WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice system costs

  1. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faries Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  2. Costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed literature to estimate the costs of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the Canadian Criminal Justice System (CJS), and to update the total costs of FASD in Canada. The results suggest FASD is costlier than previous estimates. The costs of FASD associated with the CJS are estimated at $3.9 billion a year, with $1.2 billion for police, $0.4 billion for court, $0.5 billion for correctional services, $1.6 billion for victims, and $0.2 billion for third-party. The updated total costs of FASD in Canada are $9.7 billion a year, of which CJS accounts for 40%, healthcare 21%, education 17%, social services 13%, and others 9%.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of a preventive intervention for divorced families: reduction in mental health and justice system service use costs 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Patricia M; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Porter, Michele M; Jones, Sarah; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-05-01

    This cost-benefit analysis compared the costs of implementing the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive intervention for divorced families to monetary benefits saved in mental healthcare service use and criminal justice system costs. NBP was delivered when the offspring were 9-12 years old. Benefits were assessed 15 years later when the offspring were young adults (ages 24-27). This study estimated the costs of delivering two versions of NBP, a single-component parenting-after-divorce program (Mother Program, MP) and a two-component parenting-after-divorce and child-coping program (Mother-Plus-Child Program, MPCP), to costs of a literature control (LC). Long-term monetary benefits were determined from actual expenditures from past-year mental healthcare service use for mothers and their young adult (YA) offspring and criminal justice system involvement for YAs. Data were gathered from 202 YAs and 194 mothers (75.4 % of families randomly assigned to condition). The benefits, as assessed in the 15th year after program completion, were $1630/family (discounted benefits $1077/family). These 1-year benefits, based on conservative assumptions, more than paid for the cost of MP and covered the majority of the cost of MPCP. Because the effects of MP versus MPCP on mental health and substance use problems have not been significantly different at short-term or long-term follow-up assessments, program managers would likely choose the lower-cost option. Given that this evaluation only calculated economic benefit at year 15 and not the previous 14 (nor future years), these findings suggest that, from a societal perspective, NBP more than pays for itself in future benefits.

  4. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  5. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  6. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  7. Justice Delivered Locally : Systems, Challenges, and Innovations in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the research findings of the Justice Delivered Locally (JDL) initiative of Solomon Islands' Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, which was supported by the World Bank's Justice for the Poor (J4P) program. JDL supports the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) policy of reinvigorating local-level justice systems. This is based on an understanding that developmentally impor...

  8. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  9. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  10. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  11. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  12. Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Does experience count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPublic confidence in the justice system is relatively low compared to that in many other institutions. Part of this lack of confidence has been attributed to a low public understanding of how the justice system really works. Experience with the justice system is often identified as a way

  13. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Intan Karangan

    2016-01-01

    ... No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law...

  14. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  15. [Justice in health care systems from an economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, J

    2004-01-01

    Due to rising health care expenditures international comparisons of health care systems are recently gaining more importance. These benchmarks can provide interesting information for improving health care systems. Many of these comparisons implicitly assume that countries have a universal understanding of justice. But this assumption is rather questionable. With regard to the existing cultural differences in the understanding of justice the transferability of elements of health care systems is not always assured. A transfer usually requires a thorough examination of the judicial systems in each country. This article analyses the influence of different judicial systems applying to health care. In this context theories of justice by Rawls, Nozick and Confucius representing the possible understanding of justice in different cultures are described and analysed with regards to their influence on health care systems. The example of financing health care shows that the three theories of justice have very different consequences for designing health care systems especially concerning the role of governments.

  16. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  17. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  18. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  19. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal

  20. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  1. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carballo Pineiro (Laura); J. Nieva Fenoll (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Spanish justice system has been shaken by the econom- ic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help

  2. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  3. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  4. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali

    engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...... with the informal justice systems neither directly nor inadvertently reinforces existing societal or structural discrimination – a consideration that applies to working with formal justice systems as well. The study also examines the value of informal justice systems in offering, in certain contexts, flexible...

  5. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  7. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  9. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION: Notice...

  10. Justice for All? A Report on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth in the New York Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Randi; Greenblatt, Andrea; Hass, Lauren; Kohn, Sally; Rana, Julianne

    The first-ever study of its kind, this report chronicles the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) youth in the New York juvenile justice system. This report combines existing social science research and personal interviews with juvenile justice professionals and LGBT youth and reveals that the system is plagued by…

  11. The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ - Reforming European Justice Systems - "Mission Impossible?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon T. Johnsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My paper concerns the Council of Europe’s work to improve justice in Europe. It explains and exemplifies a type of policy that the Council applies in its strive for implementing the demands of the European Human Rights Convention on the judicial systems in Europe.The Convention obliges all member states to put up efficient systems for remedying violations within their own national legal systems. If such systems are missing or do not provide sufficient redress, member states now accept that everyone is free to bring their case before the European Court of Human Rights ECtHR. Over the years the Court has produced extensive case law on violations of the provisions that protect people’s access to justice that develops and concretizes the general wordings used in the text of the ECHR. However, international complaint mechanisms are only one type of instrument for disseminating human rights. In addition to judicial instruments like the ECtHR, CoE also uses policy vehicles for implementation of human rights like the one I will focus upon; namely the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice – usually abbreviated CEPEJ – from the French version of its name. As one of several committees of CoE, it focuses on the development of the judicial systems of the member states.

  12. Victims and the criminal justice system in India: Need for a paradigm shift in the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murugesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until 1970s the victims of crime were a forgotten entity in the criminal justice system. The attitude began to change as the discipline of victimology came into its own. The past few decades have witnessed a revolution in the way society deals with victims of crime. Many countries have now recognized the need to provide services to victims to help them recover from the effects of crime and assist them in their dealings with the criminal justice system. But in India, there has not been any significant improvement in the position of victims in the criminal justice system. The present paper has attempted to examine the position of victims of crime in India and the criminal justice system. The paper also emphasizes the need to provide assistance to crime victims. The authors of the present paper have also suggested some of the immediate steps that are to be implemented by the law enforcement agencies in India to improve the position of victims in the criminal justice system. .

  13. Cost effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal justice involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muser, Erik; Kozma, Chris M; Benson, Carmela J; Mao, Lian; Starr, H Lynn; Alphs, Larry; Fastenau, John

    2015-01-01

    Conduct a cost effectiveness analysis for the Paliperidone palmitate Research In Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) trial. PRIDE was a 15 month, prospective, randomized, open-label study in which once monthly paliperidone palmitate significantly delayed the time to first treatment failure (healthcare or criminal justice system [HC/CJS] events) versus oral antipsychotics in recently incarcerated adults with schizophrenia. The present analysis used a state government perspective and HC/CJS event data that were collected on a resource use questionnaire (RUQ) every 3 months. Since cost information was not collected in the trial, cost estimates from published literature and an analysis of multistate Medicaid data for CJS and HC events, respectively, were applied to RUQ event data. Effectiveness and costs were adjusted to 456 days (trial duration). Incremental cost effectiveness was calculated as the adjusted cost difference divided by the adjusted effectiveness difference. Adjusted costs (in US dollars) in the paliperidone palmitate group (n = 198) and the oral antipsychotic group (n = 193), respectively, were: non-drug costs $22,331 and $25,027; drug costs $18,592 and $7833; and total costs $40,923 and $32,860. Adjusted effectiveness differences and corresponding incremental cost effectiveness per event avoided (in parentheses) for paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics were as follows: 0.33 fewer CJS events ($24,409), 0.13 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations ($60,484), 0.46 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations or CJS events combined ($17,391), and 0.30 fewer incarcerations ($26,754). Costs for HC/CJS events avoided offset 25% of the greater drug cost for the paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotic treatment group in this vulnerable population. Use of a recall-dependent RUQ for event rates and cost estimates instead of actual costs are potential limitations and may make the results conservative from a state government perspective. Indirect

  14. Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrigan, Fergus; McKay, Anne Louise; Kristiansen, Annali;

    Providing accessible justice is a state obligation under international human rights standards, but this obligation does not require that all justice be provided through formal justice systems. If done in ways to respect and uphold human rights, the provision of justice through informal justice...... systems is not against human rights standards and can be a mechanism to enhance the fulfilment of human rights obligations by delivering accessible justice to individuals and communities where the formal justice system does not have the capacity or geographical reach. This study seeks to identify how...... engagement with informal justice systems can build greater respect and protection for human rights. It highlights the considerations that development partners should have when assessing whether to implement programmes involving informal justice systems, the primary consideration being that engagement...

  15. Is there an internal justice system at CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    The problem of assessing the internal justice system was recently once again in the spotlight in the Common System of the United Nations, in particular the UN, and its subsidiary bodies. The question evidently arises at CERN, even if the Management would be offended by this diagnosis. What leads the Staff Association to raise this issue?

  16. 76 FR 64108 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of...

  17. Integrated Justice: An Information Systems Approach to Justice Sector Case Management and Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Curtis Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated Case Management Systems are still at an early stage of adoption in many developing countries. These are frequently standalone systems implemented with donor financing, and they often fail due to capacity constraints or as a consequence of short-term, project-based funding. But there are examples of developing countries overcoming these pitfalls and producing innovative solutions that surpass government practices in more developed countries. The Integrated Electronic Case Management System (IECMS, developed and implemented by the Ministry of Justice of Rwanda from 2015-2016, is one such innovation. This system has progressed rapidly in its level of adoption and integration between law enforcement, the prosecutor’s office, courts, and corrections. This paper will discuss the key system functionalities and the implementation methodology, including both the benefits and shortcomings of this approach, with the goal of applying lessons learned in future installations. Foremost among the successes of this project were the integrated Sector Wide Approach, the thorough business process re-engineering, and strong ownership by the Rwandan Justice Sector staff. Particularly instructive will be the analysis of the integrated approach, covering five institutions with a single system in less than two years. However, the particular success in this case may not be replicable for governments with a more decentralized approach.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  19. Health Disparities and the Criminal Justice System: An Agenda for Further Research and Action

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, Ingrid A.; Redmond, Nicole; Steiner, John F.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2011-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be involved with the criminal justice system than whites in the USA, critical scientific gaps exist in our understanding of the relationship between the criminal justice system and the persistence of racial/ethnic health disparities. Individuals engaged with the criminal justice system are at risk for poor health outcomes. Furthermore, criminal justice involvement may have direct or indirect effects on health and health care. Racial/eth...

  20. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  1. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  2. 76 FR 22919 - National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Offender Tracking System Standard Workshop AGENCY... for their own travel arrangements and lodging. Please visit the Web site below to submit...

  3. The Effects of Pacifist Norms of the Japanese Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Zenn, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on pacifist norms in Japan may have left irreparable effects on the countrys ability to police organized crime. Japans pacifist culture is due in no small part to its tumultuous history, but to fully understand the impact these and other norms have on domestic police and legal institutions we need study the evolution of this societys criminal element over the last several decades and measure the effectiveness of the justice system in Japan. The major areas of research for this pr...

  4. Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy

    This article, the second in a five-part series, explores leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system to effect change in service provision. The article discusses different leadership styles and distinguishes management from leadership. Factors that influence change are outlined, as is the need for emotional intelligence, teamwork and collaborative working. Change management, negotiating ability and conflict management are important skills that nurses should develop to become effective leaders.

  5. Why does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Pyszczynski, Tom; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N = 209), mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N = 112), examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran's nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems - even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  6. Why Does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eHirschberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N=209, mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N=112, examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems – even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  7. Communicating to promote justice in the modern health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, G L

    1996-01-01

    The systemic prejudices and biases that often limit the effectiveness of health care delivery are examined. How the inherent imbalance in control between consumers and providers of health care, based on the micropolitics of sharing relevant health information, perpetuates a system of marginalization and alienation within health care delivery systems is discussed. Communication barriers that often confront many stigmatized groups of health care consumers, such as the poor, people with AIDS, minorities, the ill elderly, and women, are identified. Such prejudicial treatment is framed within a cultural ideologies model, leading to identification of communication strategies for promoting justice in the modern health care system and enhancing the quality of health care delivery.

  8. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... National Association of Social Workers-Zimbabwe/Author(s) ... systems, professionals, institutions and treatment specifically applicable to children ..... community involvement in administration and management of child welfare.

  9. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  10. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Velicogna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislation and case law are only some examples that are spurring judicial administrations around the world to rethink their current functions and activities. ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, thus helping judiciaries to provide adequate services. As many empirical examples show, this is, however, not always the case. The interaction between technology and highly regulated organisations, such as courts, may often lead to unexpected results. Europe, with its different institutional settings and experiences, allows the exploration of a variety of solutions that can be implemented to support the administration of justice. Most importantly, it also provides the opportunities for a unique insight into the dynamics and problems that may characterize such experiences. This article seeks to provide an empirically derived account on the uses of ICT within the courts and for judicial data interchange. The article is based on data collected through several research projects by the Research Institute on Judicial Systems of the Italian National Research Council, in partnership with other European institutions, including Universities and Ministries of Justice.

  11. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (Devolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Jones

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on youth justice and the prevention of re-offending. This is problematic in a number of ways explored in the paper, not least because the duties in the Welsh Constitution obligate the Welsh Assembly Government to ensure equality of opportunity for all and equality of treatment of both Welsh and English. Can a successful devolved fit-for-purpose criminal justice system for Wales be created?

  12. Restricted Access to Justice for Canadians Mistreated Abroad: Abdelrazik v Canada (Re: Interim Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Rehaag

    2011-02-01

    In Abdelrazik v Canada, the Federal Court denied the request for interim costs – a decision that has serious implications not only for interim cost awards jurisprudence, but also for litigation involving citizens who allege that their rights under section 6 of the Charter have been violated. This comment critically analyzes the access to justice implications of the Federal Court decision in light of both the principle that courts may use costs awards to promote access to justice, and the unique challenges faced by Canadians mistreated abroad by the Canadian government. Abousfian Abdelrazik est ce citoyen canadien dont le nom avait été ajouté à diverses listes de personnes soupçonnées de terrorisme, qui avait été torturé par les autorités soudanaises et qui a appris qu’il ne pouvait pas revenir au Canada principalement en raison des mesures que le gouvernement du Canada avait prises. Abdelrazik souhaitait contester la constitutionnalité des limites à sa capacité de rentrer au Canada. Toutefois, il n’avait pas d’argent ni aucun moyen de subsistance puisqu’il ne pouvait pas quitter l’ambassade du Canada au Soudan, où il s’était réfugié pour éviter d’être torturé de nouveau par les autorités soudanaises. Il a donc déposé une requête en vue d’obtenir une provision pour les frais devant la Cour fédérale du Canada. Si sa requête avait été accueillie, le gouvernement du Canada aurait été tenu de payer ses honoraires d’avocats, et le tribunal aurait entendu sa contestation de la constitutionnalité des mesures que le Canada avait prises. Dans Abdelrazik v Canada, la Cour fédérale a rejeté la requête. Cette décision aura de graves répercussions non seulement sur la jurisprudence relative aux requêtes en vue d’obtenir une provision pour les frais, mais également sur les instances mettant en cause des citoyens qui allèguent qu’il y a eu violation des droits qui leur sont garantis par l’article 6 de la Charte

  13. Dare To Dream--Juvenile Justice. A Guide to Planning Your Future for Students in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne; Webb, Kristine; Beutel, Adory; Perkins, Dollean; Bailey, Mary

    This workbook is designed to help Florida students in the juvenile justice system plan for their desired postschool outcomes. It includes activities to help students make good decisions that will affect their entry into adult life. "Dare to Know" boxes are found throughout the workbook and provide important information to students to…

  14. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  15. Designing and Implementing e-Justice Systems: Some Lessons Learned from EU and Canadian Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Lupo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to justice has become an important issue in many justice systems around the world. Increasingly, technology is seen as a potential facilitator of access to justice, particularly in terms of improving justice sector efficiency. The international diffusion of information systems (IS within the justice sector raises the important question of how to insure quality performance. The IS literature has stressed a set of general design principles for the implementation of complex information technology systems that have also been applied to these systems in the justice sector. However, an emerging e-justice literature emphasizes the significance of unique law and technology concerns that are especially relevant to implementing and evaluating information technology systems in the justice sector specifically. Moreover, there is growing recognition that both principles relating to the design of information technology systems themselves (“system design principles”, as well as to designing and managing the processes by which systems are created and implemented (“design management principles” can be critical to positive outcomes. This paper uses six e-justice system examples to illustrate and elaborate upon the system design and design management principles in a manner intended to assist an interdisciplinary legal audience to better understand how these principles might impact upon a system’s ability to improve access to justice: three European examples (Italian Trial Online; English and Welsh Money Claim Online; the trans-border European Union e-CODEX and three Canadian examples (Ontario’s Integrated Justice Project (IJP, Ontario’s Court Information Management System (CIMS, and British Columbia’s eCourt project.

  16. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  17. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  18. Using System Dynamics to Develop Organizational Learning Process; the Neighbourhood Justice Centre in Yarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Haslett

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Neighbourhood Justice Centre (NJC in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood is a first for Australia and reflects a universal growing interest in addressing the underlying causes of criminal behaviour and disadvantage as well as improving access to justice.By Tim Hasslet, School of Integrative Systems, University of Queensland, Chris Ballenden, Ponte Consulting; Saroj Godbole, Ponte Consulting; Kerry Walker, Director, Neighbourhood Justice Centre, Melbourne

  19. Confronting the Crisis in the Criminal Justice System. Technical Assistance Bulletin No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Sara

    Experts agree that the U.S. criminal justice system faces a crisis, yet there is a broad range of views as to its sources, consequences, and solutions. There seems to be a public perception that the individual rights guaranteed accused criminals by the U.S. Constitution prevents the criminal justice system from functioning properly. It is…

  20. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  1. 77 FR 10573 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... Programs (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  2. 75 FR 31815 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE),...

  3. 76 FR 8778 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal...) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Official (DFO),...

  4. 76 FR 38209 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Justice. ACTION... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss the role of the NMVTIS Federal Advisory...; Phone: (703) 418-6800. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee...

  5. 78 FR 51747 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice... Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory Committee to discuss various issues relating to the... (OJP), 810 7th Street NW., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd...

  6. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  7. Justice Dispensation through the Alternative Dispute Resolution System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law Commission of India in its 222nd report emphasized the need for Alternative Disputes Resolution (ADR for the dispensation of justice, because the courts are inaccessible owing to various factors, e.g., poverty, social and political backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, procedural formalities and inordinate delay in judgments. During the ancient period the disputes were resolved in an informal manner by neutral third persons or people’s court in villages and it continued till the middle of the 20th century. Unfortunately, after the Independence of India in 1947, this system was dissuaded and the government permitted to continue the adversarial system of justice. In 1980, a committee was set up. It recommended Lok Adalats (People’s Courts. In 1987, the Legal Services Authorities Act was enacted. This Act obligates the states to provide free legal aid to poor persons. Besides this, the Act provides for the establishment of permanent Lok Adalats.This is one of the important modes of ADR. Lok Adalats have been established in all the districts of the country. They bring conciliatory settlement in complicated cases arising out of matrimonial, landlord-tenants, property, insurance and commercial disputes. There are four methods of ADR, viz., negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. Mediation and arbitration are widely preferred. They are alternatives to litigation. The Arbitration Act for the first time was enacted in 1889 and it was subsequently amended many times. On the objections raised by the Supreme Court of India and also on the adoption of UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, in 1996 Arbitration and Conciliation Act was enacted. This law is almost the same as is almost in all the countries.Further, the Government of India established International Centre for Alternative Disputes Resolution (CADR with the objectives of promotion, propagation, and popularizing the settlement of domestic and

  8. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  9. Health care for youth in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Youth in the juvenile correctional system are a high-risk population who, in many cases, have unmet physical, developmental, and mental health needs. Multiple studies have found that some of these health issues occur at higher rates than in the general adolescent population. Although some youth in the juvenile justice system have interfaced with health care providers in their community on a regular basis, others have had inconsistent or nonexistent care. The health needs of these youth are commonly identified when they are admitted to a juvenile custodial facility. Pediatricians and other health care providers play an important role in the care of these youth, and continuity between the community and the correctional facility is crucial. This policy statement provides an overview of the health needs of youth in the juvenile correctional system, including existing resources and standards for care, financing of health care within correctional facilities, and evidence-based interventions. Recommendations are provided for the provision of health care services to youth in the juvenile correctional system as well as specific areas for advocacy efforts.

