigue.

  14. Serving Social Justice: The Role of the Commons in Sustainable Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sumner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Food is a source of sustenance, a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a vehicle for power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change and, above all, a life good.  Along with other life goods such as potable water, clean air, adequate shelter and protective clothing, food is something we cannot live without.  The global corporate food system, however, allows 800 million to go hungry, while an even larger number of people grow obese.  Based in money-values, this food system promotes accumulation first and foremost, enriching a few while creating economic, social and environmental externalities that are destroying local economies, devastating individuals, families and communities and degrading the planet.

    What would a food system look like that was based in life-values, centred on the commons and anchored by social justice?  This paper will focus on the creation of sustainable food systems, beginning with the crises of the global corporate food system and then moving to the heart of sustainable food systems – the civil commons.

  15. Serving Social Justice: The Role of the Commons in Sustainable Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sumner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Food is a source of sustenance, a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a vehicle for power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change and, above all, a life good.  Along with other life goods such as potable water, clean air, adequate shelter and protective clothing, food is something we cannot live without.  The global corporate food system, however, allows 800 million to go hungry, while an even larger number of people grow obese.  Based in money-values, this food system promotes accumulation first and foremost, enriching a few while creating economic, social and environmental externalities that are destroying local economies, devastating individuals, families and communities and degrading the planet. What would a food system look like that was based in life-values, centred on the commons and anchored by social justice?  This paper will focus on the creation of sustainable food systems, beginning with the crises of the global corporate food system and then moving to the heart of sustainable food systems – the civil commons.

  16. Mental health care delivery system in Greece: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanis, C N; Madianos, M G

    1981-01-01

    The organizational profile of the mental health care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mental health delivery system to respond more effectively to the mental health needs of the Greek population.

  17. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Mental health in humanitarian settings: shifting focus to care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A

    2013-03-01

    Mental health in low- and middle income countries has received increasing attention. This attention has shifted focus, roughly moving from demonstrating the burden of mental health problems, to establishing an evidence base for interventions, to thinking about care delivery frameworks. This paper reviews these trends specifically for humanitarian settings and discusses lessons learned. Notably, that mental health assessments need to go beyond measuring the impact of traumatic events on circumscribed psychiatric disorders; that evidence for effectiveness of interventions is still too weak and its focus too limited; and that development of service delivery in the context of instable community and health systems should be an area of key priority.

  19. What Can Engineering Systems Teach Us About Social (In)Justices? The Case of Public Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Politicians, consultants and engineers develop public transportation systems using a variety of well-developed and established modeling tools to calculate different aspects of a system. Some of them are performance-capacity against investment models to determine the value of a given technical...... choice. Others are economic models to calculate the feasibility of the system, the distributed benefits across population groups and the possibility of providing improved access to special users. These models are regarded as “rational” and thus morally neutral. However, recent research has demonstrated...... transportation system coined as one of the most progressive on the planet. Part of a political discourse to improve social justice in Bogotá, the project is successful in many respects but falls short of the original aims in many other respects. The chapter describes how the “rational modeling” brought...

  20. Moving upstream: why rehabilitative justice in military discharge proceedings serves a public health interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamone, Evan R; McGuire, James; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Clark, Sean; Smee, Daniel; Dow, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The cultural divide between US military and civilian institutions amplifies the consequences of military discharge status on public health and criminal justice systems in a manner that is invisible to a larger society. Prompt removal of problematic wounded warriors through retributive justice is more expedient than lengthy mental health treatment. Administrative and punitive discharges usually preclude Department of Veterans Affairs eligibility, posing a heavy public health burden. Moving upstream--through military rehabilitative justice addressing military offenders' mental health needs before discharge--will reduce the downstream consequences of civilian maladjustment and intergenerational transmission of mental illness. The public health community can play an illuminating role by gathering data about community effect and by advocating for policy change at Department of Veterans Affairs and community levels.

  1. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  2. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  3. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  4. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  5. The International Criminal Court and the Place of Africa in International Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Amarachi Ofodeme

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human rights have been flouted indiscriminately and deliberately in the international system. To that effect, the ICC was established to ensure that perpetrators of massive and systematic violations of human rights are brought to justice in the international system. The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of the International Criminal Court in the discharge of its mandate in the global system. The central argument in the paper is that the ICC has made significant progress in the prosecution of some cases, but all in Africa. Meanwhile, there are cases within its jurisdiction that have been ignored in other parts of the world, especially when advanced countries are involved. Neoliberalism was adopted as the theoretical framework. The study adopted secondary method of data collection. The data was content analyzed. It was established that the ICC is faced with challenges and that the long term viability depends on how successfully it overcomes its challenges. This study advocates for: first, fairness in the UNSC referrals.  Second, America’s taming of its unilateralism. Third, financial contributions without string attached. Fourth, United States ratification of the Rome Treaty; and fifth, ICC prosecution of all the cases within its jurisdiction in every part of the globe.

  6. Porting a Mental Expert System to a Mainstream Programming Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Chiang S.; Hier, Daniel B.; Dollear, Winifred; Fu, Wenying

    2001-01-01

    Expert systems are increasingly being applied to problems in medical diagnosis and treatment. Initial medical expert systems were programmed in specialized “expert system” shell programming environments. As the power of mainstream programming languages has increased, it has become possible to implement medical expert systems within these mainstream languages. We originally implemented an expert system to record and score the mental status examination utilizing a specialized expert system prog...

  7. The Researcher-Practitioner Partnership Study (RPPS): Experiences From Criminal Justice System Collaborations Studying Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tami P; Price, Carolina; McPartland, Tara; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-06-05

    The benefits of researcher-practitioner (R-P) collaborations focused on violence against women (VAW) are many. Such projects support researchers and practitioners working together to create uniquely comprehensive projects that have the potential to change practices, policies, and services. Extant literature is limited in that it has (a) focused on the experiences of a very limited number of collaborations, (b) ignored collaborations conducted in the context of the criminal justice system, and (c) excluded as a focus the products that result from the collaborations and their dissemination. Therefore, the goal of this qualitative study is to identify the essential elements to consider for successful R-P collaborations on VAW research in the criminal justice system.

  8. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly B. Dierkhising

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.

  9. Impact of mental representational systems on design interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1998-02-25

    The purpose of the studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory is to understand the impact mental representational systems have in identifying how user comfort parameters influence how information is to best be presented. By understanding how each individual perceives information based on the three representational systems (visual, auditory and kinesthetic modalities), it has been found that a different approach must be taken in the design of interfaces resulting in an outcome that is much more effective and representative of the users mental model. This paper will present current findings and future theories to be explored.

  10. Handbook For Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    entire class—that he was a real bad dude. Apparently, while at the reformatory, he was diagnosed as having a schizoid personality with alternating...deterioration of the brain, mental retardation, or psychiatric disorders . Personality disorders not rising to the level of mental illness do not...para. 6105. a. Basis: personality disorder (1) Correct Naval Justice School Rev- 2/96 Publication IV-46-7 Handbook for Military Justice

  11. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  12. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  13. Incarceration and sexual risk: examining the relationship between men's involvement in the criminal justice system and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.

  14. Mental Fatigue Monitoring Using a Wearable Transparent Eye Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Sampei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose mental fatigue measurement using a wearable eye detection system. The system is capable of acquiring movement of the pupil and blinking from the light reflected from the eye. The reflection is detected by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Since these cells are patterned onto the eyeglass and do not require external input power, the system is notable for its lightweight and low power consumption and can be combined with other wearable devices, such as a head mounted display. We performed experiments to correlate information obtained by the eye detection system with the mental fatigue of the user. Since it is quite difficult to evaluate mental fatigue objectively and quantitatively, we assumed that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX had a strong correlation with te mental fatigue. While a subject was requested to conduct calculation tasks, the eye detection system collected his/her information that included position, velocity and total movement of the eye, and amount and frequency of blinking. Multiple regression analyses revealed the correlation between NASA-TLX and the information obtained for 3 out of 5 subjects.

  15. An overview of the mental health system in Gaza: an assessment using the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Saymah, Dyaa; Tait, Lynda; Michail, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health system reform is urgently needed in Gaza to respond to increasing mental health consequences of conflict. Evidence from mental health systems research is needed to inform decision-making. We aimed to provide new knowledge on current mental health policy and legislation, and services and resource use, in Gaza to identify quality gaps and areas for urgent intervention. Methods: As part of a mixed methods study, we used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Inst...

  16. Investigating Readers' Mental Maps of References in an Online System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Referential identification and resolution are considered the keys to help readers grasp the main idea of a text and solve lexical ambiguities. The goal of this study is to design a computer system for helping college students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) develop mental maps of referential identification and resolution in reading.…

  17. Refugees and the State Mental Health Systems: Issues and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, John R.; And Others

    This paper examines critical issues for states and advocacy groups in trying to develop short-term goals to address mental health needs of refugees and to plan long-term strategies for state and county service systems for this population. The paper begins with a discussion of the following issues: (1) centralized versus decentralized state mental…

  18. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment.

  19. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  20. Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Naito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model-based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP-based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking movement. Maurer-Peterka's model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model-based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

  1. Promising Practices in Early Childhood Mental Health. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, 2001 Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer S.; Jivanjee, Pauline; Koroloff, Nancy; Doerfler, Andrea; Garcia, Maria

    Part of a series designed to provide guidance for communities interested in building systems of care for children with emotional disturbances, this volume addresses mental health services for very young children and their families. A literature review was conducted, and four Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  2. Managing smarter: a decision support system for mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, L; Muse, L; McInerney, C

    1998-11-01

    Financing of mental health care has changed radically, especially with managed care. Shrinking revenues have forced providers to look for creative ways in which to provide quality services at less expense. Delivery of quality services depends largely on the productive use of the provider's prime resource--the clinicians. Productivity was the focus of the PC-based decision support system developed for mental health providers in New York State. It enables administrators to track key indicators of productivity such as face-to-face time and non-face-to-face time against goals. Unmet goals can be pinpointed quickly, and clinicians' caseloads can be reviewed to determine the underlying causes. A key feature of the system is the conversion of raw data into actionable information to help in problem finding and problem solving. The system has been implemented in Ulster County, the pilot site for the project. The software can be customized easily to suit the data of other providers.

  3. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a mental health services; and b human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus; and b the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS. Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS. At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize

  4. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model.

  5. Victims' Compensation as a Tool of Therapeutic Justice: Examining the Physical and Mental Health Needs of Victim Compensation Applicants and the Role of Health in Receiving Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Guastaferro, Wendy P; Azimi, Andia

    Victims' compensation programs are positioned to serve an important therapeutic role. Their use by persons with physical and mental health problems has not been investigated. This study evaluates the extent to which applicants have physical and mental health needs and whether receiving compensation is related to these needs. Data were part of a larger study designed to assess satisfaction with victim compensation in Georgia. The sample included 500 victim compensation applicants. Individuals were surveyed about their experiences applying for compensation as well as their current wellbeing. Descriptive and multivariate analyses investigated the link between physical and mental health problems and denial of victim compensation. Applicants for crime victim compensation in Georgia experienced a range of physical and mental health problems. Almost half of applicants had been diagnosed with a mental health condition, and 60% had been diagnosed with at least 1 physical health condition. Co-occurring disorders were common. In addition, being denied compensation was significantly related to having a mental health condition and to the number of diagnosed mental health conditions. Crime victim applicants have clear physical and mental health needs. Being denied compensation benefits is related to having a mental health disorder. These results suggest that victim compensation programs can be an intervention point for victims and their families for either receipt of direct service or referral to needed services. In addition, changes in program administration may need to be made to alleviate disparity in award benefit related to mental health status.

  6. Advancing system and policy changes for social and racial justice: comparing a Rural and Urban Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devia, Carlos; Baker, Elizabeth A; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Barnidge, Ellen; Golub, Maxine; Motton, Freda; Muhammad, Michael; Ruddock, Charmaine; Vicuña, Belinda; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-02-21

    The paper examines the role of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within the context of social justice literature and practice. Two CBPR case studies addressing health inequities related to Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease were selected from a national cross-site study assessing effective academic-community research partnerships. One CBPR partnership works with African Americans in rural Pemiscot County, Missouri and the other CBPR partnership works with African American and Latinos in urban South Bronx, New York City. Data collection included semi-structured key informant interviews and focus groups. Analysis focused on partnerships' context/history and their use of multiple justice-oriented strategies to achieve systemic and policy changes in order to address social determinants of health in their communities. Community context and history shaped each partnership's strategies to address social determinants. Four social justice approaches (identity/recognition, procedural, distributive, and structural justice) used by both partnerships were identified. These social justice approaches were employed to address underlying causes of inequitable distribution of resources and power structures, while remaining within a scientific research framework. CBPR can bridge the role of science with civic engagement and political participation, empowering community members to become political agents who integrate evidence into their social justice organizing strategies.

  7. Military Justice: Courts-Martial, an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    alleged source of leaked classified material through the organization WikiLeaks , have raised questions regarding the mental capacity of the accused...classified material through the organization WikiLeaks , have raised questions regarding the mental capacity of the accused and how the military justice

  8. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH62 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations... Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our regulations. In this...

  9. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice....

  10. Recognition and understanding of goals and roles: The key internal features of mental health court teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary; Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Munetz, Mark R; Teller, Jennifer L S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system has led to the formation of specialty programs such as mental health courts (hereafter MHCs). We discuss MHCs and the teams serving these courts. Specifically, we examine team members' perceptions of MHC goals and their own and others' roles on the MHC team. Using a semi-structured interview instrument, we conducted 59 face-to-face interviews with criminal justice and mental health treatment personnel representing 11 Ohio MHCs. Findings from our qualitative data analyses reveal that MHC personnel understand individuals' roles within the teams, recognize and appreciate the importance of different roles, and share common goals. MHCs could foster this level of understanding and agreement by working to recruit and retain individuals with experience in or willingness to learn about both the criminal justice and mental health systems. Future research should explore the impact of MHC team functioning on client outcomes.

  11. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  12. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  13. International Observatory on Mental Health Systems: a mental health research and development network

    OpenAIRE

    Minas Harry

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While the mental health situation for most people in low and middle-income countries is unsatisfactory, there is a renewed commitment to focus attention on the mental health of populations and on the scaling up of mental health services that have the capacity to respond to mental health service needs. There is general agreement that scaling up activities must be evidence-based and that the effectiveness of such activities must be evaluated. If these requirements are to be ...

  14. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    OpenAIRE

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can pro...

