WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice statistics focus

  1. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of...

  2. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  3. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This presentation demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen?s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  4. A focus on educational choice has social justice consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention to the p......This article demonstrates that in Denmark there is considerable focus on educational and career choices during the last year of lower-secondary school, and investigates the possibility of using Amartya Sen’s capability approach as a lens to analyse this focus. It is argued that attention...... to the processes occurring before choices are made is of central importance, as these help to give students a genuine opportunity to choose from a broader range of options. This consideration is important from a social-justice perspective even if students end up choosing what they would have chosen without broader...

  5. Focus on environmental justice: new directions in international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2017-03-01

    More than three decades since the emergence of the environmental justice (EJ) movement in the U.S., environmental injustices continue to unfold across the world to include new narratives of air and water pollution, as well as new forms of injustices associated with climate change, energy use, natural disasters, urban greenspaces, and public policies that adversely affect socially disadvantaged communities and future generations. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters provides an interdisciplinary forum for conceptual, methodological, and empirical scholarship on EJ activism, research, and policy that highlights the continuing salience of an EJ perspective to understanding nature-society linkages. The 16 letters published in this focus issue address a variety of environmental issues and social injustices in multiple countries across the world, and advance EJ research by: (1) demonstrating how environmental injustice emerges through particular policies and political processes; (2) exploring environmental injustices associated with industrialization and industrial pollution; and (3) documenting unjust exposure to various environmental hazards in specific urban landscapes. As the discourse of EJ continues to evolve both topically and geographically, we hope that this focus issue will help establish research agendas for the next generation of EJ scholarship on distributive, procedural, participatory, and other forms of injustices, as well as their interrelationships.

  6. Focus on stochastic flows and climate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, JB; Williams, Paul D.

    2016-09-01

    The atmosphere and ocean are examples of dynamical systems that evolve in accordance with the laws of physics. Therefore, climate science is a branch of physics that is just as valid and important as the more traditional branches, which include particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and statistical mechanics. This ‘focus on’ collection of New Journal of Physics brings together original research articles from leading groups that advance our understanding of the physics of climate. Areas of climate science that can particularly benefit from input by physicists are emphasised. The collection brings together articles on stochastic models, turbulence, quasi-linear approximations, climate statistics, statistical mechanics of atmospheres and oceans, jet formation, and reduced-form climate models. The hope is that the issue will encourage more physicists to think about the climate problem.

  7. Part I: Advancing the Conversation. Just Scholarship! Publishing Academic Research with a Social Justice Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Rios, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article provides support to academics who are committed to engaging in scholarly activities in ways that promote an explicit social justice focus. Moreover, this article provides a broad overview of how to pursue social justice purposes in the field of education throughout the process of scholarly production and dissemination.

  8. Contemporary Issues of Social Justice: A Focus on Race and Physical Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis; Clark, Langston

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many neighborhoods remain, to a large degree, culturally, ethnically, linguistically, economically, and racially segregated and unequal (Orfield & Lee, 2005). Even though an African American president presently occupies the White House, the idea of a postracial America remains an unrealized ideal. Though social justice and racial discussions are firmly entrenched in educational research, investigations that focus on race are scant in physical education literature. Here, we attempt to develop an understanding of social justice in physical education with a focus on racial concerns. We purposely confine the examination to the U.S. context to avoid the dilution of the importance of these issues, while recognizing other international landscapes may differ significantly. To accomplish this goal, we hope to explicate the undergirding theoretical tenants of critical race theory and culturally relevant pedagogy in relation to social justice in physical education. Finally, we make observations of social justice in the physical education and physical education teacher education realms to address and illuminate areas of concern.

  9. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental... and criminal justice by providing financial assistance and funding research and statistical programs... funded efforts; training programs, court improvement projects, research, and gathering statistical...

  10. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  11. Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. NCJ 219374

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports on the first survey of campus law enforcement agencies conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics since 1994-1995. The report presents data covering the 2004-2005 school year. Agencies serving 4-year U.S. universities and colleges with a fall 2004 enrollment of 2,500 or more, and those serving 2-year public colleges…

  12. Misery loves company: team dissonance and the influence of supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate on team cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoverink, Adam C; Umphress, Elizabeth E; Gardner, Richard G; Miner, Kathi N

    2014-11-01

    The organizational justice literature has examined the effects of supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, or a team's shared perception of the dignity and respect it receives from its supervisor, on a number of important outcomes directed at organizational authorities. Considerably less is known about the potential influence of these shared perceptions on coworker-directed outcomes. In 2 experiments, we predict that a low (unfair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team cohesiveness than a high (fair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate. We further examine the process through which this effect occurs. Drawing from cognitive dissonance theory, we predict that low (vs. high) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team dissonance, or shared psychological discomfort, for team members and that this dissonance serves as an underlying mechanism through which supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate influences a team's cohesiveness. Our results demonstrate support for these predictions in that low supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate led to higher levels of both team dissonance and team cohesiveness than did high supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, and team dissonance mediated this relationship. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. An actor-focused model of justice rule adherence and violation: the role of managerial motives and discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brent A; Colquitt, Jason A; Paddock, E Layne

    2009-05-01

    Research on organizational justice has focused primarily on the receivers of just and unjust treatment. Little is known about why managers adhere to or violate rules of justice in the first place. The authors introduce a model for understanding justice rule adherence and violation. They identify both cognitive motives and affective motives that explain why managers adhere to and violate justice rules. They also draw distinctions among the justice rules by specifying which rules offer managers more or less discretion in their execution. They then describe how motives and discretion interact to influence justice-relevant actions. Finally, the authors incorporate managers' emotional reactions to consider how their actions may change over time. Implications of the model for theory, research, and practice are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Exploration of the System of Criminal Justice Statistics%刑事司法统计制度初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩

    2015-01-01

    Criminal justice statistics is a science of judicial measurement , and the system of criminal justice statistics is the regulation of the activities of Criminal Justice Statistics .China is still lack of specialized system of criminal justice statistics .Today, when the data has the absolute right to speak , all the governance model adjustment and management results show should depend on the data .There-fore, it is urgent to establish a system of criminal justice statistics .%刑事司法统计制度是规范刑事司法统计活动的上层建设,而我国目前尚缺乏专门的刑事司法统计制度。在数据拥有绝对话语权的今天,所有的治理模式调整和治理结果展现都有赖于数据,因而亟需建立刑事司法统计制度。

  15. Eating Disorders as Social Justice Issues: Results from a Focus Group of Content Experts Vigorously Flapping Our Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Stewart, Marion; MacKenzie, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Feminists have led the way in conceptualizing eating disorders as political issues and advocated for consideration of the larger socioeconomic context. Given the lack of research specific to the area of eating disorders and social justice, a focus group with professional women was conducted in an attempt to move beyond the conceptual contributions…

  16. Storying Our Claims, Claiming Our Stories: Becoming through Narrative in the Social-Justice Focused Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Julia Churchill

    2013-01-01

    The following project uses both narrative and feminist poststructural lenses to consider how narratives operated in one undergraduate social foundations of education class purposefully designed around issues of social justice. These theoretical frameworks were useful in exploring the ways students and myself, the course instructor, were variously…

  17. Integrating the American criminal justice and mental health service systems to focus on victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2011-12-01

    Although most research and policy in the mental health and criminal justice arenas have operated independently of one another, there is a growing consensus suggesting the need for an integration of these two disparate, yet complementary systems. Furthermore, in light of the adverse mental health consequences that often accompany victimization experiences, it is apparent that these two systems should develop and foster overlapping services for crime victims. The research reviewed herein provides an examination of issues such as these, identifies some of the barriers that stand in the way of a successful integration of the two systems, and attempts to provide some guidance and direction for future integrated mental health and criminal justice system approaches. An outline of research gaps and directions for future study are offered for the integration of criminal justice and mental health systems, as such collaborations are likely to alleviate some of the deleterious mental health outcomes evident among crime victims and at the same time reduce the occurrence of repeat victimization.

  18. Breastfeeding and feminism: A focus on reproductive health, rights and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbok, Miriam H; Smith, Paige Hall; Taylor, Emily C

    2008-01-01

    The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (re)productive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007) sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern. PMID:18680575

  19. Breastfeeding and feminism: A focus on reproductive health, rights and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Emily C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The annual Breastfeeding and Feminism Symposia aim to reposition breastfeeding as a valued part of women's (reproductive lives and rights. The symposia are designed to raise the profile of breastfeeding within the women's advocacy and feminist studies' communities, and to increase recognition among breastfeeding supporters that breastfeeding promotion could receive more socio-political support by partnering with those concerned with women's reproductive health, rights and justice, women's economic advancement, and the elimination of social, economic and health inequities. The third symposium (2007 sought to build dialogue and increase communications between and among these diverse communities. The nine articles presented in this thematic series were selected by the journal editors, and represent the core discussions at the symposium. This editorial presents the areas of synergy and strategies for action that emerged from the discussions. These strategies and this thematic issue are intended to reassert the momentum that evolved among participants, and to stimulate involvement among individuals and organizations not in attendance in promoting breastfeeding as a women's reproductive health, rights and justice concern.

  20. Technology Focus: Using Technology to Explore Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Joe; Juersivich, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    There is much research that documents what many teachers know, that students struggle with many concepts in probability and statistics. This article presents two sample activities the authors use to help preservice teachers develop ideas about how they can use technology to promote their students' ability to understand mathematics and connect…

  1. Literature in Focus: Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Frederick James was a high-energy physicist who became the CERN "expert" on statistics and is now well-known around the world, in part for this famous text. The first edition of Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics was originally co-written with four other authors and was published in 1971 by North Holland (now an imprint of Elsevier). It became such an important text that demand for it has continued for more than 30 years. Fred has updated it and it was released in a second edition by World Scientific in 2006. It is still a top seller and there is no exaggeration in calling it «the» reference on the subject. A full review of the title appeared in the October CERN Courier.Come and meet the author to hear more about how this book has flourished during its 35-year lifetime. Frederick James Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics Monday, 26th of November, 4 p.m. Council Chamber (Bldg. 503-1-001) The author will be introduced...

  2. Mechanism of Deep-focus Earthquakes Anomalous Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Linnik, E P; Mavrodiev, S C; Zelentsova, T N; Pintelina, L; Smolyar, V P; Pekevski, L

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the NEIC-data we have shown that the spatial deep-focus earthquake distribution in the Earth interior over the 1993-2006 is characterized by the clearly defined periodical fine discrete structure with period L=50 km, which is solely generated by earthquakes with magnitude M 3.9 to 5.3 and only on the convergent boundary of plates. To describe the formation of this structure we used the model of complex systems by A. Volynskii and S. Bazhenov. The key property of this model consists in the presence of a rigid coating on a soft substratum. It is shown that in subduction processes the role of a rigid coating plays the slab substance (lithosphere) and the upper mantle acts as a soft substratum. Within the framework of this model we have obtained the estimation of average values of stress in the upper mantle and Young's modulus for the oceanic slab (lithosphere) and upper mantle.

  3. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Stephen Edward

    2014-01-01

    Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  4. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  5. The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: a test of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on the unique predictability of different types of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the relative importance of these types of justice on outcome variables. Recently, researchers have suggested shifting from this focus on specific types of justice to a consideration of overall justice. The authors hypothesize that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice facets and outcomes. They present 2 studies to test this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrates that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice judgments and employee attitudes. Study 2 demonstrates the mediating relationship holds for supervisor ratings of employee behavior. Implications for research on organizational justice are discussed.

  6. How Narrative Focus and a Statistical Map Shape Health Policy Support Among State Legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.