  10. Social and organizational impacts of the electronic processing system of the brazilian superior tribunal of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Soares de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the social and organizational impacts of the Electronic Processing System (EPS implemented in 2008 by the Brazilian Superior Tribunal of Justice (STJ. This system is part of a wider transformation process involving the implementation of a new management model at the STJ. The theoretical framework is based on the Technology Enactment Theory and other studies on the role of technological innovations in public organizations (Fountain, 2005; Freitas, 2012. The main goal of the research is to identify the most significant factors facilitating or inhibiting the innovation adoption. Results show different impacts of the EPS on professional groups and organizations. Political, cultural and economic aspects influence stakeholders’ perceptions of the innovation, including its sustainability, time and costs savings that impact the rate of adoption and the realization of benefits both to users and the organization investing in its development.

  11. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  12. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  13. Library Labor Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Bois, Dan

    The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…

  14. Principles of justice as a basis for conceptualizing a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J H

    1977-01-01

    This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed.

  15. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  16. How Do Youth with Mental Disorders Fare in the Juvenile Justice System?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Alison Cuellar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between mental health problems and justice outcomes. Several studies have documented that individuals with a variety of mental disorders are overrepresented in the justice system. This pattern could result if persons with mental disorders are more likely to commit crimes, or more likely to commit serious crimes, than persons without disorders. In addition, individuals with mental disorders may be more likely than those without disorders...

  17. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velicogna, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line

  18. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZERTY

    of procedural law in juvenile justice matters was the Criminal Procedure Ordinance. 2 ..... He may in particular order a social investigation into the material and .... shall be carried out in conformity with the rules of ordinary law. 47. The place of ...

  19. Justice systems and ICT What can be learned from Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velicogna, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislat

  20. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  1. Key figures on the Dutch criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Berghuis, A.C.; Hooff, P. van

    1991-01-01

    This note contains statistical information on victimization rates, rates of reporting to the police, number of registered crimes and clearance rate, number of known suspects and known juvenile suspects, sentencing and dismissal rates, prison sentences, juvenile detention, state expenditure on police and justice, and number of employed people.

  2. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  3. The Evaluation of the Practical Implementation of Social Justice by the Judicial System of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a sociological research, the author of this article aims to identify the beliefs and the attitudes of a group of BA and MA students enrolled in university programs of Juridical Science, regarding their apprehension of the principles of justice - as the central value of the Romanian judicial system. This would contribute to the implementation of justice in the actual Romanian economic, political, and judicial structure. The data analysis provides the necessary information for comprehending the extensions of justice and injustice within the specific social context. A real distance between reality and the political doctrines, and the classical and post-modern philosophical theories of justice as well can be noticed. The resulting conclusions could provide solid settings in order to develop a number of strategies/public policies to shape a more honest society.

  4. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  5. Costing systems design for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TURTUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an overall image of the way Accounting responds to nowadays user’s needs in relation to the quantification of the impact companies have towards the environment. Regarding this, there have been analyzed concepts like sustainable development, environmental accounting, environmental costs and there have been presented the main progress towards environmental cost identification and measurement from the perspective of Activity Based Costing system. To provide an overall image of this concepts, there have been used as research methodology methods the documentation from literature review, analysis, synthesis and comparison.

  6. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  7. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  8. La justice en France et l'apparell judiciaire (Justice in France and the Judiciary System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jean-Noel

    1980-01-01

    Describes in some detail the modern French judicial system, including the personnel involved; the structure of civil, criminal, and public law; and penal procedure. Modern criticism of this system is discussed. (AM)

  9. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  10. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.

  11. Selecting a Method of Case Identification to Estimate the Involvement of People With Mental Illnesses in the Criminal Justice System: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa S; Wilson, Amy Blank

    2017-06-01

    Arrest and incarceration are a pervasive reality for people with mental illnesses. Wide variation, however, exists in the estimates of the percentage of people with mental illnesses who become involved in the criminal justice system. Researchers and practitioners need a variety of methods in their toolbox to maximize their ability to identify mental illness depending on available resources and needs. Yet, the benefits and costs of utilizing these different approaches have yet to be explored in the criminal justice literature. To begin exploring the utility of the different methods of case identification, we review the most commonly used approaches to identifying people with mental illnesses and end with a detailed examination of the use of behavior health records. The use of behavioral health records is a case identification method that has gained emerging support in criminal justice research in recent years.

  12. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  13. MANUALS OF POSTMODERN LIFE: THE REGULATION OF LIVING BY THE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Felix Barbosa de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We live, today, the growing intervention of the Justice system in different areas through policies that would give further effect to the management of relational conflicts and the protection of individual rights. Considering this scenario, this article sought to analyze such a move life adjustment through three productions of the Brazilian Justice system: the Parents’ Divorce Booklet; the Family Booklet - No to parental alienation; and the class guide Count to 10 in schools. From the analysis of contents of such materials was possible to develop a discussion on the ways of life in the context of Postmodernity, particularly with regard to the so-called crisis of authority figures, especially those more directly linked to education and socialization of children and adolescents. It was concluded that the booklets examined, and the Justice system have contributed to the weakening of those positions of authority and consequently with the regulation of living.

  14. Social justice considerations in neonatal care for nurse managers and executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Linda; Walden, Marlene; Verklan, M Terese

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the struggle between social justice and market justice within the current health care system, specifically issues affecting neonatal care. Community benefit is described and discussed as an aspect of social justice demonstrated by hospitals. The federal and state Children's Health Insurance Program also is discussed in relation to social justice and health care costs. Implications for managers and executives overseeing neonatal care are presented in relation to the economic and social issues.

  15. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  16. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  17. Children's perspectives on crime and the criminal justice system: main findings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available that they have not. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the children who participated in this pilot study clearly stated a need for training with regard to the criminal justice system (policing, the court proceedings, and the prison system). The rationale for training...

  18. Explaining Ethnic Inequality in the Juvenile Justice System, an analysis of the outcomes of Dutch Prosecutorial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of the treatment of minorities in criminal justice systems show that ethnic minorities are punished more harshly. This paper aims to explain ethnic inequality in prosecutorial decision making in the Dutch juvenile justice system. Based on statistical analyses of 409 case files, it emerg

  19. The ICC at the centre ofan international criminal justice system: current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teles, Patrícia Galvão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Criminal Court (ICC has entered into its second decade of operations and has established itself at the centre of an international criminal justice system, comprising also domestic jurisdictions and other international courts and tribunals. However, many challenges continue to face the ICC and, indeed, such challenges are part of its own features and stem from the specificities of international law and relations. In this article, we shall discuss, in light of recent events, four of such challenges: 1 Universality; 2 Complementarity; 3 Cooperation; and 4 the Crime of Aggression. These challenges illustrate how the ICC and international criminal justice inhabit both the cultures of justice and politics and how these two aspects have to be taken into account in order for such challenges to be overcome, so that the mission of a permanent and central instrument for the fight against impunity, that historically started in Rome in 1998, becomes an inherent part of today’s world.

  20. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  1. Explaining attitudes towards the justice system in the UK and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); J.W. Raine (John)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Summary__ _Objectives_ The main objective of this study was to analyse citizens’ attitudes towards the justice system and their determinants, both in the UK and internationally. Based on a literature review and an analysis of existing opinion data, it maps common reasons

  2. Psychology and the criminal justice system: A reply to Haney and Zimbardo

    OpenAIRE

    Lykken, David T.

    1999-01-01

    A reply to Haney & Zimbardo's recent article in the American Psychologist in which they claim that America's crime problem would be largely solved if the criminal justice system had only taken heed of the lessons learned decades ago in the Stanford Prison Project.

  3. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  4. Criminal Justice System Involvement and Continuity of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors associated with persistent offending. This analysis examines the part that criminal justice system involvement plays in persistent offending. Seven waves of data collected on 153 boys as part of the Iowa Youth and Families Project were used to test a structural equation model…

  5. Social Theory and the significance of free will in our system of criminal justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwitters, R.

    2016-01-01

    Free will is a key assumption of our system of criminal justice. However, the assumption of a free will is questioned by the rapidly growing empirical findings of the neuro and the brain sciences. These indicate that human behavior is driven by subconscious forces beyond the free will. In this text

  6. Special Education Advocacy in the Juvenile Justice System: Perspectives from Probation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Dalmage, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Although students with disabilities are over-represented in the juvenile justice system and frequently receive poor educational services, few studies have examined strategies to increase compliance with student needs and individualized education programs. In this study, we conducted interviews with eight probation officers in the Advocacy Unit of…

  7. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  8. Manpower and Education for Criminal Justice in Florida: Assessment and Projected Needs of the System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. System of Florida, Tallahassee.

    This document provides an overview of manpower and needs for criminal justice education in Florida. Following introductory material, Part II presents the current status of criminal justice manpower in the state in terms of quantity, type and educational attainment. This section profiles the personnel of the three major systems--police services,…

  9. Studying the Relationship between Incivility in Work Environment and Perceived Organizational Justice in Rafsanjan Executive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaaddini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Statistical society of the research includes 1737 employees in Rafsanjan executive systems from which 321 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. The instruments of measuring are two questionnaires. Questionnaire of incivility in work environment designed and made by researcher for which validity and reliability are obtained 0.92 and 0.94 respectively. To measure the questionnaire of organizational justice the questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Reliability of both questionnaires was obtained 0.92 and 0.74 by Cronbach Alpha respectively. To test hypotheses Kendal and Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by spss statistical software. Regarding obtained results it is determined that there is a meaningful, reverse relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Based on the results of the research it is suggested that decreasing incivility in work environment provides conditions of perceiving justice and fair in organizations.

  10. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  12. Minority Overrepresentation in the Juvenile Justice System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on the Causes of Minority Overrepresentation and the Plight of Minority Youth in Inner Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The United States Senate's Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice heard testimony on minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and the sentencing of minorities within that system. In particular, the Subcommittee heard testimony from eight witnesses who suggested short- and long-term approaches for helping to eliminate racial bias in the…

  13. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  14. Integrating the American criminal justice and mental health service systems to focus on victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2011-12-01

    Although most research and policy in the mental health and criminal justice arenas have operated independently of one another, there is a growing consensus suggesting the need for an integration of these two disparate, yet complementary systems. Furthermore, in light of the adverse mental health consequences that often accompany victimization experiences, it is apparent that these two systems should develop and foster overlapping services for crime victims. The research reviewed herein provides an examination of issues such as these, identifies some of the barriers that stand in the way of a successful integration of the two systems, and attempts to provide some guidance and direction for future integrated mental health and criminal justice system approaches. An outline of research gaps and directions for future study are offered for the integration of criminal justice and mental health systems, as such collaborations are likely to alleviate some of the deleterious mental health outcomes evident among crime victims and at the same time reduce the occurrence of repeat victimization.

  15. Costs and cost algorithms for dry cooling tower systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, P.A.; Henager, C.H.; Pratt, D.R.; Wiles, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    Costs were obtained and cast models prepared for the major components beyond the turbine exhaust flange of a dry cooling system using either water or ammonia as the intermediate heat exchange fluid. (LCL)

  16. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Turnover Intention: A Survey on Hospital Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Sokhanvar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High organizational justice and its factors are associated with reduced turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 135 nurses working in Labafi Nejad Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2015. The data were collected using Beugre's (1998 questionnaire of organizational justice questionnaire. To analyze the data, Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA tests were performed using SPSS, version 20. Results: Mean organizational justice and turnover intention scores were 68.85±7.67 and 47.8±12.47, respectively. Among the different types of organizational justice, the highest mean score was pertinent to interactional justice (75.24±16.68. A significant inverse correlation was observed between turnover intention and organizational justice (r=-0.36, interactional justice (r=-0.38, and procedural justice (r=-0.36, while no association was noted between turnover intention and systemic and distributive types of justice. Furthermore, there was no link between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in personnel’s intention to leave their job, and given high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to promoting justice and employees’ satisfaction and enhancing stability in their organizations by reinforcing positive attitudes in the employees.

  17. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzadini Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  18. Females in the Juvenile Justice System: Who Are They and How Do They Fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Increasing numbers of female youth involved in the juvenile justice system highlight the need to examine this population. This study enumerates distinct profiles of risk and protection among juvenile court-involved females, examining young adult outcomes associated with these profiles. Administrative data on 700 participants were drawn from multiple service sectors in a Midwest metropolitan region. Latent class and Pearson chi-square analyses were used. Five unique classes were identified; these classes were associated with young adult outcomes. One class of impoverished African American females was most likely to experience problematic young adult outcomes but least likely to have received juvenile justice services. Findings highlight the heterogeneity in the female juvenile court population and discrepancies between service needs and service receipt.

  19. Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System: Plenary Papers of the Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 3 (1999). Research Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Beth E.; Tsenin, Kay; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This publication presents three papers from a 1999 conference on criminal justice research and evaluation. The papers reveal real-life implications of research for a situation of growing urgency. Research has uncovered a link between the victimization of women and their criminal behavior. The papers propose that justice system practice can be…

  20. Justice systems and ICT
    What can be learned from Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Velicogna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislation and case law are only some examples that are spurring judicial administrations around the world to rethink their current functions and activities. ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, thus helping judiciaries to provide adequate services. As many empirical examples show, this is, however, not always the case. The interaction between technology and highly regulated organisations, such as courts, may often lead to unexpected results. Europe, with its different institutional settings and experiences, allows the exploration of a variety of solutions that can be implemented to support the administration of justice. Most importantly, it also provides the opportunities for a unique insight into the dynamics and problems that may characterize such experiences. This article seeks to provide an empirically derived account on the uses of ICT within the courts and for judicial data interchange. The article is based on data collected through several research projects by the Research Institute on Judicial Systems of the Italian National Research Council, in partnership with other European institutions, including Universities and Ministries of Justice.

  1. NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System and the Purdue University Cost Study: A Comparison of Narrowly Defined Direct Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, F. L.; Gleason, W. M.

    One critical aspect of costing system methodologies is examined: the effects of average costing by course level on program unit cost. The direct costing methodologies used in two costing systems are compared. One is the internally developed Purdue University Cost Study; the other, the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. The comparison…

  2. The Effects of Pacifist Norms on the Japanese Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    be seen as the parent , the people as the children and the policemen as the ‘nurses’ of the children .” 28 The military were the guardians of external...establishing a central national authoritarian government. Territorial governors and their families were relocated, with wives and children kept at... homosexuality had been previously accepted.35 The system of trafficking began to adapt, and persons became as common as any other commodity in a colonial

  3. Recent trends in systemic psoriasis treatment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Vivianne; Wolverton, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the current total cost of systemic therapy for psoriasis and to compare annual trends in the cost of both generic and brand-name therapies with trends in the Consumer Price Index-Urban since 2000. A cost model was developed that includes costs for prescription drugs, office visits, and suggested laboratory tests and monitoring procedures. Annual trends in psoriasis drug costs from 2000 through 2008 were analyzed by calculating the percentage change in the average wholesale price from the previous year; these values were compared with changes in the yearly Consumer Price Index-Urban values. The United States. Total annual costs for systemic psoriasis therapies and trends in cost compared with the trends in Consumer Price Index-Urban values (equivalent to inflation). Current total annual costs for systemic psoriasis therapies ranged from $1197 (methotrexate) to $27,577 (alefacept, two 12-week courses). Trends in the average wholesale price of brand-name psoriasis therapies from 2000 through 2008 demonstrate an average increase of 66% (range, -24% to +316%); thus, costs of several brand-name psoriasis drugs greatly outpaced the rates of inflation for all items and all prescription drugs. Despite the higher monitoring costs associated with traditional systemic therapies, annual costs of biologics exceed those of other available therapies. Current trends demonstrate that systemic psoriasis therapy costs are increasing at a much higher rate compared with general inflation.

  4. 正义的成本--民间借贷公证新论%Cost of Justice-on Notarization of Private Lending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向海平; 张璐

    2016-01-01

    经济学中成本与收益的概念引入到法学思维中同样恰如其分。以民间借贷现状的考察作为切入点,从经济学的角度分析民间借贷立法的合理性与可能性,论证公证在立法缺失的民间借贷中所发挥的作用。结合民间借贷的历史发展、特点与优势,分析回应立法监管可能会造成的利益损失,最后得出结论:在现有法律体系中,公证是规范民间借贷成本最小却实现了最大公平正义的制度安排。%The concept of costs and benefits in the economics is appropriate to be introduced into the jurisprudence. With the present situation of private lending as a breakthrough point, rationality and possibility of legislation in private lending and the role of notarization in the absence of legislation in private lending are analyzed from the angle of economics. According to the historical development,characteristics and advantages of private lending,loss of interests incurred by legislation regulation is analyzed;and finally comes the conclusion: in the existing legal system, notarization is an institutional arrangement with minimum cost and maximum equity and justice in regulating private lending.

  5. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Objective: Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women’s Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre’s organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman’s and Anova statistical tests. Results: Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel’s intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees’ satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them. PMID:27482163

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women's Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre's organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman's and Anova statistical tests. Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel's intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees' satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them.

  8. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  9. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  10. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented.

  11. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  12. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  13. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  14. Applying a global justice lens to health systems research ethics: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-03-01

    Recent scholarship has considered what, if anything, rich people owe to poor people to achieve justice in global health and the implications of this for international research. Yet this work has primarily focused on international clinical research. Health systems research is increasingly being performed in low and middle income countries and is essential to reducing global health disparities. This paper provides an initial description of the ethical issues related to priority setting, capacity-building, and the provision of post-study benefits that arise during the conduct of such research. It presents a selection of issues discussed in the health systems research literature and argues that they constitute ethical concerns based on their being inconsistent with a particular theory of global justice (the health capability paradigm). Issues identified include the fact that priority setting for health systems research at the global level is often not driven by national priorities and that capacity-building efforts frequently utilize one-size-fits-all approaches.

  15. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  16. The Exploration of the System of Criminal Justice Statistics%刑事司法统计制度初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2015-01-01

    Criminal justice statistics is a science of judicial measurement , and the system of criminal justice statistics is the regulation of the activities of Criminal Justice Statistics .China is still lack of specialized system of criminal justice statistics .Today, when the data has the absolute right to speak , all the governance model adjustment and management results show should depend on the data .There-fore, it is urgent to establish a system of criminal justice statistics .%刑事司法统计制度是规范刑事司法统计活动的上层建设,而我国目前尚缺乏专门的刑事司法统计制度。在数据拥有绝对话语权的今天,所有的治理模式调整和治理结果展现都有赖于数据,因而亟需建立刑事司法统计制度。

  17. Parental involvement with the criminal justice system and the effects on their children: a collaborative model for researching vulnerable families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Bree; Smyth, J McGregor; Mandell, Donald J; Doan, Thao; Donina, Katerina; Hoven, Christina W

    2012-01-01

    Despite the existing body of research examining the effects of imprisonment on incarcerated adults, as of yet, there is no solid empirical evidence for understanding the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system involvement (CJSI) on children and families. Accordingly, Columbia University-New York State's Child Psychiatric Epidemiology Group (CPEG), supported by a strong collaboration with The Bronx Defenders, a holistic public defender providing free legal representation, is conducting a longitudinal study examining the effects of parental involvement with the criminal justice system on this population. The study aims to understand, over time, the impact of parental CJSI on their children's mental health, including the effects of the collateral legal damage of CJSI (such as eviction and deportation), substance use, the development of risky behaviors leading to the child's potential involvement with the criminal justice system, as well as protective factors and identification of potential intervention points, which has the ability to inform public policy.

  18. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in identifying the issues and provide recommendations, with the main goal of improvement of the legislation and its best implementation in practice by the criminal justice instances, particularly by the prosecution and the court. Through the conclusions derived by this article is intended to exert the right pressure towards state authorities, to improve and better orient criminal policy and to increase the use of alternatives to the precautionary measure of “jail arrest” and imprisonment.