  15. Families in the Legal Enforcement System: A Case Example of Blending Infant Mental Health and Family Partner Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Barbara; Lee, Rashawnda; Reus, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Public enforcement agencies such as criminal justice, child welfare, and immigration directly or indirectly impact children and families, often through mandated requirements and forced separations. As a result, families involved with these agencies can be wary of trusting early childhood home visitors and mental health providers. Through case…

  16. Law of “good and evil”, non-linear function of justice, political regimes and deformation of political systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gennadyevich Ol’kov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the law of good and evil the function rule of justice and to construct mathematical models of political regimes. Methods 1 observation analysis and synthesis 2 deduction and induction 3 using the laws of formal logic 4 formal legal method 5 mathematical modeling 6 the study of mathematical functions 7 differential calculus 8 plotting. Results the author has deduced 1 the nonlinear law function of good and evil 2 the nonlinear function of justice 3 the law function of political regimes. Scientific novelty the author has calculated and found 1 a nonlinear formula DLcol ndashLcol3 which represents the relationship between the acts of legal public relations subjects D and thecollective freedom Lcol ndash the law of quotgood and evilquot 2 a nonlinear formula YD D3 illustrating the relationship between the acts of legal relations subjects D and responsibility for their actions Y ndash a nonlinear function of justice 3 a nonlinear formulanbsp that shows the relationship between the individual Lind and collective freedom Lcol in the negative area of the function definition collective negative freedom and a formulanbsp reflecting the relationship between the individual and collective freedom in the positive area of the function definition collective positive freedom 4 has given a general classification of political regimes in the world describing their functions showing the types of political systems deformation that occur due to the leftwise and rightwise shifts of collective freedom. Practical value the possibility to use the obtained scientific results in the development of various legal theories. nbsp

  17. 医疗保健制度正义标准新探%New Exploration of Health care System Justice Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静娴; 范瑞平

    2016-01-01

    Implementing health justice is an important target for one country to establish and perfect health care system. Health justice monism has serious defects. It is urgent to explore a new standard of health justice from multi-ple perspectives. In terms of five value dimensions including equality, liberty, personal respect, utility and respon-sibility, this paper constructed a "multivariate framework of health justice" and put forward the evaluation index system for each value dimension. It offers a new theoretical exploration for comparing and evaluating the justice of healthcare systems in an objective, thorough and comprehensive way.%实现卫生正义是一个国家建立健全医疗保健制度的重要目标。卫生正义一元论存在严重缺陷,亟需从多元视阈下探究医疗保健制度的新型正义标准。从平等、自由、对人的尊重、功利、责任五个价值维度出发,构建一个“卫生正义多元框架”,并提出不同价值维度下的评价指标体系,为客观、全面、综合地比较、评价医疗保健制度的正义性提供理论新探。

  18. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  19. Effecting Successful Community Re-Entry: Systems of Care Community Based Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Rebecca I.; Fette, Claudette; Scaffa, Marjorie E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for system reform for child and adolescent mental health services, long recognized as a vital issue, continues to challenge mental health professionals. While past legislation has not adequately addressed the issues, the 2003 President's New Freedom Commission may begin to reorient mental health systems toward recovery. Supported by this…

  20. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH49 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System... expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings) in our... ensure that we continue to have the criteria we need to evaluate mental disorders at step three of...

  1. MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

  2. Preventing Juvenile Justice Involvement for Young Women: An Introduction to an Evaluation of the PACE Center for Girls. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenky, Megan; Mage, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in the juvenile justice system has tremendous costs for the individuals within it, as well as for society. Such involvement may damage a child's relationships with friends and family, negatively affect mental health, and interrupt the academic progress and work experience that should accumulate during adolescence. On the societal…

  3. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.

  4. Meeting the mental health needs of children and youth through integrated care: A systems and policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voursney, David; Huang, Larke N

    2016-02-01

    The health home program established under the Affordable Care Act (2010) is derived from the medical home concept originated by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1968 to provide a care delivery model for children with special health care needs. As applied to behavioral health, health homes or medical homes have become increasingly adult-focused models, with a primary goal of coordinating physical and behavioral health care. For children and youth with serious emotional disorders, health homes must go beyond physical and behavioral health care to connect with other child-focused sectors, such as education, child welfare, and juvenile justice. Each of these systems have a significant role in helping children meet health and developmental goals, and should be included in integrated approaches to care for children and youth. Health homes for young people should incorporate a continuum of care from health promotion to the prevention and treatment of disorders. The challenge for child- and youth-focused health homes is to integrate effective services and supports into the settings where young people naturally exist, drawing on the best evidence from mental health, physical medicine, and other fields. What may be needed is not a health home as currently conceptualized for adults, nor a traditional medical home, but a family- and child-centered coordinated care and support delivery system supported by health homes or other arrangements. This article sets out a health home framework for children and youth with serious mental health conditions and their families, examining infrastructure and service delivery issues.

  5. the Construction of Criminal Justice Case Guiding System of China%我国刑事司法案例指导制度的构建设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖彦西

    2013-01-01

    将中国刑事司法案例指导制度作为制定法的补充,对维护法的统一性、安定性,实现社会公平、正义具有重要的意义。文章分别就刑事司法指导性案例的遴选、刑事司法指导性案例的创制主体、刑事司法指导性案例的公布及备案、刑事司法指导性案例的适用和刑事司法指导性案例的废止与修改五个方面,提出粗略设想。%Criminal justice guiding system as a supplement should be constructed so as to give full scope to the positive role of the latter in criminal and judicial activities.This paper suggests ideas of the selection of criminal Justice guiding case,the principal part of creating criminal Justice guiding case,the promulgation and record of criminal Justice guiding case,the repeal and revision of criminal Justice guiding case.

  6. The Police Response to Mental Illness on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…

  7. Predictors of recovery-oriented competencies among mental health professionals in one community mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Jennifer; Rocha, Anita; Christian, Ann; Johnson, David

    2014-11-01

    A survey of 813 mental health professionals serving adults with severe mental illness clustered in 25 community mental health centers assessed the extent to which mental health professionals possess clinical competencies that support recovery and the predictors of these competencies. The results suggest there is room for improvement in recovery-oriented competencies. In-depth professional training in recovery, greater job variety, more years practicing in mental health, participation on an intensive case management team, and perceptions of workplace recovery culture were predictors of recovery-oriented competencies. Prioritization of on-going professional, worker retention, and management strategies that incorporate a team approach to treatment and improvements in workplace recovery culture may potentially increase recovery-oriented clinical practice.

  8. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  9. Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition. Issue Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhjem, Pam

    2005-01-01

    How do communities begin to address the issue of youth with disabilities who become involved with correctional systems? This brief provides information on proactive solutions based on restorative justice and wrap-around services, models, and strategies. This topic is receiving more attention as research has begun supporting a critical need for…

  10. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  11. Veterans Affairs Health System and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness: evaluating accessibility and availability barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John F; Blow, Frederic C; Valenstein, Marcia; Fischer, Ellen P; Owen, Richard R; Barry, Kristen L; Hudson, Teresa J; Ignacio, Rosalinda V

    2007-06-01

    We examine the impact of two dimensions of access-geographic accessibility and availability-on VA health system and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Among 156,631 patients in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in fiscal year 1998 (FY98), we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to first 12-month gap in health system utilization, and in mental health services utilization, by the end of FY02. Geographic accessibility was operationalized as straight-line distance to nearest VA service site or VA psychiatric service site, respectively. Service availability was assessed using county-level VA hospital beds and non-VA beds per 1,000 county residents. Patients who died without a prior gap in care were censored. There were 32, 943 patients (21 percent) with a 12-month gap in health system utilization; 65,386 (42 percent) had a 12-month gap in mental health services utilization. Gaps in VA health system utilization were more likely if patients were younger, nonwhite, unmarried, homeless, nonservice-connected, if they had bipolar disorder, less medical morbidity, an inpatient stay in FY98, or if they lived farther from care or in a county with fewer VA inpatient beds. Similar relationships were observed for mental health, however being older, female, and having greater morbidity were associated with increased risks of gaps, and number of VA beds was not significant. Geographic accessibility and resource availability measures were associated with long-term continuity of care among patients with SMI. Increased distance from providers was associated with greater risks of 12-month gaps in health system and mental health services utilization. Lower VA inpatient bed availability was associated with increased risks of gaps in health system utilization. Study findings may inform efforts to improve treatment retention.

  12. Visual and Spatial Mental Imagery: Dissociable Systems of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-07

    Eisenbc g. 1978. Marmor & Zabeck, 1976), mental scanning tasks (Kerr. 1983). imagery mnemr nic taskq (Jonides, Kahn & Rozin. 1975. Kerr. 1983...40. 362-389 Marmor . G. S.. & Zabeck. L. A. (1976). Mental rotation by the blind: Does mental rotation Visual and Spatial Imagery 30 depend on visual

  13. “The Mad”, “The Bad”, “The Victim”: Gendered Constructions of Women Who Kill within the Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Weare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Women commit significantly fewer murders than men and are perceived to be less violent. This belief about women’s non-violence reflects the discourses surrounding gender, all of which assume that women possess certain inherent essential characteristics such as passivity and gentleness. When women commit murder the fundamental social structures based on appropriate feminine gendered behaviour are contradicted and subsequently challenged. This article will explore the gendered constructions of women who kill within the criminal justice system. These women are labelled as either mad, bad or a victim, by both the criminal justice system and society, depending on the construction of their crime, their gender and their sexuality. Symbiotic to labelling women who kill in this way is the denial of their agency. That is to say that labelling these women denies the recognition of their ability to make a semi-autonomous decision to act in a particular way. It is submitted that denying the agency of these women raises a number of issues, including, but not limited to, maintaining the current gendered status quo within the criminal law and criminal justice system, and justice both being done, and being seen to be done, for these women and their victims.

  14. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Mike; Amering, M.; FARKAS, MARIANNE; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Gavin; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, R.

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can ...

  15. Developmental Psycho- Neurological Research Trends and Their Importance for Reassessing Key Decision-Making Assumptions for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Juvenile/Youth and Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the underlying foundations of Western criminal justice is the notion that human behavior is the product of rational choice. The creation of separate justice systems for juveniles and adults is based on the idea that fundamental differences in rationality exist between these two groups. Since its inception, the establishment of upper and lower boundaries demarking the juvenile justice system has been a highly contentious issue, both scientifically and politically. Critically, this debate stems from the largely arbitrary nature of the boundaries. Over the last thirty years a sufficiently large body of psychological and neurological empirical work has examined the development of decision-making and rational choice in late childhood, adolescents, and adulthood. The current article discusses the implications of this research on the establishment of upper and lower age jurisdictions for the juvenile justice system, as well as how adolescent decision-making influences other key aspects of the justice process such as competency to stand trial.

  16. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete; Gissler, Mika; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2011-12-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision. To evaluate trends in health outcomes of people with serious mental disorders. We examined nationwide 5-year consecutive cohorts of people admitted to hospital for mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden in 1987-2006. In each country the risk population was identified from hospital discharge registers and mortality data were retrieved from cause-of-death registers. The main outcome measure was life expectancy at age 15 years. People admitted to hospital for a mental disorder had a two- to threefold higher mortality than the general population in all three countries studied. This gap in life expectancy was more pronounced for men than for women. The gap decreased between 1987 and 2006 in these countries, especially for women. The notable exception was Swedish men with mental disorders. In spite of the positive general trend, men with mental disorders still live 20 years less, and women 15 years less, than the general population. During the era of deinstitutionalisation the life expectancy gap for people with mental disorders has somewhat diminished in the three Nordic countries. Our results support further development of the Nordic welfare state model, i.e. tax-funded community-based public services and social protection. Health promotion actions, improved access to healthcare and prevention of suicides and violence are needed to further reduce the life expectancy gap.

  17. Practice informs the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nancy; Frueh, B Christopher; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Epperson, Matthew W; Morgan, Robert; Fisher, William

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interventions, such as police and jail diversion, mental health courts, specialized probation, forensic assertive community treatment, designed to engage justice-involved persons with serious mental illnesses, have expanded over the past two decades. Some of these "first generation" interventions have demonstrated efficacy and several have earned recognition as evidence-based practices. Yet, overall, they have not appreciably reduced the prevalence of persons with serious mental illnesses involved in the criminal justice system. To understand how to make the next generation of interventions more effective, a survey of a national sample of community-based programs serving these clients was conducted. Surveys were completed on-line by direct service staff affiliated with 85 programs and collected data on the characteristics and needs of the client base; characteristics and challenges associated with difficult-to-engage clients; service needs and obstacles; and recommendations for improving program effectiveness. A sample of the survey participants (19 programs from 18 states) attended a day-long workshop to discuss the survey findings and ways to improve treatment adherence and client services. Respondents reported that their clients have a constellation of problems with different origins, etiologies, and symptoms, often crossing over the boundaries of mental illness, addictions, and antisocial pathologies. According to the practitioners working with justice-involved clients with mental illnesses, responding effectively requires knowledge of many different problems, expertise to respond to them, and an understanding of how these problems interact when they co-occur. The poly-problems of these clients suggest the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach, which is challenged by the fragmented and diverse ideologies of the behavioral health, criminal justice, and social service systems.

  18. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  19. Biology, childhood trauma, and murder: rethinking justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Solomon, Eldra P

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings in the developmental neurophysiology of children subjected to psychological trauma. Studies link extreme neglect and abuse with long-term changes in the nervous and endocrine systems. A growing body of research literature indicates that individuals with severe trauma histories are at higher risk of behaving violently than those without such histories. This article links these two research areas by discussing how severe and protracted child abuse and/or neglect can lead to biological changes, putting these individuals at greater risk for committing homicide and other forms of violence than those without child maltreatment histories. The implications of these biological findings for forensic evaluations are discussed. Based on new understanding of the effects of child maltreatment, the authors invite law and mental health professionals to rethink their notions of justice and offender accountability, and they challenge policymakers to allocate funds for research into effective treatment and for service delivery.

  20. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  1. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  2. Intersystem return on investment in public mental health: Positive externality of public mental health expenditure for the jail system in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which increased public mental health expenditures lead to a reduction in jail populations and computes the associated intersystem return on investment (ROI). We analyze unique panel data on 44 U.S. states and D.C. for years 2001-2009. To isolate the intersystem spillover effect, we exploit variations across states and over time within states in per capita public mental health expenditures and average daily jail inmates. Regression models control for a comprehensive set of determinants of jail incarcerations as well as unobserved determinants specific to state and year. Findings show a positive spillover benefit of increased public mental health spending on the jail system: a 10% increase in per capita public inpatient mental health expenditure on average leads to a 1.5% reduction in jail inmates. We also find that the positive intersystem externality of increased public inpatient mental health expenditure is greater when the level of community mental health spending is lower. Similarly, the intersystem spillover effect of community mental health expenditure is larger when inpatient mental health spending is lower. We compute that overall an extra dollar in public inpatient mental health expenditure by a state would yield an intersystem ROI of a quarter dollar for the jail system. There is significant cross-state variation in the intersystem ROI in both public inpatient and community mental health expenditures, and the ROI overall is greater for inpatient mental health spending than for community mental health spending. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Steps towards improving the system of records, collection and monitoring of data relevant to statistics within the system of juvenile justice in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the importance of „good statistics of juvenile justice“ as one of the basis for a clearer overview of the juvenile crime situation, in order to create unique policies at local and national levels for the suppression and prevention of this phenomenon, and to create appropriate areas for action in terms of improving the system reform. The author particularly gives a review of the „Global Indicators in Juvenile Justice“ which present the basic set of data and comparative tool that provides a basis for the assessment and evaluation of services and policies in the field of juvenile justice, and highlights the importance of compatibility of „national indicators“ with them. Particular attention in the paper has been devoted to the overview and analysis of the necessary measures to improve this field, that were prepared and delivered to the relevant ministries and institutions by the Council for Monitoring and Promoting the work of Bodies Engaged in Criminal Proceeding and Enforcement of Juvenile Criminal Sanctions Involving Juveniles - Juvenile Justice Council (hereinafter: the Council. It was pointed, first of all, at the suggestions made by the Council to the Ministry of Justice with the aim to improve the Program for automated record keeping, at the necessary changes of the Court rules, and certain amendments to Forms SK- 3 and SK- 4 of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia were presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  4. Individuals in the criminal justice system show differences in cooperative behaviour: Implications from cooperative games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brendan C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hendricks, Peter S; Sharp, Carla; Clark, Shane K; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    The high rate of incarceration in the USA warrants continued exploration into understanding and ameliorating criminal behaviour. The growing use of cooperative games to measure developing prosocial behaviours has never been explored in a US criminal justice population. The aim of this study is to examine cooperative game play among offenders under supervision in the community. We hypothesised that the offenders would use more guarded and self-preserving strategies and be more likely to excel in short-lived interactions than law-abiding community citizens. Community supervised offenders (83) and general population comparison participants (41) were recruited by town centre adverts placed in popular shops. Using the supervision centres as venues, all participants were asked to complete four cooperative games (prisoner's dilemma, public goods game, ultimatum game and trust game), not knowing the identity of the other player who was always, in fact, the experimenter. The offender and general population groups were similar in age (early 30s), sex (2/3 men), race (45% white) and IQ distribution (low average range). Offenders made lower offers in the ultimatum game, had lower scores in the prisoner's dilemma, made lower investments and offered lower returns in the trust game and contributed less in the public goods game. Even community-based offenders thus seem to have deficits in the kinds of gameplay, which are informed by theories of social cooperation, but the direction of relationship with offending remains unclear. The apparent deficits may reflect adaptation to a hostile environment where trust and reciprocity are not rewarded. It is also important to recognise that these community-based offenders did develop play indicative of trust and reciprocity, they just did so more slowly than the comparison group. This may have implications for allowing time for rapport to develop in supervisory relationships. Finally, offenders may benefit from learning that although more

  5. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  6. The linkage of Baltimore's mental health and public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.