  7. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  8. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  9. Towards an integrative post-2015 sustainable development goal framework: Focusing on global justice – peace, security and basic human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Lueddeke

    2015-12-01

    To strengthen the likelihood of realizing the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, particularly with regard to “planet and population” health and well-being , UN and other decision-makers are urged to consider the adoption of an integrated SDG framework that is based on (i a vision of global justice - underpinned by peace, security and basic human rights; (ii the development of interdependent and interconnected strategies for each of the eleven thematic indicators identified in the UN document The World We Want; and (iii the application of guiding principles to measure the impact of SDG strategies in terms of holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. While current discussions on the SDGs are making progress in a number of areas, the need for integration of these around a common global vision and purpose seems especially crucial to avoid MDG shortcomings.

  10. Steps towards improving the system of records, collection and monitoring of data relevant to statistics within the system of juvenile justice in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the importance of „good statistics of juvenile justice“ as one of the basis for a clearer overview of the juvenile crime situation, in order to create unique policies at local and national levels for the suppression and prevention of this phenomenon, and to create appropriate areas for action in terms of improving the system reform. The author particularly gives a review of the „Global Indicators in Juvenile Justice“ which present the basic set of data and comparative tool that provides a basis for the assessment and evaluation of services and policies in the field of juvenile justice, and highlights the importance of compatibility of „national indicators“ with them. Particular attention in the paper has been devoted to the overview and analysis of the necessary measures to improve this field, that were prepared and delivered to the relevant ministries and institutions by the Council for Monitoring and Promoting the work of Bodies Engaged in Criminal Proceeding and Enforcement of Juvenile Criminal Sanctions Involving Juveniles - Juvenile Justice Council (hereinafter: the Council. It was pointed, first of all, at the suggestions made by the Council to the Ministry of Justice with the aim to improve the Program for automated record keeping, at the necessary changes of the Court rules, and certain amendments to Forms SK- 3 and SK- 4 of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia were presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  11. Statistical characterization of the reproducibility of neutron emission of small plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarifeno-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile) and Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this work is to discuss the techniques related to the detection of fast pulsed neutrons produced in plasma focus (PF) devices, the statistical analysis of the corresponding data, and the methodologies for evaluation of the device performance in low emission neutron sources. A general mathematical framework is presented for the assessment of the reproducibility of the neutron emission of small PF devices given the shot-to-shot distribution and detector efficiency. The effect on the reproducibility in case of using two independent detectors is also discussed. The analysis is applied to the neutron emission of the plasma focus device PF-50J operating in repetitive mode (0.1-0.5 Hz and 65 J bank energy).

  12. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  13. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  14. Phonon focusing and electron–phonon drag in semiconductor crystals with degenerate charge-carrier statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuleyev, I. G., E-mail: kuleev@imp.uran.ru; Kuleyev, I. I.; Bakharev, S. M.; Ustinov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    We study the effect of anisotropy in elastic properties on the electron–phonon drag and thermoelectric phenomena in gapless semiconductors with degenerate charge-carrier statistics. It is shown that phonon focusing leads to a number of new effects in the drag thermopower at low temperatures, when diffusive phonon scattering from the boundaries is the predominant relaxation mechanism. We analyze the effect of phonon focusing on the dependences of the thermoelectromotive force (thermopower) in HgSe:Fe crystals on geometric parameters and the heat-flow directions relative to the crystal axes in the Knudsen regime of the phonon gas flow. The crystallographic directions that ensure the maximum and minimum values of the thermopower are determined and the role of quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse phonons in the drag thermopower in HgSe:Fe crystals at low temperatures is analyzed. It is shown that the main contribution to the drag thermopower comes from slow quasi-transverse phonons in the directions of focusing in long samples.

  15. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Non-public Owned Enterprises Burgeon Recently the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce published the results of its member enterprise 2001 survey. According to survey statistics, the total business income of

  16. Domain adaptation of statistical machine translation with domain-focused web crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Toral, Antonio; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Tamchyna, Aleš; Way, Andy; van Genabith, Josef

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of domain adaptation of statistical machine translation (SMT) by exploiting domain-specific data acquired by domain-focused crawling of text from the World Wide Web. We design and empirically evaluate a procedure for automatic acquisition of monolingual and parallel text and their exploitation for system training, tuning, and testing in a phrase-based SMT framework. We present a strategy for using such resources depending on their availability and quantity supported by results of a large-scale evaluation carried out for the domains of environment and labour legislation, two language pairs (English-French and English-Greek) and in both directions: into and from English. In general, machine translation systems trained and tuned on a general domain perform poorly on specific domains and we show that such systems can be adapted successfully by retuning model parameters using small amounts of parallel in-domain data, and may be further improved by using additional monolingual and parallel training data for adaptation of language and translation models. The average observed improvement in BLEU achieved is substantial at 15.30 points absolute.

  17. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  18. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to a joint investigation by a group of top world companies, China has for the first time surpassed the U.S. to become the most favored destination for direct foreign investment. The Financial Times reports that the September 11th incident has provoked worries about security in the U.S among foreign investors. According to UN statistics, nearly US $50 billion of direct foreign investment was channeled into China in 2001, and still more is on its way. Foreign investment in the United States, on the other hand, dropped from its 2000 level of US $301 billion to US $125 biinon.

  19. Three Liberal Theories of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří MACHÁČEK

    2013-01-01

    The mail goal of this thesis is to introduce the modern theory of liberal justice with a focus on distributive justice. In addition, the author addresses the issue of value neutrality in the liberal state and the concept of equality in liberal theory. The author presents the concept of "justice as fairness" described by liberal political philosopher John Rawls. Afterwards his concept is subjected to criticism of other contemporary liberal philosophers Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin. The aut...

  20. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  1. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  2. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  3. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  4. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  5. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  6. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  7. Minority Overrepresentation in the Juvenile Justice System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on the Causes of Minority Overrepresentation and the Plight of Minority Youth in Inner Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The United States Senate's Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice heard testimony on minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and the sentencing of minorities within that system. In particular, the Subcommittee heard testimony from eight witnesses who suggested short- and long-term approaches for helping to eliminate racial bias in the…

  8. Targeting change: Assessing a faculty learning community focused on increasing statistics content in life science curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Loran Carleton; Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Adedokun, Omolola A; Forney, James

    2016-11-12

    Transformation of research in all biological fields necessitates the design, analysis and, interpretation of large data sets. Preparing students with the requisite skills in experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation, and mathematical reasoning will require both curricular reform and faculty who are willing and able to integrate mathematical and statistical concepts into their life science courses. A new Faculty Learning Community (FLC) was constituted each year for four years to assist in the transformation of the life sciences curriculum and faculty at a large, Midwestern research university. Participants were interviewed after participation and surveyed before and after participation to assess the impact of the FLC on their attitudes toward teaching, perceived pedagogical skills, and planned teaching practice. Overall, the FLC had a meaningful positive impact on participants' attitudes toward teaching, knowledge about teaching, and perceived pedagogical skills. Interestingly, confidence for viewing the classroom as a site for research about teaching declined. Implications for the creation and development of FLCs for science faculty are discussed. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):517-525, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  10. Robust evaluation of statistical surface topography parameters using focus-variation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. N.; Gould, M.; Mujica-Schwann, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial bandwidth limitations frequently introduce large biases into the estimated values of rms roughness and autocorrelation length that are extracted from topography data on random rough surfaces. The biases can be particularly severe for focus-variation microscopy data because of the reduced lateral resolution (and therefore dynamic range) inherent in the technique. In this paper, we describe a measurement protocol—something similar to a deconvolution algorithm—that greatly reduces these biases. The measurement protocol is developed for the case of surfaces that are isotropic, and whose topography displays an autocovariance function that is exponential, with a single autocorrelation length. The protocol is first validated against Monte Carlo-generated mock surfaces of this form that have been filtered so as to simulate the lateral resolution and field-of-view limits of a particular commercial focus-variation microscope. It is found that accurate values of roughness and autocorrelation length can be extracted over a four octave range in autocorrelation length by applying the protocol, whereas errors without applying the protocol are a minimum of 30% even at the absolute optimum autocorrelation length. Then, microscopy data on eleven examples of rough, outdoor building materials are analyzed using the protocol. Even though the samples were not in any way selected to conform to the model’s assumptions, we find that applying the protocol yields extracted values of roughness and autocorrelation length for each surface that are highly consistent among datasets obtained at different magnifications (i.e. datasets obtained with different spatial bandpass limits). Publication of the US Government, not subject to copyright.

  11. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  12. Brief Approach to Fundamental Issues Regarding Transitional Justice. Focus on Certain Particularities of Taxable Sanctions within the Special Jurisdiction for Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Caldas Botero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document exposes different trains of thought regarding legal issues as a result of the peace agreement reached by the National Government and farc-ep (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People’s Army. The paper shows a detailed analysis in regards of the punishments applied in transitional justice, the differente theories regarding punishment and their application to the agreement reached by both parties, seeking to establish if the agreed is congruent with international agreements and the Constitution.

  13. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  15. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  16. 76 FR 31991 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  17. 76 FR 79220 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  18. 77 FR 32999 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  19. 78 FR 77168 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  20. 77 FR 73497 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  1. 78 FR 57177 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and... Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  2. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  3. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  4. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  5. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  6. Cash across the City: Participatory Mapping & Teaching for Spatial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Laurie; Lim, Vivian; Hall-Wieckert, Maren; Katz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teaching mathematics for spatial justice (Soja, 2010), as an extension of teaching mathematics for social justice (Gutstein, 2006). The study is contextualized in a 10-session curricular module focused on the spatial justice of a city's two-tiered system of personal finance institutions (mainstream vs. alternative), piloted…

  7. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  8. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  9. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice....

  10. The miscarriages of Justice in late Qing Dynasty——analysis focused on the original trial Judge Liu Xitong In the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ding; YANG Ang

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai,a famous case in late imperial China,and its important value for the study of legal history of the Qing Dynasty.Based on the analysis of this case,this article focuses on the issue of the responsibility of the magistrate Liu xitong,the judge of this ease,who analyzed the mentation of his miscarriage under the pressure of the rules about judges responsibilities in their judgment through which reveal the stimulation and passive infection of the judgment of the judges.

  11. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  12. GUIDANCE FOR STATISTICAL DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE PERCENT MINORITY AND PERCENT POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL CUTOFF VALUES USING CENSUS DATA FOR AND EPA REGION II ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

  13. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  14. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  15. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  16. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  17. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  18. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  19. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANDREEVSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic future. Transitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  20. Justice in the genetically transformed society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores some of the challenges raised by human genetic interventions for debates about distributive justice, focusing on the challenges that face prioritarian theories of justice and their relation to the argument advanced by Ronald Lindsay elsewhere in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Also examined are the implications of germ-line genetic enhancements for intergenerational justice, and an argument is given against Fritz Allhoff's conclusion, found in this issue as well, that such enhancements are morally permissible if and only if they augment primary goods.