  19. Sexuality knowledge, attitudes, and practices of young women in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Morgan-Kidd, Jayne; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Wood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents in the juvenile justice system have many risk behaviors that endanger their immediate and future health. They are a vulnerable and often overlooked population for whom pediatric nurses working in community settings can provide important prevention services. To develop an intervention targeted to the specific sexual risk behaviors of young women in a juvenile detention center, this study was designed to assess baseline levels of knowledge, values, and behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 100 adolescent girls (ages 13-17 years, mean 14.8) largely from Hispanic backgrounds (74%) who were detained in the juvenile justice system completed a simplified version of the Mathtech sexuality questionnaire. Correct answers and a brief educational program were provided at the completion of the questionnaire. Results suggest that the overwhelming majority of this population is sexually active (94%) and has inadequate knowledge of basic information on sexuality (mean knowledge score, 10.9 out of possible 18 points). While many young women indicated a belief in the importance of contraception (91%), fewer were comfortable going to a clinic for birth control (46%) or had used a reliable method in the past month (37%). Work that will help to increase knowledge, clarify values, and shape healthy behaviors is essential for this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  20. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  1. Public Engagement with the Criminal Justice System in the Age of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Katherine Larson Rose

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exemplified by the landmark trial of O.J. Simpson, news media coverage of criminal cases in the United States is now regularly dominated by tabloid style coverage, complete with fixation on the victims and accused in criminal cases. Investigators have shown that such coverage of criminal proceedings is linked to decreasing levels of public trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. What is not yet understood is how rapid changes to the media universe in terms of online news sources and social networking are impacting coverage of criminal proceedings and public understanding of the criminal justice system. By surveying the American public on their news consumption habits, participation in social networking, knowledge and opinions of highly publicized criminal cases, and perceptions of the legitimacy of the justice system, we offer one of the first analyses of social media’s impact on public interaction with the criminal justice system. Ultimately we find little evidence that social media is enhancing citizen knowledge about or confidence in the criminal justice system, but we do uncover strong evidence that social media engagement with criminal trials leads to a greater desire for vengeance and encouragement of vigilante attitudes and behavior. Como demostró el emblemático juicio a O.J. Simpson, la cobertura mediática de los casos penales en los Estados Unidos está dominada de forma regular por una cobertura de estilo sensacionalista, centrando su atención en las víctimas y acusados de los casos criminales. Investigaciones han demostrado que esta cobertura de los procesos criminales está relacionada con un menor nivel de confianza del público en el sistema de justicia criminal. Todavía no se conoce con qué rapidez están impactando los cambios en el universo de los medios de comunicación que han llegado de la mano de las fuentes de información en línea y las redes sociales, en la cobertura de los procesos criminales y la

  2. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  3. Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo XIE; Huajing FANG; Ying ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for networked control systems (NCSs) is addressed under communication constraints and varying sampling rate. First of all, a simple information-scheduling scheme is presented to describe the scheduling approach of system signals in NCSs. Then, based on such a scheme and given sampling method, the design procedure in dynamic output feedback manner is also derived which renders the closed loop system to be asymptotically stable and guarantees an upper bound of the LQ performance cost function.

  4. Cost effectiveness of new roadway lighting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate and adequate lighting at select locations on roadways is essential for roadway safety. As the lighting technologies advance, many types of new lighting devices have been developed for roadway lightings. The most promising new lighting technologies for roadway lighting include light emitting diode, induction, plasma, and metal halide lighting systems. A study was conducted to compare the new systems with the conventional high pressure sodium systems that are currently used on the Indiana roadway systems. In this study, the engineering issues, were analyzed such as illuminance, color rendering, power usage, cost effectiveness, and approval procedures for new roadway lighting systems. This paper, however, presents only the study findings related to cost effectiveness of the evaluated roadway lighting systems. Illustrated in this paper are the main features of the roadway lighting systems under evaluations, installations of the new lighting systems, measurements of power consumptions, and life cycle cost analyses of the lighting systems. Through this study, experience and knowledge have been obtained on the installations, power measurements, and cost effectiveness of the new types of the roadway lighting devices. The actual power values of various luminaires were obtained by measuring the electric current with a multi-meter. It was found that the differences between the rated and measured power values could be significant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis indicate that the lower life cycle costs of some of the alternative lighting devices are attributed to their relatively lower electricity usages and longer lamp/emitter replacement cycles.

  5. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  6. Television broadcast from space systems: Technology, costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    Broadcast satellite systems are described. The technologies which are unique to both high power broadcast satellites and small TV receive-only earth terminals are also described. A cost assessment of both space and earth segments is included and appendices present both a computer model for satellite cost and the pertinent reported experience with the Japanese BSE.

  7. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  8. Law Enforcement Efforts Against Contempt Of Court As The Judges Shield In Indonesian Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Baroto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contempt of court basically is one of criminal offenses against the administration of justice which as a whole deals with the criminal justice system. The contempt of court cases that occurred in Indonesia but the enforcement of the law against the contempt of court is an issue that is never-ending. The provisions of contempt of court are necessary to ensure the position trust authority and integrity of the court in the judicial process including all matters relating to the judicial process. Guarantee that once the public interest to take action against any violation as an endorsement of the judicial process the rights of the public to ensure a fair trial and protecting privacy. On the other hand there is also a public interest that cant be ignored in any democratic society namely the right to freedom of speech and expression. A manifestation of contempt of court is a speech writing pictures or other expressions that can be categorized as a contempt of court. In other words contempt of court is a restriction of the right to freedom of speech opinion and expression. How to limit the collision of the purposes of enforcing the provisions of contempt of court with the right to freedom of speech freedom of opinion and expression. Preparation of deeds category and procedures for enforcement of contempt of court must be specifically and carefully.

  9. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  10. "Donde esta la justicia?" A Call to Action on Behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System. Building Blocks for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Francisco A.; Walker, Nancy E.

    This report documents the disparate and unfair treatment of Latino/a youth in the U.S. justice system, describing barriers to collection of comprehensive information and potential means for overcoming these barriers. Data came from surveys of juvenile justice system directors in several states and the District of Columbia. The report describes how…

  11. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  12. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  13. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  14. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  15. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  16. Women of Burma Speak Out: Workshops to Deconstruct Gender-Based Violence and Build Systems of Peace and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.; Khuankaew, Ouyporn

    2004-01-01

    Refugee and internally displaced women of Burma examined structural and institutional violence against women within their communities within workshop formats. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and gender justice. The authors describe their methodology, based…

  17. Toward Good Practice for Diversion: The Development of Minimum Standards in the South African Child Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Amelia; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    South Africa has alarmingly high crime rates and a significant proportion of offences are committed by juveniles. Recent legislation seeks to protect children by providing for their diversion out of the criminal justice system. The primary objective of this paper is to describe research undertaken to develop minimum standards for diversion…

  18. The role of criminal justice system in treating drug abusers: the Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong; Huang, Kaicheng

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the role of China's criminal justice system in treating drug abusers and provides a preliminary assessment of the mandatory treatment centers administered by police and reeducation-through-labor camps managed by correction agencies in China. The exploration and assessment are conducted using data collected from recent surveys of drug users in several mandatory treatment centers and a reeducation-through-labor camp in a large city of China in 2009. The data reveal that the treatment involvement levels of drug users in these mandatory treatment centers and reeducation-through-labor camps varied and their perceptions of the treatments they had received for their recovery seem fairly positive. The implication of these findings was discussed in the context of Chinese social and legal tradition.

  19. The relationship of victim injury to the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M

    2012-08-01

    A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.

  20. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  1. Imposed Stories: Prisoner Self-narratives in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Hall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which offenders are required to provide very particular accounts of themselves and to self-narrate in confined ways. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in the New South Wales justice system, it explores how the stories that offenders are made to accept and tell about themselves often bear little relationship to their own reflections. It analyses how, despite the expectations of judges and prison authorities, these self-narratives are not products of an offender’s soul-searching concerning his past actions and experience; rather they are products of an official legal narrative being imposed on an offender whose capacity to own and enact such a narrative is already seriously compromised.

  2. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Characteristics of Youth Referred for Mental Health Evaluation in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kenneth M.; Powell, Elaine; Strock, Melissa

    This study examined the demographic, service use, and juvenile justice history associated with clinical variables in a juvenile justice population. Records of 3,283 youth (ages 10 to 18) admitted to a juvenile corrections facility in a six-month period were reviewed. Of this group, 244 (8 percent) had been referred for mental health evaluation.…

  4. A cost modelling system for cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeh, Daniel; Ellman, Jeremy; Keogh, Shelagh

    2014-01-01

    An advance in technology unlocks new opportunities for organizations to increase their productivity, efficiency and process automation while reducing the cost of doing business as well. The emergence of cloud computing addresses these prospects through the provision of agile systems that are scalable, flexible and reliable as well as cost effective. Cloud computing has made hosting and deployment of computing resources cheaper and easier with no up-front charges but pay per-use flexible payme...

  5. A Low Cost Course Information Syndication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A. O.; Olajubu, E. A.; Bello, S. A.; Soriyan, H. A.; Obamuyide, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a cost effective, reliable, and convenient mobile web-based system to facilitate the dissemination of course information to students, to support interaction that goes beyond the classroom. The system employed the Really Simple Syndication (RSS) technology and was developed using Rapid Application Development (RAD) methodology.…

  6. Low-cost LANDSAT processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N. L.; Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT analysis system is assembled from commercially available components at relatively low cost. Small-scale system is put together for price affordable for state agencies and universities. It processes LANDSAT data for subscene areas on repetitive basis. Amount of time required for processing decreases linearly with number of classifications desired. Computer programs written in FORTRAN IV are available for analyzing data.

  7. Serving Social Justice: The Role of the Commons in Sustainable Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sumner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Food is a source of sustenance, a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a vehicle for power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change and, above all, a life good.  Along with other life goods such as potable water, clean air, adequate shelter and protective clothing, food is something we cannot live without.  The global corporate food system, however, allows 800 million to go hungry, while an even larger number of people grow obese.  Based in money-values, this food system promotes accumulation first and foremost, enriching a few while creating economic, social and environmental externalities that are destroying local economies, devastating individuals, families and communities and degrading the planet.

    What would a food system look like that was based in life-values, centred on the commons and anchored by social justice?  This paper will focus on the creation of sustainable food systems, beginning with the crises of the global corporate food system and then moving to the heart of sustainable food systems – the civil commons.

  8. Serving Social Justice: The Role of the Commons in Sustainable Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sumner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Food is a source of sustenance, a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a vehicle for power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change and, above all, a life good.  Along with other life goods such as potable water, clean air, adequate shelter and protective clothing, food is something we cannot live without.  The global corporate food system, however, allows 800 million to go hungry, while an even larger number of people grow obese.  Based in money-values, this food system promotes accumulation first and foremost, enriching a few while creating economic, social and environmental externalities that are destroying local economies, devastating individuals, families and communities and degrading the planet. What would a food system look like that was based in life-values, centred on the commons and anchored by social justice?  This paper will focus on the creation of sustainable food systems, beginning with the crises of the global corporate food system and then moving to the heart of sustainable food systems – the civil commons.

  9. [Relationship between cost systems and hospital expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cornejo, Beatriz; Pérez-Méndez, José A

    2017-08-31

    To analyze the relationship between the degree of development of hospital cost systems (CS) implemented by the regional health services (RHS) and the variation in unit cost of hospitals in Spanish National Health Service (NHS) between 2010 and 2013 and to identify other explanatory factors of this variation. A database of NHS hospitals was constructed from exclusively public sources. Using a multilevel regression model, explaining factors of the variation in unit cost (cost per weighted unit of activity [WAU]) of a sample of 170 hospitals were analyzed. The variables representative of the degree of development of CS are associated in a negative and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. It is observed that if a high-level development CS is used the cost variation per WAU would be reduced by close to 3.2%. There is also a negative and significant relationship between the variation in the cost per WAU and the variations in the percentage of high technology and the hospital occupancy rate. On the other hand, the variations in the average cost of personnel and in the number of workers per 100 beds are associated in a positive and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. In the period analysed, during which the main health expenditure adjustment was made, the control in hospital unit cost is associated not only with spending cuts but also with aspects related to their management, such as the implementation of more developed CS. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  12. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-02-18

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  13. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD within the National Health Service (NHS. UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH, Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs, whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards

  14. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  15. What Can Engineering Systems Teach Us About Social (In)Justices? The Case of Public Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Politicians, consultants and engineers develop public transportation systems using a variety of well-developed and established modeling tools to calculate different aspects of a system. Some of them are performance-capacity against investment models to determine the value of a given technical...... choice. Others are economic models to calculate the feasibility of the system, the distributed benefits across population groups and the possibility of providing improved access to special users. These models are regarded as “rational” and thus morally neutral. However, recent research has demonstrated...... transportation system coined as one of the most progressive on the planet. Part of a political discourse to improve social justice in Bogotá, the project is successful in many respects but falls short of the original aims in many other respects. The chapter describes how the “rational modeling” brought...

  16. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  17. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  18. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  19. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  20. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  1. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  2. Innovation of costing system in metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kutač

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation means creating and implementing new ideas in theory and practice. Generally speaking, companies in the Czech Republic that don’t have a foreign owner behave very conservatively as far as the used costing system is concerned. This also applies to metallurgical companies and foundries. The decision on method of costing calculations should be included in the sphere of strategic decision-making. The strategy must also define how to use method so as to obtain new orders which, as a result, should lead to an increase in production volume, and thereby to higher capacity utilization and also to higher overall sales. The article discusses the innovation of costing system in metallurgical companies.

  3. The International Criminal Court and the Place of Africa in International Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Amarachi Ofodeme

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human rights have been flouted indiscriminately and deliberately in the international system. To that effect, the ICC was established to ensure that perpetrators of massive and systematic violations of human rights are brought to justice in the international system. The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of the International Criminal Court in the discharge of its mandate in the global system. The central argument in the paper is that the ICC has made significant progress in the prosecution of some cases, but all in Africa. Meanwhile, there are cases within its jurisdiction that have been ignored in other parts of the world, especially when advanced countries are involved. Neoliberalism was adopted as the theoretical framework. The study adopted secondary method of data collection. The data was content analyzed. It was established that the ICC is faced with challenges and that the long term viability depends on how successfully it overcomes its challenges. This study advocates for: first, fairness in the UNSC referrals.  Second, America’s taming of its unilateralism. Third, financial contributions without string attached. Fourth, United States ratification of the Rome Treaty; and fifth, ICC prosecution of all the cases within its jurisdiction in every part of the globe.

  4. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  5. The Researcher-Practitioner Partnership Study (RPPS): Experiences From Criminal Justice System Collaborations Studying Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tami P; Price, Carolina; McPartland, Tara; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-06-05

    The benefits of researcher-practitioner (R-P) collaborations focused on violence against women (VAW) are many. Such projects support researchers and practitioners working together to create uniquely comprehensive projects that have the potential to change practices, policies, and services. Extant literature is limited in that it has (a) focused on the experiences of a very limited number of collaborations, (b) ignored collaborations conducted in the context of the criminal justice system, and (c) excluded as a focus the products that result from the collaborations and their dissemination. Therefore, the goal of this qualitative study is to identify the essential elements to consider for successful R-P collaborations on VAW research in the criminal justice system.

  6. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  7. Empowering Energy Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L

    2016-09-21

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure "just" transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between "green" and "just", as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  8. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  9. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  10. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  11. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  12. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sase Yuji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views, knee (three views, wrist (two views, and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  13. Filmless versus film-based systems in radiographic examination costs: an activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hiroshi; Tani, Yuji; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Yokooka, Yuki; Abe, Tamotsu; Sase, Yuji; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-09-30

    Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-based costing (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.

  14. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  15. Incarceration and sexual risk: examining the relationship between men's involvement in the criminal justice system and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.

  16. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  17. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  18. Life support system cost study: Addendum to cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    New cost data are presented for the Hydrogen-Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (HDC), based on modifying the concentrator to delete the quick disconnect valves and filters included in the system model defined in MDC-G4631. System description, cost data and a comparison between CO2 concentrator costs are presented.

  19. Patterns of mental health, substance abuse, and justice system involvement among youth aging out of child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Jeffrey; Goodkind, Sara; Pohlig, Ryan T; Schelbe, Lisa; Herring, David; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-07-01

    Although research on youth aging out of the child welfare system has increased, there has been limited focus on how their experiences vary. In particular, there is a need to examine patterns in the involvement of these youth in other systems, which indicate constellations of challenges facing these young people as they transition out of care and into adulthood. Using administrative data from a large birth cohort of individuals born between 1985 and 1994 whose families have been involved in the child welfare system, this article presents an analysis of the mental health, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and criminal justice system involvement of youth who have aged out of child welfare. Using a 2-step cluster analysis, we identify 5 subgroups of youth. Two of these groups, accounting for almost half of the youth, have little other system involvement and have child welfare care careers of relative stability. The other 3 groups, consisting of just over half of the youth, have much more extensive other system involvement, as well as care careers marked by instability and a greater proportion of time spent in congregate care.

  20. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  1. Advancing system and policy changes for social and racial justice: comparing a Rural and Urban Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devia, Carlos; Baker, Elizabeth A; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Barnidge, Ellen; Golub, Maxine; Motton, Freda; Muhammad, Michael; Ruddock, Charmaine; Vicuña, Belinda; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-02-21

    The paper examines the role of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within the context of social justice literature and practice. Two CBPR case studies addressing health inequities related to Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease were selected from a national cross-site study assessing effective academic-community research partnerships. One CBPR partnership works with African Americans in rural Pemiscot County, Missouri and the other CBPR partnership works with African American and Latinos in urban South Bronx, New York City. Data collection included semi-structured key informant interviews and focus groups. Analysis focused on partnerships' context/history and their use of multiple justice-oriented strategies to achieve systemic and policy changes in order to address social determinants of health in their communities. Community context and history shaped each partnership's strategies to address social determinants. Four social justice approaches (identity/recognition, procedural, distributive, and structural justice) used by both partnerships were identified. These social justice approaches were employed to address underlying causes of inequitable distribution of resources and power structures, while remaining within a scientific research framework. CBPR can bridge the role of science with civic engagement and political participation, empowering community members to become political agents who integrate evidence into their social justice organizing strategies.

  2. Integrated Library Systems for Small Libraries: Estimating the Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havercamp, Dan

    1985-01-01

    The "average" costs of integrated library system components--including hardware, software, and related expenses--are outlined to assist in projecting the costs of a small system. Potential benefits of such systems, i.e., areas in which operational costs can be reduced through their use, are also reviewed. (EJS)

  3. 78 FR 7718 - Review of the General Purpose Costing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1247 and 1248 Review of the General Purpose Costing System... general purpose costing system, the Uniform Railroad Costing System (URCS). Specifically, the Board is..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Comments may be submitted either via the Board's e-filing format or in the traditional...

  4. A new costing model in hospital management: time-driven activity-based costing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öker, Figen; Özyapıcı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-based costing system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-based costing system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-based costing system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas.

  5. Activity based costing: Challenging the way we cost underground coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, G.H. [University of Witwatersrand, Witwatersrand (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the traditional costing approach currently used in the underground coal mining industry. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is identified as being a potentially more effective manner in which to cost underground coal mining systems. With the use of a costing framework developed by the author incorporating new thinking to eliminate the shortcomings identified in the traditional costing approach, a comparison of two types of underground coal mining systems, viz. continuous miner and longwall, is conducted. It is found that under certain criteria, in all cases, irrespective of the way in which the systems are costed, the continuous miner system is currently the better investment It is also observed that when a system is costed using ABC that better investment decisions result when compared to costing the same system using traditional costing techniques. it is further seen that traditional costing techniques tend to overestimate the total costs of a mining system. This paper shows one application of ABC that can be incorporated as a management tool.

  6. Life-Cycle Costing for Training System Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Steve L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses annual cost and present worth methods as two basic ways of calculating life-cycle cost to make purchasing decisions when replacing training systems. A training cost analysis worksheet to aid in asking comprehensive questions about training costs as they currently exist is included. (MBR)

  7. Improving the Defense Acquisition System and Reducing System Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-30

    DDTE NAVMATO 421 HQ U3AF/ LEYE PA&E DSB/OP-098R NAVAIR (Air-41) CSD/PA&E . ASA (R, D, A) CSD (MRA&L) DA/DSLOG CSD (Ccmpt) Proj 72...a layered and collateral management structure created by the need to control different " colors " of money. This can all result in total system cost

  8. Incremental cost analysis of advanced concept CAES systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsen, C.A.

    1979-09-01

    The costs of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems using thermal energy storage (TES) are compared to the costs of CAES systems without TES and simple cycle gas turbine systems. Comparisons are made in terms of the system energy costs levelized over the operating life of the systems. These are in 1985 price levels which is the assumed first year of operation for the systems.