  7. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  8. Mental Health Systems for People with Mental Retardation: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfas, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    A survey was made of provincial ministries and voluntary associations in nine Canadian provinces and two territories, to assess service provision to mentally retarded citizens with emotional problems. The survey focused on government agencies' involvement in service delivery, settings for short- and long-term care, quality of services available,…

  9. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  10. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting.

  11. Validity of self-reported criminal justice system involvement in substance abusing women at five-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.

  12. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  14. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.

  15. Influences of multiple memory systems on auditory mental image acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Cebrian, Ana; Janata, Petr

    2010-05-01

    The influence of different memory systems and associated attentional processes on the acuity of auditory images, formed for the purpose of making intonation judgments, was examined across three experiments using three different task types (cued-attention, imagery, and two-tone discrimination). In experiment 1 the influence of implicit long-term memory for musical scale structure was manipulated by varying the scale degree (leading tone versus tonic) of the probe note about which a judgment had to be made. In experiments 2 and 3 the ability of short-term absolute pitch knowledge to develop was manipulated by presenting blocks of trials in the same key or in seven different keys. The acuity of auditory images depended on all of these manipulations. Within individual listeners, thresholds in the two-tone discrimination and cued-attention conditions were closely related. In many listeners, cued-attention thresholds were similar to thresholds in the imagery condition, and depended on the amount of training individual listeners had in playing a musical instrument. The results indicate that mental images formed at a sensory/cognitive interface for the purpose of making perceptual decisions are highly malleable.

  16. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  17. Cash across the City: Participatory Mapping & Teaching for Spatial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Laurie; Lim, Vivian; Hall-Wieckert, Maren; Katz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teaching mathematics for spatial justice (Soja, 2010), as an extension of teaching mathematics for social justice (Gutstein, 2006). The study is contextualized in a 10-session curricular module focused on the spatial justice of a city's two-tiered system of personal finance institutions (mainstream vs. alternative), piloted…

  18. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  19. Underutilization of Mental Health Services among College Students: An Examination of System-Related Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Carey N.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the documented benefits of counseling and mental health services on academic performance and degree attainment, only about 10% of psychologically distressed college students ever seek professional help. This investigation examined mental health care system-related barriers that might distinguish help seekers from nonhelp seekers among…

  20. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  1. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the

  2. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the dev

  3. Mental illness, violence risk, and race in juvenile detention: implications for disproportionate minority contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Falzer, Paul R; Chapman, John; Borum, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) is a pervasive problem throughout the juvenile justice system. This article explored whether mental illness may be an explanatory factor in DMC. Data such as measures of violence risk and symptoms of mental illness were taken from intake interviews with 482 detained youth in Connecticut. Results indicated that racial minorities in detention have significantly lower violence risk than Caucasians but are disproportionately represented among detention populations relative to their proportions in the general population. In addition, DMC in these data was not explained by mental illness, seriousness of charges, violence risk, age, or gender. We suggest that mandated efforts to reduce DMC will need to address more than improving behavior or reducing symptoms of mental illness among detained minority youth. Instead, efforts should be focused on reducing the racial disparity evident in decisions made within the juvenile justice system.

  4. 制度正义理论视角下的农村最低生活保障制度%On the system of minimum living standard in Rural Areas from the perspective of system justice theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪保爱

    2011-01-01

    As justice is the primary value of social systems,whether a system is effective or not depends on the justice of system arrangement.The system of minimum living standard in rural areas in our country has been influenced at the beginning of its foundation by the dual social structure: one system belongs to two edifices and the uneven development in urban and rural areas fails to embody the justice of the system.But in light of its development,it is oriented towards universalism,whose goal is justice-reflecting integration of urban and rural areas.Based on John Rawls's theory of justice,this paper analyses the system of minimum living standard in rural areas from such aspects as equality justice,distribution justice and compensation justice,proposing that a just system of minimum living standard should be developmental and unified.%正义是社会制度的首要价值,一种制度是否有效,取决于制度的安排是否正义。我国农村最低生活保障制度,建立之初就受到二元社会结构的影响,一种制度分属两种体系,城乡之间发展不平衡,没有体现制度的正义性;但是从其发展来看,遵循的又是普遍主义的发展方向,城乡一体化的制度是其发展目标,体现了制度的正义性。以约翰.罗尔斯的正义论为基础,从公平正义、分配正义和补偿正义三个方面分析农村最低生活保障制度,提出正义的最低生活保障制度应是发展的、统一的制度。

  5. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  6. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  7. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  8. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  9. Risk of future offense among probationers with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyakina, Elizabeth; Mann, Christopher; Ellison, Michael; Sivernell, Ron; Fulda, Kimberly G; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The criminal justice system is the primary service delivery system for many adults with drug and alcohol dependence, mental health, and other health service needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between risk of future offense, mental health status and co-occurring disorders in a large substance abuse diversion probationer population. A purposive sample of 2,077 probationers completed an assessment to screen for mental health disorders, substance use disorders, risk of future crime and violence, and several demographic characteristics. Probationers who screened positive for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders were significantly more likely to be at higher risk of future crime and violence compared to probationers who screened positive for only substance use, only a mental health disorder, or no substance use or mental health disorder. Implications for substance use and mental health service delivery are discussed, and recommendations are made for further research.

  10. 罗尔斯正义原则对我国构建社会公平保障体系的镜鉴作用%Mirror Effects of Rawls Justice Principles on the Construction of Chinese Social Justice Security System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小明

    2015-01-01

    公平正义是全面小康社会的重要价值目标和现实诉求。中共十八大报告提出的构建社会公平保障体系的目标指明了建成全面小康社会进程中公平正义的努力方向。罗尔斯正义原则强调自由权利的平等和有差别的机会平等,强调社会制度应彰显正义价值:即必须有效彰显社会主义制度体系的正义价值;必须倡导和弘扬公平正义的社会价值观,为形成规范人们各种非正义行为的规则体系提供重要条件;必须有效创设正义的社会制度调节社会分配中的事实不平等,实现有差别的平等;必须充分发挥国家在促进社会公平正义中的重要作用。这对构建社会主义社会公平保障体系具有重要镜鉴作用。%Fairness and justice are the important value goals and the practical demands of the all-round well-off society. The report of the Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC proposes the goals of constructing the social justice security system which indicates the direction of completely constructing the fairness and justice during the process of building up well-off society. Rawls justice principles emphasizes the equality of freedom rights and differential opportunity, the necessity of highlighting the value of justice for the society system which will play a mirror role for constructing the socialist society justice security system:it's essential to effectively highlight the value of justice of socialist system; to propose and carry forward the social values of social fairness and justice for providing the important condition for forming the regulation system of the injustice; to effectively set up justicial social system to regulate the inequality in social distribution and to realize the differential equality;and to stress the important role that the state is playing in the fairness and justice.

  11. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  12. 论检察机关设置专家辅助人制度%Setting Up a New Supervision System of Forensic Appraisal in Criminal Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勋

    2009-01-01

    The forensic identification system is an indispensible part of our country's judicial system, and is an important guarantee for the implementation of the nation's law. For a long time, various drawbacks exist in forensic identification in criminal justice, which not only affects the credibility of forensic identification, but also damages the unified implementation of the nation's law. Apart from the imperfect forensic identification system, the lack of the procuratorate's supervision is one cause for the abovementioned phenomenon. Therefore, besides improving the forensic identification system itself, we should establish the expert assistant system in prosecutorial organs to strengthen and improve the supervision of forensic identification in criminal justice. Based on the analysis of the current situation, the existing problems of forensic identification in the criminal justice system, and the practice of prosecutorial organs, and using the expert witness (expert assistant) system of foreign countries for reference, the author discusses the necessity, feasibility of the establishment of the expert assistant system in prosecutorial organs and its system designing.%司法鉴定制度是我国司法制度的重要组成部分,长期以来,我国刑事司法鉴定领域存在着种种弊端,不仅影响了司法鉴定的公信力,还损害了国家法律的正确统一实施,这与检察机关的监督缺位有着密切的关系.因此在完善司法鉴定制度本身的同时,应该通过建立检察机关专家辅助人制度来加强对刑事司法鉴定的监督.探讨在我国设立检察机关专家辅助人制度具有重要意义.

  13. Everyday solutions for everyday problems: how mental health systems can support recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike

    2012-07-01

    People who experience mental illness can be viewed as either fundamentally different than, or fundamentally like, everyone else in society. Recovery-oriented mental health systems focus on commonality. In practice, this involves an orientation toward supporting everyday solutions for everyday problems rather than providing specialist treatments for mental illness-related problems. This change is evident in relation to help offered with housing, employment, relationships, and spirituality. Interventions may contribute to the process of striving for a life worth living, but they are a means, not an end. Mental health systems that offer treatments in support of an individual's life goals are very different than those that treat patients in their best interests. The strongest contribution of mental health services to recovery is to support everyday solutions to everyday problems.

  14. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  15. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  16. Advocacy: critical component in a comprehensive mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianos, Stanley; Kehyayan, Vahe

    2012-01-01

    Although rights protection and best interest perspectives are frequently viewed as diametric opposites, mental health advocacy is an important strategy in pursuit of both civil rights and therapeutic goals for people with mental illness. Independent, client-centered advocacy supports the attainment of consumer-identified goals for recovery, equality, and social inclusion and mitigates the negative consequences of stigma and discrimination. Advocacy strives to return decision-making authority to consumers and thus to empower them to play a more central role in their own care, treatment, rehabilitation, and life choices. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. The Lucretian swerve: the biological basis of human behavior and the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Anthony R

    2010-03-09

    It is widely believed, at least in scientific circles, that living systems, including mankind, obey the natural physical laws. However, it is also commonly accepted that man has the capacity to make "free" conscious decisions that do not simply reflect the chemical makeup of the individual at the time of decision--this chemical makeup reflecting both the genetic and environmental history and a degree of stochasticism. Whereas philosophers have discussed for centuries the apparent lack of a causal component for free will, many biologists still seem to be remarkably at ease with this notion of free will; and furthermore, our judicial system is based on such a belief. It is the author's contention that a belief in free will is nothing other than a continuing belief in vitalism--something biologists proudly believe they discarded well over 100 years ago.

  18. AIDS: The Impact on the Criminal Justice System Management of Aids in Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    34 Some prison systems are reluctant to parole HIV seropositive inmates in response to an unrealistic fear of possible future liability if the inmate ... inmates , and that all prisoners should be encouraged to refrain from high-risk behavior, not just those identified as seropositive. Furthermore... inmates subjected to harassment, discrimination and perhaps even violence within the prison , and to difficulties in obtaining employment and housing upon

  19. Health systems as defences against the consequences of poverty: equity in health as social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, F M

    1983-01-01

    The main development problems in the Third World are known to be gross socioeconomic inequality, widespread poor health status accompanied by high fertility and infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, mass illiteracy and mass poverty. In most of these countries governments invest a great deal of scarce resources toward the consequences of poverty rather than it causes. The paucity of resources for such social services is exacerbated by continuously increasing demands and needs which have to be satisfied. Unmet needs tend to cause apathy in the population. For purposes of controlling poverty and its consequences, these must be clearly formulated and relevant policies, a commitment to implement such policies, adequate administrative capacity and reasonably adequate resources. In the case of the health services system, the same requirements apply. Above all, the health system has to be directed toward the greatest needs of the population. This must involve policy makers, implementors and the consumer community. This paper argues that health systems cannot be an effective weapon against the consequences of poverty unless the above kinds of policy exist and are implemented.

  20. Wellness in School and Mental Health Systems: Organizational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, improving counselor wellness focused on helping counselors cope with stressful environments. More recently, research has begun to emphasize healthy work environments. This article makes suggestions for organizations to enhance wellness in mental health practice and schools by changing policies, increasing professional identification,…

  1. Linking mental health and after school systems for children in urban poverty: preventing problems, promoting possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L; Cappella, Elise; Atkins, Marc S

    2007-07-01

    The current mental health system is failing to meet the extensive needs of children living in urban poverty. After school programs, whose mission includes children's socialization, peer relations, and adaptive functioning, are uniquely positioned to support and promote children's healthy development. We propose that public sector mental health resources can be reallocated to support after school settings, and we offer specific examples and recommendations from an ongoing federally funded program of research to illustrate how mental health consultation can support publicly funded after school programs. In light of the increasing needs and depleting [corrected] resources of urban, poor communities, consultation to publicly funded after school programs can contribute to the mental health goals of keeping children safe and supervised, promoting their healthy development through academically and socially enriching activities, and identifying children in need of more intensive mental health services.

  2. Mediation: A concept that has to do not just with the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endira Bushati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  3. Mediation: A concept that has to do not just with the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endira Bushati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  4. 77 FR 58412 - Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting. Purpose The GAC will act as the focal point for justice information systems integration... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Federal...