  1. Adding the "in" to justice: a qualitative and quantitative investigation of the differential effects of justice rule adherence and violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Long, David M; Rodell, Jessica B; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2015-03-01

    Although justice scholars often assume that individuals react to injustice in a manner that is distinct from their reactions to justice, few studies have examined this assumption. Indeed, the most widely utilized measures in the literature assess only the adherence to rules of justice--not their violation. We conducted 2 studies to build and test theory about differential reactions to justice and injustice. An inductive study revealed that reactions to the adherence to justice rules reflected different constructs than reactions to the violations of justice rules. In a follow-up field study, we derived hypotheses for those patterns by drawing on the negativity bias and regulatory focus literatures. Specifically, justice rule violation was predicted to be more relevant to prevention-laden outcomes that represent a high level of vigilance and concerns about safety. Justice rule adherence was predicted to be more relevant to promotion-laden outcomes that represent concerns about becoming the ideal self. The field study supported many of those predictions while showing that a full-range justice measure (i.e., one that sampled both justice rule adherence and justice rule violation) explained more variance in outcomes than existing "truncated" justice measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. A guide to statistical analysis in microbial ecology: a community-focused, living review of multivariate data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ramette, Alban

    2014-12-01

    The application of multivariate statistical analyses has become a consistent feature in microbial ecology. However, many microbial ecologists are still in the process of developing a deep understanding of these methods and appreciating their limitations. As a consequence, staying abreast of progress and debate in this arena poses an additional challenge to many microbial ecologists. To address these issues, we present the GUide to STatistical Analysis in Microbial Ecology (GUSTA ME): a dynamic, web-based resource providing accessible descriptions of numerous multivariate techniques relevant to microbial ecologists. A combination of interactive elements allows users to discover and navigate between methods relevant to their needs and examine how they have been used by others in the field. We have designed GUSTA ME to become a community-led and -curated service, which we hope will provide a common reference and forum to discuss and disseminate analytical techniques relevant to the microbial ecology community. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Tax Justice Focus – The Whistleblower edition

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M A; Tax Justice Network

    2015-01-01

    Guest edited by Mary Alice Young of the University of the West of England, this edition is both an exploration of the difficulties confronting people who want to blow the whistle on companies engaged in providing financial services, and an acknowledgment of their personal courage.

  4. A statistical modelling study of the abrupt millennial-scale climate changes focusing on the influence of external forcings

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events are abrupt millennial-scale climate changes mainly detected in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial cycle. The frequency of the DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, we investigate the influences of external forcings on DO events with statistical modelling. We assume two types of generic stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The models are calibrated by maximizing their likelihood and compared using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Among the models, the stochastic oscillator model forced by both insolation and ice volume changes is favored by the NGRIP calcium ion data. The BIC scores provide positive evidence for the ice volume forcing in the presence of the insolation forcing but weak evidence for the insolation forcing in the presence of the ice volume for...

  5. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  6. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  7. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  8. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  9. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that

  10. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  11. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  12. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  13. Principles or Imagination? Two Approaches to Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    What does it mean to introduce the notion of imagination in the discussion about global justice? What is gained by studying the role of imagination in thinking about global justice? Does a focus on imagination imply that we must replace existing influential principle-centred approaches such as that

  14. AILTP Conference on the Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Detailing the conference held June 14, 1978 in Washington, D. C. on the tribal judicial systems, this article focuses on two panel discussions--"Administration of Justice on Indian Reservations: Current Status and New Approaches" and "Administration of Justice from a Tribal Perspective: The Future of Tribal Courts." (RTS)

  15. Social Justice, Education and School Social Work in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Ural; Aktan, Mehmet Can

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on welfare state, social justice and school social work interaction. In this paper, these three concepts' reflections in Turkey were mentioned. Researchers aimed to discuss how school social work (which is brought to the agenda recently) is important in the provision of social justice in Turkish public service delivery. [For the…

  16. Principles or Imagination? Two Approaches to Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I distinguish and discuss two approaches to global justice. One approach is Rawlsian and Kantian in inspiration. Discussions within this tradition typically focus on the question whether Rawls’s theory of justice (1971), designed for the national level, can or should be applied to the

  17. The CJEU on Trial : Economic Mobility and Social Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the re-regulatory nature of certain European economic freedoms and the subsequent effects on social justice. It examines contentious judgements delivered by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), wherein private economic arrangements and mobility affect core

  18. A Comparison of Four Restorative Conferencing Models. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Gordon; Umbreit, Mark

    This bulletin focuses on four restorative conferencing models within the juvenile justice system: victim-offender mediation; community reparative boards; family group conferencing; and circle sentencing. The bulletin first describes each of the four restorative justice models, presenting information on background, concept, procedures and goals,…

  19. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  20. Inequality, Social Justice and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Researching the redistribution processes in the framework of welfare economics is primarily carried out through the analysis of implementation opportunity of the social justice principle. Distributive justice involves the redistribution of income and resources in proportion to certain criteria. However, there is still no consensus on these criteria, which would clearly judge the fairness of the distribution.Individual needs, rights, desert or specific contributions of citizens in the development of society, the product outcomes, and many others can be served as the justice criteria. According to an egalitarian tradition, if not identified relevant distinguishing criteria, we can talk about the existence of the presumption of equality. Establishing equality means the advantages elimination of one individual over others. The paper attempts to analyze the egalitarian policies measures to implementation of equal opportunities, treatment and results, which ideally should neutralize all negative effects of a high degree of social inequality and achieve the desired goals of social policy. The paper also provides the argument concerning the realization possibility of the general equality idea. The author focuses on the existence of the exclusions in the equality policy - on the idea of «positive discrimination», which determines the appearance of conflicts between individual and public interests.

  1. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  2. University Access and Theories of Social Justice: Contributions of the Capabilities Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Strydom, Merridy

    2015-01-01

    Issues of social justice in higher education together with a focus on access or widening participation have become of increasing importance globally. Given the complex theoretical terrain of social justice and the tensions inherent in applying social justice frameworks within higher education, and particularly in the area of access, this paper…

  3. "Frayed All Over:" the Causes and Consequences of Activist Burnout among Social Justice Education Activists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Chen, Cher

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of scholarship on burnout among social justice activists who are working on a variety of issues, from labor rights to queer justice, little attention has been paid to burnout among those whose activism focuses on issues of educational justice. To begin to address this omission and understand what supports might help social…

  4. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  5. Mathematics and Social Justice in Grade 1: How Children Understand Inequality and Represent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. Shaun

    2009-01-01

    Social justice might be considered too complex a topic to address with 6- and 7-year-olds, particularly through mathematics. How would first-graders understand social justice? The author believes that by focusing on inequality in relation to power and access to resources, freedom, and diversity, children could understand social justice issues. The…

  6. The TRIPS Agreement: Challenges and Possibilities in the Negotiation of Justice at the Transnational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis-Cope, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the ideal of justice and institutional "structures" administering justice/injustice within the contemporary international system through a study of the Trade Related Aspects of Property Right agreement specific focus is the question of "who counts" in the negotiation of global justice, and the…

  7. University Access and Theories of Social Justice: Contributions of the Capabilities Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Strydom, Merridy

    2015-01-01

    Issues of social justice in higher education together with a focus on access or widening participation have become of increasing importance globally. Given the complex theoretical terrain of social justice and the tensions inherent in applying social justice frameworks within higher education, and particularly in the area of access, this paper…

  8. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  9. Differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates in emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, J

    2000-08-01

    Most theories of justice focus on individual-level approaches; few examine the role of contextual factors such as culture. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates (n = 120 and 58, respectively) in terms of their emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Analyses indicated that Hispanic students were more likely to use interactional justice than Caucasian respondents, but the groups did not differ in their likelihood of using distributive or procedural justice.

  10. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  11. Variations on Justice: Argentina's pre- and -post transitional justice and justice to-come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    of these three kinds of justice and the changes they underwent in the past two decades. By offering a grounded analysis of justice in the pre- and the post-transitional justice phases in Argentina the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the meaning of justice and the possibility of reconciliation in post-conflict...

  12. Spanish version of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gracia, Liliana; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) is an important predictor of different work attitudes and behaviors. Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale (COJS) was designed to assess employees' perceptions of fairness. This scale has four dimensions: distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. The objective of this study is to validate it in a Spanish sample. The scale was administered to 460 Spanish employees from the service sector. 40.4% were men and 59.6% women. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported the four dimensions structure for Spanish version of COJS. This model showed a better fit to data that the others models tested. Cronbach's alpha obtained for subscales ranged between .88 and .95. Correlations of the Spanish version of COJS with measures of incivility and job satisfaction were statistically significant and had a moderate to high magnitude, indicating a reasonable degree of construct validity. The Spanish version of COJS has adequate psychometric properties and may be of value in assessing OJ in Spanish setting.

  13. Statistical parametric mapping of stimuli-evoked changes in quantitative blood flow using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Paul J.; Bouwens, Arno; Shamaei, Vincent; Nguyen, David; Extermann, Jerome; Bolmont, Tristan; Lasser, Theo

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging has revolutionised our understanding of brain function through its ability to image human cerebral structures non-invasively over the entire brain. By exploiting the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, functional MRI can indirectly map areas undergoing neural activation. Alongside the development of fMRI, powerful statistical tools have been developed in an effort to shed light on the neural pathways involved in processing of sensory and cognitive information. In spite of the major improvements made in fMRI technology, the obtained spatial resolution of hundreds of microns prevents MRI in resolving and monitoring processes occurring at the cellular level. In this regard, Optical Coherence Microscopy is an ideal instrumentation as it can image at high spatio-temporal resolution. Moreover, by measuring the mean and the width of the Doppler spectra of light scattered by moving particles, OCM allows extracting the axial and lateral velocity components of red blood cells. The ability to assess quantitatively total blood velocity, as opposed to classical axial velocity Doppler OCM, is of paramount importance in brain imaging as a large proportion of cortical vascular is oriented perpendicularly to the optical axis. We combine here quantitative blood flow imaging with extended-focus Optical Coherence Microscopy and Statistical Parametric Mapping tools to generate maps of stimuli-evoked cortical hemodynamics at the capillary level.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Objective: Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women’s Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre’s organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman’s and Anova statistical tests. Results: Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel’s intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees’ satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them. PMID:27482163

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women's Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre's organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman's and Anova statistical tests. Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel's intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees' satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them.

  16. Social Justice Competencies and Career Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra; Marshall, Catherine; McMahon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on social justice issues in career development is primarily conceptual in nature and few resources account for the challenges or successes experienced by career development practitioners. The purpose of this article is to report the results of a research study of career practitioners in Canada regarding the competencies they use…

  17. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  18. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  19. Social Justice and Cultural Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Debra A.; Alston, Reginald J.; Turner-Whittaker, Tyra

    2008-01-01

    Early definitions of cultural diversity focused primarily on race/ethnicity, with subsequent inclusion of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, religion, geography, and a combination of positionalities. More recently, social justice has resurfaced as a component of cultural diversity to explain experiences of people of color, women, and…

  20. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  1. Like water for justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is

  2. Potential Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  3. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  4. JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić Kuljiš, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Symbol of justice is a blindfolded lady. Blind to all diversity, it provides impartial law and equal treatment for all citizens. Their rationality, cooperativeness, autonomy and independence confirm their legal equality. However, what about the people who, for various reasons, do not meet those conditions? Can a political community apply the principles of (political) justice to them? Does it relate to them unfairly excluding them from political relationships or building relationships with the...

  5. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  6. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN FRANCE. BETWEEN SINGULARITY AND CLASSICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administrative justice in France oscillates between classicism and singularity. Multiple factors explain how administrative justice has come to occupy a particular place in French administrative law. Administrative justice has not only settled disputes between administration and private persons, but as well, built the French administrative law. One of the main tasks during 19th and 20th century consisted in strengthen the independence from the executive branch and the efficiency in order to satisfy the idea of good justice. Many reforms have been led since the 1990’s. That is why we propose to depict the French system and evaluate the activity of French administrative justice concerning the judicial organization, its jurisdiction and the remedies before the administrative judge. We will enlighten also our paper with a comparative approach and some statistical elements.

  8. Social justice as a framework for undergraduate community health clinical experiences in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2008-01-01

    Educating future registered nurses for social justice is an urgent, yet complex undertaking in undergraduate education. Although the need for social justice education is often highlighted, few articles describe practical teaching strategies for ensuring that undertaking. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a curricular focus on social justice framed and supported the development of a clinical evaluation tool for undergraduate community health clinical experiences. First, social justice is defined and its relationship to baccalaureate nursing education explained. Then a description is provided of how social justice was highlighted in the vision, curriculum, and community health clinical evaluation tool of a College of Nursing. The article subsequently showcases the content and evaluation of students' journal entries about social justice. The development of the social justice component presented in this article may be useful to nurse educators striving to match theory and practice in the evaluation of social justice in students' community health experience.