  9. Cost attributable to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in the Canadian correctional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading identifiable cause of intellectual disability in the Western world and may result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Individuals with FASD have a higher risk of being involved in the legal system, either as offenders or as victims. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to estimate the direct cost for youths (12-17 years old) and adults (18+ years old) with FASD to the Canadian correctional system in 2011/2012. The prevalence of FASD in the Canadian correctional system, obtained from the current epidemiological literature, was applied to the average number of youths and adults in the correctional system in 2011/2012. The average daily cost for corrections was then applied to the estimated number of youths and adults with FASD in custody. The cost of corrections among youths with FASD in Canada in 2011/2012 was calculated to be approximately $17.5M Canadian dollars (CND; $13.6M CND for males and $3.8M CND for females) and among adults with FASD was estimated to be about $356.2M CND ($140M CND for provincial and territorial custody and $216.2M CND for federal custody). The study findings emphasize the need to raise awareness regarding the prevalence of FASD in the correctional system. It is crucial to incorporate FASD screening and intervention strategies as early as possible in the criminal justice process.

  10. Cost Structure and Life Cycle Costs for Military Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Česká republika Ryvangs Allé 1, P.O. Box 2715 Centro di Documentazione DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Tecnico -Scientifica della Difesa ROYAUME-UNI Via XX...ITALY ARGE Dairesi Başkanliği (MSB) DENMARK Centro di Documentazione 06650 Bakanliklar - Ankara Danish Defence Research Tecnico -Scientifica della...categories of support elements are broadly common for all kinds of system. They include: Data: all deliverable data and publications, e.g., manuals

  11. Using the pallet costing system to determine costs and stay competitive in the pallet industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jefferson Jr. Palmer; Bruce G. Hansen; Bruce G. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    In order to stay competitive and keep production costs at a minimum, wood pallet manufacturers must plan, monitor, and control their various production activities. Cost information on pallet manufacturing operations, must be gathered and analyzed so that the plant manager can determine whether certain activities are efficient and profitable. The Pallet Costing System (...

  12. Law of “good and evil”, non-linear function of justice, political regimes and deformation of political systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gennadyevich Ol’kov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the law of good and evil the function rule of justice and to construct mathematical models of political regimes. Methods 1 observation analysis and synthesis 2 deduction and induction 3 using the laws of formal logic 4 formal legal method 5 mathematical modeling 6 the study of mathematical functions 7 differential calculus 8 plotting. Results the author has deduced 1 the nonlinear law function of good and evil 2 the nonlinear function of justice 3 the law function of political regimes. Scientific novelty the author has calculated and found 1 a nonlinear formula DLcol ndashLcol3 which represents the relationship between the acts of legal public relations subjects D and thecollective freedom Lcol ndash the law of quotgood and evilquot 2 a nonlinear formula YD D3 illustrating the relationship between the acts of legal relations subjects D and responsibility for their actions Y ndash a nonlinear function of justice 3 a nonlinear formulanbsp that shows the relationship between the individual Lind and collective freedom Lcol in the negative area of the function definition collective negative freedom and a formulanbsp reflecting the relationship between the individual and collective freedom in the positive area of the function definition collective positive freedom 4 has given a general classification of political regimes in the world describing their functions showing the types of political systems deformation that occur due to the leftwise and rightwise shifts of collective freedom. Practical value the possibility to use the obtained scientific results in the development of various legal theories. nbsp

  13. 医疗保健制度正义标准新探%New Exploration of Health care System Justice Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静娴; 范瑞平

    2016-01-01

    Implementing health justice is an important target for one country to establish and perfect health care system. Health justice monism has serious defects. It is urgent to explore a new standard of health justice from multi-ple perspectives. In terms of five value dimensions including equality, liberty, personal respect, utility and respon-sibility, this paper constructed a "multivariate framework of health justice" and put forward the evaluation index system for each value dimension. It offers a new theoretical exploration for comparing and evaluating the justice of healthcare systems in an objective, thorough and comprehensive way.%实现卫生正义是一个国家建立健全医疗保健制度的重要目标。卫生正义一元论存在严重缺陷,亟需从多元视阈下探究医疗保健制度的新型正义标准。从平等、自由、对人的尊重、功利、责任五个价值维度出发,构建一个“卫生正义多元框架”,并提出不同价值维度下的评价指标体系,为客观、全面、综合地比较、评价医疗保健制度的正义性提供理论新探。

  14. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  15. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena.

  16. Collecting and Reporting Real Costs of Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Douglas S.

    This document attempts to provide managers and designers of information systems with a usable, practical "building block" system for unit costing. The model is sufficiently flexible to be applicable to a wide variety of cost control requirements; costing elements include project, product, account, organization and function. Design of the cost…

  17. Use of a cost accounting system to evaluate costs of a VA special program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, T J; Wray, N P

    1999-04-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established six mobile clinics to provide care for rural veterans. Each was operated by a parent VA Medical Center (VAMC). To describe the use of a cost-accounting system which does not provide costs at the service or patient level to determine the costs of the mobile clinics. Costs per visit were compared among the mobile clinics with the parent VAMCs and with simulated fixed-location clinics. Cost data came from VA's Centralized Accounting for Local Management (CALM) data. Utilization data came from VA's outpatient file. Information was obtained from the VAMCs' fiscal services to reallocate costs among the CALM subaccounts to generate cost data that was comparable among the mobile clinics. Costs per visit for the mobile clinics were twice as high as those of the parent VAMCs. Costs per visit would be lower at fixed-location clinics unless the volume were substantially less than that provided by the mobile clinics. Differences between cost allocations for accounting purposes and research are likely to necessitate adjusting cost accounting data for research purposes. Fortunately, information from the accountants or primary data can lead to a cost database which is appropriate for research evaluations. In the mobile clinics study, the analysis of cost accounting data led to the conclusion that mobile clinics were not a cost-effective way in which to provide care to rural veterans.

  18. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  19. the Construction of Criminal Justice Case Guiding System of China%我国刑事司法案例指导制度的构建设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖彦西

    2013-01-01

    将中国刑事司法案例指导制度作为制定法的补充,对维护法的统一性、安定性,实现社会公平、正义具有重要的意义。文章分别就刑事司法指导性案例的遴选、刑事司法指导性案例的创制主体、刑事司法指导性案例的公布及备案、刑事司法指导性案例的适用和刑事司法指导性案例的废止与修改五个方面,提出粗略设想。%Criminal justice guiding system as a supplement should be constructed so as to give full scope to the positive role of the latter in criminal and judicial activities.This paper suggests ideas of the selection of criminal Justice guiding case,the principal part of creating criminal Justice guiding case,the promulgation and record of criminal Justice guiding case,the repeal and revision of criminal Justice guiding case.

  20. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  1. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  2. Physical distribution costs in construction supply chains: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide insights into the trade-offs of physical distribution cost patterns in construction supply chains by modelling and measuring these costs. The model of the physical distribution system consists of the following (cost) elements: inventory, transport, handling,

  3. Physical distribution costs in construction supply chains: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide insights into the trade-offs of physical distribution cost patterns in construction supply chains by modelling and measuring these costs. The model of the physical distribution system consists of the following (cost) elements: inventory, transport, handling,

  4. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...(2), use the following clause: Cost Estimating System Requirements (DEC 2006) (a) Definitions..., totaling $50 million or more for which cost or pricing data were required; or (2) In its fiscal year... more (but less than $50 million) for which cost or pricing data were required; and (ii) Was notified...

  5. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  6. Children in the criminal justice and secure care systems: how their mental health needs are met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Z; Thornes, R; Bailey, S

    1998-10-01

    A study was made of the perceptions among relevant service providers of the mental health needs of young people considered for secure placement. Information was obtained in 1996 from 75% of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, social services children's services, youth justice, probation, secure units and young offender institutions in England and Wales. The findings confirm that highly disturbed young people, who may be a danger to themselves and others, may present to a wide range of services, and that their mental health needs are neither well recognized, widely understood, nor adequately met. Availability of appropriate levels and types of expertise and resource is patchy and strictly limited, within secure settings and in local community services across all agencies.

  7. Intelligent Cost Modeling Based on Soft Computing for Avionics Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-li; LI Zhuang-sheng; XU Zong-ze

    2006-01-01

    In parametric cost estimating, objections to using statistical Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) and parametric models include problems of low statistical significance due to limited data points, biases in the underlying data, and lack of robustness. Soft Computing (SC) technologies are used for building intelligent cost models. The SC models are systemically evaluated based on their training and prediction of the historical cost data of airborne avionics systems. Results indicating the strengths and weakness of each model are presented. In general, the intelligent cost models have higher prediction precision, better data adaptability, and stronger self-learning capability than the regression CERs.

  8. Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    account for how cost estimating for autonomy is different than current methodologies and to suggest ways it can be addressed through the integration and...required effort for a UMAS, we use the Constructive Systems Engineering Cost Model (COSYSMO). This parametric model’s output accounts for integrating...Fabrycky, 2003). The current practice in many organizations is to focus most of the cost of product development and when the project reaches the T

  9. Is the system really the solution? Operating costs in hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton Robert; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Wholey, Douglas R; Kruse, Gregory; Kralovec, Peter; Muller, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Hospital system formation has recently accelerated. Executives emphasize scale economies that lower operating costs, a claim unsupported in academic research. Do systems achieve lower costs than freestanding facilities, and, if so, which system types? We test hypotheses about the relationship of cost with membership in systems, larger systems, and centralized and local hub-and-spoke systems. We also test whether these relationships have changed over time. Examining 4,000 U.S. hospitals during 1998 to 2010, we find no evidence that system members exhibit lower costs. However, members of smaller systems are lower cost than larger systems, and hospitals in centralized systems are lower cost than everyone else. There is no evidence that the system's spatial configuration is associated with cost, although national system hospitals exhibit higher costs. Finally, these results hold over time. We conclude that while systems in general may not be the solution to lower costs, some types of systems are.

  10. [Cost of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Applying an activity-based costing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rebull, María-Victoria; Terceño Gómez, Antonio; Travé Bautista, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    To apply the activity based costing (ABC) model to calculate the cost of therapy for neurodegenerative disorders in order to improve hospital management and allocate resources more efficiently. We used the case study method in the Francolí long-term care day center. We applied all phases of an ABC system to quantify the cost of the activities developed in the center. We identified 60 activities; the information was collected in June 2009. The ABC system allowed us to calculate the average cost per patient with respect to the therapies received. The most costly and commonly applied technique was psycho-stimulation therapy. Focusing on this therapy and on others related to the admissions process could lead to significant cost savings. ABC costing is a viable method for costing activities and therapies in long-term day care centers because it can be adapted to their structure and standard practice. This type of costing allows the costs of each activity and therapy, or combination of therapies, to be determined and aids measures to improve management. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Low Cost Data Acquisition System for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma Gaurav Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the engineering education in India is increasing, so the demand of quality projects and quality research at the students level is also increasing. To make good hardware projects most of the time we need to acquire real time data. This acquisition is done through the dedicated device which is called Data Acquisition Device. In India there are very less no. of companies which are making the Data Acquisition Devices and the available devices are very costly for the students. Hence, there is need to provide students a cost effective or low cost device which can suite according to their proposed work. In this paper we have designed and implemented a prototype of Data Acquisition Device (DAQ using AVR microcontroller. The software for the DAQ device has been mode on MATLAB and LabView and the device has been tested for different tasks and under different conditions

  12. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  13. Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition. Issue Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhjem, Pam

    2005-01-01

    How do communities begin to address the issue of youth with disabilities who become involved with correctional systems? This brief provides information on proactive solutions based on restorative justice and wrap-around services, models, and strategies. This topic is receiving more attention as research has begun supporting a critical need for…

  14. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  15. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  16. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  17. The costs of introducing new technologies into space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, E. N.; Partma, H.; Ruhland, W.

    1992-01-01

    A review is conducted of cost-research studies intended to provide guidelines for cost estimates of integrating new technologies into existing satellite systems. Quantitative methods are described for determining the technological state-of-the-art so that proposed programs can be evaluated accurately in terms of their contribution to technological development. The R&D costs associated with the proposed programs are then assessed with attention given to the technological advances. Also incorporated quantifiably are any reductions in the costs of production, operations, and support afforded by the advanced technologies. The proposed model is employed in relation to a satellite sizing and cost study in which a tradeoff between increased R&D costs and reduced production costs is examined. The technology/cost model provides a consistent yardstick for assessing the true relative economic impact of introducing novel techniques and technologies.

  18. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  19. Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Worthington, J.C. (Sybase, Inc. (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

  20. “The Mad”, “The Bad”, “The Victim”: Gendered Constructions of Women Who Kill within the Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Weare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Women commit significantly fewer murders than men and are perceived to be less violent. This belief about women’s non-violence reflects the discourses surrounding gender, all of which assume that women possess certain inherent essential characteristics such as passivity and gentleness. When women commit murder the fundamental social structures based on appropriate feminine gendered behaviour are contradicted and subsequently challenged. This article will explore the gendered constructions of women who kill within the criminal justice system. These women are labelled as either mad, bad or a victim, by both the criminal justice system and society, depending on the construction of their crime, their gender and their sexuality. Symbiotic to labelling women who kill in this way is the denial of their agency. That is to say that labelling these women denies the recognition of their ability to make a semi-autonomous decision to act in a particular way. It is submitted that denying the agency of these women raises a number of issues, including, but not limited to, maintaining the current gendered status quo within the criminal law and criminal justice system, and justice both being done, and being seen to be done, for these women and their victims.

  1. Developmental Psycho- Neurological Research Trends and Their Importance for Reassessing Key Decision-Making Assumptions for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Juvenile/Youth and Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the underlying foundations of Western criminal justice is the notion that human behavior is the product of rational choice. The creation of separate justice systems for juveniles and adults is based on the idea that fundamental differences in rationality exist between these two groups. Since its inception, the establishment of upper and lower boundaries demarking the juvenile justice system has been a highly contentious issue, both scientifically and politically. Critically, this debate stems from the largely arbitrary nature of the boundaries. Over the last thirty years a sufficiently large body of psychological and neurological empirical work has examined the development of decision-making and rational choice in late childhood, adolescents, and adulthood. The current article discusses the implications of this research on the establishment of upper and lower age jurisdictions for the juvenile justice system, as well as how adolescent decision-making influences other key aspects of the justice process such as competency to stand trial.

  2. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  3. 18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average System Cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE... ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a) Functionalization of each...

  4. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  5. Activity-based costing for integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J

    1995-01-01

    The paradigm shift toward managed care is fueling new cost-finding demands. More sophisticated methods are emerging to meet these demands. Foremost among the new methods is activity-based costing (ABC). ABC is designed to eliminate cross-subsidies between products or services. Because costs are traced by activities across departments and cost centers, costs can also be traced by activities across integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The methodology makes ABC very applicable to combinations of providers including chains, affiliated groups, and IDS participants.

  6. Low-Cost Medical Office Data Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Divinski, Jane

    1980-01-01

    This project is developing and demonstrating a low-cost microcomputer-based medical office data management system. The system is aimed at the specific needs of small primary care medical practices, in particular, those located in rural areas.

  7. Cost evaluation of clinical laboratory in Taiwan's National Health System by using activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin-Guang; Chen, Shao-Fen; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Shih, Po-Wen; Lin, Ching-Chiang

    2016-11-01

    To cope with the government's policies to reduce medical costs, Taiwan's healthcare service providers are striving to survive by pursuing profit maximization through cost control. This article aimed to present the results of cost evaluation using activity-based costing performed in the laboratory in order to throw light on the differences between costs and the payment system of National Health Insurance (NHI). This study analyzed the data of costs and income of the clinical laboratory. Direct costs belong to their respective sections of the department. The department's shared costs, including public expenses and administrative assigned costs, were allocated to the department's respective sections. A simple regression equation was created to predict profit and loss, and evaluate the department's break-even point, fixed cost, and contribution margin ratio. In clinical chemistry and seroimmunology sections, the cost per test was lower than the NHI payment and their major laboratory tests had revenues with the profitability ratio of 8.7%, while the other sections had a higher cost per test than the NHI payment and their major tests were in deficit. The study found a simple linear regression model as follows: "Balance=-84,995+0.543×income (R2=0.544)". In order to avoid deficit, laboratories are suggested to increase test volumes, enhance laboratory test specialization, and become marginal scale. A hospital could integrate with regional medical institutions through alliances or OEM methods to increase volumes to reach marginal scale and reduce laboratory costs, enhancing the level and quality of laboratory medicine.

  8. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  9. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  10. Cost estimation and analysis using the Sherpa Automated Mine Cost Engineering System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, P.E. [Western Mine Engineering, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Sherpa Automated Mine Cost Engineering System is a menu-driven software package designed to estimate capital and operating costs for proposed surface mining operations. The program is engineering (as opposed to statistically) based, meaning that all equipment, manpower, and supply requirements are determined from deposit geology, project design and mine production information using standard engineering techniques. These requirements are used in conjunction with equipment, supply, and labor cost databases internal to the program to estimate all associated costs. Because virtually all on-site cost parameters are interrelated within the program, Sherpa provides an efficient means of examining the impact of changes in the equipment mix on total capital and operating costs. If any aspect of the operation is changed, Sherpa immediately adjusts all related aspects as necessary. For instance, if the user wishes to examine the cost ramifications of selecting larger trucks, the program not only considers truck purchase and operation costs, it also automatically and immediately adjusts excavator requirements, operator and mechanic needs, repair facility size, haul road construction and maintenance costs, and ancillary equipment specifications.

  11. A software cost model with maintenance and risk costs for safety-critical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-wei; YANG Xiao-zong; QU Feng; DONG Jian

    2006-01-01

    According to the consequences of software failures, software faults remaining in safety-critical systems can be classified into two sets: common faults and fatal faults. Common faults cause slight loss when they are activated. A fatal fault can lead to significant loss, and even damage the safety-critical system entirely when it is activated. A software reliability growth model for safety-critical systems is developed based on G-O model. And a software cost model is proposed too. The cost model considers maintenance and risk costs due to software failures. The optimal release policies are discussed to minimize the total software cost. A numerical example is provided to illustrate how to use the results we obtained.

  12. SCATS: SRB Cost Accounting and Tracking System handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorv, R. B.; Stewart, R. D.; Coley, G.; Higginbotham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Cost Accounting and Tracking System (SCATS) which is an automatic data processing system designed to keep a running account of the number, description, and estimated cost of Level 2, 3, and 4 changes is described. Although designed specifically for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Program, the ADP system can be used for any other program that has a similar structure for recording, reporting, and summing numbers and costs of changes. The program stores the alpha-numeric designators for changes, government estimated costs, proposed costs, and negotiated value in a MIRADS (Marshall Information Retrieval and Display System) format which permits rapid access, manipulation, and reporting of current change status. Output reports listing all changes, totals of each level, and totals of all levels, can be derived for any calendar interval period.

  13. A COST ORIENTED SYSTEM FOR HOLE MAKING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur PAMUKOĞLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based system for manufacturing of various hole making processes has been developed. In the system, selection of machining methods, determination of sequences based on cutting tools for each process, determination of process time and cost analysis have been conducted. In the procedure, all available processes have been taken in to account regarding their costs and the most suitable in cost was chosen. The system generated helps facilitate determination of process time and the costs of features to be manufactured. It is especially useful for quick cost estimation. In addition to these, the system helps people who are naïve in manufacturing operations so that people could be used for the related manufacturing stages.

  14. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  15. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  16. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  17. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    stage are considered. Cost analyses are conducted for different risk reduction targets and for three alternative scenarios concerning the acceptable range of interventions. Results demonstrate that using a system-wide policy approach to risk reduction can be more cost-effective than a policy focusing...

  18. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: Superconducting magnet system cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    At the request of Victor Karpenko, Project manager for LLL`s Mirror Fusion Test Facility, EG&G has prepared this independent cost analysis for the proposed MFTF Superconducting Magnet System. The analysis has attempted to show sufficient detail to provide adequate definition for a basis of estimating costs.

  19. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  20. Consumer Dispersion and Logistics Costs in Various Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Klose, Andreas

    We address the relationship between the geographical dispersion of a set of demand points and the expected logistics costs. This is relevant in the strategic marketing decision which groups of consumers to target. We devise quickly computable measures for the logistics costs. In our experiments......, dispersed sets of demand points are created. For various types of distribution systems, expected logistics costs are computed using continuous approximation, location and routing methodologies. We find that the average distance between locations is an effective estimate of the logistics costs....