  5. A predictive model of the development of national mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G

    2010-12-01

    An emerging body of research in the field of international mental health, in part stimulated by the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, has made only limited progress in understanding variations in levels of development in mental health services across nations. However, the World Health Organization's recent initiatives involving the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) and its publication of the Mental Health Atlas now present new opportunities for understanding transnational mental health policy development. This study, thus, aims to increase understanding of the dimensions and conditions associated with the differential levels of development of national mental health. Specifically, it addresses two questions: Are there one or multiple dimensions characteristic of this development? What are the relative contributions of demographic, economic, political, social, cultural, and geographic conditions in predicting the levels of various nations on these dimensions? This study employs a secondary analysis of existing data derived from both WHO's Mental Health Atlas and other archival sources to address the above questions. Analyses of patterns of missing data supported decisions to restrict the sample to 138 nations. The first question on dimensions of development was addressed with a Varimax factor analysis using a matrix of polychoric, tetrachoric, and Pearson correlations. Factor scores were calculated for the resulting three factors, and to address the second question on predictors, these were each analyzed with multiple regression models. Three orthogonal or uncorrelated dimensions were identified that are characteristic of the 138 nations: (i) General Mental Health Services (professionals and inpatient beds), (ii) Public Mental Health Program; and (iii) Community Mental Health that collectively accounted for 45% of the variance in the database of WHO predictors. Only one, General Mental Health Services, was substantially explained (Adj. R

  6. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  7. "If we're going to change things, it has to be systemic:" systems change in children's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sharon; Ferreira, Kathleen; Israel, Nathaniel

    2012-06-01

    Communities that undertake systems change in accordance with the system of care philosophy commit to creating new systems entities for children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbance. These new entities are values-based, voluntary, and cross-agency alliances that include formal child-serving entities, youth, and families. Describing the scope and intent of one such implementation of systems of care, a mental health administrator commented, "If we're going to change things, it has to be systemic" (B. Baxter, personal communication, December 2, 2005). This paper explores the concept of "systemic" in the context of systems of care. Systems theory is used to understand strategies of purposeful systems change undertaken by stakeholders in established system of care communities. The paper presents a conceptual model of systems change for systems of care that is grounded in data from a national study of system of care implementation (Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health in Case Studies of system implementation: Holistic approaches to studying community-based systems of care: Study 2, University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health, Tampa, FL, 2004). The model is based on Soft Systems Methodology, an application of systems theory developed to facilitate practical action around systems change in human systems (Checkland in Systems thinking, systems practice, Wiley, Chichester, 1999). The implications of these findings to real world actions associated with systems change in systems of care are discussed.

  8. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  9. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer E Johnson1, Tara Carney2, Tracy Kline3, Felicia A Browne4, Wendee M Wechsberg41Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system

  10. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  11. [Meaning in life and mental health: personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Sabine; Knappe, Rainer; Joraschky, Peter; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients as well as correlations between meaning in life and mental health. We qualitatively assessed the content and structure of the personal meaning systems of 41 psychotherapists and 77 psychotherapy patients. In addition, the participants completed questionnaires measuring meaning in life (LRI-r-d), sense of coherence (SOC-9L), self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), self-efficacy (SWK), and depression (BDI). The personal meaning systems of psychotherapists were more complex and coherent compared to psychotherapy patients. In the group of psychotherapy patients, a more elaborate structure of the personal meaning system correlated with the subjective sense of meaning. We were able to confirm correlations between meaning in life and mental health for most of the instances. Psychotherapists had more elaborate and coherent meaning systems than psychotherapy patients. Especially for psychotherapy patients elaborate and coherent meaning systems turned out to be important for mental health.

  12. Development and implementation of a 'Mental Health Finder' software tool within an electronic medical record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, D; Hannigan, A; Higgins, S; McDonnell, R; Meagher, D; Cullen, W

    2017-02-01

    In Ireland, as in many other healthcare systems, mental health service provision is being reconfigured with a move toward more care in the community, and particularly primary care. Recording and surveillance systems for mental health information and activities in primary care are needed for service planning and quality improvement. We describe the development and initial implementation of a software tool ('mental health finder') within a widely used primary care electronic medical record system (EMR) in Ireland to enable large-scale data collection on the epidemiology and management of mental health and substance use problems among patients attending general practice. In collaboration with the Irish Primary Care Research Network (IPCRN), we developed the 'Mental Health Finder' as a software plug-in to a commonly used primary care EMR system to facilitate data collection on mental health diagnoses and pharmacological treatments among patients. The finder searches for and identifies patients based on diagnostic coding and/or prescribed medicines. It was initially implemented among a convenience sample of six GP practices. Prevalence of mental health and substance use problems across the six practices, as identified by the finder, was 9.4% (range 6.9-12.7%). 61.9% of identified patients were female; 25.8% were private patients. One-third (33.4%) of identified patients were prescribed more than one class of psychotropic medication. Of the patients identified by the finder, 89.9% were identifiable via prescribing data, 23.7% via diagnostic coding. The finder is a feasible and promising methodology for large-scale data collection on mental health problems in primary care.

  13. Public opinion on lay participation in the criminal justice system of the Netherlands Some tentative findings from a panel survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Klijn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands the recent debate on lay involvement in the administration of criminal justice was initiated by politicians who maintain that the public favours such involvement. The response of the judiciary and legal academics to these politicians has been fairly defensive. They have pointed in particular to the dangers of the punitive character of the vox populi and rejected the idea. As a result, the debate on lay involvement has quickly become a black and white issue. This article presents the findings of a recent research of the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary and the Research and Documentation Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Justice regarding the opinion of the public on different kinds of lay involvement under different conditions. This research shows that both the position of the politicians that favour lay involvement in the administration of criminal justice and the position of the judiciary and legal academics that reject lay involvement are to a relatively large degree unrepresentative of the wishes and views of the public.

  14. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  15. The Verdict Is In: The Impact of Crime on Public Trust in Central American Justice Systems El impacto de delincuencia sobre la confianza pública en el sistema de justicia en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fran T. Malone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the countries of Central America have confronted soaring crime rates. Justice systems of dubious quality provide thin shields against this crime crisis, despite substantial international and domestic investment in justice reform. Indeed, there is growing concern that crime will undermine justice reform efforts. Scholars and practitioners have pointed out that public frustration with crime, coupled with dissatisfaction with justice institutions, can lead citizens to reject reform efforts. Still, the micro-level relationships between crime and public support of the justice system have been understudied. Using public opinion data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP, this study aims to add to the literature by examining the effects of victimization and fear of crime on public trust in the justice system. The results indicate that crime can erode public support for the justice system, but the mechanics of this relationship vary according to national context. Durante las últimas dos décadas, los países de América Central se ven enfrentados con altos niveles de delincuencia. La capacidad de los gobiernos para contrarrestar esta crisis es comprometida por las debilidades severas de los sistemas de justicia, a pesar de la inversión internacional y domestica en reformas de la justicia. De hecho, existe la preocupación que la delincuencia frustrará los esfuerzos de reforma judicial. Gente cansada de altos niveles de delincuencia y frustrada con las instituciones de justicia puede rechazar esfuerzos de reforma. No obstante, las relaciones individuales entre delincuencia y apoyo público para el sistema de justicia no han sido estudiadas de forma suficiente. Por lo cual, este estudio usa los datos del Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP para examinar las reacciones públicas a la delincuencia. Los resultados indican que la delincuencia puede erosionar el apoyo para el sistema de justicia, pero los

  16. The Effects of a Simulation Game on Mental Models about Organizational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to uncover evidence of change to mental models about organizational systems resulting from participation in a simulation game that is based on a system dynamics model. Thirty participants in a 2 day experiential workshop completed a pretest and posttest to assess learning about particular systems concepts.…

  17. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J

    2011-01-01

    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  18. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  19. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  20. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  1. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing eTian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production (‘articulation imagery’, which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems. On the basis of previous findings in mental imagery of speech, we argue for the following regarding the induction mechanisms of mental imagery and the interaction between motor and perceptual systems: (1 Two distinct top-down mechanisms, memory retrieval and motor simulation, exist to induce estimation in perceptual systems. (2 Motor simulation is sufficient to internally induce the representation of perceptual changes that would be caused by actual movement (perceptual associations; however, this simulation process only has modulatory effects on the perception of external stimuli, which critically depends on context and task demands. Considering the proposed simulation-estimation processes as common mechanisms for interaction between motor and perceptual systems, we outline how mental imagery (of speech relates to perception and production, and how these hypothesized mechanisms might underpin certain neural disorders.

  2. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  3. Transforming mental health and substance abuse data systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Rosanna M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Kassed, Cheryl A; Dilonardo, Joan; Forhan, Carol; Marder, William D; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-11-01

    State efforts to improve mental health and substance abuse service systems cannot overlook the fragmented data systems that reinforce the historical separateness of systems of care. These separate systems have discrete approaches to treatment, and there are distinct funding streams for state mental health, substance abuse, and Medicaid agencies. Transforming mental health and substance abuse services in the United States depends on resolving issues that underlie separate treatment systems--access barriers, uneven quality, disjointed coordination, and information silos across agencies and providers. This article discusses one aspect of transformation--the need for interoperable information systems. It describes current federal and state initiatives for improving data interoperability and the special issue of confidentiality associated with mental health and substance abuse treatment data. Some achievable steps for states to consider in reforming their behavioral health data systems are outlined. The steps include collecting encounter-level data; using coding that is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, including national provider identifiers; forging linkages with other state data systems and developing unique client identifiers among systems; investing in flexible and adaptable data systems and business processes; and finding innovative solutions to the difficult confidentiality restrictions on use of behavioral health data. Changing data systems will not in itself transform the delivery of care; however, it will enable agencies to exchange information about shared clients, to understand coordination problems better, and to track successes and failures of policy decisions.

  4. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

    2013-11-01

    We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.

  5. The Legal System Construction in Social Security System in the View of Justice%公正视野下社会保障制度的法制建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张映芹; 张瑞锋

    2012-01-01

    Fairness and justice is the eternal theme of human history and social development, and the basic idea of establishing and perfecting the entire social system. Maintaining the social fairness and justice is always the lasting appeal and basic value of social security system. Fair social security system plays a fundamental role in the construction of the harmonious society. The formulation of the legal system and the execution of the social security system is the primary basis and basic premise of the social security system. In the view of justice, rethinking the construction of the legal system in social security system in China and rebuilding the moral system with justice as the core have the significant practical and theoretical significance.%公平与正义是人类社会发展永恒的主题,是一切社会制度建立与完善的基本理念。维护社会公平与正义始终是社会保障制度的基本蕴意和价值诉求。公正的社会保障体系在建构和谐社会中发挥着基础性的作用,而法律制度的制定与执行是社会保障制度的首要基础与基本前提。以公正的视野认真反思我国社会保障制度的法制建设,并建立以公平正义为核心价值观的社会道德体系,促进社会保障事业的稳定可持续发展。

  6. Service user involvement for mental health system strengthening in India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudre, Sandesh; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ahuja, Shalini; Nanda, Sharmishtha; Khan, Azaz; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-07-28

    There is a wide recognition that involvement of service users and their caregivers in health system policy and planning processes can strengthen health systems; however, most evidence and experience has come from high-income countries. This study aimed to explore baseline experiences, barriers and facilitators to service user-caregiver involvement in the emerging mental health system in India, and stakeholders' perspectives on how greater involvement could be achieved. A qualitative study was conducted in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh, India. In-depth interviews (n = 27) and a focus group discussion were conducted among service users, caregivers and their representatives at district, state and national levels and policy makers, service providers and mental health researchers. The topic guide explored the baseline situation in India, barriers and facilitators to service user and caregiver involvement in the following aspects of mental health systems: policy-making and planning, service development, monitoring and quality control, as well as research. Framework analysis was employed. Respondents spoke of the limited involvement of service users and caregivers in the current Indian mental health system. The major reported barriers to this involvement were (1) unmet treatment and economic needs arising from low access to mental health services coupled with the high burden of illness, (2) pervasive stigmatising attitudes operating at the level of service user, caregiver, community, healthcare provider and healthcare administrators, and (3) entrenched power differentials between service providers and service users. Respondents prioritised greater involvement of service users in the planning of their own individual-level mental health care before considering involvement at the mental health system level. A stepwise progression was endorsed, starting from needs assessment, through empowerment and organization of service users and caregivers, leading finally to

  7. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  8. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  9. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that

  10. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  11. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  12. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Mental Disorder under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Afif Monrat, Ahmed; Hasan, Mamun;

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorder is a change of mental or behavioral pattern that causes sufferings and impairs the ability to function in ordinary life. In psychopathology, the assessment methods of mental disorder contain various types of uncertainties associated with signs and symptoms. This study identifies...... a method that addresses the issue of uncertainty in assessing mental disorder. The fuzzy logic knowledge representation schema can address uncertainty associated with linguistic terms including ambiguity, imprecision, and vagueness. However, fuzzy logic is incapable of addressing uncertainty due...... to ignorance, incompleteness, and randomness. So, a belief rule-based expert system (BRBES) has been designed and developed with the capability of handling the uncertainties mentioned. Evidential reasoning works as the inference engine and the belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema...

  13. The initial evaluation in the working process of occupational therapists in the mental health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Paiva Nogueira Fornereto Gozzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available : In the field of mental health, Occupational Therapy uses different references in practice development. It is important to observe how occupational therapists in the mental health system assess users’ demands on their work scenarios. In this research, we aimed to study the assessment process of occupational therapists in different services of the mental health system. A descriptive cross-sectional case study was conducted using a qualitative approach. Data were obtained through interviews with occupational therapists integrated to the mental health services of a specific region. The region studied belongs to a Regional Health Department in the state of São Paulo. The thematic analysis method was applied to the data collected allowing the dentification of categories of analysis. The results obtained from one of these categories (the assessment process of occupational therapists showed that most of the professionals interviewed do perform the initial evaluation. This assessment was carried out informally in every case employing tools built by the professionals themselves during their own practices. In addition, patients with chronic mental illnesses are usually admitted in the Occupational Therapy services studied. These characteristics, obtained from active professionals, are useful in the creation of technical criteria for users’ admission in Occupational Therapy mental health treatment.

  14. Mental models of a water management system in a green building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Anastasia; Thatcher, Andrew; Sheridan, Craig

    2016-11-01

    This intergroup case study compared users' mental models with an expert design model of a water management system in a green building. The system incorporates a constructed wetland component and a rainwater collection pond that together recycle water for re-use in the building and its surroundings. The sample consisted of five building occupants and the cleaner (6 users) and two experts who were involved with the design of the water management system. Users' mental model descriptions and the experts' design model were derived from in-depth interviews combined with self-constructed (and verified) diagrams. Findings from the study suggest that there is considerable variability in the user mental models that could impact the efficient functioning of the water management system. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  15. An evaluation of a mental health program for homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, C L; Wyatt, R J; Grunberg, J; Felix, A

    1990-03-01

    The authors report the results of a before-and-after evaluation of an on-site mental health day treatment program for homeless men. Thirty-two subjects were interviewed 6 or more months after placement from a crisis shelter to community housing in order to probe housing stability, aftercare treatment compliance, employment, rehospitalization, and criminal justice contacts. In the after phase, living on the street was virtually eliminated, use of shelters decreased sevenfold, aftercare utilization tripled, and contacts with the criminal justice system were halved. Psychiatric hospitalizations and unemployment were higher in the after phase. Findings are discussed in relation to the need to conduct controlled experiments of new psychosocial treatments for the homeless mentally ill.

  16. The mental models of vaccination, trust in health care system and parental attitudes towards childhood vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Gjorgjievski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many contradictory notions have been appearing in the area of health care in recent years, including those related to attitudes towards vaccination. On the basis of their understanding of the phenomenon some parents oppose to the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to compare mental models of laymen with expert models and examine the correlation of the mental models of vaccination and the trust in doctors and healthcare system with the parental attitudes on childhood vaccination. In doing so, we have considered the demographic characteristics of the parents and cultural differences between parents from Slovenia and Macedonia. We were also interested in the role of compulsory and optional vaccination, because in the latter the behavioral intention is expressed more clearly. The methods used in our study of mental models was based on the approach of Morgan, Fischhoff, Bostrom and Atman (2002 which has three phases: (1 obtaining expert mental models, (2 getting mental models of the laymen (e.g., parents and (3 comparison of both mental models. Expert models of vaccination were obtained from five doctors from Slovenia and five doctors from Macedonia. Laymen models of vaccination were obtained in structured interviews with 33 parents from Slovenia and 30 from Macedonia. Based on comparisons of expert and laymental models it can be concluded that the mental models of vaccination from parents of one-year old children differ from expert mental models. Most parents, both Macedonian and Slovenian, have also responded that they have greater confidence in the doctors rather than the healthcare system, mainly due to positive experiences with the selected pediatrician. In some Slovenian parents, a tendency to identify compulsory vaccination with force was noticed.