  9. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  10. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  11. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  12. Development of restorative justice in the context of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Annett Cynthia Sáenz López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has developed in the past few years due to the verifiable benefits of providing an alternative conflict resolution approach which favors remedies, out-ofcourt arrangements and dialogue between the parties directly involved in disputes. Despite being mostly applied within the sphere of criminal justice –especially within the juvenile criminal justice system in force in many countries– the philosophy of restorative justice has affected other areas of social conflict such as domestic violence and violence against women. Analyzing how other countries apply Restorative Justice in cases of domestic violence and of violence against women, provides Uruguay with a framework to streamline the efforts towards providing victims, offenders, and communities with quality law enforcement processes primarily focused on a comprehensive restoration for all those involved.

  13. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…

  14. toward a curriculum for justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more ... way to conduct a curriculum enquiry, since it acknowledges the crisis of ..... The principle of having a caring curriculum necessitates that we create learning-teaching.

  15. Empowering Energy Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L

    2016-09-21

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure "just" transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between "green" and "just", as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  16. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  17. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  18. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  19. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  20. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  1. English Only and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1999-01-01

    Sketches the strengths and weaknesses of the approach to social justice offered by John Rawls, an approach that continues to dominate discussions about social justice and public policy. Contrasts that conception with a critically realistic approach to judging social justice, and argues that the latter is more respectful of minority group…

  2. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  3. Toward A Buddhist Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blumenthal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For more than twenty years key thinkers of Engaged Buddhism have used terms like “justice” and “social justice” quite freely.  Yet despite more sophisticated discussions of other philosophical topics, Engaged Buddhists have  not clearly defined what they mean by the term justice. Given that the term is one with a rich philosophical history in the West and has no direct parallel in Buddhist thought, it is incumbent upon Engaged Buddhist theorists to define what they mean when they use this term if they are to engage in any sort of meaningful dialog on justice and related issues in the international community. In this paper, to illustrate how Engaged Buddhists might begin this important line of work, I would focus on two cases. First, I will discuss John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" and compare that with some traditional Buddhist ideas and explore potential Buddhist thinking, responses, and adaptations. Second, I will discuss a relatively new model known as restorative justice in opposition to the pervasive use of retributive models implemented around the globe and consider the ways that Buddhism seems to lend itself quite well to "restorative" models, particularly with regard to criminal justice.  Both examples are merely beginning points for discussion used to illustrate how and why Engaged Buddhists ought to participate more directly in global philosophical discourse on justice.

  4. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  5. Becoming a Social Justice Educator: Emerging from the Pits of Whiteness into the Light of Love. A Response to "Respect Differences? Challenging the Common Guidelines in Social Justice Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Kay F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the limitations of social justice in institutional spaces and in rhetoric. I write in the form of a quest narrative to describe the lessons I learned from a brief sojourn in a temporary position in an urban teacher education program with a social justice focus and at a nonprofit organization with other social justice workers.…

  6. Justice and U.S. Occupational Therapy Practice: A Relationship 100 Years in the Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Rebecca M; Boston, Tessa L; Daaleman, Claire E

    At 99 years old, occupational therapy is a global health care profession with a growing orientation toward justice. Because much of the occupational justice discourse has developed outside the United States, parallels between the profession's ethos and its current focus on justice must be examined more closely in this country. Although occupational therapy practitioners in the United States are better equipped than their predecessors with language and theories that explicitly emphasize justice, the potential for bringing that focus to bear depends on practitioners' willingness to think differently about their practices. We argue that a focus on justice can be naturally integrated with curriculum standards by emphasizing the link between cultural humility, client-centeredness, and embodied habits of "seeking out unknown others." Outside formal education, practitioners can be encouraged to think of justice as something that already intersects with practice, not something that practitioners must choose whether to take up. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Island Paralegal (Student) Command Division N/A TAD from/to until (give date) Naval Justice School, Newport, Rhode Island 3255 Whereabouts for next 30...If a lesser forum is desired, handle according to procedures set out elsewhere in this book. I IV-41 LEGAL OFFICER RELIEVING CHECKLIST A. GEN t . One

  8. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  9. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co...

  10. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  11. Journals and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the process of journal deselection from the point of view of justice and argues that when journal cuts are necessary, libraries should first, reduce all departments to core holdings; second, ask departments with expensive journals for permission to implement an efficiency principle; third, if refused permission, implement an equal…

  12. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  13. Mapping the Evolving Ideas of Occupational Justice: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyothi

    2016-10-12

    The values of occupational therapy are grounded in justice, and its origins in activism and advocacy. Enabling individuals to participate in meaningful occupations to enhance health and well-being was the genesis of the profession that answered a call to justice. Occupational science brought focus to understand humans as occupational beings and made justice more visible in the discourse. A systematic mapping review was undertaken to deconstruct how notions of occupational justice (OJ) have been woven in the literature. The ideas of OJ were dominant in 40 out of the 120 articles that met the study's inclusion criteria. OJ was represented mainly in the context of disadvantaged groups and dissonance in practice. For OJ to influence policy, the focus on the individuals' experiences of occupational injustices must be seen as transacting with systems and policies that contribute to participation inequities in groups and populations.

  14. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  15. Integrating justice and care in animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekan, Todd

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethics presents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life.

  16. Advocating for Social Justice in Academia through Recruitment, Retention, Admissions, and Professional Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a growing focus on integrating social justice issues in counseling and counseling psychology fields. In this article, the author explores some of the opportunities and responsibilities that social justice-oriented counseling faculty have within institutions of higher education. Specific areas of focus are recruitment, retention,…

  17. Competing Priorities and Challenges: Principal Leadership for Social Justice along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Previous research has focused on the importance of a social justice leadership approach to improve schools that serve marginalized students, but less attention has been focused on potential dilemmas associated with social justice leadership and the ways in which principals prioritize when dilemmas or challenges arise.…

  18. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-01-01

    The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary libera...

  19. Statistical Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  20. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  1. Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsa Perez, Alejandro; Grafton, Bernadette; Mohai, Paul; Hardin, Rebecca; Hintzen, Katy; Orvis, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To complement a recent flush of research on transnational environmental justice movements, we sought a deeper organizational history of what we understand as the contemporary environmental justice movement in the United States. We thus conducted in-depth interviews with 31 prominent environmental justice activists, scholars, and community leaders across the US. Today’s environmental justice groups have transitioned from specific local efforts to broader national and global mandates, and more sophisticated political, technological, and activist strategies. One of the most significant transformations has been the number of groups adopting formal legal status, and emerging as registered environmental justice organizations (REJOs) within complex partnerships. This article focuses on the emergence of REJOs, and describes the respondents’ views about the implications of this for more local grassroots groups. It reveals a central irony animating work across groups in today’s movement: legal formalization of many environmental justice organizations has made the movement increasingly internally differentiated, dynamic, and networked, even as the passage of actual national laws on environmental justice has proven elusive.

  2. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  3. Social justice and religious participation: a qualitative investigation of Christian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; Rufa, Anne K

    2013-06-01

    This investigation examines how self-identified Christians in the Midwest U.S. understand and work for social justice, with a focus on their process of social justice development and the role of religious congregations in promoting social justice. Using a grounded theory analysis of 15 in-depth interviews, results indicated multiple understandings of social justice such as meeting basic needs, fixing social structures and systems to create equal distributions of resources, promoting human rights and dignity, and as a religious responsibility. Participants also described a process of social justice development facilitated by exposure to injustice, mentors, educating others, and the importance of finding a social justice community. Distinct personal barriers to social justice engagement were identified such as resources and negative emotions, whereas congregational leadership was important for congregational involvement. General frustration with congregations was expressed regarding low social justice engagement; however, participants balanced this frustration with hope for the positive potential of congregations to promote social justice. Together these findings show multifaceted understandings of social justice and a dynamic process of social justice development for these self-identified Christians. Implications for future research and partnership with religious individuals and congregations also are discussed.

  4. Promoting employee wellbeing: the relevance of work characteristics and organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katrina J; Noblet, Andrew J; Rodwell, John J

    2009-09-01

    Research focusing on the relationship between organizational justice and health suggests that perceptions of fairness can make significant contributions to employee wellbeing. However, studies examining the justice-health relationship are only just emerging and there are several areas where further research is required, in particular, the uniqueness of the contributions made by justice and the extent to which the health effects can be explained by linear, non-linear and/or interaction models. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the main, curvilinear and interaction effects of work characteristics and organizational justice perceptions on employee wellbeing (as measured by psychological health and job satisfaction). Work characteristics were measured using the demand-control-support (DCS) model (Karasek and Theorell, 1990) and Colquitt's (2001) four justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational) assessed organizational justice (Colquitt, 2001). Hierarchical regression analyses found that in relation to psychological health, perceptions of justice added little to the explanatory power of the DCS model. In contrast, organizational justice did account for unique variance in job satisfaction, the second measure of employee wellbeing. The results supported linear relationships between the psychosocial working conditions and the outcome measures. A significant two-way interaction effect (control x support at work) was found for the psychological health outcome and the procedural justice by distributive justice interaction was significant for the job satisfaction outcome. Notably, the findings indicate that in addition to traditional job stressors, health promotion strategies should also address organizational justice.

  5. Dentistry and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; MacEntee, Michael I

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing concern in most countries to address the problem of inequities in health-care within the context of financial restraints on the public purse and the realities of health professions that are influenced strongly by the economic priorities of free-market economies. Dental professionals, like other health professionals, are well aware that the public expects oral health-related services that are effective, accessible, available and affordable. Yet, there is remarkably little reference in the literature to the theories of distributive justice that might offer guidance on how an equitable oral health service could be achieved. This paper considers three prominent theories of distributive justice--libertarianism, egalitarianism and contractarianism--within the controversial context of basic care and quality of life. The discussion leads towards a socially responsible, egalitarian perspective on prevention augmented by a social contract for curative care with the aim of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.

  6. Corrections and Juvenile Justice: Current Education Practice for Youth with Learning and Other Disabilities. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kenneth W.; Wolford, Bruce I.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, focuses on the educational services provided to youth with behavioral and cognitive disabilities placed in the juvenile justice system. It reports on a review of correctional system monitoring reports, materials from enforcement actions taken against…

  7. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  8. The subject of social justice: a defence of the basic structure of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo de Lucca-Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In The Idea of Justice (2009, Amartya Sen presents an approach to justice that seeks to make comparisons based on social realizations. This approach focuses attention both on real political-social institutions and on people's behaviour, as well as other potential influences affecting the degree of justice existing in a given society. The new theoretical proposal advanced by Sen (2009 differs then from the theory of justice formulated by John Rawls (1999a and other contemporary theorists. In the eyes of the Indian author, the theory formulated by Rawls searches for solutions to questions of perfect justice and suffers from problems of feasibility and redundancy. In this article, I argue, centring attention on the question of the appropriate primary subject of social justice, that the critique and subsequent proposal for change of the subject of justice presented by Sen (2009 can be judged mistaken. From a liberal-egalitarian perspective, the primary subject of social justice should be the basic structure of society as formulated by Rawls. Hence I explore the idea that Rawls's option to focus on this subject is directly associated with this particular conception of social justice. I also look to show that Sen's (2009 critique of the redundancy of contemporary theories of justice can be considered implausible. I argue that an ideal theory, such as the one formulated by Rawls, is central to practical guidelines for actions that seek to lessen injustices in real life situations.