  1. Steps towards improving the system of records, collection and monitoring of data relevant to statistics within the system of juvenile justice in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the importance of „good statistics of juvenile justice“ as one of the basis for a clearer overview of the juvenile crime situation, in order to create unique policies at local and national levels for the suppression and prevention of this phenomenon, and to create appropriate areas for action in terms of improving the system reform. The author particularly gives a review of the „Global Indicators in Juvenile Justice“ which present the basic set of data and comparative tool that provides a basis for the assessment and evaluation of services and policies in the field of juvenile justice, and highlights the importance of compatibility of „national indicators“ with them. Particular attention in the paper has been devoted to the overview and analysis of the necessary measures to improve this field, that were prepared and delivered to the relevant ministries and institutions by the Council for Monitoring and Promoting the work of Bodies Engaged in Criminal Proceeding and Enforcement of Juvenile Criminal Sanctions Involving Juveniles - Juvenile Justice Council (hereinafter: the Council. It was pointed, first of all, at the suggestions made by the Council to the Ministry of Justice with the aim to improve the Program for automated record keeping, at the necessary changes of the Court rules, and certain amendments to Forms SK- 3 and SK- 4 of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia were presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  2. Individuals in the criminal justice system show differences in cooperative behaviour: Implications from cooperative games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brendan C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hendricks, Peter S; Sharp, Carla; Clark, Shane K; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    The high rate of incarceration in the USA warrants continued exploration into understanding and ameliorating criminal behaviour. The growing use of cooperative games to measure developing prosocial behaviours has never been explored in a US criminal justice population. The aim of this study is to examine cooperative game play among offenders under supervision in the community. We hypothesised that the offenders would use more guarded and self-preserving strategies and be more likely to excel in short-lived interactions than law-abiding community citizens. Community supervised offenders (83) and general population comparison participants (41) were recruited by town centre adverts placed in popular shops. Using the supervision centres as venues, all participants were asked to complete four cooperative games (prisoner's dilemma, public goods game, ultimatum game and trust game), not knowing the identity of the other player who was always, in fact, the experimenter. The offender and general population groups were similar in age (early 30s), sex (2/3 men), race (45% white) and IQ distribution (low average range). Offenders made lower offers in the ultimatum game, had lower scores in the prisoner's dilemma, made lower investments and offered lower returns in the trust game and contributed less in the public goods game. Even community-based offenders thus seem to have deficits in the kinds of gameplay, which are informed by theories of social cooperation, but the direction of relationship with offending remains unclear. The apparent deficits may reflect adaptation to a hostile environment where trust and reciprocity are not rewarded. It is also important to recognise that these community-based offenders did develop play indicative of trust and reciprocity, they just did so more slowly than the comparison group. This may have implications for allowing time for rapport to develop in supervisory relationships. Finally, offenders may benefit from learning that although more

  3. Healthcare Utilization and Costs of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Medicaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J. Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Healthcare utilization and costs associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a US Medicaid population were examined. Methods. Patients ≥ 18 years old with SLE diagnosis (ICD-9-CM 710.0x were extracted from a large Medicaid database 2002–2009. Index date was date of the first SLE diagnosis. Patients with and without SLE were matched. All patients had a variable length of followup with a minimum of 12 months. Annualized healthcare utilization and costs associated with SLE and costs of SLE flares were assessed during the followup period. Multivariate regressions were conducted to estimate incremental healthcare utilization and costs associated with SLE. Results. A total of 14,777 SLE patients met the study criteria, and 14,262 were matched to non-SLE patients. SLE patients had significantly higher healthcare utilization per year than their matched controls. The estimated incremental annual cost associated with SLE was $10,984, with the highest increase in inpatient costs (P<0.001. Cost per flare was $11,716 for severe flares, $562 for moderate flares, and $129 for mild flares. Annual total costs for patients with severe flares were $49,754. Conclusions. SLE patients had significantly higher healthcare resource utilization and costs than non-SLE patients. Patients with severe flares had the highest costs.

  4. Low cost automated precise time measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, A.; Liposchak, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) has the responsibility for the dissemination of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) to Air Force timing systems requiring microsecond time. In order to maintain traceability to the USNO Master Clock in Washington D.C., and accomplish efficient logging of time and frequency data on individual precision clocks, a simple automatic means of acquiring precise time has been devised. The Automatic Time Interval Measurement System (ATIMS) consists of a minicomputer (8K Memory), teletype terminal, electronic counter, Loran C receiver, time base generator and locally-manufactured relay matrix panel. During the measurement process, the computer controls the relay matrix which selects for comparison 13 atomic clocks against a reference clock and the reference versus Loran C. Through use of the system teletype, the operator is able to set the system clock (hours, minutes and seconds), examine and/or modify all clock data and constants, and set measurement intervals. This is done in a conversational manner. A logic flow diagram, system schematic, source listing and software components are included in the presentation.

  5. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., President; Principal Investigator, and

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen

  6. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  7. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  8. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  9. Cost Optimal System Identification Experiment Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    the experiment design are not based on obtained experimental data. Instead the decisions are based on the expected experimental data assumed to be obtained from the measurements, estimated based on prior information and engineering judgement. The design method provides a system identification experiment design...

  10. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  11. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  12. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  13. DRG systems in Europe: variations in cost accounting systems among 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Swan; Geissler, Alexander; Serdén, Lisbeth; Heurgren, Mona; van Ineveld, B Martin; Redekop, W Ken; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2014-12-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based hospital payment systems have gradually become the principal means of reimbursing hospitals in many European countries. Owing to the absence or inaccuracy of costs related to DRGs, these countries have started to routinely collect cost accounting data. The aim of the present article was to compare the cost accounting systems of 12 European countries. A standardized questionnaire was developed to guide comprehensive cost accounting system descriptions for each of the 12 participating countries. The cost accounting systems of European countries vary widely by the share of hospital costs reimbursed through DRG payment, the presence of mandatory cost accounting and/or costing guidelines, the share of cost collecting hospitals, costing methods and data checks on reported cost data. Each of these aspects entails a trade-off between accuracy of the cost data and feasibility constraints. Although a 'best' cost accounting system does not exist, our cross-country comparison gives insight into international differences and may help regulatory authorities and hospital managers to identify and improve areas of weakness in their cost accounting systems. Moreover, it may help health policymakers to underpin the development of a cost accounting system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Building Low Cost Cloud Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual models of cloud computing are based in megalomaniac hardware solutions, being its implementation and maintenance unaffordable to the majority of service providers. The use of jail services is an alternative to current models of cloud computing based on virtualization. Models based in utilization of jail environments instead of the used virtualization systems will provide huge gains in terms of optimization of hardware resources at computation level and in terms of storage and energy consumption. In this paper it will be addressed the practical implementation of jail environments in real scenarios, which allows the visualization of areas where its application will be relevant and will make inevitable the redefinition of the models that are currently defined for cloud computing. In addition it will bring new opportunities in the development of support features for jail environments in the majority of operating systems.

  15. Superconductors Enable Lower Cost MRI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright, light, and green, especially where aircraft are concerned. The division of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program called the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is aiming to reach new heights by 2025-2035, improving the efficiency and environmental impact of air travel by developing new capabilities for cleaner, quieter, and more fuel efficient aircraft. One of the many ways NASA plans to reach its aviation goals is by combining new aircraft configurations with an advanced turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. Jeff Trudell, an engineer at Glenn Research Center, says, "The TeDP system consists of gas turbines generating electricity to power a large number of distributed motor-driven fans embedded into the airframe." The combined effect increases the effective bypass ratio and reduces drag to meet future goals. "While room temperature components may help reduce emissions and noise in a TeDP system, cryogenic superconducting electric motors and generators are essential to reduce fuel burn," says Trudell. Superconductors provide significantly higher current densities and smaller and lighter designs than room temperature equivalents. Superconductors are also able to conduct direct current without resistance (loss of energy) below a critical temperature and applied field. Unfortunately, alternating current (AC) losses represent the major part of the heat load and depend on the frequency of the current and applied field. A refrigeration system is necessary to remove the losses and its weight increases with decreasing temperature. In 2001, a material called magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered to be superconducting. The challenge, however, has been learning to manufacture MgB2 inexpensively and in long lengths to wind into large coils while meeting the application requirements.

  16. Software Intensive Systems Cost and Schedule Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    performers will be able  to right‐size the units. For Kanban in less‐familiar systems, and for sizing builds in agile  methods such as  Scrum , group consensus...Software Project Management: A Unified Framework,  Addison‐Wesley, 1998.   [Schwaber‐  Schwaber, K. and Beedle, M.,  Scrum : Agile Software  Beedle

  17. Validity of self-reported criminal justice system involvement in substance abusing women at five-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.

  18. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  20. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  1. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

  2. Cash across the City: Participatory Mapping & Teaching for Spatial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Laurie; Lim, Vivian; Hall-Wieckert, Maren; Katz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teaching mathematics for spatial justice (Soja, 2010), as an extension of teaching mathematics for social justice (Gutstein, 2006). The study is contextualized in a 10-session curricular module focused on the spatial justice of a city's two-tiered system of personal finance institutions (mainstream vs. alternative), piloted…

  3. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  4. Toward an Urban Political Ecology of Energy Justice: The Case of Rooftop Solar in Tucson, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Remington Santiago

    A central challenge of the twenty-first century is to transition to a low-carbon energy system to reduce the risks of climate change. For Pima County, Arizona, where electricity accounts for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions, this requires rapid deployment of grid-tied renewable energy resources. In light of this challenge, photovoltaic solar has emerged as an important solution, providing the top source of new US electric generating capacity installed in 2016. However, there is still no consensus about the optimal scale for solar (centralized power plants, or small, decentralized systems) and the socio-economic implications for low income households. This thesis explores the implications of rooftop solar for energy justice through empirical research about a southern Arizona electric utility rate case. Utilities argue that existing rate structures shift costs from solar owners to lower-income ratepayers, while critics say the utility's proposed rate changes are unjust and that rooftop solar benefits all ratepayers. Drawing on my empirical data and an urban political ecology (UPE) approach, I analyze competing narratives that speak to three types of justice: distributive, procedural, and recognition. While dominant justice claims revolve around the distribution of costs through rates, competing narratives emphasize procedural and recognition (in)justice. Focusing on political economy, power relations, and the materiality of the grid, I reframe the utility's cost shift argument as a strategic narrative and explain why this justice claim is ultimately validated. I propose that UPE can further an energy justice analysis by understanding procedural and recognition injustice as systemic products of rate of return regulation and the material configuration of the electric grid.

  5. Distribution System Planning With Distributed Generations Considering Benefits and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Soudi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used in the design and utilization of distribution systems to improve power quality and reliability of load power supply of consumers, is the application of distributed generation (DG sources. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the design and utilization of distribution networks with DG resources application by finding the optimal sitting and sizing of generated power of DG with the aim of maximization of its benefits to costs. The benefits for DG are considered as system losses reduction, system reliability improvement and benefits from the sale electricity or from lack of purchase of electricity from the main system. The costs of DG are considered as initial capital, maintenance and operation cost and investment cost. In this paper to solve the optimal sitting and sizing problem a Modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied. Simulations are presented on a 69-bus test distribution system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results showed that the proposed high-power method to find the optimal points of problem is faster and application of DG resources reduced the losses, costs and improved the system voltage profile.

  6. 制度正义理论视角下的农村最低生活保障制度%On the system of minimum living standard in Rural Areas from the perspective of system justice theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪保爱

    2011-01-01

    As justice is the primary value of social systems,whether a system is effective or not depends on the justice of system arrangement.The system of minimum living standard in rural areas in our country has been influenced at the beginning of its foundation by the dual social structure: one system belongs to two edifices and the uneven development in urban and rural areas fails to embody the justice of the system.But in light of its development,it is oriented towards universalism,whose goal is justice-reflecting integration of urban and rural areas.Based on John Rawls's theory of justice,this paper analyses the system of minimum living standard in rural areas from such aspects as equality justice,distribution justice and compensation justice,proposing that a just system of minimum living standard should be developmental and unified.%正义是社会制度的首要价值,一种制度是否有效,取决于制度的安排是否正义。我国农村最低生活保障制度,建立之初就受到二元社会结构的影响,一种制度分属两种体系,城乡之间发展不平衡,没有体现制度的正义性;但是从其发展来看,遵循的又是普遍主义的发展方向,城乡一体化的制度是其发展目标,体现了制度的正义性。以约翰.罗尔斯的正义论为基础,从公平正义、分配正义和补偿正义三个方面分析农村最低生活保障制度,提出正义的最低生活保障制度应是发展的、统一的制度。

  7. Cost of privatisation versus government alcohol retailing systems: Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Patra, Jayadeep; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Gnam, William H; Giesbrecht, Norman; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol retail monopolies have been established in many countries to restrict alcohol availability and thus, minimise alcohol-related harm.The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the privatisation of alcohol sales on the burden and direct health-care, law enforcement costs and indirect costs (lost productivity due to disability or premature mortality) in Canada. Simulation modelling. International Guidelines for the Estimation of the Avoidable Costs of Substance Abuse were used. All burden and costs were compared with the baseline taken from the aggregate Cost Study on Substance Abuse in Canada 2002. If all Canadian provinces and territories were to privatise alcohol sales we assume that consumption would increase from 10% to 20% based on available Canadian literature. Under the 10% scenario the costs would increase from 6% ($828 million) and under the 20% scenario costs would increase 12% ($1.6 billion).This increase is substantially greater than the tax and mark-up revenue gained from increased sales,and represents a net loss. Alcohol-attributable burden and associated costs will increase markedly if all Canadian provinces and territories gave up the government alcohol retailing systems.For public health and economic reasons, governments should continue to have a strong role in alcohol retailing.

  8. Study of turboprop systems reliability and maintenance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The overall reliability and maintenance costs (R&MC's) of past and current turboprop systems were examined. Maintenance cost drivers were found to be scheduled overhaul (40%), lack of modularity particularly in the propeller and reduction gearbox, and lack of inherent durability (reliability) of some parts. Comparisons were made between the 501-D13/54H60 turboprop system and the widely used JT8D turbofan. It was found that the total maintenance cost per flight hour of the turboprop was 75% higher than that of the JT8D turbofan. Part of this difference was due to propeller and gearbox costs being higher than those of the fan and reverser, but most of the difference was in the engine core where the older technology turboprop core maintenance costs were nearly 70 percent higher than for the turbofan. The estimated maintenance cost of both the advanced turboprop and advanced turbofan were less than the JT8D. The conclusion was that an advanced turboprop and an advanced turbofan, using similar cores, will have very competitive maintenance costs per flight hour.

  9. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  10. Optimized low-cost-array field designs for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, H.N.; Carmichael, D.C.; Castle, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    As manager of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic Systems Definition Project, Sandia National Laboratories is engaged in a comprehensive program to define and develop array field subsystems which can achieve the lowest possible lifecycle costs. The major activity of this program is described, namely, the design and development of optimized, modular array fields for photovoltaic (PV) systems. As part of this activity, design criteria and performance requirements for specific array subsystems including support structures, foundations, intermodule connections, field wiring, lightning protection, system grounding, site preparation, and monitoring and control have been defined and evaluated. Similarly, fully integrated flat-panel array field designs, optimized for lowest lifecycle costs, have been developed for system sizes ranging from 20 to 500 kW/sub p/. Key features, subsystem requirements, and projected costs for these array field designs are presented and discussed.

  11. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  12. New Approaches in Usable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lean NPD practices (many) • Lean Production & Operations Practices (many) • Supply Chain Operations Reference ( SCOR ) Model , Best Practices Make Deliver...NEW APPROACHES IN REUSABLE BOOSTER SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE COST MODELING Edgar Zapata National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center...Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC

  13. A low-cost classroom-oriented educational robotics system

    OpenAIRE

    Saleiro, Mário; Carmo, Bruna; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in using robots in education. The use of these tangible devices in combination with problem-based learning activities results in more motivated students, higher grades and a growing interest in the STEM areas. However, most educational robotics systems still have some restrictions like high cost, long setup time, need of installing software in children's computers, etc. We present a new, Iow-cost, classroom-oriented ...

  14. Design and Experiments of Low Cost Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adha Imam Cahyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a teleoperation system consists of two planar SCARA manipulators is developed. The manipulators are constructed using basic low cost aluminum bars as well as cheap electronic circuitry and software. Modeling, system identification, individual control and teleoperation control are proposed. Finally, experiments are also performed to verify the effectiveness of the design.Index Terms—Teleoperation systems, PID control, System identification, position control.

  15. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  16. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  17. Estimating Production Cost While Linking Combat Systems and Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    42  1.  Royal Thai Navy CDR Peerapong’s MIO Simulation ....................42  2.  LT Joe Ashpari of the United States...Estimates for MIO Simulation Output Analysis ......................................45  Table 12.  Cost Estimates for SAR Simulation Output Analysis...Systems Engineering JIC Joint Inflation Calculator MBSE Model Based System Engineering MIO Maritime Interdiction Operations MOE Measure of

  18. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  19. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  20. 罗尔斯正义原则对我国构建社会公平保障体系的镜鉴作用%Mirror Effects of Rawls Justice Principles on the Construction of Chinese Social Justice Security System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小明

    2015-01-01

    公平正义是全面小康社会的重要价值目标和现实诉求。中共十八大报告提出的构建社会公平保障体系的目标指明了建成全面小康社会进程中公平正义的努力方向。罗尔斯正义原则强调自由权利的平等和有差别的机会平等,强调社会制度应彰显正义价值:即必须有效彰显社会主义制度体系的正义价值;必须倡导和弘扬公平正义的社会价值观,为形成规范人们各种非正义行为的规则体系提供重要条件;必须有效创设正义的社会制度调节社会分配中的事实不平等,实现有差别的平等;必须充分发挥国家在促进社会公平正义中的重要作用。这对构建社会主义社会公平保障体系具有重要镜鉴作用。%Fairness and justice are the important value goals and the practical demands of the all-round well-off society. The report of the Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC proposes the goals of constructing the social justice security system which indicates the direction of completely constructing the fairness and justice during the process of building up well-off society. Rawls justice principles emphasizes the equality of freedom rights and differential opportunity, the necessity of highlighting the value of justice for the society system which will play a mirror role for constructing the socialist society justice security system:it's essential to effectively highlight the value of justice of socialist system; to propose and carry forward the social values of social fairness and justice for providing the important condition for forming the regulation system of the injustice; to effectively set up justicial social system to regulate the inequality in social distribution and to realize the differential equality;and to stress the important role that the state is playing in the fairness and justice.

  1. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  2. 论检察机关设置专家辅助人制度%Setting Up a New Supervision System of Forensic Appraisal in Criminal Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勋

    2009-01-01

    The forensic identification system is an indispensible part of our country's judicial system, and is an important guarantee for the implementation of the nation's law. For a long time, various drawbacks exist in forensic identification in criminal justice, which not only affects the credibility of forensic identification, but also damages the unified implementation of the nation's law. Apart from the imperfect forensic identification system, the lack of the procuratorate's supervision is one cause for the abovementioned phenomenon. Therefore, besides improving the forensic identification system itself, we should establish the expert assistant system in prosecutorial organs to strengthen and improve the supervision of forensic identification in criminal justice. Based on the analysis of the current situation, the existing problems of forensic identification in the criminal justice system, and the practice of prosecutorial organs, and using the expert witness (expert assistant) system of foreign countries for reference, the author discusses the necessity, feasibility of the establishment of the expert assistant system in prosecutorial organs and its system designing.%司法鉴定制度是我国司法制度的重要组成部分,长期以来,我国刑事司法鉴定领域存在着种种弊端,不仅影响了司法鉴定的公信力,还损害了国家法律的正确统一实施,这与检察机关的监督缺位有着密切的关系.因此在完善司法鉴定制度本身的同时,应该通过建立检察机关专家辅助人制度来加强对刑事司法鉴定的监督.探讨在我国设立检察机关专家辅助人制度具有重要意义.