  17. Mental Disorder Diagnostic System Based on Logical-Combinatorial Methods of Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yankovskaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe mental disorder diagnostic system based on logical-combinatorial methods of pattern recognition called as the intelligent system DIAPROD-LOG. The system is designed for diagnostics and prevention of depression. The mathematical apparatus for creation of the proposed system based on a matrix model of data and knowledge representation, as well as various kinds of regularities in data and knowledge are presented. The description of the system is given.

  18. What Can Engineering Systems Teach Us About Social (In)Justices? The Case of Public Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Politicians, consultants and engineers develop public transportation systems using a variety of well-developed and established modeling tools to calculate different aspects of a system. Some of them are performance-capacity against investment models to determine the value of a given technical...

  19. Special Criminal Courts to restorative justice: the Consensual justice in Brazil/Dos juizados especiais criminais a justica restaurativa: a "Justica Consensual" no Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Luanna Tomaz; Fabeni, Lorena Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The problems facing the criminal justice system increasingly visible show. This article analyzes the emergence of Special Criminal Courts as an alternative to criminal justice and its proposed Consensual...

  20. The Application of Family Systems Theory to Mental Health Services for Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A demonstration project provided clinical training for direct provision of mental health services to Southeast Asian refugee families. A family systems approach integrating structural, strategic, life-cycle, and Milan systemic therapy proved helpful at three project levels: consultation with service agencies, professional training, and clinical…

  1. A Description of the Forensic Monitoring System of the Missouri Department of Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James B

    2016-03-01

    The Forensic Monitoring System (FMS) of the Missouri Department of Mental Health considers and approves consumers committed under not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) status for release. The system extends to the outpatient sector to ensure that such persons maintain their mental stability and do not pose a danger to the community. The process of conditional release and the organization of the FMS are outlined, reasons for the low recidivism rate are discussed, and paternalism in requiring treatment compliance as a condition of individual liberty is explored. Case examples illustrate the success, in terms of revocation and rearrest rates, of the Missouri system, which typically sees an annual return to inpatient custody of only 7%, and a still lower rate of criminal recidivism. Cost-effectiveness is discussed in terms of resources spent so that recovered persons with dangerous mental illnesses may live in safety outside of an institution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An international comparison of efficiency of inpatient mental health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Jacobs, Rowena

    2013-09-01

    There is a fundamental gap in the evidence base on quantitative cross-country comparison of mental healthcare systems due to the challenges of comparative analysis in mental health including a paucity of good quality data. We explore whether existing limited data sources can potentially be exploited to examine technical efficiency of inpatient mental healthcare systems in 32 OECD countries in 2010. We use two analytical approaches: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with bootstrapping to produce confidence intervals of efficiency scores and country rankings, and Cluster Analysis to group countries according to two broad efficiency groupings. We incorporate environmental variables using a two-stage truncated regression. We find slightly tighter confidence intervals for the less efficient countries which loosely corresponds with the 'inefficient' cluster grouping in the Cluster Analysis. However there is little stability in country rankings making it difficult with current data to draw any policy inferences. Environmental factors do not appear to significantly impact on efficiency scores. The most pressing pursuit remains the search for better national data in mental healthcare to underpin future analyses. Otherwise the use of any sophisticated analytic techniques will prove futile for establishing robust conclusions regarding international comparisons of the performance of mental healthcare systems.

  3. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  4. Urgent Work: Developing a Gender- Responsive Approach for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System / Trabajo urgente: desarrollando una respuesta con perspectiva de género para niñas en el Sistema de Justicia Juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawanda Ravoira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the prevalence of girls in the U.S. juvenile justice sys- tem, compares national and international incarceration rates, and reviews the profile needs of justice-involved girls. The authors offer their Model as an example of how to develop a gender-responsive approach to girls in the justice system, including a description of how the model was operationalized in a community in the United States. Critical developments and emerg- ing opportunities for each of the Model’s components: advocacy, model programming, public education, training and technical assistance, gender responsive tools, systems accountability, and evaluation are highlighted. Lessons learned are offered as a springboard for conversations about how the international community can individually assess their needs and resources and work together to improve the response to girls. The paper concludes with recommendations for choosing, evaluating, and implementing best- practice approaches for meaningful reform.

  5. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  6. Service referral for juvenile justice youths: associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary multiple regression analyses related disorder profile, probation officers' mental health/substance use service referrals, and recidivism in 361 juvenile justice youths. Those with externalizing (disruptive behavior or substance use) disorder or substance offenses were most likely to receiv

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  8. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  9. Variations on Justice: Argentina's pre- and -post transitional justice and justice to-come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    of these three kinds of justice and the changes they underwent in the past two decades. By offering a grounded analysis of justice in the pre- and the post-transitional justice phases in Argentina the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the meaning of justice and the possibility of reconciliation in post-conflict...

  10. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  11. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  12. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  13. Do you mean me? Communicative intentions recruit the mirror and the mentalizing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramidaro, Angela; Becchio, Cristina; Colle, Livia; Bara, Bruno G; Walter, Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Being able to comprehend communicative intentions and to recognize whether such intentions are directed toward us or not is extremely important in social interaction. Two brain systems, the mentalizing and the mirror neuron system, have been proposed to underlie intention recognition. However, little is still known about how the systems cooperate within the process of communicative intention understanding and to what degree they respond to self-directed and other-directed stimuli. To investigate the role of the mentalizing and the mirror neuron system, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with four types of action sequence: communicative and private intentions as well as other-directed and self-directed intentions. Categorical and functional connectivity analyses showed that both systems contribute to the encoding of communicative intentions and that both systems are significantly stronger activated and more strongly coupled in self-directed communicative actions.

  14. Like water for justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is

  15. Potential Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  16. Exploring the relationship between criminogenic risk assessment and mental health court program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfine, Natalie; Ritter, Christian; Munetz, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The two primary goals of mental health courts are to engage individuals with severe mental illness in the criminal justice system with clinical mental health services and to prevent future involvement with the criminal justice system. An important factor in helping to achieve both goals is to identify participants' level of clinical needs and criminogenic risk/needs. This study seeks to better understand how criminogenic risk affects outcomes in a mental health court. Specifically, we explore if high criminogenic risk is associated with failure to complete mental health court. Our subjects are participants of a municipal mental health court (MHC) who completed the Level of Services Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) upon entry to the program (N=146). We used binary logistic regression to determine the association between termination from the program with the total LSI-R. Our findings suggest that, net of prior criminal history, time in the program and clinical services received, high criminogenic risk/need is associated with failure to complete mental health court. In addition to providing clinical services, our findings suggest the need for MHCs to include criminogenic risk assessment to identify criminogenic risk. For participants to succeed in MHCs, both their clinical and criminogenic needs should be addressed.

  17. Current situations and future directions for mental health system governance in Nepal: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Pokhrel, Ruja; Gurung, Dristy; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Petersen, Inge; Komproe, Ivan H

    2017-01-01

    Assessing and understanding health systems governance is crucial to ensure accountability and transparency, and to improve the performance of mental health systems. There is a lack of systematic procedures to assess governance in mental health systems at a country level. The aim of this study was to appraise mental health systems governance in Nepal, with the view to making recommendations for improvements. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with national-level policymakers (n = 17) and district-level planners (n = 11). The interview checklist was developed using an existing health systems governance framework developed by Siddiqi and colleagues as a guide. Data analysis was done with NVivo 10, using the procedure of framework analysis. The mental health systems governance assessment reveals a few enabling factors and many barriers. Factors enabling good governance include availability of mental health policy, inclusion of mental health in other general health policies and plans, increasing presence of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and service user organizations in policy forums, and implementation of a few mental health projects through government-NGO collaborations. Legal and policy barriers include the failure to officially revise or fully implement the mental health policy of 1996, the existence of legislation and several laws that have discriminatory provisions for people with mental illness, and lack of a mental health act and associated regulations to protect against this. Other barriers include lack of a mental health unit within the Ministry of Health, absence of district-level mental health planning, inadequate mental health record-keeping systems, inequitable allocation of funding for mental health, very few health workers trained in mental health, and the lack of availability of psychotropic drugs at the primary health care level. In the last few years, some positive developments have emerged in terms of policy recognition for

  18. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  19. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  20. JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić Kuljiš, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Symbol of justice is a blindfolded lady. Blind to all diversity, it provides impartial law and equal treatment for all citizens. Their rationality, cooperativeness, autonomy and independence confirm their legal equality. However, what about the people who, for various reasons, do not meet those conditions? Can a political community apply the principles of (political) justice to them? Does it relate to them unfairly excluding them from political relationships or building relationships with the...

  1. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  2. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  3. 41 CFR 128-1.101 - Justice Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justice Property Management Regulations. 128-1.101 Section 128-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1...

  4. Leadership, organizational climate, and working alliance in a children's mental health service system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Albanese, Brian J; Cafri, Guy; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships of transformational leadership and organizational climate with working alliance, in a children's mental health service system. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the effect of leadership on working alliance was mediated by organizational climate. These results suggest that supervisors may be able to impact quality of care through improving workplace climate. Organizational factors should be considered in efforts to improve public sector services. Understanding these issues is important for program leaders, mental health service providers, and consumers because they can affect both the way services are delivered and ultimately, clinical outcomes.

  5. Health systems context(s) for integrating mental health into primary health care in six Emerald countries: a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Lund, Crick; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Ahuja, Shalini; Shidhaye, Rahul; Mntambo, Ntokozo; Alem, Atalay; Gureje, Oye; Kigozi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world's disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium. The documents reviewed were from the following domains: mental health legislation, health policies/plans and relevant country health programs. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three of the study countries (Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Uganda) were working towards developing mental health legislation. South Africa and India were ahead of other countries, having enacted recent Mental Health Care Act in 2004 and 2016, respectively. Among all the 6 study countries, only Nepal, Nigeria and South Africa had a standalone mental health policy. However, other countries had related health policies where mental health was mentioned. The lack of fully fledged policies is likely to limit opportunities for resource mobilization for the mental health sector and efforts to integrate mental health into PHC. Most countries were found to be allocating inadequate budgets from the health budget for mental health, with South Africa (5%) and Nepal (0.17%) were the countries with the highest and lowest proportions of health budgets spent on mental health, respectively. Other vital resources that support integration such as human resources and health facilities for mental health services were found to be in adequate in all the study countries. Monitoring and evaluation systems to support the integration of mental

  6. A bioecological systems approach for navigating the college mental health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie; Bell, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    McLean Hospital's College Mental Health Program was established four years ago as an institutional response to escalating, national college mental health concerns. The critical factors underlying the college mental health crisis in this country have been debated, examined, and addressed almost exclusively within college and university settings. McLean Hospital is the first psychiatric hospital to develop a comprehensive college student program that bridges the gap between a psychiatric hospital and multiple campus settings as an attempt to address the specific needs of college student-patients across levels of psychiatric care and diagnostic areas/programs. Using a bioecological systems framework, this review examines (1) the strategic clinical, education/outreach, and research efforts that collectively represent a paradigm shift to extend responsibility for addressing serious college mental health challenges beyond college and university campuses, (2) the challenges and benefits of creating stronger multi-campus/hospital collaborations in order to improve our understanding of college students with serious mental illness, and (3) the progress in addressing these needs more effectively and in establishing documented best practices and policies through effective and innovative partnerships.

  7. Youth Advisors Driving Action: hearing the youth voice in mental health systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Brown, Karen; Carter, Naeemah; Miller, Bethany D

    2012-03-01

    The Children's Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is funded by the Center for Mental Health Services within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. CMHI assists communities in developing comprehensive, coordinated services for children with serious emotional disturbances and their families. Broadly speaking, these systems are designed to be child centered, youth guided, family driven, community based, and culturally competent. To assure implementation of the "youth-guided" core value in the national evaluation, an advisory group of youth coordinator/youth teams representing communities across the country was developed. This group chose the name YADA-Youth Advisors Driving Action. YADA has made a substantive contribution to national evaluation efforts by bringing the youth perspective and voice to its audience at the community and national levels. This article describes YADA's founding and development, as well as related implications for psychosocial nurses.

  8. THE MODEL OF LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENT IN THE PROCESS OF INVESTIGATION BASED ON LAW NUMBER 11 YEAR 2012 CONCERNING JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Abdurrachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the application of law enforcement model on juvenille offender before the law. Especially, in investigations according to Act number 11, 2012 about Juvenille Penal Court system in Central Java. Since the act has been formally implemented, the penal court elements have been given two years time to prepare strategies in handling juvenille offender through Diversion with Restorative Justice approach. However, the implementation of Diversion needs several infrastructures such as Juvenille Investigators, Diversion Standard of Operation (SOP, and a proper place for investigating children and mediation process, including children cells. This is an empirical study with primary and secondary sources, including analysis of Acts, literature review, and expert review. The data analysis will be done qualitatively.

  9. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  10. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship.

  11. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California's San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina L; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan E; Ray, Isha

    2012-11-14

    Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA's 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005-2007 in California's San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= -0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient = -0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  12. Non-communicable diseases, mental ill-health: Is it a failure of the food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michel A

    2013-01-01

    The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life. Is there any reason why the brain would not be similarly susceptible to a nutritional background departing from its specific needs? The changing food system likely bears responsibility for the rise in mental ill health that has now overtaken all other burdens of ill health. Its globalisation is threatening civil society.

  13. [General systems theory, a mental frame for geriatric psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, A C

    1984-12-01

    Though psychogeriatrics is becoming a word of common usage, it is not a word of common meaning. This is a consequence of the lack of a generally accepted theoretical model regarding the complex and multiple pathology of the psychiatric disturbances of older people. On epistemological grounds the author stresses the necessity of a common theoretical concept and as such introduces the General System Theory. The systems approach then shows that the word 'psychogeriatrics' is rooted in a reductionistic concept of man. In order to avoid this the author prefers 'psychiatry of old age' to cover the broad field of the psychiatric disturbances of the elderly.

  14. Key Elements of a Successful Multi-System Collaboration for School-Based Mental Health: In-Depth Interviews with District and Agency Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…

  15. Undergraduate Students' Mental Operations in Systems of Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Karen; Rasmussen, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted to understand undergraduate students' ways of reasoning about systems of differential equations (SDEs). As part of a semester long classroom teaching experiment in a first course in differential equations, we conducted task-based interviews with six students after their study of first order differential…

  16. The Australian mental health system: An economic overview and some research issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ruth FG

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is concerned with the key economic characteristics of Australia's mental health system. First, some brief conceptual and empirical descriptions are provided of Australia's mental health services, both as a total system, and of its two principal components, viz. public psychiatric institutions and private psychiatry services. Expenditures on public psychiatric hospitals clearly demonstrate the effect of deinstitutionalisation. Data from 1984 on private practice psychiatry indicate that per capita utilisation rates peaked in 1996 and have since fallen. Generally, since 1984 gross fees have not risen. However, for both utilisation and fees, there is evidence (of a statistical kind that there are significant differences between the states of Australia, in these two variables (utilisation and fees. Emphasis is also placed on the economic incentives that arise from health insurance and the heterogeneous nature of mental illness. The effects of these incentives are regarded as by-products of the health insurance mechanism; and another effect, "unmet need" and "met non-need", is a somewhat unique problem of an informational kind. Discussion of many of these issues concludes on a somewhat negative note, e.g. that no empirical results are available to quantify the particular effect that is discussed. This is a manifestation of the lacunae of economic studies of the mental health sector.