  9. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  10. Engaging with issues of emotionality in mathematics teacher education for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between social justice, emotionality and mathematics teaching in the context of the education of prospective teachers of mathematics. A relational approach to social justice calls for giving attention to enacting socially-just relationships in mathematics classrooms. Emotionality and social justice in teaching mathematics variously intersect, interrelate or interweave. An intervention, usng creative action methods, with a cohort of prospective teachers...

  11. Massive trauma and the healing role of reparative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael

    2009-10-01

    In this article, the author focuses on victims/survivors' experiences of justice processes after massive trauma. Reparative justice insists that every step throughout the justice experience--from the first moment of the court's encounter with a potential witness, to the follow-up of witnesses after their return home, to the aftermath of the completion of the case--presents an opportunity for redress and healing. Conversely, this experience may present a risk of missing opportunities for healing and reintegrating victims into their societies, or, worse, (re)victimizing and (re)traumatizing them. Although restitution, rehabilitation, or compensation may come only after this process has concluded, opportunities exist throughout. Although not sufficient in itself, reparative justice is a necessary component among the healing processes after massive trauma. Copyright © 2009 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Religious networking organizations and social justice: an ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R

    2012-09-01

    The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.

  13. Criminal Justice Profile--Statewide, 1984. Supplement to "Crime and Delinquency in California."

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…

  14. Flew on Entitlements and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Lorenzo

    1989-01-01

    In «Equality, yes, surely; but Justice?», Antony Flew argues that egalitarianism and collectivism are incompatible with the concept of justice, since the usual concept of justice is that of giving everyone his due (or his own). That concept is intrinsically backward-looking; you cannot assign everyone his own by gratuitously presupposing that nothing is his own and that a fresh start is to be made. As against such a view, I maintain that, in a fairly obvio...

  15. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  16. Global justice and transnational civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temi Ogunye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all accounts of global justice recognise that the world, as it is, is unjust, and that something ought to be done about this. But what? In this paper, I argue that wealthy individuals have a duty grounded in the natural duty of justice to engage in civil disobedience against the currently unjust global order with the aim of pressuring for institutional reform. In particular, I argue that those who subscribe to the two main views on global justice—cosmopolitanism and statism—can agree that the conditions which give rise to the duty to engage in civil disobedience obtain in global society today. I then explain why I focus on transnational civil disobedience, argue that only the wealthy have the duty to engage in it, and give an example of how this duty has been discharged in the real world.

  17. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  18. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  19. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past and p

  20. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  1. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty...... evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison...... on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to attain residual stationarity for both the output error method and the SDE method transformation of the observations were...

  2. What is Graphic Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Giddens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reproduces a poster presented at the Socio-Legal Studies ­Association annual conference, 5–7 April 2016 at Lancaster University, UK. The poster outlines the emerging study of the legal and jurisprudential dimensions of comics. Seeking to answer the question ‘what is graphic justice?’, the poster highlights the variety of potential topics, questions, concerns, issues, and intersections that the crossover between law and comics might encounter. A transcript of the poster’s text is provided for easier reuse, as well as a list of references and suggested readings.

  3. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  4. Social justice advocacy in nursing: what is it? How do we get there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Siobhan O'Mahony

    2011-01-01

    Social justice advocacy is an expectation of all nurses as expressed in the professional codes that guide nursing practice. Nursing literature reflects this shift in the focus of nursing advocacy, providing insight into the potentials and challenges associated with nursing's evolution toward a broader social justice advocacy model. This article describes the concept of social justice advocacy as currently reflected in professional codes and nursing literature and contrasts this with the individual patient-nurse advocacy model, which continues to dominate in nursing practice today. Challenges associated with movement toward a social justice advocacy model and options for addressing these hurdles are also discussed.

  5. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  6. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal;

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education...

  7. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  8. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  9. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  10. Social Justice Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  11. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  12. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  13. Toward a critical theoretical interpretation of social justice discourses in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Sheryl Reimer; Browne, Annette J

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread appeals to social justice, nursing conceptions of this ideal have been critiqued as incomplete and inconsistent. With the aim of contributing to a critical dialogue on discourses of social justice in nursing, we explore contemporary theories of social justice and their move beyond a distributive paradigm, employing techniques of replication and critique of social justice discourses in nursing. We consider how postcolonial feminist theory can help us understand the relevance of more recent critical interpretations of social justice, particularly in reinterpreting and broadening nursing's individualistic focus on social justice so that due consideration and actions are directed toward the intersecting impact of historically and socially mediated conditions on health and human suffering.

  14. Social inclusion/exclusion as matters of social (in)justice: a call for nursing action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanicki, Sharon M; Kushner, Kaysi E; Reutter, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Social inclusion/exclusion involves just/unjust social relations and social structures enabling or constraining opportunities for participation and health. In this paper, social inclusion/exclusion is explored as a dialectic. Three discourses--discourses on recognition, capabilities, and equality and citizenship--are identified within Canadian literature. Each discourse highlights a different view of the injustices leading to social exclusion and the conditions supporting inclusion and social justice. An Integrated Framework for Social Justice that incorporates the three discourses is developed and used to critique the dominant focus on distributive justice within foundational Canadian nursing documents. We propose a broader conceptualization of social (in)justice that includes both relational and structural dimensions. Opportunities for multilevel interventions to promote social justice are identified. This framework is congruent with nursing's moral imperative to promote health equity and with the multiple roles played by nurses to promote social justice in everyday practice.

  15. Modified Immersive Situated Service Learning: A Social Justice Approach to Professional Communication Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natasha N.

    2017-01-01

    Distinctions between traditional service learning and critical service learning with a social justice focus are important when structuring professional writing courses and defining course outcomes. This article presents a hybrid pedagogical approach for designing a critical service-learning course that integrates a social justice curriculum while…

  16. Social Justice Issues and Music Education in the Post 9/11 United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to examine the impact of historical sociopolitical events on music education, particularly post 9/11 with the intent of establishing a context for social justice issues; and second, how we might examine the broad implications to further music education research focusing on social justice. Issues of…

  17. Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

  18. Rejecting the Null: Research and Social Justice Means Asking Different Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Stephanie; Schwartz, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the specific ethical issues related to social justice research and the practical implications of engaging in social justice research, including the potential impact of research results on practice, policy, and advocacy at the local and national level. Specific recommendations are offered, including identifying…

  19. Middle School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Social Justice: A Study of Two Female Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is to document two middle school science teachers' perceptions of social justice and how these teachers implement various aspects of social justice in their science instruction. The two teachers teach science in an urban school that serves students from low-income, immigrant, and ethnic minority families. The…

  20. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  1. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-11-01

    SummaryWhile there seems to be consensus that hydrological model outputs should be accompanied with an uncertainty estimate the appropriate method for uncertainty estimation is not agreed upon and a debate is ongoing between advocators of formal statistical methods who consider errors as stochastic and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison and for checking the reliability of the confidence bounds. Using point rainfall and evaporation data as input and flow measurements from a sewer system for model conditioning, a state space model is formulated that accounts for three different flow contributions: wastewater from households, and fast rainfall-runoff from paved areas and slow rainfall-dependent infiltration-inflow from unknown sources. We consider two different approaches to evaluate the model output uncertainty, the output error method that lumps all uncertainty into the observation noise term, and a method based on Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) that separates input and model structure uncertainty from observation uncertainty and allows updating of model states in real-time. The results show that the optimal simulation (off-line) model is based on the output error method whereas the optimal prediction (on-line) model is based on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to

  2. The effect of restorative juvenile justice on future educational outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Rud; C. van Klaveren; W. Groot; H. Maassen van den Brink

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the effects of a Dutch restorative justice program for adolescent first-time offenders on early school leaving and years of education attained. Causal statistical estimates are presented using data from a randomized experiment, in which 944 adolescent offenders are randomly

  3. Key figures on the Dutch criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Berghuis, A.C.; Hooff, P. van

    1991-01-01

    This note contains statistical information on victimization rates, rates of reporting to the police, number of registered crimes and clearance rate, number of known suspects and known juvenile suspects, sentencing and dismissal rates, prison sentences, juvenile detention, state expenditure on police and justice, and number of employed people.

  4. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Court Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Verburg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judge's actions in this respect are both that the proceedings are fair and just and that parties perceive the way they are being treated during proceedings as fair and just.Within the New Approach we discern five procedural justice elements: (1 respect, (2 voice and due consideration, (3 some influence on how proceedings will continue, (4 an explanation of how the proceedings will continue and (5 direct interpersonal contact.The introduction of the New Approach shows two important bottlenecks in Dutch administrative court proceedings, which are (i the possible or supposed collision between legally right outcomes and  procedural justice and (ii the lack of uniformity and predictability.Although what we describe and discuss in this paper focuses on the Dutch situation, many of these considerations apply to administrative court proceedings in other countries. The themes and difficulties that face the administrative law judge seem to be common to many countries.

  5. Learning to teach science for social justice in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Purvi

    This study looks at how beginner teachers learn to teach science for social justice in urban schools. The research questions are: (1) what views do beginner teachers hold about teaching science for social justice in urban schools? (2) How do beginner teachers' views about teaching science for social justice develop as part of their learning? In looking at teacher learning, I take a situative perspective that defines learning as increased participation in a community of practice. I use the case study methodology with five teacher participants as the individual units of analysis. In measuring participation, I draw from mathematics education literature that offers three domains of professional practice: Content, pedagogy and professional identity. In addition, I focus on agency as an important component of increased participation from a social justice perspective. My findings reveal two main tensions that arose as teachers considered what it meant to teach science from a social justice perspective: (1) Culturally responsive teaching vs. "real" science and (2) Teaching science as a political act. In negotiating these tensions, teachers drew on a variety of pedagogical and conceptual tools offered in USE that focused on issues of equity, access, place-based pedagogy, student agency, ownership and culture as a toolkit. Further, in looking at how the five participants negotiated these tensions in practice, I describe four variables that either afforded or constrained teacher agency and consequently the development of their own identity and role as socially just educators. These four variables are: (1) Accessing and activating social, human and cultural capital, (2) reconceptualizing culturally responsive pedagogical tools, (3) views of urban youth and (4) context of participation. This study has implications for understanding the dialectical relationship between agency and social justice identity for beginner teachers who are learning how to teach for social justice. Also

  6. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  7. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  8. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities......, Andrew Williams points to a gap in Cohen's argument, alleging that Cohen's interpretation of the difference principle is unlikely to be compatible with the Rawlsian endorsement of publicity. Having explored a possible extrapolation of Cohen's critique to aggregate consumer choices and a resulting...... extension of Williams's charge that the difference principle, on Cohen's reading, fails to meet the publicity constraint because of its informational demandingness, I defend three claims: (a) it is doubtful that Rawls endorses a publicity constraint of the sort that would rule out Cohen's interpretation...

  9. Developing school psychologists as agents of social justice: a qualitative analysis of student understanding across three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole

    2014-06-01

    This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed.

  10. JUSTICE AND LIBERTY IN HEGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Weber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make explicit the concept of justice in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. It bounds it to the idea of liberty in its different ways of determination. It starts from the notion of person of right and indicates the fundamental rights that derive from the expression of this legal capacity. It highlights the right of necessity as a right to make an exception in favor of itself aiming the actualization of justice. It shows how, through the Law, in civil society, it happens the administration of justice.

  11. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  12. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  13. The Effect Of Perceived Justice On Customer Satisfaction In The Service Recovery Context: Testing Mediating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ellyawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of service failure through the model of service recovery evaluation. The study focuses on the concept of justice theory to determine the influence of emotions on the three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional for consumer satisfaction. The study considered a sample of 102 retailers in the Yogyakarta region in Indonesia, whose customers had experienced service failure and received service recovery. This study hypothesizes that perceived justice will significantly affect customer satisfaction directly in the context of service recovery satisfaction. It is further hypothesized that there will be a significant indirect effect of perceived justice on customer satisfaction in the context of service recovery satisfaction through emotions. This study employs the hierarchical regression model and shows that perceived justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional significantly and directly affects customer satisfaction. Further findings indicate that perceived justice also significantly and indirectly affects customer satisfaction. Positive emotions influence the effect of perceived justice on customer satisfaction. Negative emotions only mediate between perceived procedural justice and satisfaction. Thus, negative emotions do not elicit perceived distributive and interactional justice to unsatisfied retailer as consumers. The mediating variables are only partial mediations. The findings hold significant implications for the theory and practice of service recovery management, especially for retailers and service providers.