  3. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  4. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  5. The system of account and control of logistics costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    Full Text Available The process of organization of civil engineering provides the delivery of construction materials, equipment to the civil engineering objects in the required quantities at the specified time. Effective tool for solving this problem is logistics. The basic components of logistics costs, which occupy the largest share in the sum of all logistics costs, are transportation costs and storage costs. The civil engineering industry is very promising for the use of outsourcing. The main part of works on providing material and technical resources in most cases is transferred to the outsourcing of other companies, including the group of companies forming the holding. In large holding companies the chain of movement of materials, goods and productions: purchase of materials and goods, completion materials, production structures, storage, movement, transportation, etc. may include several companies belonging in holding. The goods can be moved from one warehouse to another, with or without change of the owner of goods. Each company is obliged to show each movement of goods in their financial accounting. During the goods’ movement within a group of companies from one storage to another, from one owner to another, the total costs of the goods rise. Sales within a group of companies lead, as a rule, to a gain by one of the companies and the logistic expenses of another company. Selling to a consumer provides a profit to the seller company. Therefore, the problem of adequate allocation of logistics expenses and profits between separate legal entity and the task of continuous accounting and control of logistics costs and earnings in large companies, is vital. The automated system for accounting and controlling of logistics costs is suggested. The developed system allows controlling logistics costs of refining, storage and transportation for each ton, pieces, linear or square meters of the shipped cargoes. The System is based on complex algorithms of distribution

  6. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  7. Delivery systems and cost recovery in Mectizan treatment for onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amazigo, U; Noma, M; Boatin, B A; Etya'alé, D E; Sékétéli, A; Dadzie, K Y

    1998-04-01

    The efficiency of on-going delivery systems and cost recovery in Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) treatment for onchocerciasis are reviewed. The search is on for an effective system of Mectizan delivery, involving drug procurement, delivery from port to districts and distribution to eligible persons, which can be sustained by the endemic countries for many years. The mechanisms for procuring and clearing the drug at the ports, and the drug's integration into the existing delivery systems of each national health service, need to be improved. Although large-scale treatments by mobile teams or community-based methods evidently achieve high and satisfactory rates of coverage, they also incur high recurrent costs which have to be covered by external partners and are not sustainable by national health services. Cost-sharing is considered an important factor in a sustainable delivery system and community-directed treatment, in which the community shares the cost and ownership of local distribution and is empowered to design and implement it, is likely to be more cost-effective and sustainable.

  8. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  9. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  10. Economic and cost engineering aspects of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, A.N.

    1990-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of current wind energy conversion systems (WECS) from a cost engineering basis is presented. The initial stage covers a subjective review of the cost implications of various design aspects of current medium sized Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), based around a 330 kW wind turbine (WT). The second stage is focused on the collection and initial analysis of a comprehensive database of WT technical, cost and performance information from over 100 WT models ranging in size from 8 metre to 55 metre rotor diameter. The formulation of a life cycle cost estimation model for HAWTs, based on semi-empirical relationships between sub-system cost, mass and design parameters is described. The economic feasibility of WECS private generating operation under the tariff structures available in the UK, under the auspices of the Energy Act of 1983, is examined, and broad results are given in terms of feasible tariff scenarios for topographical and regional locations throughout the UK. The prospects for reducing the cost of energy from WECS are explored, and the macro-economic and socio-environmental aspects of WECS are examined. (author).

  11. An Introduction to the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. Technical Report No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Mike; Martin, Ron

    The NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System is designed to assist institutions in the implementation of cost studies. There are at least two kinds of cost studies: historical cost studies which display cost-related data that reflect actual events over a specific prior time period, and predictive cost studies which forecast costs that will be…

  12. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  13. Paperless system solves problem of lost chart costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Before going paperless, know what you're looking for and what the expected benefits are. The most technologically advanced system in the world is worthless if your doctors can't use it. The system will have greater value if your nurses can chart on it as well. A careful cost-benefit analysis should tell you ahead of time whether the system will pay for itself.

  14. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human form dummies may be used as targets in some types of training exercises. In order to assess performance on target, it may be necessary to know...the time and location of all impacts upon the targets. A sparring dummy can provide a desirable target as well as house an impact reporting system.A...low-cost, self-contained impact reporting system has been designed within the form factor of a sparring dummy . The design goal of this system was to

  15. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Management Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE. The project’s technical monitor is Jay Jordan, Technical Director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other...CGFs for development costs range from a low of 1.16 for the nine ship weapon systems reviewed in Asher and Mag- gelet (1984) to a high of 2.26 for six...to procurement) for each weapon system 2.26 (n = 6) 1.43 (n = 6) Not reported Asher and Maggelet (1984) Last SAR for program or December 1983 As of

  16. The Lucretian swerve: the biological basis of human behavior and the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Anthony R

    2010-03-09

    It is widely believed, at least in scientific circles, that living systems, including mankind, obey the natural physical laws. However, it is also commonly accepted that man has the capacity to make "free" conscious decisions that do not simply reflect the chemical makeup of the individual at the time of decision--this chemical makeup reflecting both the genetic and environmental history and a degree of stochasticism. Whereas philosophers have discussed for centuries the apparent lack of a causal component for free will, many biologists still seem to be remarkably at ease with this notion of free will; and furthermore, our judicial system is based on such a belief. It is the author's contention that a belief in free will is nothing other than a continuing belief in vitalism--something biologists proudly believe they discarded well over 100 years ago.

  17. AIDS: The Impact on the Criminal Justice System Management of Aids in Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    34 Some prison systems are reluctant to parole HIV seropositive inmates in response to an unrealistic fear of possible future liability if the inmate ... inmates , and that all prisoners should be encouraged to refrain from high-risk behavior, not just those identified as seropositive. Furthermore... inmates subjected to harassment, discrimination and perhaps even violence within the prison , and to difficulties in obtaining employment and housing upon

  18. Health systems as defences against the consequences of poverty: equity in health as social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, F M

    1983-01-01

    The main development problems in the Third World are known to be gross socioeconomic inequality, widespread poor health status accompanied by high fertility and infant mortality rates, low life expectancy, mass illiteracy and mass poverty. In most of these countries governments invest a great deal of scarce resources toward the consequences of poverty rather than it causes. The paucity of resources for such social services is exacerbated by continuously increasing demands and needs which have to be satisfied. Unmet needs tend to cause apathy in the population. For purposes of controlling poverty and its consequences, these must be clearly formulated and relevant policies, a commitment to implement such policies, adequate administrative capacity and reasonably adequate resources. In the case of the health services system, the same requirements apply. Above all, the health system has to be directed toward the greatest needs of the population. This must involve policy makers, implementors and the consumer community. This paper argues that health systems cannot be an effective weapon against the consequences of poverty unless the above kinds of policy exist and are implemented.

  19. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  20. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit board (PCB) microelectromechanical (MEMS) techniques combined with a new thin-film material, liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Printed circuit board techniques allow for mass production of the sensors, thereby lowering the cost of the system. The three sensors are packaged so that they are independent of one another and can be quickly replaced if bio-fouled or damaged. Deployments in Bayboro Harbor, St Petersburg, FL demonstrate that the novel CTD systems are capable of obtaining highly resolved in situ salinity measurements comparable to measurements obtained using commercially available instruments. The estimated accuracies for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors are ±1.47%, ±0.546 °C and ±0.02 bar, respectively. This work indicates that a small, low cost CTD system with expendable/replaceable sensors can be used to provide accurate, precise and highly resolved conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements in a coastal environment.

  1. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  2. UV-LED exposure system for low-cost photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Farhat, Ilyas

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost, portable, light-emitting diode (LED)-based UV exposure system for photolithography. The major system components include UV-LEDs, microcontroller, digital-to-analog (D/A) converter and LED control circuitry. The UV-LED lithography system is also equipped with a digital user interface (LCD and keypad) and permits accurate electronic control on the exposure time and power. Hence the exposure dose can be varied depending on process requirements. Compared to traditional contact lithography, the UV-LED lithography system is significantly cheaper, simple to construct using off-the shelf components and does not require complex infrastructure to operate. Such reduction in system cost and complexity renders UV-LED lithography as a perfect candidate for micro lithography with large process windows typically suitable for MEMS, microfluidics applications.

  3. Mediation: A concept that has to do not just with the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endira Bushati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  4. Mediation: A concept that has to do not just with the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endira Bushati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  5. 77 FR 58412 - Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting. Purpose The GAC will act as the focal point for justice information systems integration... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Federal...

  6. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  7. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  8. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  9. Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

  10. Preventing Juvenile Justice Involvement for Young Women: An Introduction to an Evaluation of the PACE Center for Girls. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenky, Megan; Mage, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in the juvenile justice system has tremendous costs for the individuals within it, as well as for society. Such involvement may damage a child's relationships with friends and family, negatively affect mental health, and interrupt the academic progress and work experience that should accumulate during adolescence. On the societal…

  11. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As a technology colony, South Africa has often had to rely on imported technologies to assist in the monitoring of production floor statistics. This results in high costs in both procurement and support of such systems. Whilst this is the accepted...

  12. H2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Colmenares

    2000-01-01

    guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  14. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  15. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  16. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  17. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  18. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decision making. In conclusion, we emphasize that an effective controlling system must provide managers the tools to meet their informational needs.

  19. Application of Grey System Theory in Design For Cost (DFC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-chuan; FANG Ming-lun

    2003-01-01

    Design For Cost (DFC) is a branch of Design For X (DFX). In this paper, we defined DFC as a design method that analyzed and evaluated the product's life cycle cost ( LCC ) , then modified the design to reduce the LCC. Nowadays it is a very difficult thing to obtain LCC data in China or in developing countries. Statistical methods can not be used because available LCC data are few. In order to solve this problem, we used grey system theory. Then relations of cost factors were analyzed in LCC using grey relevant methods, and a GM( 1,1 ) model between design parameters and LCC was established. Using this model, we can estimate and control LCC by changing design parameters at the beginning of the design stage.

  20. Inefficiency of the anti-doping system: cost reduction proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maennig, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The anti-doping system, under the guidance of WADA, costs at least $228 million per year, mostly to cover the cost of performing about 270,000 doping tests. However, "testing has not proven to be particularly effective in detecting dopers/cheats" (WADA). It is suggested, competitions of doping-endangered disciplines be redesigned. Sports with numerous doping cases should be temporarily excluded from the Olympic program and not be televised. Pecuniary fines should be higher and collection guaranteed by a deferred compensation model. Sports with multiple doping offenses should bear most of the anti-doping costs. Finally, appropriate tenders should guarantee fees of anti-doping laboratories develop more competitively.

  1. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  2. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, C. (General Dynamics Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)); McColskey, D. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)); Acree, R. (Phillips Lab., Edwards Air Force Base, CA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  3. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  4. The implications for information system design of how health care costs are determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1996-03-01

    As the costs of health care assume increasing importance in national health policy, information systems will be required to supply better information about how costs are generated and how resources are distributed. Costs, as determined by accounting systems, often are inadequate for policy analysis because they represent resources consumed (expenditures) to produce given outputs but do not measure forgone alternative uses of the resources (opportunity costs). To accommodate cost studies at the program level and the system level, relational information systems must be developed that allow costs to be summed across individuals to determine an organization's costs, across providers to determine an individual patient's costs, and across both to determine system and population costs. Program level studies require that cost variables be grouped into variable costs that are tied to changes in volume of output and fixed costs that are allocated rationally. Data sources for program-level analyses are organizational financial statements, cost center accounting records, Medicare cost reports, American Hospital Association surveys, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) cost distribution files. System-level studies are performed to predict future costs and to compare costs of alternative modes of treatment. System-level analyses aggregate all costs associated with individuals to produce population-based costs. Data sources for system-level analyses include insurance claims;n Medicare files; hospital billing records; and VA inpatient, outpatient, and management databases. Future cost studies will require the assessment of costs from all providers, regardless of organizational membership status, for all individuals in defined populations.

  5. Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jim

    1994-11-01

    Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.

  6. A Complex Systems Science Approach to Healthcare Costs and Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer Bar-Yam with Shlomiya; Cohen, Nancy; Gard-Murray, Alexander S; Harte, Helen P; Leykum, Luci

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting crisis in delivering affordable healthcare in the US. For decades, key decision makers in the public and private sectors have considered cost-effectiveness in healthcare a top priority. Their actions have focused on putting a limit on fees, services, or care options. However, they have met with limited success as costs have increased rapidly while the quality isn't commensurate with the high costs. A new approach is needed. Here we provide eight scientifically-based steps for improving the healthcare system. The core of the approach is promoting the best use of resources by matching the people and organization to the tasks they are good at, and providing the right incentive structure. Harnessing costs need not mean sacrificing quality. Quality service and low costs can be achieved by making sure the right people and the right organizations deliver services. As an example, the frequent use of emergency rooms for non-emergency care demonstrates the waste of resources of highly capable indivi...

  7. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  8. Public opinion on lay participation in the criminal justice system of the Netherlands Some tentative findings from a panel survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Klijn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands the recent debate on lay involvement in the administration of criminal justice was initiated by politicians who maintain that the public favours such involvement. The response of the judiciary and legal academics to these politicians has been fairly defensive. They have pointed in particular to the dangers of the punitive character of the vox populi and rejected the idea. As a result, the debate on lay involvement has quickly become a black and white issue. This article presents the findings of a recent research of the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary and the Research and Documentation Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Justice regarding the opinion of the public on different kinds of lay involvement under different conditions. This research shows that both the position of the politicians that favour lay involvement in the administration of criminal justice and the position of the judiciary and legal academics that reject lay involvement are to a relatively large degree unrepresentative of the wishes and views of the public.

  9. Cost Effective System Modeling of Active Micro- Module Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faisal Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interests in using renewable energies are coming from solar thermal energy and solar photovoltaic systems to the micro production of electricity. Usually we already have considered the solar tracking topology in large scale applications like power plants and satellite but most of small scale applications don’t have any solar tracker system, mainly because of its high cost and complex circuit design. From that aspect, this paper confab microcontroller based one dimensional active micro-module solar tracking system, in which inexpensive LDR is used to generate reference voltage to operate microcontroller for functioning the tracking system. This system provides a fast response of tracking system to the parameters like change of light intensity as well as temperature variations. This micro-module model of tracking system can be used for small scale applications like portable electronic devices and running vehicles.

  10. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  11. The Verdict Is In: The Impact of Crime on Public Trust in Central American Justice Systems El impacto de delincuencia sobre la confianza pública en el sistema de justicia en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fran T. Malone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the countries of Central America have confronted soaring crime rates. Justice systems of dubious quality provide thin shields against this crime crisis, despite substantial international and domestic investment in justice reform. Indeed, there is growing concern that crime will undermine justice reform efforts. Scholars and practitioners have pointed out that public frustration with crime, coupled with dissatisfaction with justice institutions, can lead citizens to reject reform efforts. Still, the micro-level relationships between crime and public support of the justice system have been understudied. Using public opinion data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP, this study aims to add to the literature by examining the effects of victimization and fear of crime on public trust in the justice system. The results indicate that crime can erode public support for the justice system, but the mechanics of this relationship vary according to national context. Durante las últimas dos décadas, los países de América Central se ven enfrentados con altos niveles de delincuencia. La capacidad de los gobiernos para contrarrestar esta crisis es comprometida por las debilidades severas de los sistemas de justicia, a pesar de la inversión internacional y domestica en reformas de la justicia. De hecho, existe la preocupación que la delincuencia frustrará los esfuerzos de reforma judicial. Gente cansada de altos niveles de delincuencia y frustrada con las instituciones de justicia puede rechazar esfuerzos de reforma. No obstante, las relaciones individuales entre delincuencia y apoyo público para el sistema de justicia no han sido estudiadas de forma suficiente. Por lo cual, este estudio usa los datos del Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP para examinar las reacciones públicas a la delincuencia. Los resultados indican que la delincuencia puede erosionar el apoyo para el sistema de justicia, pero los

  12. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  13. Creating standard cost measures across integrated health care delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzwoller, Debra P; Goodman, Michael J; Maciosek, Michael V; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Meenan, Richard; Hornbrook, Mark C; Fishman, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly important in medical research. Accuracy often requires that they include large, diverse populations, which requires data from multiple sources. The difficulty is in making the data comparable across different settings. This article focuses on how to create comparable measures of health care resource use and cost using data from seven health plans and delivery systems participating in the Cancer Research Network's HMOs Investigating Tobacco study. We used a data inventory to identify variation in data capture across sites and used data dictionaries to develop algorithms for assigning standardized cost to the three major components of health care use: outpatient, inpatient, and pharmacy. The plans included in this study varied from fully integrated, closed-panel models to plans and delivery systems that include network or independent physician association components. Information derived from the data inventory and data dictionary instruments demonstrated a substantial variation in both the content and capture of data across all sites and across all components of usage. The methods we employed for cost allocation varied by usage component and were based on our ability to leverage the data points available to best reflect actual resource use. The importance of this article is the method of ascertaining, cataloging, and addressing the within- and between-plan differences in health care resource use. Second, the decisions we made to address the differences between health plans provide other researchers a starting point when creating a cost algorithm for multisite retrospective research.

  14. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  15. Compact and low-cost THz QTDS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thorsten; Rehn, Arno; Koch, Martin

    2015-08-24

    We present a terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy (QTDS) system setup which is improved regarding cost and compactness. The diode laser is mounted directly onto the optical delay line, making the optical setup more compact. The system is operated using a Raspberry Pi and an additional sound card. This combination replaces the desktop/laptop computer, the lock-in-amplifier, the stage controller and the signal generator. We examined not only a commercially available stepper motor driven delay line, but also the repurposed internal mechanics from a DVD drive. We characterize the performance of the new system concept.

  16. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  17. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  18. The Costs of Regulating Microsoft

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    All with a stake or interest in the case against Microsoft, brought by the Justice Department and several state Attorneys General, should recognize the importance of the potential costs of this action, some of them not at all obvious. Regardless of the legal niceties or even some of the theoretical economics involved, the great danger is that the proposed remedies for Microsoft's dominant position in the market for computer operating systems will be worse than the disease. The remedies will l...

  19. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  20. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  1. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Madeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS, the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.

  2. The Legal System Construction in Social Security System in the View of Justice%公正视野下社会保障制度的法制建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张映芹; 张瑞锋

    2012-01-01

    Fairness and justice is the eternal theme of human history and social development, and the basic idea of establishing and perfecting the entire social system. Maintaining the social fairness and justice is always the lasting appeal and basic value of social security system. Fair social security system plays a fundamental role in the construction of the harmonious society. The formulation of the legal system and the execution of the social security system is the primary basis and basic premise of the social security system. In the view of justice, rethinking the construction of the legal system in social security system in China and rebuilding the moral system with justice as the core have the significant practical and theoretical significance.%公平与正义是人类社会发展永恒的主题,是一切社会制度建立与完善的基本理念。维护社会公平与正义始终是社会保障制度的基本蕴意和价值诉求。公正的社会保障体系在建构和谐社会中发挥着基础性的作用,而法律制度的制定与执行是社会保障制度的首要基础与基本前提。以公正的视野认真反思我国社会保障制度的法制建设,并建立以公平正义为核心价值观的社会道德体系,促进社会保障事业的稳定可持续发展。

  3. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  4. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC OBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data

  5. Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina

    2011-01-01

    Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.

  6. USE OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM COSTS UNDER MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making takes place at all levels of the organization, taking into account both short-term outlook and long-term perspective. Plans are implemented by decisions whose purpose is materialized by formulating rational conclusions obtained as a result of financial and quantitative analysis. Thus, managerial accounting practice is deeply involved in decision making, a basic requirement of the existence of a solid managerial accounting information system cost, able to provide fundamental data.

  7. Software Requirements for a System to Compute Mean Failure Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder. We also demonstrated this infrastructure through the results of security breakdowns for the ecommerce case. In this paper, we illustrate this infrastructure by an application that supports the computation of the Mean Failure Cost (MFC) for each stakeholder.

  8. Evaluation of the Arizona health care cost-containment system

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    This article evaluates Arizona's alternative to the acute portion of Medicaid, the Arizona Health Care Cost-Containment System (AHCCCS), during its first 18 months of operation from October 1982 through March 1984. It focuses on the program's implementation and describes and evaluates the program's innovative features. The features of the program outlined in the original AHCCCS legislation included: Competitive bidding, prepaid capitation of providers, capitation of the State by the Health Ca...

  9. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  11. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  12. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  13. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that

  14. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  15. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  16. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  17. Building a cost efficient digital radiography system for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    Due to the growing need for Medical Physicists, many universities are implementing a Medical Physics program into their academic catalog. To help establish a new program, feasible equipment may be needed to help academic departments provide a hands-on experience for students and help teach the basic concepts of Medical Physics. For example, clinical Digital Radiography Systems (DRS) are used to help teach the basic concepts of digital imaging. However, such systems can cost in excess of 100,000, creating a financial obstacle that will be difficult to overcome. Hence, the development of a cost efficient digital radiography system may be desired in order to eliminate the financial obstacle and give students a hands-on learning experience. This DRS uses three main components to develop an image, an x-ray source, an intensifying plate, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All three components are housed in a lead-lined box. The purpose of this project is to find the limitations of our DRS and compare the price between our DRS and commercially available DRSs. At optimal settings, a SNR of 25 is shown across the intensifying screen that can identify objects as small as 0.42mm. A Contrast-detail phantom shows the ability to decipher the varying thickness of foam rubber squares. The total cost of our DRS comes to 17,000.00, a fractional price tag compared to a commercially available DRS.