  17. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  18. Improvement of The System of Community Corrections——The perspective of Restorative Justice%我国社区矫正制度的完善——以恢复性司法为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵咏梅

    2011-01-01

    恢复性司法注重对被损坏的社会关系的修复,关注犯罪人重新回归社会,是一种面向未来的刑事司法模式。社区矫正制度是恢复性司法理念框架下的一种刑罚执行方式,是恢复性司法理念的具体制度落实。目前,我国社区矫正制度还处于全面试行阶段,理论实践等各方面都很不完善。从恢复性司法角度探讨我国社区矫正制度的发展和完善,必将对我国和谐社会的构建起到强有力的推动作用。%Restorative justice emphasizes on the repairment of the destroyed social relations,and concerns the re-offenders who return to society,so it is a future-oriented criminal justice model.Community corrections system is a way of punishment under the framework of the concept of restorative justice,and it is the specific system implementation of restorative justice philosophy.At present,a comprehensive community corrections system is still in the pilot phase,and other aspects of theory and practice are inadequate.To discuss the development and improvement of our community corrections system from the perspective of restorative justice,is bound to play a strong role in contructing the harmonious society in China.

  19. 制度自信:中国特色社会主义正义的实践表达%Confidence in System:the Practical Expression of Socialist Justice with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅华

    2015-01-01

    The socialist justice with Chinese characteristics is the fundamental principle for the regulation of social order and elimination of social contradictions;it is also the moral orientation for the development of people's virtuous behav-iour and cultivation of social tendency, and the value orientation for the promotion of social development and the creativity in social rules.Justice is the primary value of any system and the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics demon-strates the justice of socialism in practice.So being confident about it can accomplish the justice of socialism and promote the well-being of the nation.%中国特色社会主义正义是规范社会秩序、化解社会矛盾的普遍准则;是修养人德性和培育社会风尚的道德取向;是推进社会发展、创新社会规则的价值导向。正义是制度的首要价值,中国特色社会主义制度是社会主义正义的实践体现,坚定制度自信,实现社会主义正义,增进人民福祉。

  20. The Geography of Justice: Assessing Local Justice in Colombia’s Post-Conflict Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio García-Villegas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article combines descriptive empirical research with theoretical reflections to offer policy guidelines on what the role of local justice institutions in Colombia’s post-conflict phase should be. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we present empirical evidence to illustrate the ways in which justice operates differently across the territory. In addition to illustrating these disparities, we also demonstrate the connection between these disparities and some phenomena relevant to understanding the Colombian conflict. Based on these findings, the second part of this article defines the state-building challenge confronted by the Colombian State during the post-conflict phase. Following this part, we propose a solution to this state-building challenge: the State must adopt a combination of efficacy and justice, and we provide guidelines on how a post-conflict justice system can operate to achieve that combination.

  1. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…

  2. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2013-01-01

    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  3. AILTP Conference on the Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Detailing the conference held June 14, 1978 in Washington, D. C. on the tribal judicial systems, this article focuses on two panel discussions--"Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations: Current Status and New Approaches" and "Administration of Justice from a Tribal Perspective: The Future of Tribal Courts." (RTS)

  4. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  5. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  6. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management Division. 16.76 Section 16.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... Management Division. (a) The following system of records is exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a(d): (1)...

  7. Made in America: The Global Youth Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott Bernard

    2009-01-01

    For an increasing and record number of communities in America and now in other countries, youth courts are providing a positive alternative to the juvenile justice system with significant and unexpected favorable outcomes. Youth court is most commonly identified as a juvenile justice program, given that the vast majority of youth cases referred…

  8. A Comparison of Four Restorative Conferencing Models. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Gordon; Umbreit, Mark

    This bulletin focuses on four restorative conferencing models within the juvenile justice system: victim-offender mediation; community reparative boards; family group conferencing; and circle sentencing. The bulletin first describes each of the four restorative justice models, presenting information on background, concept, procedures and goals,…

  9. The Role of Universities in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Social justice is not only a vital ethical principle of the human society but also the all-important value of the entire social system. As a public sphere, the university undertakes the purpose to achieve public interest. It plays a significant role in reflecting, defending, and fostering social justice. Nurturing people with social justice…

  10. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  11. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  12. Potential Partnerships: Progressive Criminology, Grassroots Organizations and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Goddard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminologists around the globe are writing about the disproportionate criminalization of minority groups and – in the US in particular – about racial disproportionality in all aspects of the criminal justice system. This wealth of knowledge in progressive criminology rarely animates reform efforts: it has had little impact on formal policymaking, and has failed to animate the work of grassroots activists engaged in the fight for justice system reform. Yet given the increased criminalization of young people in poor communities – and the possibilities for change at this very moment – progressive criminological ideas have never been more important. We need to think about ways to make them public. Toward this end, this paper discusses possible partnerships between progressive criminology and social justice organizations struggling to transform the criminal justice system. While describing nine such groups, we detail a set of recommendations for bridging the gap between progressive criminology and social justice organizations.

  13. toward a curriculum for justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more ... way to conduct a curriculum enquiry, since it acknowledges the crisis of ..... The principle of having a caring curriculum necessitates that we create learning-teaching.

  14. Empowering Energy Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L

    2016-09-21

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure "just" transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between "green" and "just", as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  15. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  16. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  17. Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Health Research: Enlisting Legal Theory as a Methodological Guide in an Interdisciplinary Case Study of Mental Health and Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we assess whether a legal theory, known as therapeutic jurisprudence, functions as a useful methodological theory. Therapeutic jurisprudence, recruited across discipline boundaries, succeeds in guiding our qualitative inquiry at the complex intersection of mental health care and criminal law by providing a framework foundation for directing the study's research questions and the related propositions that focus our analysis.

  18. Recommendations from primary care providers for integrating mental health in a primary care system in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bibhav; Tenpa, Jasmine; Thapa, Poshan; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Ekstrand, Maria

    2016-09-19

    Globally, access to mental healthcare is often lacking in rural, low-resource settings. Mental healthcare services integration in primary care settings is a key intervention to address this gap. A common strategy includes embedding mental healthcare workers on-site, and receiving consultation from an off-site psychiatrist. Primary care provider perspectives are important for successful program implementation. We conducted three focus groups with all 24 primary care providers at a district-level hospital in rural Nepal. We asked participants about their concerns and recommendations for an integrated mental healthcare delivery program. They were also asked about current practices in seeking referral for patients with mental illness. We collected data using structured notes and analyzed the data by template coding to develop themes around concerns and recommendations for an integrated program. Participants noted that the current referral system included sending patients to the nearest psychiatrist who is 14 h away. Participants did not think this was effective, and stated that integrating mental health into the existing primary care setting would be ideal. Their major concerns about a proposed program included workplace hierarchies between mental healthcare workers and other clinicians, impact of staff turnover on patients, reliability of an off-site consultant psychiatrist, and ability of on-site primary care providers to screen patients and follow recommendations from an off-site psychiatrist. Their suggestions included training a few existing primary care providers as dedicated mental healthcare workers, recruiting both senior and junior mental healthcare workers to ensure retention, recruiting academic psychiatrists for reliability, and training all primary care providers to appropriately screen for mental illness and follow recommendations from the psychiatrist. Primary care providers in rural Nepal reported the failure of the current system of referral, which

  19. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  20. The TRIPS Agreement: Challenges and Possibilities in the Negotiation of Justice at the Transnational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis-Cope, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the ideal of justice and institutional "structures" administering justice/injustice within the contemporary international system through a study of the Trade Related Aspects of Property Right agreement specific focus is the question of "who counts" in the negotiation of global justice, and the…

  1. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  2. English Only and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1999-01-01

    Sketches the strengths and weaknesses of the approach to social justice offered by John Rawls, an approach that continues to dominate discussions about social justice and public policy. Contrasts that conception with a critically realistic approach to judging social justice, and argues that the latter is more respectful of minority group…

  3. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  4. Social justice considerations in neonatal care for nurse managers and executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Linda; Walden, Marlene; Verklan, M Terese

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the struggle between social justice and market justice within the current health care system, specifically issues affecting neonatal care. Community benefit is described and discussed as an aspect of social justice demonstrated by hospitals. The federal and state Children's Health Insurance Program also is discussed in relation to social justice and health care costs. Implications for managers and executives overseeing neonatal care are presented in relation to the economic and social issues.

  5. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  6. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, G M; Rawat, S; V H H, S; Gururaj, G

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Occupational safety and health (OSH) policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  7. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Sukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. Objective: To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Results: Occupational safety and health (OSH policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. Conclusion: There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  8. Horticultural therapy--aspects of land use for the mentally handicapped. A system of planning for the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, T; Underhill, C

    1979-01-01

    An increasing number of facilities for the mentally handicapped use horticulture, agriculture and gardening in their training programmes. This paper contains a review of: (1) some aspects of land use as a medium for leisure, rehabilitation, therapy and training for the mentally handicapped, (2) employment, both sheltered and open, in land use as reflected in a recent survey, (3) the variety of knowledge available through the medium of land use. The main emphasis of the paper deals with: (1) the need for planning, (2) a suggested planning system that assists the instructor in understanding the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener when he approaches a given job, (3) some problems peculiar to land use work with the mentally handicapped. In conclusion the authors briefly examine: (1) the need for assessment, (2) the need to distinguish between production and training, (3) suggestions towards an expansion of the planning system to take in other areas of the horticultural unit than were originally described, (4) social activities connected with the horticultural activities described, (5) the hierarchy identified through the use of a particular planning system.

  9. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Turnover Intention: A Survey on Hospital Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Sokhanvar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High organizational justice and its factors are associated with reduced turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 135 nurses working in Labafi Nejad Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2015. The data were collected using Beugre's (1998 questionnaire of organizational justice questionnaire. To analyze the data, Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA tests were performed using SPSS, version 20. Results: Mean organizational justice and turnover intention scores were 68.85±7.67 and 47.8±12.47, respectively. Among the different types of organizational justice, the highest mean score was pertinent to interactional justice (75.24±16.68. A significant inverse correlation was observed between turnover intention and organizational justice (r=-0.36, interactional justice (r=-0.38, and procedural justice (r=-0.36, while no association was noted between turnover intention and systemic and distributive types of justice. Furthermore, there was no link between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in personnel’s intention to leave their job, and given high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to promoting justice and employees’ satisfaction and enhancing stability in their organizations by reinforcing positive attitudes in the employees.

  10. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  11. Development of an operator`s mental model acquisition system. 1. Estimation of a physical mental model acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichirou [Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a technical survey of acquisition method of an operator`s understanding for functions and structures of his target nuclear plant. This method is to play a key role in the information processing framework to support on-training operators in forming their knowledge of the nuclear plants. This kind of technical framework is aiming at enhancing human operator`s ability to cope with anomaly plant situations which are difficult to expect from preceding experiences or engineering surveillance. In these cases, cause identifications and responding operation selections are desired to made not only empirically but also based on thoughts about possible phenomena to take place within the nuclear plant. This report focuses on a particular element technique, defined as `explanation-based knowledge acquisition`, as the candidate technique to potentially be extended to meet the requirement written above, and discusses about applicability to the learning support system and about necessary improvements, to identify future technical developments. (author)

  12. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-05-18

    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  13. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems.

  14. Forensic services, public mental health policy, and financing: charting the course ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinals, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    High-quality forensic evaluations can be critical for criminal cases brought before the court. In addition, forensic practitioners and mental health and forensic administrators have increasingly taken a broader view of the revolving door between the mental health and criminal justice systems. More attention is now paid to why individuals with mental disorders, including co-occurring substance use, come into the criminal justice system and the challenges that they face on re-entry into the community. In particular, individuals who receive care across civil, forensic, and correctional systems are at especially increased risk of disrupted health care access and coverage. With health care reform on the horizon, it is important to understand public financing and its impact on forensic services for this crossover population. This article is a review of historical and future trends in public mental health funding focused on Medicaid and other federal resources, the movement toward community-based services, and the impact of these areas on forensic practice and forensic systems. Tensions between recovery principles and legal mandates are also addressed as community services are emphasized, even in forensic contexts. This article calls forensic practitioners to action and offers suggested areas of focus for training to increase knowledge of public mental health funding, policy, and practice from a forensic perspective.

  15. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Island Paralegal (Student) Command Division N/A TAD from/to until (give date) Naval Justice School, Newport, Rhode Island 3255 Whereabouts for next 30...If a lesser forum is desired, handle according to procedures set out elsewhere in this book. I IV-41 LEGAL OFFICER RELIEVING CHECKLIST A. GEN t . One

  16. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  17. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co...

  18. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  19. Journals and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the process of journal deselection from the point of view of justice and argues that when journal cuts are necessary, libraries should first, reduce all departments to core holdings; second, ask departments with expensive journals for permission to implement an efficiency principle; third, if refused permission, implement an equal…

  20. Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah J; Frith, Uta; Rellecke, Julian; Al-Noor, Zainab; Gilbert, Sam J

    2014-04-01

    Some autistic children pass classic Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that others fail, but the significance of this finding is at present unclear. We identified two such groups of primary school age (labelled ToM+ and ToM-) and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (TD). Five years later we tested these participants again on a ToM test battery appropriate for adolescents and conducted an fMRI study with a story based ToM task. We also assessed autistic core symptoms at these two time points. At both times the ToM- group showed more severe social communication impairments than the ToM+ group, and while showing an improvement in mentalizing performance, they continued to show a significant impairment compared to the NT group. Two independent ROI analyses of the BOLD signal showed activation of the mentalizing network including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices. Strikingly, both ToM+ and ToM- groups showed very similar patterns of heightened activation in comparison with the NT group. No differences in other brain regions were apparent. Thus, autistic adolescents who do not have a history of mentalizing problems according to our ToM battery showed the same atypical neurophysiological response during mentalizing as children who did have such a history. This finding indicates that heterogeneity at the behavioural level may nevertheless map onto a similar phenotype at the neuro-cognitive level.

  1. Policing 'Vancouver's Mental Health Crisis': A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jade; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In Canada and other western nations there has been an unprecedented expansion of criminal justice systems and a well documented increase of contact between people with mental illness and the police. Canadian police, especially in Vancouver, British Columbia, have been increasingly at the forefront of discourse and regulation specific to mental health. Drawing on critical discourse analysis, this paper to explores this claim through a case study of four Vancouver Police Department (VPD) policy reports on "Vancouver's mental health crisis" from 2008-2013, which include recommendations for action. Analyzed is the VPD's role in framing issues of mental health in one urban space. This study is the first analysis to critically examine the VPD reports on mental health in Vancouver, B.C. The reports reproduce negative discourses about deinstitutionalization, mental illness and dangerousness that may contribute to further stigma and discrimination of persons with mental illness. Policing reports are widely drawn upon, thus critical analyses are particularly significant for policy makers and public health professionals in and outside of Canada.