  14. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  15. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  16. Social Justice in Schools: A Case of Conflicting Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Katie; Friesen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Cherryvale Secondary School is located in a small, rural city. Mike Randall has been the principal there for three years. Each year principals are required by the school district to devise a School Improvement Plan. In Mike's first year, he chose a social justice goal, focusing on "Student Success on a Case-by-Case Basis." Mike and…

  17. "Flipping the Coin": Models for Social Justice in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Offers a rationale for developing a theory of social justice to support educational research. Using the work of John Rawls and others, explores injustices present within schools and classrooms observable through experiences of powerlessness, violence, exploitation, marginalization, and cultural imperialism. Calls for a transformational focus for…

  18. The Uncompromised Curriculum: Videos of Teachers Teaching Social Justice Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Despite pressures to narrow the curriculum and focus only on testing, there are teachers who continue to work social justice issues into their elementary lessons through the subject of social studies. These teachers speak of education as an instrument for the public good. In this day and age, it can be hard to find teachers with such…

  19. Corrective justice as a principle of civil liability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the principle of corrective justice as one of the basic principles of civil liability in the context of the modern living and increasing risks. The question that is raised with this paper is the influence the modern living and increasing risks have on the established bases of civil liability and tort law in general.

  20. Governing Emotionally Vulnerable Subjects and "Therapisation" of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, Kathryn; Brunila, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    In numerous countries, pessimism about enduring social and educational inequalities has produced a discernible therapeutic turn in education policy and practice, and a parallel rise in therapeutic understandings of social justice. Focusing on developments in England and Finland, this article explores the ways in which radical/critical…

  1. Narrative, Poststructuralism, and Social Justice: Current Practices in Narrative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of current practice in narrative therapy with a focus on how it is attractive and useful for therapists who wish to work for social justice. The authors describe narrative therapy's roots in poststructuralist philosophy and social science. They illustrate its major theoretical constructs, including the "narrative metaphor,"…

  2. "Flipping the Coin": Models for Social Justice in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Offers a rationale for developing a theory of social justice to support educational research. Using the work of John Rawls and others, explores injustices present within schools and classrooms observable through experiences of powerlessness, violence, exploitation, marginalization, and cultural imperialism. Calls for a transformational focus for…

  3. Teaching social justice using a pedagogy of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2008-01-01

    Teaching an undergraduate level diversity course with a health focus requires specific teaching methods. A pedagogy of engagement provides an effective strategy for exploring issues of race, class, gender, and structural inequalities that underlie health disparities. Engagement learning enhances understanding of theories of oppression and liberation presented in the course and highlights social justice issues.

  4. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  5. The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ - Reforming European Justice Systems - "Mission Impossible?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon T. Johnsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My paper concerns the Council of Europe’s work to improve justice in Europe. It explains and exemplifies a type of policy that the Council applies in its strive for implementing the demands of the European Human Rights Convention on the judicial systems in Europe.The Convention obliges all member states to put up efficient systems for remedying violations within their own national legal systems. If such systems are missing or do not provide sufficient redress, member states now accept that everyone is free to bring their case before the European Court of Human Rights ECtHR. Over the years the Court has produced extensive case law on violations of the provisions that protect people’s access to justice that develops and concretizes the general wordings used in the text of the ECHR. However, international complaint mechanisms are only one type of instrument for disseminating human rights. In addition to judicial instruments like the ECtHR, CoE also uses policy vehicles for implementation of human rights like the one I will focus upon; namely the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice – usually abbreviated CEPEJ – from the French version of its name. As one of several committees of CoE, it focuses on the development of the judicial systems of the member states.

  6. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  7. Polarization of perceived Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H; Hernandez-Marrero, Pablo; Wielemaker, Martin

    2006-02-01

    This study examined polarization of perceptions of Procedural Justice. Two polarization mechanisms are examined, Persuasive Arguments and Social Comparisons. Participants were students enrolled in a first-year introductory business class. There were 216 participants in the Persuasive Arguments study, 429 in the Social Comparisons study. The average age of all participants was 22.3 yr. (SD = 2.1); 56% were women. Fields of study represented were business, engineering, information technology, and sports. Analysis showed under conditions of low Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with the Persuasive Arguments mechanism. Under conditions of high Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with Social Comparisons. Implications for group polarization and Procedural Justice theories are considered.

  8. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  9. Food Justice: Access, Equity, and Sustainability for Healthy Students and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, René; Connery, Chelsea

    2016-01-01

    Describing how food insecurity is a threat to our country's democratic health and student success, the authors bring the issue of food justice into focus using the inequities in Hartford, Connecticut, and the ways one organization is working toward solutions.

  10. Children's reasoning about distributive and retributive justice across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Warneken, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4- to 10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgments about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4- to 5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4- to 5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared with reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality versus equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and the literature on moral development and fairness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Self-Interest Analysis of Justice and Tax Compliance: How Distributive Justice Moderates the Effect of Outcome Favorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon, Peter; van Dijke, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with tax authorities has been studied mainly in the fields of economics and psychology. The focus has respectively been on self-interest motives and justice concerns in tax compliance. We argue that both concerns are less divergent than is often thought. Specifically, we studied the moder

  12. What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Bege; Denier, Yvonne; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map the various principles of justice that are linked to benefit sharing and analysed their meaning to the concept of benefit sharing. Five principles of justice (commutative, distributive, global, procedural, and compensatory) have been shown to be relevant in the nuances of benefit sharing in both global health research and bioprospecting. The review findings indicate that each of these principles of justice provides a different perspective for a different benefit sharing rationale. For example, commutative justice provides a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on fair exchange of benefits between research sponsors and communities. Distributive justice produces a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on improving the health needs of the vulnerable research communities. We have suggested that a good benefit sharing framework particularly in global health research would be more beneficial if it combines all the principles of justice in its formulation. Nonetheless, there is a need for empirical studies to examine the various principles of justice and their nuances in benefit sharing among stakeholders in global health research.

  13. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  14. Interactional justice as a mediator of the relationship between pay for performance and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effect of pay for performance and interactional justice on job satisfaction.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was used to collect 107 usable questionnaires from employees who work in the US subsidiary manufacturing firm operating in a silicon valley in East Malaysia, Malaysia.Findings: The outcomes showed two important findings: first, relationship between interactional justice and adequacy of pay significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Second, relationship between interactional justice and participation in pay systems significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Statistically, this result confirms that interactional justice does act as a mediating variable in the pay for performance models of the studied organization.Originality/value: Most previous research tested a direct effect of pay for performance on job satisfaction. Unlike such research approach, this study discovers that interactional justice has strengthened the effect of pay for performance on job satisfaction in a compensation system framework.

  15. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary liberal democratic conception of justice ought to undergird attempts at school reform. A call for educators and policymakers to concentrate energies on efforts to help needy students rather than on efforts to channel tax dollars toward self- interested ends concludes the article.

  16. Applying Appreciative Inquiry Principles in the Restorative Justice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona DAMIAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence between appreciative ideology and the ideologies derived from the need of preserving human dignity is not complete, they can be seen in a single paradigm of affirmative action. Although restorative justice principles are not inspired by appreciative inquiry methodology, are at least converging with it, both of them focusing on human potential positivity. Moving the accent from the offense and its due retribution, on the recovery of prior state offense, both for the victim and the offender, this can be interpreted as waiving the deficiency paradigm, and integrating positive experiences resulting from mediation offender-victim relationship in an appreciative paradigm. Application of appreciative inquiry in restorative justice and in probation systems is a unique area in the world, it being applied only on an experimental level in some restorative justice programs.

  17. Farm labor, reproductive justice: Migrant women farmworkers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Charlene

    2013-06-12

    Little is known about the reproductive health of women migrant farmworkers in the US. The health and rights of these workers are advanced by fundamental human rights principles that are sometimes conceptually and operationally siloed into three approaches: reproductive health, reproductive rights, and reproductive justice. I focus on the latter framework, as it lends critical attention to the structural oppression central to poor reproductive health, as well as to the agency of communities organizing and leading efforts to improve their health. I review what is known about these women's reproductive health; identify three realms of reproduction oppression affecting their reproductive health: labor/occupational conditions, health care, and social relations involving race, immigration and fertility; and then highlight some current efforts at women farmworker-directed change. Finally, I make several analytical observations that suggest the importance of the reproductive justice framework to broader discussions of migrant worker justice and its role in realizing their right to health.

  18. Spirits and social reconstruction after mass violence: rethinking transitional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Erin

    2010-01-01

    A vibrant debate in the field of transitional justice concerns the relative ability of global, national, and local mechanisms to promote justice after violent conflict. Discussion largely focuses on more formal mechanisms of justice (courts, tribunals, or truth commissions), implying that state institutions and the law are solely responsible for shaping the process of social healing. This article suggests that scholars should take seriously more informal, socio-cultural processes outside the purview of the state, particularly for how they promote social reconstruction at the micro level. Examining the phenomena of spirit possession and ritual cleansing in northern Uganda, I illustrate how such efforts are expressions of injustice and reflect ordinary people’s attempts to seek moral renewal and social repair. This approach is particularly illustrative in cases where ‘intimate enemies’ exist - that is, settings where ordinary people who engaged in violence against one another must live together again.

  19. Reflections on power and justice in enabling occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth

    2003-04-01

    This descriptive paper offers reflections on power and justice associated with occupational therapy's client-centred practice, now described as the practice of enabling occupation. Framed as a contribution to the sociology of professions, the questions addressed are: How do power and justice work in occupational therapy today? What vision of power and justice guides the profession in implementing the client-centred practice of enabling occupation? The paper opens with an overview of the analytic framework for reflections. Two sources for reflections are highlighted: the development of the Canadian guidelines and, client/consumer and occupational therapy perspectives. To illustrate the discussion of power and justice, two contrasting diagrams are presented, one on late 20th century power relations and the other on potential power relations. Recommendations for research, education, practice, and guidelines development are offered prior to a conclusion that acknowledges the dissonance facing occupational therapists who struggle to focus on occupations in client-centred practice. The paper offers insights and strategies for addressing power and justice as issues in implementing the client-centred practice of enabling occupation. The analysis may be used in raising awareness and guiding the strategic development of institutional change toward social inclusion and enabling occupation.