  18. Validation of the Algorithm for Depot TCTO Labor Costs for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    AD-AI5? 461 VALIDATION OF THE ALGORITHM FOR DEPOT TCTO LABOR COSTS / FOR THE COMPONENT.. (U) INFORMATION SPECTRUM INC ARLINGTON VA S J EINHORN 12 APR...U VALIDATION OF THE ALGORITHM FOR DEPOT TCTO LABOR COSTS I FOR C THE COMPONENT SUPPORT COST SYSTEM (D160B) Contract No. F33600-82-C-0543 12 April 1984...tasks," including a user survey. This report provides the verification and validation of the algorithm called "Depot TCTO Labor Costs." The costs of

  19. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  20. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  1. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  2. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  3. What Can Engineering Systems Teach Us About Social (In)Justices? The Case of Public Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Politicians, consultants and engineers develop public transportation systems using a variety of well-developed and established modeling tools to calculate different aspects of a system. Some of them are performance-capacity against investment models to determine the value of a given technical...

  4. Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics on Joint and System-of-Systems Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-23

    Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics on Joint and System-of-Systems Programs 23 September 2008 Dr. Diana Angelis...SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics...péçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= = Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics on Joint and System-of-Systems Programs 23 September 2008

  5. Special Criminal Courts to restorative justice: the Consensual justice in Brazil/Dos juizados especiais criminais a justica restaurativa: a "Justica Consensual" no Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Luanna Tomaz; Fabeni, Lorena Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The problems facing the criminal justice system increasingly visible show. This article analyzes the emergence of Special Criminal Courts as an alternative to criminal justice and its proposed Consensual...

  6. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  7. LCP- LIFETIME COST AND PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Lifetime Cost and Performance (LCP) Model was developed to assist in the assessment of Photovoltaic (PV) system design options. LCP is a simulation of the performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with distributed PV power systems. LCP provides the user with substantial flexibility in specifying the technical and economic environment of the PV application. User-specified input parameters are available to describe PV system characteristics, site climatic conditions, utility purchase and sellback rate structures, discount and escalation rates, construction timing, and lifetime of the system. Such details as PV array orientation and tilt angle, PV module and balance-of-system performance attributes, and the mode of utility interconnection are user-specified. LCP assumes that the distributed PV system is utility grid interactive without dedicated electrical storage. In combination with a suitable economic model, LCP can provide an estimate of the expected net present worth of a PV system to the owner, as compared to electricity purchased from a utility grid. Similarly, LCP might be used to perform sensitivity analyses to identify those PV system parameters having significant impact on net worth. The user describes the PV system configuration to LCP via the basic electrical components. The module is the smallest entity in the PV system which is modeled. A PV module is defined in the simulation by its short circuit current, which varies over the system lifetime due to degradation and failure. Modules are wired in series to form a branch circuit. Bypass diodes are allowed between modules in the branch circuits. Branch circuits are then connected in parallel to form a bus. A collection of buses is connected in parallel to form an increment to capacity of the system. By choosing the appropriate series-parallel wiring design, the user can specify the current, voltage, and reliability characteristics of the system. LCP simulation of system performance is site

  8. An Efficient Low Cost Wiper System for Autonomous Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Prabhakaran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional wiper system requires driver’s attention to switch on the wiper system during precipitation. Whereas in traffic condition, driver should not be diverted by manual adjustment of switching the wiper system which may leads to accident. Probably 80% of accidents are mainly due to distraction of driver. In this scenario we need to obtain an automatic wiping on the wind screen during rain so as to avoid distraction of driver. The existing automatic wiper system has false wiping just after the rainfall stops which can be overcome by using proposed wiper system. Always just after the rainfall a few droplets on the existing water sensor will be sustained until it is cleaned or inherently evaporated. These water drops make a connection between two grid lines to occur false wiping. The advantage of proposed automatic wiper system is compared with the water sensor of existing automatic wiper system after rainfall. The proposed system in this paper is more accurate and economically cheap which can be implemented in all low and middle level cars. In order to avoid critical situation this automatic wiper system provides variable wiping speed based on precipitation level. This automatic wiper system has low cost plate based water sensor, ATMEGA8 microcontroller, MOSFET driver and wiper motor.

  9. Offshore compression system design for low cost high and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Carlos J. Rocha de O.; Carrijo Neto, Antonio Dias; Cordeiro, Alexandre Franca [Chemtech Engineering Services and Software Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Special Projects Div.], Emails: antonio.carrijo@chemtech.com.br, carlos.rocha@chemtech.com.br, alexandre.cordeiro@chemtech.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the offshore oil fields, the oil streams coming from the wells usually have significant amounts of gas. This gas is separated at low pressure and has to be compressed to the export pipeline pressure, usually at high pressure to reduce the needed diameter of the pipelines. In the past, this gases where flared, but nowadays there are a increasing pressure for the energy efficiency improvement of the oil rigs and the use of this gaseous fraction. The most expensive equipment of this kind of plant are the compression and power generation systems, being the second a strong function of the first, because the most power consuming equipment are the compressors. For this reason, the optimization of the compression system in terms of efficiency and cost are determinant to the plant profit. The availability of the plants also have a strong influence in the plant profit, specially in gas fields where the products have a relatively low aggregated value, compared to oil. Due this, the third design variable of the compression system becomes the reliability. As high the reliability, larger will be the plant production. The main ways to improve the reliability of compression system are the use of multiple compression trains in parallel, in a 2x50% or 3x50% configuration, with one in stand-by. Such configurations are possible and have some advantages and disadvantages, but the main side effect is the increase of the cost. This is the offshore common practice, but that does not always significantly improve the plant availability, depending of the previous process system. A series arrangement and a critical evaluation of the overall system in some cases can provide a cheaper system with equal or better performance. This paper shows a case study of the procedure to evaluate a compression system design to improve the reliability but without extreme cost increase, balancing the number of equipment, the series or parallel arrangement, and the driver selection. Two cases studies will be

  10. The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Arik; Doris, Nadine M; Filion, Kristian B; Caron, Joanna; Pilote, Louise; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2007-08-08

    The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrators for formulating major policies and strategic plans for future activities. Our review suggests that the Transition cost accounting information system may useful for estimating in-hospital costs of treatment.

  11. The use of the transition cost accounting system in health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilote Louise

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Transition cost accounting system integrates clinical, resource utilization, and financial information and is currently being used by several hospitals in Canada and the United States to calculate the costs of patient care. Our objectives were to review the use of hospital-based cost accounting systems to measure costs of treatment and discuss potential use of the Transition cost accounting system in health services research. Such systems provide internal reports to administrators for formulating major policies and strategic plans for future activities. Our review suggests that the Transition cost accounting information system may useful for estimating in-hospital costs of treatment.

  12. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  13. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  14. Urgent Work: Developing a Gender- Responsive Approach for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System / Trabajo urgente: desarrollando una respuesta con perspectiva de género para niñas en el Sistema de Justicia Juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawanda Ravoira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the prevalence of girls in the U.S. juvenile justice sys- tem, compares national and international incarceration rates, and reviews the profile needs of justice-involved girls. The authors offer their Model as an example of how to develop a gender-responsive approach to girls in the justice system, including a description of how the model was operationalized in a community in the United States. Critical developments and emerg- ing opportunities for each of the Model’s components: advocacy, model programming, public education, training and technical assistance, gender responsive tools, systems accountability, and evaluation are highlighted. Lessons learned are offered as a springboard for conversations about how the international community can individually assess their needs and resources and work together to improve the response to girls. The paper concludes with recommendations for choosing, evaluating, and implementing best- practice approaches for meaningful reform.

  15. Implementation Costs for Educational Technology Systems. Issue Trak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Glenn E.; Fisher, Ricki; Loveless, Warren

    Personnel involved in planning or developing schools lack the costing tools that will enable them to determine educational technology costs. This report presents an overview of the technology costing process and the general costs used in estimating educational technology systems on a macro-budget basis, along with simple cost estimates for…

  16. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  17. Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-σ have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

  18. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  19. Development of a Cost Effective Power Generation System: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Prakash Bihari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on development of cost effective power generation system and motivates for development of a model for hybrid system with wind to investigate the combined operation of wind with different sources to cater to wind’s stochastic nature for imbalance minimization and optimal operation. Development of model for trading power in competitive electricity market and development of strategies for trading in electricity markets (wind energy and reserves markets to investigate the effects of real time pricing tariffs on electricity market operation has been illustrated in this paper. Dynamic modelling related studies to investigate the wind generator’s kinetic energy for primary frequency support using simulink and simulation studies on doubly fed induction generator to study its capability during small disturbances / fluctuations on power system have been described.

  20. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Faraji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each cost center, it determines different cost drivers. The results of our survey has detected that implementation of ABC system not only helps precise allocation of overhead costs but also helps internal management companies for better planning and control of production, making better decisions for company's profits.

  1. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  2. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  3. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    This PhD dissertation is a contribution to discussions about personal responsibility in relation to distributive justice in health and health care. It is a contribution to contemporary political philosophy in general, but in particular to luck egalitarian theory. I aim to answer three focal...... recent political philosophical discussions of responsibility in egalitarian and luck egalitarian theory to bear on issues of social inequality in health, and access to health care. I argue that distributive justice in health and health care should be sensitive to responsibility, but also that individuals...... questions: 1) What role ought personal responsibility to play in distributive justice in health and health care? 2) What does it take for an individual to be responsible for her own health condition (or responsible in general)? And 3) what is the relation between responsibility and cost...

  4. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final state 2 report. Cost benefit analysis, operating costs and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    A grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) with a coal-burning power plant located on the University of Minnesota campus is planned. The cost benefit analysis performed for this ICES, the cost accounting methods used, and a computer simulation of the operation of the power plant are described. (LCL)

  5. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  6. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  8. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  9. Variations on Justice: Argentina's pre- and -post transitional justice and justice to-come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    of these three kinds of justice and the changes they underwent in the past two decades. By offering a grounded analysis of justice in the pre- and the post-transitional justice phases in Argentina the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the meaning of justice and the possibility of reconciliation in post-conflict...

  10. Like water for justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is

  11. Potential Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  12. Impact balance-of-system costs on photovoltaic electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, H.; Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.

    1983-03-01

    A simple method based on the balance-of-system (BOS) costs is proposed for computing the allowable solar cell module cost and efficiency for typical applications of photovoltaic electric power systems: microirrigation and a rural electric supply. It is shown that in India the allowable module cost of cell modules with a conversion efficiency of about 5% is about U.S. $2 Wsub(p)/sup -1/ (1980) for microirrigation and about U.S. $0.8 Wsub(p)/sup -1/ for a rural electricity centre. It is further observed that relatively low BOS costs in India and similar places tend to make the allowable module cost become invariant with the efficiency, thus permitting solar cell modules of lower efficiency (5%) to become commercially viable for large-scale applications.

  13. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  14. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-07-19

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  15. Environmental costs and reverse logistics: a systemic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the articles most relevant to the themes inherent environmental costs from the perspective of reverse logistics, identifying gaps for these two approaches through systemic analysis. In order to achieve the purpose of this article, the intervention instrument used was ProKnow-C (Knowledge Process Development - Constructivist. The application of this methodology resulted in gross bank of articles, comprising 1225 items obtained from four international databases: Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Wiley Online Library. The raw bank was filtered in relation to redundancy, the alignment of the title and the scientific relevance. The filtering had resulted in a set of 15 articles aligned with two axes of research. The analysis of the selected articles identified the most cited article and the author most cited, concluding that the issue environmental costs associated with reverse logistics is studied by several authors and universities. Moreover, it was found that the keyword most presented in the articles was reverse logistics. The analysis of 1117 references of the 15 articles has shown the most cited articles, as well as the most countrast journals and academic relevance of authors and their selected articles. A systemic analysis of the 15 selected articles showed that the two lines of research are related mainly to issues of environmental sustainability, competitiveness and business efficiency.

  16. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  17. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  18. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  19. JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić Kuljiš, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Symbol of justice is a blindfolded lady. Blind to all diversity, it provides impartial law and equal treatment for all citizens. Their rationality, cooperativeness, autonomy and independence confirm their legal equality. However, what about the people who, for various reasons, do not meet those conditions? Can a political community apply the principles of (political) justice to them? Does it relate to them unfairly excluding them from political relationships or building relationships with the...

  20. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  1. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  2. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. A control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions is discussed. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption was accomplished by using the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. It is found that the measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  3. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. This paper discusses a control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption has been accomplished by making use of the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. The measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  4. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom

    2017-06-27

    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.

  5. Systems lifecycle cost-effectiveness the commercial, design and human factors of systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to minimize expenditure and provide value for money from reduced resources means that complex projects have to encompass a wide range of often conflicting issues and interests. Systems Lifecycle Cost-Effectiveness shows how to manage the difficulties that can arise. Massimo Pica presents a variety of models for calculating cost, benefits and risk in projects, and explains how the human factors associated with a system's design and consequent value are as important as the technical costs associated with its construction or creation. This comprehensive text can be used by students,

  6. 41 CFR 128-1.101 - Justice Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justice Property Management Regulations. 128-1.101 Section 128-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1...

  7. Wind Fins: Novel Lower-Cost Wind Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Morris; Dr. Will D. Swearingen

    2007-10-08

    This project evaluated the technical feasibility of converting energy from the wind with a novel “wind fin” approach. This patent-pending technology has three major components: (1) a mast, (2) a vertical, hinged wind structure or fin, and (3) a power takeoff system. The wing structure responds to the wind with an oscillating motion, generating power. The overall project goal was to determine the basic technical feasibility of the wind fin technology. Specific objectives were the following: (1) to determine the wind energy-conversion performance of the wind fin and the degree to which its performance could be enhanced through basic design improvements; (2) to determine how best to design the wind fin system to survive extreme winds; (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of the best wind fin designs compared to state-of-the-art wind turbines; and (4) to develop conclusions about the overall technical feasibility of the wind fin system. Project work involved extensive computer modeling, wind-tunnel testing with small models, and testing of bench-scale models in a wind tunnel and outdoors in the wind. This project determined that the wind fin approach is technically feasible and likely to be commercially viable. Project results suggest that this new technology has the potential to harvest wind energy at approximately half the system cost of wind turbines in the 10kW range. Overall, the project demonstrated that the wind fin technology has the potential to increase the economic viability of small wind-power generation. In addition, it has the potential to eliminate lethality to birds and bats, overcome public objections to the aesthetics of wind-power machines, and significantly expand wind-power’s contribution to the national energy supply.

  8. GUARANTEED COST CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS-TIME UNCERTAIN SINGULAR SYSTEM WITH BOTH STATE AND INPUT DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for a continuous-time uncertain singular system with state and control delays, and a given quadratic cost function is studied in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the guaranteed cost controller are derived based on the linear inequality (LMI) approach. A parameterized characterization of the guaranteed cost laws is given in terms of the feasible solutions to a certain LMI, and the cost function of guaranteed cost controller exists an upper bound.

  9. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design: We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results: Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion: To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  10. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  11. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  12. THE MODEL OF LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENT IN THE PROCESS OF INVESTIGATION BASED ON LAW NUMBER 11 YEAR 2012 CONCERNING JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Abdurrachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the application of law enforcement model on juvenille offender before the law. Especially, in investigations according to Act number 11, 2012 about Juvenille Penal Court system in Central Java. Since the act has been formally implemented, the penal court elements have been given two years time to prepare strategies in handling juvenille offender through Diversion with Restorative Justice approach. However, the implementation of Diversion needs several infrastructures such as Juvenille Investigators, Diversion Standard of Operation (SOP, and a proper place for investigating children and mediation process, including children cells. This is an empirical study with primary and secondary sources, including analysis of Acts, literature review, and expert review. The data analysis will be done qualitatively.

  13. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California's San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Carolina L; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan E; Ray, Isha

    2012-11-14

    Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA's 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005-2007 in California's San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= -0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient = -0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  14. Air pollution: costs and paths to a solution in Hong Kong--understanding the connections among visibility, air pollution, and health costs in pursuit of accountability, environmental justice, and health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Barron, Bill; Chau, Patsy; Chau, June; Thach, Thuan Q; Wong, Tze-Wai; Loh, Christine; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Air quality has deteriorated in Hong Kong over more than 15 yr. As part of a program of public accountability, photographs on Poor and Better visibility days were used as representations of the relationships among visibility, air pollution, adverse health effects, and community costs for health care and lost productivity. Coefficients from time-series models and gazetted costs were used to estimate the health and economic impacts of different levels of pollution. In this population of 6.9 million, air quality improvement from the annual average to the lowest pollutant levels of Better visibility days, comparable to the World Health Organization air quality guidelines, would avoid 1335 deaths, 60,587 hospital bed days, and 6.7 million doctor visits for respiratory complaints each year. Direct costs and productivity losses avoided would be over US$240 million a year. The dissemination of these findings led to increased demands for pollution controls from the public and legislators, but denials of the need for urgent action arose from the government. The outcome demonstrates the need for more effective translation of the scientific evidence base into risk communication and public policy.

  15. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  16. Home Energy Management System Using NILM, Low-Cost HAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qasim Khalid; Naveed Arshad; Nasir Khan; Taha Hassan; Fahad Javed; Jahangir Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Home energy management systems (HEMs) are used to provide comfortable life for consumers as well as to save energy. An essential component of HEMs is a home area network (HAN) that is used to remotely control the electric devices at homes and buildings. Although HAN prices have dropped in recent years but they are still expensive enough to prohibit a mass scale deployments. In this paper, a very low cost alternative to the expensive HANs is presented. We have applied a combination of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) and very low cost one-way HAN to develop a HEM. By using NILM and machine learning algorithms we find the status of devices and their energy consumption from a central meter and communicate with devices through the one-way HAN. The evaluations show that the proposed machine learning algorithm for NILM achieves up to 99%accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand our radio frequency (RF)-based one-way HAN achieves a range of 80 feet in all settings.

  17. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  18. 18 CFR 301.5 - Changes in Average System Cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Cost methodology. 301.5 Section 301.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... SYSTEM COST METHODOLOGY FOR SALES FROM UTILITIES TO BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION UNDER NORTHWEST POWER ACT § 301.5 Changes in Average System Cost methodology. (a) The Administrator, at his or her...

  19. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  20. Development of a portable low-cost LIBS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea, O.; Urquidi, O.; Casazola, D.

    2013-11-01

    This article reports the construction of a portable, low-cost LIBS (Light Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) system for use in the Bolivian mining industry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of mineral samples. The device consists of a portable laser, a medium-resolution spectrometer and an optomechanical light collection system. The laser developed for the device is a YAG:Nd+++ with an estimated power output of 10 MW/cm2. Weighing approximately 3 kg and powered by lithium ion batteries, it is easily carried and can be used in remote locations. The spectrometer has a resolution of 0.3 nm allowing the detection fine spectral features, while its range of 80 nm is broad enough to simultaneously show many of the principal spectral lines of the element of interest. A monochromatic CCD camera was used as the detector of the spectrometer and was fitted with an external trigger to coordinate the camera frames with the firing of the laser. The light emitted by the plasma is collected with a photographic objective and is transmitted to the spectrometer via a fiber optics cable. A mechanical system was incorporated to make, both the laser beam and the receptor positionable. In the preliminary tests of the prototype, a LIBS spectrum of a Bolivian copper coin was obtained. Analysis showed that the spectral lines obtained coincide with those of a copper reference spectrum and demonstrate the capacity of the device to perform qualitative analysis of materials.

  1. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... current cost of processing fingerprint identification records and name checks for noncriminal justice purposes. (2) Fee amounts and any revisions thereto shall be determined by current costs, using a method...

  2. Low-cost Landsat digital processing system for state and local information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper details a minicomputer-based system which is well within the budget of many state, regional, and local agencies that previously could not afford digital processing capability. In order to achieve this goal a workable small-scale Landsat system is examined to provide low-cost automated processing. It is anticipated that the alternative systems will be based on a single minicomputer, but that the peripherals will vary depending on the capability emphasized in a particular system.