  2. Co-responding Police-Mental Health Programs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G K; Cusi, A; Kirst, M; O'Campo, P; Nakhost, A; Stergiopoulos, V

    2015-09-01

    Co-responding police-mental health programs are increasingly used to respond to 'Emotionally Disturbed Persons' in the community; however, there is limited understanding of program effectiveness and the mechanisms that promote program success. The academic and gray literature on co-responding police-mental health programs was reviewed. This review synthesized evidence of outcomes along seven dimensions, and the available evidence was further reviewed to identify potential mechanisms of program success. Co-responding police-mental health programs were found to have strong linkages with community services and reduce pressure on the justice system, but there is limited evidence on other impacts. The relevance of these findings for practitioners and the major challenges of this program model are discussed, and future research directions are identified.

  3. Mental health reform at a systems level: widening the lens on recovery-oriented care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Mckenzie, Kwame J; Virdee, Gursharan

    2014-05-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to collate the literature on psychiatric inpatient recovery-based care and, more broadly, to situate the inpatient care sector within a mental health reform dialogue that, to date, has focused almost exclusively on outpatient and community practices. We make the argument that until an evidence base is developed for recovery-oriented practices on hospital wards, the effort to advance recovery-oriented systems will stagnate. Our scoping review was conducted in line with the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (commonly referred to as PRISMA) guidelines. Among the 27 papers selected for review, most were descriptive or uncontrolled outcome studies. Studies addressing strategies for improving care quality provide some modest evidence for reflective dialogue with former inpatient clients, role play and mentorship, and pairing general training in recovery oriented care with training in specific interventions, such as Illness Management and Recovery. Relative to some other fields of medicine, evidence surrounding the question of recovery-oriented care on psychiatric wards and how it may be implemented is underdeveloped. Attention to mental health reform in hospitals is critical to the emergence of recovery-oriented systems of care and the realization of the mandate set forward in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada.

  4. Differences between British and Japanese perspectives on forensic mental health systems: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Akihiro; Tomoto, Aika; Omiya, Soichiro; Sato, Aiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony. In the United Kingdom, forensic psychiatrists were responsible for ensuring public safety, and psychopathy was identified as a disease but deemed as not suitable for medical treatment. On the other hand, in Japan, psychopathy was not considered a mental illness. CONCLUSION In conclusion, there are considerable differences between the United Kingdom and Japan with regard to the concepts of FMH. Some ideas taken from both cultures for better FMH practice were suggested.

  5. How do workers with a notified mental disorder experience the Danish Workers’ Compensation System?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2014-01-01

    to fill out, and questions addressing the psychosocial work environment were missing. Communication from the Board of industrial Injuries (BOII) was lacking, and procedure and timelines unclear. Workers' goal was not to achieve eeconomical compensation, but that their disorder was recognised as caused......Background An increasing number of employees is notified with a mental disorder in the Danish Workers’ Compensation System (WCS). However, only few are recognized and even less are granted a compensation. Research shows that notification in WCS increases the risk of work disability (WD......), but research exploring workers' experiences of the WCS and what factors can lead to and protect against WD are lacking. This study aims at bridging this gap. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 workers notified with a mental disorder. The interview guide was developed based...

  6. Building system capacity for the integration of mental health at the level of primary care in Tunisia: a study protocol in global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Jessica; Champagne, François; Leduc, Nicole; Piat, Myra; Melki, Wahid; Charfi, Fatma; Laporta, Marc

    2017-01-17

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), addressing the high prevalence of mental disorders is a challenge given the limited number and unequal distribution of specialists, as well as scarce resources allocated to mental health. The Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) and its accompanying Intervention Guide (IG), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), aim to address this challenge by training non-specialists such as general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care. This trial aims to implement and evaluate an adapted version of the mhGAP-IG (version 1.0) offered to GPs in 2 governorates of Tunisia (i.e., Tunis and Sousse), in order to uncover important information regarding implementation process and study design before country-wide implementation and evaluation. First, a systematic review will be conducted to explore types and effectiveness of mental health training programs offered to GPs around the world, with a specific focus on programs implemented and evaluated in LMICs. Second, a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented training based on the mhGAP-IG (version 1.0). Third, multiple case study design will be used to explore how contextual factors impact the successful implementation of the training and desired outcomes. In Tunisia, an important need exists to further develop proximity health services and to address the growing mental health treatment gap. One solution is to train GPs in the detection, treatment, and management of mental health problems, given their strategic role in the healthcare system. This trial thus aims to implement and evaluate an adapted version of a training based on the mhGAP-IG (version 1.0) in Tunis and Sousse before country-wide implementation and evaluation. Several contributions are envisioned: adding to the growing evidence on the mhGAP and its accompanying guide, especially in French-speaking nations; building research capacity in

  7. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  8. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  9. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  10. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  11. Dual-Task Performance as a Measure of Mental Effort in Searching a Library System and the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Mi; Rieh, Soo Young

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a dual-task method for the assessment of mental effort during online searching, having the users engage in two tasks simultaneously. Searching was assigned as a primary task and a visual observation was set up as a secondary task. The study participants were asked to perform two searches, one on the Web and the other in a webbased library system. Perceived search difficulty and mental effort for searching on the two types of systems were compared through participa...

  12. Development of restorative justice in the context of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Annett Cynthia Sáenz López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has developed in the past few years due to the verifiable benefits of providing an alternative conflict resolution approach which favors remedies, out-ofcourt arrangements and dialogue between the parties directly involved in disputes. Despite being mostly applied within the sphere of criminal justice –especially within the juvenile criminal justice system in force in many countries– the philosophy of restorative justice has affected other areas of social conflict such as domestic violence and violence against women. Analyzing how other countries apply Restorative Justice in cases of domestic violence and of violence against women, provides Uruguay with a framework to streamline the efforts towards providing victims, offenders, and communities with quality law enforcement processes primarily focused on a comprehensive restoration for all those involved.

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN FRANCE. BETWEEN SINGULARITY AND CLASSICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administrative justice in France oscillates between classicism and singularity. Multiple factors explain how administrative justice has come to occupy a particular place in French administrative law. Administrative justice has not only settled disputes between administration and private persons, but as well, built the French administrative law. One of the main tasks during 19th and 20th century consisted in strengthen the independence from the executive branch and the efficiency in order to satisfy the idea of good justice. Many reforms have been led since the 1990’s. That is why we propose to depict the French system and evaluate the activity of French administrative justice concerning the judicial organization, its jurisdiction and the remedies before the administrative judge. We will enlighten also our paper with a comparative approach and some statistical elements.

  14. Perceived impact by administrators of psychiatric emergency services after changes in a state's mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Koch, Alison

    2006-06-01

    As a safety net, psychiatric emergency services are sensitive to system changes. To determine the impact of a state's changes in its mental health system, administrators of publicly funded psychiatric emergency services were surveyed. They reported few (M=0.8) negative changes in coordination of care but 77% endorsed change in administrative burden (54% saying it negatively affected quality of services). Reporting negative effect of administrative burden was associated with treating more persons with substance abuse problems and greater challenge posed by distance to local providers. These results suggest that impact of state-level changes was not uniform but associated with local characteristics.

  15. Take My Breath Away: Competing Contexts Between Domestic Violence, Kink and The Criminal Justice System in R. v. J.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummni Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the R. v. J.A. case, a man was criminally convicted for performing sexual activities on his partner while she was rendered unconscious through erotic asphyxiation. Evaluating the legal and ethical stakes of the case is challenging because the complainant changed her testimony from non-consent to consent at trial, and the couple’s history includes both kinky sex and domestic violence. In this paper, I problematize the legal reasoning of the trial judgment (R. v .A.(J. 2008 ONCJ 195, the Supreme Court of Canada’s majority decision ([2011] 2 S.C.R. 440, as well as the LEAF factum, and some of the feminist commentary. I argue that both the legal and the feminist discourses privilege domestic and sexual violence as the preeminent context in this case, erase or gloss over kinky eroticism and subjectivity, and advance a carceral politics that privileges the criminal justice system as an articulator of truth, and a vehicle for gender justice.En el caso R. v. J.A., se condenó penalmente a un hombre por llevar a cabo actividades sexuales con su pareja, después de dejarla inconsciente mediante asfixia erótica. Evaluar las implicaciones legales y éticas del caso es un reto, porque la querellante cambió en el juicio su testimonio del no consentimiento al consentimiento, y la historia de la pareja incluye tanto el fetichismo sexual como la violencia doméstica. En este artículo se problematiza sobre el razonamiento jurídico de la sentencia (R. v. A. (J. 2008 ONCJ 195, la decisión mayoritaria del Tribunal Supremo de Canadá ([2011] 2 RCS 440, así como el factum LEAF, y algunos de los comentarios feministas. Se sostiene que tanto los discursos jurídicos como los feministas consideran la violencia doméstica y sexual como el contexto preeminente en este caso, borran o disimulan el fetichismo erótico y la subjetividad, y promueven una política penitenciaria en la que el sistema de justicia penal es articulador de la verdad y vehículo para la

  16. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  17. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and nonemotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e., focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e., focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources.

  18. An education management information system with simultaneous monitoring of stress stimulators for students Mental Health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, S; Jayakumar, S; Lakshmi, K Bhagya

    2016-11-14

    Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule. It's obviously significance to evaluate and appraise the stress stimulators as a challenge or threat. The theoretical framework for the study was designed for analyzing the stress stimulators, academic performance and EMIS accessibility. The sample examined in this study was stratified random sample from 75 students specifically all engineering college in Dindigul District of Tamilnadu. The primary factor is the academic stress stimulators that form one module of EMIS for each of the key variable such as curriculum & instruction related stressors, placement related, teamwork related and assessment related. The Mental Health related stress stimulators namely curriculum & syllabus, placement related, assessment related and team work related have a significant influence on academic performance by students in various institution. The important factor leading to the EMIS application in monitoring stress stimulators is curriculum & syllabus related and assessment related.

  19. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms.

  20. When a relationship is imperative, will young women knowingly place their sexual health at risk? A sample of African American adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-04-27

    Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. Methods: In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. Results: When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Conclusions: Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.

  1. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  2. The impact of neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence on self-report of antisocial behavior among girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-03-01

    The current study extended previous research with adults and boys to girls in the juvenile justice system (N = 122; M = 16.7; SD = 1.3). Using a longitudinal research design, neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence (i.e., physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by peers, and witnessing violence) were assessed during incarceration. These risk factors were used to predict violent and delinquent behavior post-release. Furthermore, race specific pathways were examined to determine if the impact of these risk factors varied among Black (n = 69) and White girls (n = 53). Results indicated that Black girls were more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of exposure to violence and self-report of antisocial behavior. Physical abuse by parents, time at risk, and age were related to violent behavior, while witnessing violence and time at risk were related to delinquent behavior. Multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways. Specifically, physical abuse by parents was related to violent behavior for White girls while witnessing violence was related to violent and delinquent behaviors for Black girls. Results suggest that contextual processes play an important role in predicting antisocial behavior for Black girls.

  3. A Self-Check System for Mental Health Care based on Nonlinear and Chaos Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Cheng, Huaichang; Tang, Yuan Guang

    2007-11-01

    We applied nonlinear and chaos analysis to fingertip pulse wave data. The largest Lyapunov exponent, a measure of the "divergence" of the trajectory of the attractor in phase space, was found to be a useful index of mental health in humans, particularly for the early detection of dementia and depressive psychosis, and for monitoring mental changes in healthy persons. Most of the methods used for assessing mental health are subjective. A few of existing objective methods, such as those using EEG and ECG, for example, are not simple to use and expansive. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use economical device, a PC mouse with an integrated sensor for measuring the pulse waves, and its required software, to make the measurements. After about 1 min of measurement, the Lyapunov exponent is calculated and displayed as a graph on the PC. An advantage of this system is that the measurements can be made very easily, and hence mental health can be assessed during operating a PC using the pulse wave mouse. Moreover, the measured data can be saved according to the time and date, so diurnal changes and changes over longer time periods can be monitored as a time series and history. At the time the pulse waves are measured, we ask the subject about his or her physical health and mood, and use their responses, along with the Lyapunov exponents, as factors causing variation in the divergence. The changes in the Lyapunov exponent are displayed on the PC as constellation graphs, which we developed to facilitate simpler self-diagnosis and problem resolution.

  4. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Objective: Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women’s Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre’s organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman’s and Anova statistical tests. Results: Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel’s intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees’ satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them. PMID:27482163

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women's Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre's organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman's and Anova statistical tests. Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel's intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees' satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them.

  7. Dentistry and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; MacEntee, Michael I

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing concern in most countries to address the problem of inequities in health-care within the context of financial restraints on the public purse and the realities of health professions that are influenced strongly by the economic priorities of free-market economies. Dental professionals, like other health professionals, are well aware that the public expects oral health-related services that are effective, accessible, available and affordable. Yet, there is remarkably little reference in the literature to the theories of distributive justice that might offer guidance on how an equitable oral health service could be achieved. This paper considers three prominent theories of distributive justice--libertarianism, egalitarianism and contractarianism--within the controversial context of basic care and quality of life. The discussion leads towards a socially responsible, egalitarian perspective on prevention augmented by a social contract for curative care with the aim of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.

  8. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  9. Mental health care and the politics of inclusion: a social systems account of psychiatric deinstitutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-12-01

    This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent paradigmatic shift of mental health care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved from the medical and social management of a lower and marginalized group to the specialized medical and psychological care of the whole population. From this theoretical viewpoint, the wider deployment of the modern social order as a functionally differentiated system may be considered to be a consistent driving force for this process; it has made asylum psychiatry overly incompatible with prevailing social values (particularly with the normative and regulative principle of inclusion of all individuals in the different functional spheres of society and with the common patterns of participation in modern function systems) and has, in turn, required the availability of psychiatric care for a growing number of individuals. After presenting this account, some major challenges for the future of mental health care provision, such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant group of potential users, are identified and briefly discussed.

  10. Game System for Rehabilitation Based on Kinect is Effective for Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinect has already been widely used in the area of retardation, and this study is to evaluate whether the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect is effective for children with mental retardation. The subjects in this paper are 112 children with mental retardation in Zhejiang province of China. The Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect was applied to assist the rehabilitation of children. Before the training, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI was used to evaluate abilities of children, including self-care, mobility, and social function. And after having been trained for a month, the abilities of these children were evaluated again by PEDI. The results in this paper is that, after the application of Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect, the PEDI score of children is significantly higher than the score before training. And it can be concluded that the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect can significantly improve self-care, mobility, and social function of children with MR.

  11. The hearing voices network: initial lessons and future directions for mental health professionals and Systems of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Thomas; Utter, Lauren; Davidson, Larry

    2017-02-01

    For more than two decades, the Hearing Voices Network (HVN) has provided alternative approaches to supporting voice hearers, and an emerging body of research is now confirming their value. HVN approaches present unique opportunities and challenges for mental health professionals and systems of care that work with individuals who hear voices. An overview of the HVN is presented, including its history, principles and approaches. HVN approaches are compared and contrasted with traditional mental health treatments. HVN's potential contribution to the transformation of mental health care is discussed. Directions for future research are presented.

  12. The Struggle for Justice and Reconciliation in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Ehito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What explains the failure of transitional justice and reconciliation measures in post-authoritarian Indonesia? One explanation is that domestic political elites have effectively stymied the efforts of civil society to implement global norms of transitional justice. However, as Indonesia has embraced a democratic and decentralized system of government, even the most corrupt and entrenched elites cannot merely veto or reject calls for justice. Instead, opponents have used a variety of strategies including legislative, religious, and cultural strategies to undermine justice initiatives. Examining the recent experiences in Indonesia, this paper shows the effects that a limited transition has had on the justice agenda.