  20. Explaining Ethnic Inequality in the Juvenile Justice System, an analysis of the outcomes of Dutch Prosecutorial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of the treatment of minorities in criminal justice systems show that ethnic minorities are punished more harshly. This paper aims to explain ethnic inequality in prosecutorial decision making in the Dutch juvenile justice system. Based on statistical analyses of 409 case files, it emerg

  1. Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…

  2. (Remaking the Social World: The Politics of Transitional Justice in Burundi Die (Wieder-Herstellung sozialer Wirklichkeit: Die Politik der Transitional Justice in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on political parties, this article highlights divergent conceptualizations of key elements of transitional justice that are part of the current contestation of the dealing-with-the-past process in Burundi. Speaking to the emerging critical literature on transitional justice, this article attempts to look beyond claims that there is a lack of political will to comply with a certain global transitional justice paradigm. In this article, transitional justice is conceived of as a political process of negotiated values and power relations that attempts to constitute the future based on lessons from the past. This paper argues that political parties in Burundi use transitional justice not only as a strategy to protect partisan interests or target political opponents, but also as an instrument to promote their political struggles in the course of moulding a new, post-conflict society and state.Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet wesentliche parteipolitische Konzeptionen zu Transitional Justice, wie sie im öffentlichen Diskurs zur Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit in Burundi erkennbar sind. Bezugnehmend auf die zunehmend kritische Literatur zu Transitional Justice versucht die Autorin, Antworten jenseits der Interpretation zu finden, der politische Wille zur Umsetzung des Transitional-Justice-Modells sei in Burundi nicht in ausreichendem Maß vorhanden. Sie versteht Transitional Justice als politischen Prozess, in dem Werte und Machtverhältnisse ausgehandelt werden und in dem versucht wird, die Zukunft des Landes auf der Basis der Lehren aus der Vergangenheit zu gestalten. Die Autorin argumentiert, dass die politischen Parteien in Burundi Transitional Justice nicht nur als Strategie nutzen, Parteiinteressen durchzusetzen oder politische Gegner zu treffen, sondern auch als Mittel, im Rahmen ihrer politischen Auseinandersetzungen den Aufbau einer Post-Konflikt-Gesellschaft und eines neuen Staates zu unterstützen.

  3. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical. © 2013...

  4. Counseling psychology trainees' perceptions of training and commitments to social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Amanda M; Spanierman, Lisa B; Greene, Jennifer C; Todd, Nathan R

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined social justice commitments of counseling psychology graduate trainees. In the quantitative portion of the study, a national sample of trainees (n = 260) completed a web-based survey assessing their commitments to social justice and related personal and training variables. Results suggested that students desired greater social justice training than what they experienced in their programs. In the qualitative portion, we used a phenomenological approach to expand and elaborate upon quantitative results. A subsample (n = 7) of trainees who identified as strong social justice activists were interviewed regarding their personal, professional, and training experiences. Eleven themes related to participants' meanings of and experiences with social justice emerged within 4 broad categories: nature of social justice, motivation for activism, role of training, and personal and professional integration. Thematic findings as well as descriptive statistics informed the selection and ordering of variables in a hierarchical regression analysis that examined predictors of social justice commitment. Results indicated that trainees' perceptions of training environment significantly predicted their social justice commitment over and above their general activist orientation and spirituality. Findings are discussed collectively, and implications for training and future research are provided.

  5. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    2017-06-01

    Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.

  6. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  7. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  8. Justice citizens : a youth participatory action research project focused on citizenship and social justice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heggart, Keith

    2012-01-01

    .... It drew from a critical pedagogical framework, as well as community cultural development, ideas, and took the form of a FilmVoice project that took place over 6 months and involved more than 100 grade 9 students...

  9. 影响经济管理活动的调节定向心理过程问卷设计研究%Research on Regulatory Focus Statistics Questionnaire Design Influencing Economic Management Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺双艳; 张庆林; 潘伟刚

    2015-01-01

    调节定向心理过程问卷的设计对于社会经济管理活动具有重要的意义.通过开放式问卷的发放及统计,形成了68个题目的预试问卷.项目分析显示问卷各题项均有较好的区分度,因此没有删除题项.探索性因素分析表明总量表与理论构想完全一致,调节定向分为促进定向与预防定向.各分量表因素分析表明促进定向与预防定向各分为两个维度即“注意—策略”及“记忆—想象”.信度分析表明总量表、各分量表及各因子的α系数都在0.8以上,表明内部一致性较好.统计结果还显示出较好的效度,因此问卷是可信有效的.%The research of the design of statistics questionnaire of regulatory focus compiled for economic management is of vital significance .In this study a pre‐test questionnaire of 68 titles was formed through the distribution and statistical treatment of open‐ended questionnaires .Project analysis showed that the regulatory focus questionnaire had two subscales :a promotion focus subscale and a prevention focus sub‐scale .All items in them had a good degree of differentiation ,and so no item was deleted .Exploratory fac‐tor analysis results showed that the total table was in complete accord with the theoretical assumptions , and adjusting orientation was divided into promotion orientation and prevention orientation .Table factor a‐nalysis results showed that the promotion focus and the prevention focus were divided into two dimensions each :“attention‐strategy” and “memory‐imagination” .Reliability analysis showed that the alpha coeffi‐cient of the total table ,all subscales and factors was over 0.8 ,suggesting a good internal consistency .Sta‐tistical results also showed a fairly good structure validity .Therefore the questionnaire is credible and ef‐fective .

  10. justice and the voice of learners?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bodies, learners' involvement in decision making and in curriculum issues, and .... participation is encouraged, freedom of expression and a sense of justice and ... Democratic theory and theories of social justice cannot be divorced from.

  11. Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  12. Organizational justice and health; review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Organizational justice is a construct defining the quality of social interaction at work. Organizational justice can be divided into three categories: procedural justice (fairness of the decision-making procedures), distributive justice (fairness of outcomes) and relational justice (equity and fairness in the interpersonal treatment of employees by their supervisors). Organizational justice is related to employees' health and well-being. Low perceived justice has been shown to be associated with experienced stress reactions and related physiological and behavioral reactions, such as inflammation, sleeping problems, cardiovascular regulation and cognitive impairments, and with a high rate of work absenteeism. This paper is a review of the literature on organizational justice and its impact on workers' health.

  13. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  14. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  15. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  16. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  17. Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Hannah Ann

    This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  18. Climate justice is not just ice

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Discussions about climate change and justice frequently employ dichotomies of procedural and distributive justice, and inter- and intra-generational justice. These distinctions, however, often fail to acknowledge the diverse experience of climate risks, or the contested nature of many proposed solutions. This paper argues for a reassessment of debates about climate justice based upon a greater diversity of risks and solutions such as integrating the reduction of social vulnerability simultane...

  19. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia....... Such research enables us to engage with the subjects of post-conflict peacebuilding and transitional justice processes directly and in their own spaces. This article thus renders women’s agency visible and attempts to grasp its contributions and consequences for transformations from war to peace....

  20. The Three R’s of Seeking Transitional Justice: Reparation, Responsibility, and Reframing in Canada and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous children in state-organized and funded residential schools raises profound and in many ways quite novel questions about transitional justice concerning Indigenous peoples in advanced capitalist societies. This article compares the Canadian case with that of a quintessential transitional justice pioneer: Argentina.Focusing on the efforts of justice-seekers in each country, it reveals similarities in their respective pursuits of what the article identifies as three important transitional justice goals: reparation, responsibility and reframing. However, the article also finds a crucial difference between the two cases. This difference is that justice seekers in Argentina have placed a heavy emphasis on social and political accountability, a goal that, in various ways, has received much less attention in the Canadian case. We conclude that this absence raises broader issues about transitional justice processes in countries marked by ongoing legacies of anti-Indigenouscolonialism—issues that Canadians from the settler society, in particular, must begin urgently to address.

  1. Relieving Burnout and the "Martyr Syndrome" among Social Justice Education Activists: The Implications and Effects of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Activist burnout, which causes activists to disengage from their activism, is a formidable barrier to the sustainability of social justice movements, including those focused on social justice in educational contexts. However, the cultures of these movements often disregard the importance of self-care, seeing it as self-indulgence, putting…

  2. Relieving Burnout and the "Martyr Syndrome" among Social Justice Education Activists: The Implications and Effects of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Activist burnout, which causes activists to disengage from their activism, is a formidable barrier to the sustainability of social justice movements, including those focused on social justice in educational contexts. However, the cultures of these movements often disregard the importance of self-care, seeing it as self-indulgence, putting…

  3. Teaching for social justice and social action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Meyers, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Social justice education involves promoting critical awareness of social inequalities and developing skills that work against these inequalities. This article describes a general theoretical framework for social justice education, describes general strategies for facilitating students' social justice awareness and engagement, identifies challenges to social education, and highlights articles in the special issue that address these themes.

  4. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  5. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  6. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy

  7. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  8. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  9. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  10. Empathy and motivation for justice: Cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Why do people tend to care for upholding principles of justice? This study examined the association between individual differences in the affective, motivational and cognitive components of empathy, sensitivity to justice, and psychopathy in participants (N 265) who were also asked to rate the permissibility of everyday moral situations that pit personal benefit against moral standards of justice. Counter to common sense, emotional empathy was not associated with sensitivity to injustice for others. Rather, individual differences in cognitive empathy and empathic concern predicted sensitivity to justice for others, as well as the endorsement of moral rules. Psychopathy coldheartedness scores were inversely associated with motivation for justice. Moreover, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-focused and other-focused orientations toward justice had opposing influences on the permissibility of moral judgments. High scores on psychopathy were associated with less moral condemnation of immoral behavior. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the information processing mechanisms underlying justice motivation, and may guide interventions designed to foster justice and moral behavior. In order to promote justice motivation, it may be more effective to encourage perspective taking and reasoning than emphasizing emotional sharing with the misfortune of others.

  11. Historical Memory and Transitional Justice in Spain: the Time as Actor of Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Tamarit Sumalla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the political, criminal and legal challenges posed by accountability demands for past crimes by studying the singularities that the Spanish transition from Franco’s dictatorship to democracy has raised. Especially, it is analysed the Historical Memory Law of 2007 and the most problematic points of the criminal justice actions that have emerged due to offenses committed during the dictatorship. Despite the existence of international crimes, the elapsed time has brought difficult to overcome, factual and legal difficulties for effective prosecution. This problem, focusing on the prohibition of retroactivity, prescription and effects of the Amnesty Act of 1977 is examined here.

  12. Critical reflections on occupational justice: Toward a rights-based approach to occupational opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2017-02-01

    Occupational justice is cited throughout the occupational science and occupational therapy literatures despite little scholarly attention either to its definition or to how situations of occupational justice are identifiable. This paper aims to contribute a critique of occupational justice, explore the concepts of justice and (occupational) rights, and support a capabilities approach to inform rights-based occupational therapy practices. No clear definition of occupational justice or differentiation from social justice exists despite the longevity of the concept, and theorists frequently confuse the concepts of justice and rights. A rights-based focus provides an unambiguous mandate for occupational therapists, with the capabilities approach offering a cross-disciplinary framework to inform rights-based practices. The concept of occupational rights is consistent with the rights-based focus advocated by the disabled people's movement, articulated by the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities, and affirmed by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists' position on the centrality of occupation to health, well-being, and human rights.

  13. European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics : 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WODC

    2003-01-01

    How do the police deal with crime throughout Europe? How do prosecutorial systems compare with each other? How many offenders get convicted? What sentences are imposed in different countries, and, in the case of custodial sentences, for how long? How many police officers are there in any given count

  14. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  15. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  16. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  17. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  18. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  19. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  20. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  1. Social Justice and Political Orthodoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianoff, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, the Teachers College of Columbia University has maintained a policy of evaluating students based on their "commitment to social justice." Before last summer, Columbia could blame the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the main accrediting body for schools of education, for those evaluation criteria. The…

  2. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  3. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  4. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  5. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  6. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  7. 论作为德性的正义%On Justice as a Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王润稼; 陈杰

    2012-01-01

    在亚里士多德所构建的伦理学体系中,正义有着极高的地位,正义是德行之首,"比星辰更让人崇拜"。亚里士多德不仅给予正义以详细的阐释,而且运用中道原则对其进行规训,以达到个人与城邦的幸福和至善。他着重论述了正义的道德特性,将其与个体德性区分开来,并在此基础上将正义分为总体正义与部分正义。最后亚里士多德运用中道原则,对正义的获得提供了行之有效的方法,使得正义得以成为现实。由此,我们可以充分的理解正义在亚里士多德哲学那里所蕴含的德性意义。%In the system of ethics which was built by Aristotle, justice has a very high position, justice is the pri- mary virtue," People worship it more than the stars" . Aristotle not only gave justice the detailed explanation, but also used the middle principle to disciplined it, in order to achieved happiness and perfection of the individual and the city -state. He focused on the moral characteristics of justice, separated it with the individual virtue, and divided justice into overall justice and some justice on this basis. At last, Aristotle used middle principle, which is an effective way to get justice, to made the justice become a reality. As a result, We can fully understand the moral meaning of justice in Aristotle philosophy.