  3. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  4. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  5. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  6. Low-cost auxiliary system for broadband NMR on strongly magnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevald, Rolf; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1978-01-01

    A low cost auxiliary system consisting of He cryostat, superconducting magnet, and sample holder assembly with field probe has been constructed. The system meets the requirements of NMR on strongly paramagnetic or ordered magnetic materials, which are accurate temperature settings over a wide range...

  7. Control of systems with costs related to switching: applications to air-condition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo (Deng), Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a low complexity method for controlling systems with binary inputs that have costs related to switching. The control objective for this type of systems is often a trade off between the deviation from the reference and the number of switches (weariness...

  8. Improvement of The System of Community Corrections——The perspective of Restorative Justice%我国社区矫正制度的完善——以恢复性司法为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵咏梅

    2011-01-01

    恢复性司法注重对被损坏的社会关系的修复,关注犯罪人重新回归社会,是一种面向未来的刑事司法模式。社区矫正制度是恢复性司法理念框架下的一种刑罚执行方式,是恢复性司法理念的具体制度落实。目前,我国社区矫正制度还处于全面试行阶段,理论实践等各方面都很不完善。从恢复性司法角度探讨我国社区矫正制度的发展和完善,必将对我国和谐社会的构建起到强有力的推动作用。%Restorative justice emphasizes on the repairment of the destroyed social relations,and concerns the re-offenders who return to society,so it is a future-oriented criminal justice model.Community corrections system is a way of punishment under the framework of the concept of restorative justice,and it is the specific system implementation of restorative justice philosophy.At present,a comprehensive community corrections system is still in the pilot phase,and other aspects of theory and practice are inadequate.To discuss the development and improvement of our community corrections system from the perspective of restorative justice,is bound to play a strong role in contructing the harmonious society in China.

  9. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed.

  10. Guaranteed cost control of uncertain system with input time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乃平; 唐功友

    2003-01-01

    For the uncertain continuous-time systems with input time-delay that widely exist in the production processes, we can get the existent conditions for the guaranteed cost control of these systems by using the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities theory and quadratic cost criterion. We can achieve the guaranteed cost control of this system by solving a matrix inequality. A state feed back guaranteed cost control law can be constructed by solving certain parameter-dependent Riccati matrix equation.

  11. 制度自信:中国特色社会主义正义的实践表达%Confidence in System:the Practical Expression of Socialist Justice with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅华

    2015-01-01

    The socialist justice with Chinese characteristics is the fundamental principle for the regulation of social order and elimination of social contradictions;it is also the moral orientation for the development of people's virtuous behav-iour and cultivation of social tendency, and the value orientation for the promotion of social development and the creativity in social rules.Justice is the primary value of any system and the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics demon-strates the justice of socialism in practice.So being confident about it can accomplish the justice of socialism and promote the well-being of the nation.%中国特色社会主义正义是规范社会秩序、化解社会矛盾的普遍准则;是修养人德性和培育社会风尚的道德取向;是推进社会发展、创新社会规则的价值导向。正义是制度的首要价值,中国特色社会主义制度是社会主义正义的实践体现,坚定制度自信,实现社会主义正义,增进人民福祉。

  12. The Geography of Justice: Assessing Local Justice in Colombia’s Post-Conflict Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio García-Villegas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article combines descriptive empirical research with theoretical reflections to offer policy guidelines on what the role of local justice institutions in Colombia’s post-conflict phase should be. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we present empirical evidence to illustrate the ways in which justice operates differently across the territory. In addition to illustrating these disparities, we also demonstrate the connection between these disparities and some phenomena relevant to understanding the Colombian conflict. Based on these findings, the second part of this article defines the state-building challenge confronted by the Colombian State during the post-conflict phase. Following this part, we propose a solution to this state-building challenge: the State must adopt a combination of efficacy and justice, and we provide guidelines on how a post-conflict justice system can operate to achieve that combination.

  13. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…

  14. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2013-01-01

    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  15. AILTP Conference on the Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Detailing the conference held June 14, 1978 in Washington, D. C. on the tribal judicial systems, this article focuses on two panel discussions--"Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations: Current Status and New Approaches" and "Administration of Justice from a Tribal Perspective: The Future of Tribal Courts." (RTS)

  16. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  17. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  18. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management Division. 16.76 Section 16.76 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF... Management Division. (a) The following system of records is exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a(d): (1)...

  19. Made in America: The Global Youth Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott Bernard

    2009-01-01

    For an increasing and record number of communities in America and now in other countries, youth courts are providing a positive alternative to the juvenile justice system with significant and unexpected favorable outcomes. Youth court is most commonly identified as a juvenile justice program, given that the vast majority of youth cases referred…

  20. A Comparison of Four Restorative Conferencing Models. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Gordon; Umbreit, Mark

    This bulletin focuses on four restorative conferencing models within the juvenile justice system: victim-offender mediation; community reparative boards; family group conferencing; and circle sentencing. The bulletin first describes each of the four restorative justice models, presenting information on background, concept, procedures and goals,…

  1. The Role of Universities in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Social justice is not only a vital ethical principle of the human society but also the all-important value of the entire social system. As a public sphere, the university undertakes the purpose to achieve public interest. It plays a significant role in reflecting, defending, and fostering social justice. Nurturing people with social justice…

  2. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  3. Potential Partnerships: Progressive Criminology, Grassroots Organizations and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Goddard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminologists around the globe are writing about the disproportionate criminalization of minority groups and – in the US in particular – about racial disproportionality in all aspects of the criminal justice system. This wealth of knowledge in progressive criminology rarely animates reform efforts: it has had little impact on formal policymaking, and has failed to animate the work of grassroots activists engaged in the fight for justice system reform. Yet given the increased criminalization of young people in poor communities – and the possibilities for change at this very moment – progressive criminological ideas have never been more important. We need to think about ways to make them public. Toward this end, this paper discusses possible partnerships between progressive criminology and social justice organizations struggling to transform the criminal justice system. While describing nine such groups, we detail a set of recommendations for bridging the gap between progressive criminology and social justice organizations.

  4. toward a curriculum for justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more ... way to conduct a curriculum enquiry, since it acknowledges the crisis of ..... The principle of having a caring curriculum necessitates that we create learning-teaching.

  5. Assesment of public policies regarding the Turkish juvenile justice system and inferences for functional systemTürk çocuk ceza adalet sistemi kamu politikalarının değerlendirilmesi ve işlevsel bir sisteme ilişkin çıkarımlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish juvenile justice system constitutes special and important place in justice system due to its focal point to the juvenile and juvenile rights. As it is in the world, the main purpose of the juvenile justice system in Turkey is not only to handle the judicial process, but also to get the juveniles out of the system at lower costs as possible and to make them continue their lives without having any problems. Besides the policies and implications carried out in the juvenile justice system in the name of struggling with juvenile delinquency, this study emphasizes the importance of crime prevention strategies out of the juvenile justice system. Within this frame, it is emphasized the necessity of all related institutions working together in a harmony after analyzing the Turkish juvenile justice system. Another important point that this study tries to emphasize is that policies in the scope of the juvenile justice system were not created based on the idea of preventing crime committing again, rather based on punishment, compensation, and public protection. Therefore, it is recommended to review the policies and to emphasize the necessity of functional and integrated juvenile justice system.   Özet Odak noktasında çocuk ve çocuk haklarının olması sebebiyle Türk Çocuk Adalet Sistemi (TÇAS, adalet sisteminin çok özel ve önemli bir alanını oluşturmaktadır. Tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de çocuk ceza adalet sisteminin temel amacı sadece çocuğun içinde bulunduğu adli durumla ilgili adil bir işlem tesis etmek değil aynı zamanda çocuğun bu zorlayıcı süreçten en az zararla çıkmasını sağlamak ve yetişkin bir birey olarak olabildiğince sorunsuz hayatlarına devam etmelerini sağlamaktır. Çocuk suçluluğu ile daha etkin mücadele edilmesi noktasında ceza adalet sistemi içerisindeki politika ve uygulamaların yanı sıra bu sistemin dışında ki suç önleme stratejilerinin de mutlaka ele al

  6. Costing and Data Management. Development of a Simplified System for Smaller Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Michael D.

    1976-01-01

    A participatory process by which a useful costing and data management system was developed at Chapman College is described. The system summarizes information on instructional workloads, class sizes, and the costs per student credit hour for academic programs. Costs incurred in other areas to support each program are included. (Editor/LBH)

  7. Digital Avionics Information System Preliminary Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis. Final Report (November 1974-May 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Gary K.; Dieterly, Duncan L.

    The results of a study to evaluate the potential life-cycle costs and cost savings that could be realized by applying the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) concept to future avionic systems were presented. The tasks evaluated included selection of program elements for costing, selection of DAIS installation potential, definition of a…

  8. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  9. The TRIPS Agreement: Challenges and Possibilities in the Negotiation of Justice at the Transnational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis-Cope, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the ideal of justice and institutional "structures" administering justice/injustice within the contemporary international system through a study of the Trade Related Aspects of Property Right agreement specific focus is the question of "who counts" in the negotiation of global justice, and the…

  10. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  11. English Only and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1999-01-01

    Sketches the strengths and weaknesses of the approach to social justice offered by John Rawls, an approach that continues to dominate discussions about social justice and public policy. Contrasts that conception with a critically realistic approach to judging social justice, and argues that the latter is more respectful of minority group…

  12. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  13. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  14. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  15. Study on Customer Loyalty in the Context of E-tailing Service Recovery --from the Perspective of Perceived Justice and Perceived Switching Costs%网络零售服务补救情形下的顾客忠诚——基于感知公平与感知转移成本视角的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦进; 陈琦

    2012-01-01

    E-commerce has greatly changed traditional patterns of retailing. The prospect of enormous profit has attracted more and more enterprises and individuals to get involved in online retailing, which results in increasingly fierce competition. Nowadays, many online retailers have realized the importance of winning and maintaining customer loyalty. Due to the characteristics of online service, such as intangibility, heterogeneousness, simultaneity of producing and consuming, and easy-passing, online shopping failure is almost inevitable. Service failures are main obstacles that prevent e-retailers from building consumer loyalty. However, when service failure occurs, service providers can take this opportunity and use effective recoveries to transfer dissatisfied customers into satisfied ones, thus enhance customer retention rate and even build long-term relationships with customers. Therefore, e- tailing service failure and recovery management has become an important issue for both academics and practitioners. While scholars have extended service failure and recovery research to the field of e-commerce, many focused on the typology of online retailing service failure and recovery. As to the customer loyalty in the context of e-commerce, most studies have focused on the relationship between perceived quality, perceived value, trust, first satis- faction and loyalty. Only a few studies explored the formation mechanism of customer loyalty in the context of online service recovery. Previous studies have pointed out that perceived justice plays an important role in the formation of customer satisfaction and behavior intentions after service recovery, and creating brilliant customer satisfaction and enhancing switching costs are viewed as the two important means to gain customer loyalty for enterprises. In addition, studies have found that switching costs play a significant moderating role on the relationship between first satisfaction and loyalty, but whether switching

  16. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, É; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks.

  17. VIABILITY OF SOME APPLIED COST SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: EGYPT'S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mamdouh ABBAS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze viability of some applied cost systems. The population of the study is some Egyptian manufacturing firms. The number of received questionnaires was 385. The results indicated that , according to the application extent indicator, the currently cost systems in Egyptian manufacturing firms may be descendingly arranged as follows: Activity Based Costing (ABC system, Target Costing (TC system , Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA system, Activity Based Management (ABM ,Other systems, Theory of Constraints (TOC and Value Chain (VC analysis.

  18. Systems and methods for energy cost optimization in a building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Robert D.; Wenzel, Michael J.

    2016-09-06

    Methods and systems to minimize energy cost in response to time-varying energy prices are presented for a variety of different pricing scenarios. A cascaded model predictive control system is disclosed comprising an inner controller and an outer controller. The inner controller controls power use using a derivative of a temperature setpoint and the outer controller controls temperature via a power setpoint or power deferral. An optimization procedure is used to minimize a cost function within a time horizon subject to temperature constraints, equality constraints, and demand charge constraints. Equality constraints are formulated using system model information and system state information whereas demand charge constraints are formulated using system state information and pricing information. A masking procedure is used to invalidate demand charge constraints for inactive pricing periods including peak, partial-peak, off-peak, critical-peak, and real-time.

  19. Guidelines and Metrics for Assessing Space System Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Overpass Rd. Santa Barbara , CA 93111 http:// www.technomics.net Sponsor Defense Communication Agency/Institute for Defense Analyses • • • • 117 CHAPTER...Jones, T. Capers , Estimating Software Costs, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Killingsworth, Paul, “Applying Cost Improvement Theory to the Production

  20. COST-EFFICIENCY OF RAINWATER COLLECTING SYSTEMS FOR INDIVIDUAL HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kujawiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was an assessment of the application effectiveness of three alternatives for rainwater harvesting systems for individual households, in central Great Poland climatic conditions. During the study the amount of storm water, which can be collected from the 3 different size roof areas (80, 135, 185 m2 was assessed, in relation to the needs of a four-person family, for the region of the Tarnowo Podgórne. The receivable amount of rainwater was analysed at a rate of 10, 25, 50% of total annual precipitation occurrence probability, including the lower values, appeared in the period of 1960-2008. For the financial efficiency evaluation of investment, an indicator of the average annual cost per unit (Ws and the net present value (NPV were used. The results show that for the Great Poland region with the average annual sum of precipitation of 550mm, only the roof surfaces of 185 m2 and bigger allow obtaining the profits from collected rainwater and reimbursement for building rainwater harvesting installations within 30 years of its operation.

  1. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Sumner, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. PMID:25480736

  2. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  3. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Island Paralegal (Student) Command Division N/A TAD from/to until (give date) Naval Justice School, Newport, Rhode Island 3255 Whereabouts for next 30...If a lesser forum is desired, handle according to procedures set out elsewhere in this book. I IV-41 LEGAL OFFICER RELIEVING CHECKLIST A. GEN t . One

  4. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  5. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co...

  6. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  7. Journals and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the process of journal deselection from the point of view of justice and argues that when journal cuts are necessary, libraries should first, reduce all departments to core holdings; second, ask departments with expensive journals for permission to implement an efficiency principle; third, if refused permission, implement an equal…

  8. Costing clinical biochemistry services as part of an operational management budgeting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbit, I F

    1986-08-01

    The process of costing clinical biochemistry tests as a component of the commissioning of a unit management budgeting system based on an International Computers Limited (ICL) minicomputer system was examined. Methods of apportioning consumable and labour costs under direct and indirect cost headings and as test and request charges were investigated, and in this currently operational system it was found that 38% of consumable costs and 57% of labour costs were not a direct component of the routine analysis function. Means of assigning test costs to a given request source and the incorporation of such charges into clinical budget statements were looked at. A reduction in laboratory workload did not produce a comparable reduction in laboratory costs. For a theoretical reduction in workload of 20% only a 3.8% laboratory saving in recoverable costs could be expected.

  9. Improving patient-level costing in the English and the German 'DRG' system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop ways to improve patient-level cost apportioning (PLCA) in the English and German inpatient 'DRG' cost accounting systems, to support regulators in improving costing schemes, and to give clinicians and hospital management sophisticated tools to measure and link their management. The paper analyzes and evaluates the PLCA step in the cost accounting schemes of both countries according to the impact on the key aspects of DRG introduction: transparency and efficiency. The goal is to generate a best available PLCA standard with enhanced accuracy and managerial relevance, the main requirements of cost accounting. A best available PLCA standard in 'DRG' cost accounting uses: (1) the cost-matrix from the German system; (2) a third axis in this matrix, representing service-lines or clinical pathways; (3) a scoring system for key cost drivers with the long-term objective of time-driven activity-based costing and (4) a point of delivery separation. Both systems have elements that the other system can learn from. By combining their strengths, regulators are supported in enhancing PLCA systems, improving the accuracy of national reimbursement and the managerial relevance of inpatient cost accounting systems, in order to reduce costs in health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  11. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  12. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  13. Optimal production policy for a remanufacturing system with virtual inventory cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    This paper deals with a cost management problem of a remanufacturing system with stochastic demand. We model the system with consideration for two types of inventories. One is the actual product inventory in the factory. The other is the virtual inventory that is being used by the customer. For this virtual inventory, it should be required to consider an operational cost that we need in order to observe and check the quantity of the inventory. We call this the virtual inventory cost and model the system by including it. We define the state of the remanufacturing system by the two inventory levels. It is assumed that the cost function is composed of various cost factors such as holding, backlog and manufacturing costs. We obtain the optimal policy that minimizes the expected average cost per period. Numerical results reveal the effects of the factors on the optimal policy.

  14. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  15. Development of restorative justice in the context of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Annett Cynthia Sáenz López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has developed in the past few years due to the verifiable benefits of providing an alternative conflict resolution approach which favors remedies, out-ofcourt arrangements and dialogue between the parties directly involved in disputes. Despite being mostly applied within the sphere of criminal justice –especially within the juvenile criminal justice system in force in many countries– the philosophy of restorative justice has affected other areas of social conflict such as domestic violence and violence against women. Analyzing how other countries apply Restorative Justice in cases of domestic violence and of violence against women, provides Uruguay with a framework to streamline the efforts towards providing victims, offenders, and communities with quality law enforcement processes primarily focused on a comprehensive restoration for all those involved.

  16. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN FRANCE. BETWEEN SINGULARITY AND CLASSICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administrative justice in France oscillates between classicism and singularity. Multiple factors explain how administrative justice has come to occupy a particular place in French administrative law. Administrative justice has not only settled disputes between administration and private persons, but as well, built the French administrative law. One of the main tasks during 19th and 20th century consisted in strengthen the independence from the executive branch and the efficiency in order to satisfy the idea of good justice. Many reforms have been led since the 1990’s. That is why we propose to depict the French system and evaluate the activity of French administrative justice concerning the judicial organization, its jurisdiction and the remedies before the administrative judge. We will enlighten also our paper with a comparative approach and some statistical elements.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of a Health System-Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E; Klinger, Elissa V; Linder, Jeffrey A; Fleegler, Eric W; Rigotti, Nancy A; Park, Elyse R; Haas, Jennifer S

    2016-09-17

    Project CLIQ (Community Link to Quit) was a proactive population-outreach strategy using an electronic health records-based smoker registry and interactive voice recognition technology to connect low- to moderate-income smokers with cessation counseling, medications, and social services. A randomized trial demonstrated that the program increased cessation. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CLIQ from a provider organization's perspective if implemented outside the trial framework. We calculated the cost, cost per smoker, incremental cost per additional quit, and, secondarily, incremental cost per additional life year saved of the CLIQ system compared to usual care using data from a 2011-2013 randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of the CLIQ system. Sensitivity analyses considered economies of scale and initial versus ongoing costs. Over a 20-month period (the duration of the trial) the program cost US $283 027 (95% confidence interval [CI] $209 824-$389 072) more than usual care in a population of 8544 registry-identified smokers, 707 of whom participated in the program. The cost per smoker was $33 (95% CI 28-40), incremental cost per additional quit was $4137 (95% CI $2671-$8460), and incremental cost per additional life year saved was $7301 (95% CI $4545-$15 400). One-time costs constituted 28% of costs over 20 months. Ongoing costs were dominated by personnel costs (71% of ongoing costs). Sensitivity analyses showed sharp gains in cost-effectiveness as the number of identified smokers increased because of the large initial costs. The CLIQ system has favorable cost-effectiveness compared to other smoking cessation interventions. Cost-effectiveness will be greatest for health systems with high numbers of smokers and with the high smoker participation rates. Health information systems capable of establishing registries of patients who are smokers are becoming more prevalent. This economic analysis illustrates the cost implications for health care systems

  18. Analysis of the traffic running cost in a two-route system with feedback strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the FVD (full velocity difference) model to study the influences of MVFS (mean velocity feedback strategy) and NVFS (the number of vehicles feedback strategy) on each vehicle's running cost and each route's total cost in a two-route system from the numerical perspective. The numerical results illustrate that MFVS and NVFS have significant effects on each vehicle's running cost and each route's total cost, and that the impacts, each vehicle's running cost and each route's total cost are related to the gap of each vehicle's departure time at the origin.

  19. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... reporting requirements that are essential for the DoD to estimate the cost of current and future weapon... and not cost allocations. The description will also show how the data from the offeror's accounting... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  20. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…