  13. Trial of an electronic decision support system to facilitate shared decision making in community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltmann, Emily M; Wilkniss, Sandra M; Teachout, Alexandra; McHugo, Gregory J; Drake, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of community mental health consumers in mental health decision making has been consistently associated with improvements in health outcomes. Electronic decision support systems (EDSSs) that support both consumer and provider decision making may be a sustainable way to improve dyadic communication in a field with approximately 50% workforce turnover per year. This study examined the feasibility of such a system and investigated proximal outcomes of the system's performance. A cluster randomized design was used to evaluate an EDSS at three urban community mental health sites. Case managers (N=20) were randomly assigned to the EDSS-supported planning group or to the usual care planning group. Consumers (N=80) were assigned to the same group as their case managers. User satisfaction with the care planning process was assessed for consumers and case managers (possible scores range from 1 to 5, with higher summary scores indicating more satisfaction). Recall of the care plan was assessed for consumers. Linear regression with adjustment for grouping by worker was used to assess satisfaction scores. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to examine knowledge of the care plan. Compared with case managers in the control group, those in the intervention group were significantly more satisfied with the care planning process (mean ± SD score=4.0 ± .5 versus 3.3 ± .5; adjusted p=.01). Compared with consumers in the control group, those in the intervention group had significantly greater recall of their care plans three days after the planning session (mean proportion of plan goals recalled=75% ± 28% versus 57% ± 32%; p=.02). There were no differences between the clients in the intervention and control groups regarding satisfaction. This study demonstrated that clients can build their own care plans and negotiate and revise them with their case managers using an EDSS.

  14. The Power of 2: How an Apparently Irregular Numeration System Facilitates Mental Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2017-01-01

    Mangarevan traditionally contained two numeration systems: a general one, which was highly regular, decimal, and extraordinarily extensive; and a specific one, which was restricted to specific objects, based on diverging counting units, and interspersed with binary steps. While most of these characteristics are shared by numeration systems in related languages in Oceania, the binary steps are unique. To account for these characteristics, this article draws on-and tries to integrate-insights from anthropology, archeology, linguistics, psychology, and cognitive science more generally. The analysis of mental arithmetic with these systems reveals that both types of systems entailed cognitive advantages and served important functions in the cultural context of their application. How these findings speak to more general questions revolving around the theoretical models and evolutionary trajectory of numerical cognition will be discussed in the .

  15. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...

  16. Why victims of domestic violence retract from the criminal justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systemic and structural reasons why Domestic Violence Act [DVA] applicants disengage from the criminal justice ... been assisted with applying for a protection order that the .... with death or more violence if they initiate or. 6. Institute for ...

  17. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  18. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice.

  19. Flew on Entitlements and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Lorenzo

    1989-01-01

    In «Equality, yes, surely; but Justice?», Antony Flew argues that egalitarianism and collectivism are incompatible with the concept of justice, since the usual concept of justice is that of giving everyone his due (or his own). That concept is intrinsically backward-looking; you cannot assign everyone his own by gratuitously presupposing that nothing is his own and that a fresh start is to be made. As against such a view, I maintain that, in a fairly obvio...

  20. Three Liberal Theories of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří MACHÁČEK

    2013-01-01

    The mail goal of this thesis is to introduce the modern theory of liberal justice with a focus on distributive justice. In addition, the author addresses the issue of value neutrality in the liberal state and the concept of equality in liberal theory. The author presents the concept of "justice as fairness" described by liberal political philosopher John Rawls. Afterwards his concept is subjected to criticism of other contemporary liberal philosophers Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin. The aut...

  1. Child Disaster Mental Health Services: a Review of the System of Care, Assessment Approaches, and Evidence Base for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Several decades of research have informed our knowledge of children's reactions to disasters and the factors that influence their reactions. This article describes the system of care for child disaster mental health services using population risk to determine needed services and a stepped care approach built on assessment and monitoring to advance children to appropriate services. To assess the evidence base for disaster interventions, recent reviews of numerous child disaster mental health interventions are summarized.

  2. The role of global traditional and complementary systems of medicine in the treatment of mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Nortje, Gareth; Makanjuola, Victor; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Seedat, Soraya; Jenkins, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    Traditional and complementary systems of medicine include a broad range of practices, which are commonly embedded in cultural milieus and reflect community beliefs, experiences, religion, and spirituality. Two major components of this system are discernible: complementary alternative medicine and traditional medicine, with different clientele and correlates of patronage. Evidence from around the world suggests that a traditional or complementary system of medicine is commonly used by a large number of people with mental illness. Practitioners of traditional medicine in low-income and middle-income countries fill a major gap in mental health service delivery. Although some overlap exists in the diagnostic approaches of traditional and complementary systems of medicine and conventional biomedicine, some major differences exist, largely in the understanding of the nature and cause of mental disorders. Treatments used by providers of traditional and complementary systems of medicine, especially traditional and faith healers in low-income and middle-income countries, might sometimes fail to meet widespread understandings of human rights and humane care. Nevertheless, collaborative engagement between traditional and complementary systems of medicine and conventional biomedicine might be possible in the care of people with mental illness. The best model to bring about that collaboration will need to be established by the needs of the extant mental health system in a country. Research is needed to provide an empirical basis for the feasibility of such collaboration, to clearly delineate its boundaries, and to test its effectiveness in bringing about improved patient outcomes.

  3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE ROMANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEM BY REDEFINING THE ROLE AND STATUS OF PERSONNEL AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULPUŞ IOANA ALEXANDRA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reforming the justice on quality and sustainability must be based on the full involvement of judicial organizations staff, magistrates, clerks and other auxiliary personnel equally by redefining the role, status and responsibilities of them.. Romanian registrar’s role in the administration of justice is not to be neglected, his work representing a real support for magistrates, their tasks contributing decisively to the smooth running of the entire activities of the courts. Improving relations between judges and support staff by restructuring the relationship and turn them into functional „teams” is the condition for restoring confidence in justice. In this respect, court managers and judges must make all efforts to identify tasks that can be transferred to regitrars with higher education to improve their own work, while helping to improve their own training at the same time.

  4. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  5. Psychiatric agriculture: systemic nutritional modification and mental health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of

  6. Corrections and Juvenile Justice: Current Education Practice for Youth with Learning and Other Disabilities. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kenneth W.; Wolford, Bruce I.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, focuses on the educational services provided to youth with behavioral and cognitive disabilities placed in the juvenile justice system. It reports on a review of correctional system monitoring reports, materials from enforcement actions taken against…

  7. The applicability of the concept of treatment adherence in the context of the Brazilian mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Patricia Elizabeth Sanz de; Rosendo, Ernestina; Alchieri, João Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To present reflections on the type of research conducted on a treatment adherence among users of Public Mental Health System in Brazil and discuss the applicability of the concept of adherence to treatment in this context. Literature review in SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library and PubMed / MEDLINE using the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) treatment, adhesion and "mental health" and the specific vocabulary of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". They were included for review the complete texts and theses published between 2007-2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish. 127 articles were recovered, 32 specifically related to mental health. Eight were excluded for duplicates and after reading the remaining 24 articles were selected for this study 10 conducted in the field of Mental Health in Brazil. No investigations have been identified with focus on adherence to psychosocial treatment offered in public mental health. disregard of the mental health legislation and reinforce the asylum model of assistance. Presentar reflexiones sobre el tipo de investigaciones realizadas en Brasil sobre la adhesión al tratamiento de los usuarios del Sistema Público de Salud Mental y discutir la aplicabilidad del concepto de adhesión al tratamiento en dicho contexto. Revisión bibliográfica en las bases SciELO, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane y PubMed/MEDLINE utilizando los descriptores de Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS) adhesión, tratamiento y "salud mental" y el vocabulario específico de Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". Se incluyeron los textos completos y las tesis publicadas entre 2007-2012, en portugués, inglés y español. F1eron recuperados 127 artículos, 32 específicamente de la salud mental. Se excluyeron los 8 duplicados y de los 24 restantes fueron seleccionados para el presente trabajo los 10 realizados en Brasil. No se identificaron enfoques sobre la adhesión al

  8. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  9. Impact of care coordination on Australia's mental health service delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Lisa; Hodges, Craig; Halloran, Kieran; Grigg, Margaret; Swift, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Care coordination models have developed in response to the recognition that Australia's health and welfare service system can be difficult to access, navigate and is often inefficient in caring for people with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) and complex care and support needs. This paper explores how the Australian Government's establishment of the Partners in Recovery (PIR) initiative provides an opportunity for the development of more effective and efficient models of coordinated care for the identified people with SPMI and their families and carers. In conceptualising how the impact of the PIR initiative could be maximised, the paper explores care coordination and what is known about current best practice. The key findings are the importance of having care coordinators who are well prepared for the role, can demonstrate competent practice and achieve better systemic responses focused on the needs of the client, thus addressing the barriers to effective care and treatment across complex service delivery systems.

  10. On China's Bidding System in the Perspective of Justice Theory%正义理论视角下的中国招标投标制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢远玉

    2016-01-01

    The bidding practice in China has fallen into a dilemma of anti -corruption,one way out of which is to re -examine the legislative principles of the bidding system from the justice perspective.This paper believes that the decision -making power of the tender and the bidder should fully embody the principle of equality and freedom;the formulation of the rules in the bidding system should be in accordance with the justice spirit of the “scene of ignorance”;opportunity of equality and fairness be reflec-ted in the competition access of market subjects;difference principle be adopted with the emerging small competitors;the effi-ciency principle of “maximum of minimum value”be applied in the game where the tender and the bidder are free to choose the lowest winning.Therefore,China's bidding system should be reformed in the following two legislation principles:first,the bid decision -making power should be exercised by the tenders instead of the social evaluation experts committee;second,the win-ning should go with the lowest bid rather than by a comprehensive assessment of the highest bid.%中国的招标投标实践已陷入反腐败的困境,需要重新用正义理论的视角来对中国招标投标制度的立法原理进行审视。本研究认为,对招标人和投标人的决策权力应充分体现平等自由原则,招标投标制度中各项规则的制定应按照“无知之幕”的公正精神进行,对市场主体竞争准入应体现机会的平等公正原则,对新兴弱小竞争者应体现差别原则,招标人和投标人在自由选择的最低价中标规则的博弈能体现“最大的最小值”规则的效率原则等等。所以,中国招标投标制度中应该改革两大立法原理:第一,由招标人而不是社会评标专家委员会行使中标决策权;第二,最低价中标而不是综合评审最高分中标。

  11. Solidarity, justice, and recognition of the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Meulen, Ruud

    2016-12-01

    Solidarity has for a long time been referred to as the core value underpinning European health and welfare systems. But there has been debate in recent years about whether solidarity, with its alleged communitarian content, can be reconciled with the emphasis on individual freedom and personal autonomy. One may wonder whether there is still a place for solidarity, and whether the concept of justice should be embraced to analyse the moral issues regarding access to health care. In this article, I will answer this question by analysing the normative foundations of the concept of justice, followed by a deeper examination of the concept of solidarity in continental philosophy. More specifically, I will compare the philosophical traditions rooted in Kant (with emphasis on autonomy and individual rights) to approaches rooted in Hegel (with emphasis on individual relations of recognition). In addition, I will present the work of Avishai Margalit on the decent society to criticize a predominantly liberal approach to access to health care. The importance of solidarity lies particularly in its emphasis on relational aspects and the role of recognition in care practices, which are usually ignored in liberal approaches to justice. However, the article will argue that solidarity is not an alternative to a rights-based concept of justice, but must be considered as a necessary complement to it.

  12. CIT in context: the impact of mental health resource availability and district saturation on call dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Ottati, Victor C; Draine, Jeff; Morabito, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The goals of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs include improving safety during encounters between police and persons with mental illnesses, diverting persons with mental illnesses away from the criminal justice system, and increasing referral and access to mental health services. CIT is a systemic intervention, and as such, its implementation and effectiveness are influenced by existing practices and infrastructures. However, little research has considered the context in which CIT programs are implemented. In this paper, we present research on CIT in four Chicago police districts that vary in terms of two contextual factors hypothesized to influence the impact of CIT training on how calls involving persons with mental illnesses are resolved. Using data from 112 patrol officers in four Chicago police districts, we consider the impact of mental health services availability and CIT saturation (the percentage of district personnel that are CIT certified). Findings indicate that CIT training increased direction to mental health services primarily in districts with greater availability of mental health services. In districts with low service availability, higher CIT saturation increased direction to mental services. The opposite pattern emerged for contact only or informal call resolution. No effects were found for arrest as a call outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Miscarriages of justice: the role of homicide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean

    2011-04-01

    Miscarriages of justice within the United Kingdom have received much publicity since the early nineties and served to undermine confidence in the Criminal Justice system. One fairly recent activity on the part of the Association of Chief Police Officers which has served to reduce the likelihood of such miscarriages is the principle of the review of major crime investigations and in particular murder inquiries. This paper reflects upon the possible causes of flawed investigations which have led to miscarriages of justice over the recent past and refers to the major academic work which supports the principle of reviewing murder inquiries.

  14. Housing first reduces re-offending among formerly homeless adults with mental disorders: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Julian M; Rezansoff, Stefanie N; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Patterson, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF) increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference); scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. The majority of the sample (67%) was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was "property offences" (mean=4.09). Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.72). Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.26-1.14). This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. ISRCTN57595077.

  15. Housing first reduces re-offending among formerly homeless adults with mental disorders: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian M Somers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homelessness and mental illness have a strong association with public disorder and criminality. Experimental evidence indicates that Housing First (HF increases housing stability and perceived choice among those experiencing chronic homelessness and mental disorders. HF is also associated with lower residential costs than common alternative approaches. Few studies have examined the effect of HF on criminal behavior. METHODS: Individuals meeting criteria for homelessness and a current mental disorder were randomized to one of three conditions treatment as usual (reference; scattered site HF; and congregate HF. Administrative data concerning justice system events were linked in order to study prior histories of offending and to test the relationship between housing status and offending following randomization for up to two years. RESULTS: The majority of the sample (67% was involved with the justice system, with a mean of 8.07 convictions per person in the ten years prior to recruitment. The most common category of crime was "property offences" (mean=4.09. Following randomization, the scattered site HF condition was associated with significantly lower numbers of sentences than treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.72. Congregate HF was associated with a marginally significant reduction in sentences compared to treatment as usual (Adjusted IRR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.26-1.14. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate benefits of HF among a homeless sample with mental illness in the domain of public safety and crime. Our sample was frequently involved with the justice system, with great personal and societal costs. Further implementation of HF is strongly indicated, particularly in the scattered site format. Research examining interdependencies between housing, health, and the justice system is indicated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN57595077.

  16. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  17. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  18. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  19. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past and p

  20. The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: a test of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on the unique predictability of different types of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the relative importance of these types of justice on outcome variables. Recently, researchers have suggested shifting from this focus on specific types of justice to a consideration of overall justice. The authors hypothesize that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice facets and outcomes. They present 2 studies to test this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrates that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice judgments and employee attitudes. Study 2 demonstrates the mediating relationship holds for supervisor ratings of employee behavior. Implications for research on organizational justice are discussed.