  8. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  9. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  10. Review of Administrative Justice in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Pepaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a real view of adjudication of administrative cases in Kosovo. The issue of adjudication of administrative cases in the Republic of Kosovo remains a challenge following justice reforms which began in 2013 and are still on-going. Kosovo as a new country faces difficulties in professionalization of public administration and this is closely related to large number of case that are subject of judicial review which is not a case with other countries which have longer experience in public administration. In this context, more attention has been paid to review of administrative acts and issues with special focus on judicial review, following with legal remedies, administration silence as cause of judicial review. The paper also contains information about administrative justice in Kosovo before and 2013, and its current state. New court structure brought with New Law on Courts which entered into force in 2013 affected administrative justice substantially. In the previous system, Kosovo Supreme Court was the only instance handling administrative disputes. In this regard, the issue of effective legal remedies was not in place as required by international standards. However, new court structure brought significant changes regarding legal remedies in administrative justice by setting up three court instances; Administrative departments within Prishtina Basic Court and Appellate Court as well as Supreme Court extraordinary legal remedies review.

  11. Global Health Justice and the Right to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Heather

    2015-12-01

    This paper reflects on Lawrence Gostin's Global Health Law. In so doing seeks to contribute to the debate about how global health justice is best conceived and achieved. Gostin's vision of global health is one which is communal and in which health is directly connected to other justice concerns. Hence the need for health-in-all policies, and the importance of focusing on basic and communal health goods rather than high-tech and individual ones. This paper asks whether this broadly communal vision of global health justice is best served by making the right to health central to the project. It explores a number of reasons why rights-talk might be problematic in the context of health justice; namely, structurally, rights are individual and state-centric and politically, they are oppositional and better suited to single-issue campaigns. The paper argues that stripping rights of their individualist assumptions is difficult, and perhaps impossible, and hence alternative approaches, such as those Gostin endorses based on global public goods and health security, might deliver much, perhaps most, global health goods, while avoiding the problems of rights-talk.

  12. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  13. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  14. Service-learning in nursing education: its impact on leadership and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Carla J; Stallwood, Lynda G; Daniels, John J

    2011-01-01

    Although studies suggest that service-learning is positive for students, findings reported are primarily qualitative. A convenience sample of 306 senior-level nursing students completed the Service-Learning Self-Evaluation Tool (SLSET) pre- and post-service-learning experience over a six-year span. The constructs measured were leadership skills and social justice. Paired t-tests were calculated. Statistically significant differences were noted between pre- and post-service-learning experience, with students rating themselves higher on leadership and social justice items after the experience. Cronbach's alpha for leadership and social justice were greater than 0.80. Service-learning as an educational methodology that combines community service with academic learning objectives is a viable strategy for facilitating leadership skills and increased awareness of social justice issues in nursing students.

  15. Relationship between Organizational Perceived Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among an Iranian Hospital's Employees, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Montazeralfaraj, Razieh; Gazar, Saeed Hashemi; Tafti, Arefeh Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior just referred to a set of discretionary workplace behaviors that exceed one's job requirements. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational perceived justice and organizational citizenship behavior. This cross-sectional study was done in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran in 2013. A total of 100 hospital employees contributed in the study. The required data was gathered using 2 valid questionnaires, including the Moorman & Niehoff organizational perceived justice questionnaire and the McKinsey organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics, Chi square, and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. There was a significant positive relationship between organizational perceived justice and organizational citizenship behavior among the studied hospital's employees (P ≤ 0.05, R = 0.33). This study confirmed that any policy that leads to better organizational justice perception will contribute in better organizational citizenship behavior which will increase the hospital's productivity.

  16. ‘… restoring the dignity of the victims’. Is global rectificatory justice feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Collste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The discussion of global justice has mainly focused on global distributive justice. This article argues for global rectificatory justice, mainly by former colonial states in favor of former colonized peoples. The argument depends on the following premises: (1 there is a moral obligation to rectify the consequences of wrongful acts; (2 colonialism was on the whole harmful for the colonies; (3 the present unjust global structure was constituted by colonialism; and (4 the obligation of rectificatory justice is trans-generational so long as there are at present identifiable beneficiaries and victims of past injustice. Although it is too demanding to ask for full compensation for 450 years of colonialism, the former colonial powers can in different ways and to the best of their efforts contribute to change the present inequalities that are the legacy of history. A theory of global rectificatory justice is complementary to a theory of global distributive justice and enables us to develop a fuller understanding of the meaning of global justice.

  17. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AND MODERN PENAL RATIONALITY: a real innovation in criminal matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tonche

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss restorative justice, an alternative form of conflict management, through a theoretical framework of the theories of punishment, or more specifically, the modern penal rationality, as coined by Pires (2013. The idea is to demonstrate how restorative justice escapes modern penal rationality, presenting itself as an alternative to the system of ideas that underlies our current criminal justice system. The methodology is qualitative and the research came from a case study of restorative justice programs in the state of São Paulo, as well as interviews with professionals and participant observation of restorative circles that happened at a school in the city of São Caetano do Sul (SP. The results demonstrate that restorative justice, despite its transformative potential, still has been facing difficulties to be implemented. The resistances are related to legal professionals and the population that is served by these programs that do not understand the model as expertise (case of legal professionals, or as a benefit for those involved (case of adolescents and their families, as both groups still perceive conflict management in punitive terms. The research findings show us that restorative justice can be considered as an innovation, because it pressures the criminal justice system by proposing a new form of conflict management that shifts the focus from punishment to the restoration of the relationships affected by the conflict. Despite its advantages, it still has a long way to go until this expertise could be translated into transformative practices.

  18. Social Justice Education in an Urban Charter Montessori School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Banks

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Montessori Method continues its expansion in public education, a social justice lens is needed to analyze its contributions and limitations, given the increase in racial and socioeconomic diversity in the United States. Furthermore, much of the work in Social Justice Education (SJE focuses on classroom techniques and curriculum, overlooking the essential work of school administrators and parents, whose work significantly influences the school community. The current study applied an SJE framework to the efforts of one urban, socioeconomically and racially integrated Montessori charter school. We examined the extent to which SJE principles were incorporated across the school community, using an inductive, qualitative, case-study approach that included meetings, surveys, focus groups, and interviews. Administrators quickly adopted a system-wide approach, but parents—often color-blind or minimizing of the relevance of race—consistently resisted. Study results imply a continued need for an institutional approach, not solely a classroom or curricular focus, when integrating social justice into Montessori schools.

  19. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked......) the ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...... primarily to government activity rather than private behavior. Sustainability is the moral starting point: ‘enough and as good’ ought to be left by each generation to the next. Three of the IJI dimensions measure policy outcomes that leave legacy burdens towards younger and future generations: (1...

  20. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive....

  1. Beneficence, justice, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that societal duties of health promotion are underwritten (at least in large part) by a principle of beneficence. Further, this principle generates duties of justice that correlate with rights, not merely "imperfect" duties of charity or generosity. To support this argument, I draw on a useful distinction from bioethics and on a somewhat neglected approach to social obligation from political philosophy. The distinction is that between general and specific beneficence; and the approach from political philosophy has at times been called equality of concern. After clarifying the distinction and setting out the basis of the equality of concern view, I argue that the result is a justice-based principle of "specific" beneficence that should be reflected in a society's health policy. I then draw on this account to criticize, refine, and extend some prominent health care policy proposals from the bioethics literature.

  2. Levinas, justice and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the metaphysical ethics of Emmanuel Levinas captures some essential moral intuitions that are central to health care. However, there is an ongoing discussion about the relevance of ethical metaphysics for normative ethics and in particular on the question of the relationship between justice and individualized care. In this paper I take part in this debate and I argue that Levinas' idea of an ethics of the Other that guides politics and justice can shed important light on issues that are central to priorities in health care. In fact, the ethics of Levinas in seeking the foundation of normativity itself, captures the ethical core and central values of health care.

  3. Summary of Executive Order 12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes E.O. 12898, which focuses on the environmental and human health effects of federal actions on minority and low-income populations. It directs each agency to develop a strategy for implementing environmental justice.

  4. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of using genetically modified (GM) crops and food in the developing world often claim that it is unjust not to use GMOs (genetically modified organisms) to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. In reply, the critics of GMOs claim that while GMOs may be useful...... as a technological means to increase yields and crop quality, stable and efficient institutions are required in order to provide the benefits from GMO technology. In this debate, the GMO proponents tend to rely on a simple utilitarian type of calculus that highlights the benefits of GMOs to the poor......, but that overlooks the complex institutional requirements necessary for GMO production. The critics, recognizing the importance of institutional conditions, focus primarily on the negative impacts of institutional deficiencies, thereby overlooking the basically Rawlsian claim that institutions per se may generate...

  5. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  6. Intergenerational Justice Perceptions and the Role of Welfare Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    -statist' ideological frame (the endorsement of egalitarian redistribution and broad state responsibility for welfare provision and the attribution of social inequality to external causes), and negatively with a 'market-based' frame (individualism, a work ethic, and internal attribution). Regarding actual outcomes......This article studies perceptions of intergenerational justice among 2,075 undergraduate university students from eight democracies spanning four different models, or 'worlds,' of welfare. We examine two different, though interrelated, aspects of intergenerational justice: (1) whether, and how...... justness of actual outcomes of resource transfers between age-groups. We find that support of transfers from the young to the old is higher in social-democratic and conservative welfare regimes than in liberal and radical regimes. Support of resource transfers also correlates positively with a 'welfare...

  7. 国际私法的形式正义与实质正义探讨%On the Formal Justice and Substantive Justice of Private International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍

    2016-01-01

    传统国际私法主要关注形式正义的内容,即在司法程序的执行过程中,有着一系列公平公正的运行程序与规则。而现代国际私法追求的价值取向为实质正义,即在司法制度与政策的执行过程中,必须实现终极状态的正义,必须完成内容与目的的正义追求。本文主要探讨国际私法的形式正义与实质正义,通过分析国际私法的价值取向、正义观,指出未来国际私法将会从形式正义转变为实质正义的发展方向。%Traditional private international law mainly focus on the content of the form justice,that is,in the process of the im-plementation of the judicial process,there are a series of fair and impartial operation procedures and rules.And the value ori-entation of modern private international law is real justice,that is,in the process of the implementation of the judicial system and policy,we must realize the justice of the final state.This paper mainly discusses the private international law of formal jus-tice and substantive justice,through the analysis of the value orientation of private international law,justice view,pointed out that the future private international law will be from the form justice change the direction for the development of substantive jus-tice.

  8. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied.

  9. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  10. Introduction. Les paradigmes de la justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelui Bîlbă

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest paradigm of justice is global justice. Yet the epistemic status of all theories of justice is ambiguous. A theory ofjustice is true to the extent that it is right, and false if it is not. This applies toRawls’ theory, as well.

  11. Principles of justice as a basis for conceptualizing a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J H

    1977-01-01

    This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed.

  12. The moral justification scale: reliability and validity of a new measure of care and justice orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, L S; Baker, R C; Roll, S

    2000-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that there are limitations to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Gilligan in particular has observed that Kohlberg's theory considers abstract principled reasoning as the highest level of moral judgment, and penalizes those who focus on the interpersonal ramifications of a moral decision. Gilligan calls these justice and care orientations. The present paper describes the development of the Moral Justification Scale, an objective measure of the two orientations. The scale consists of six vignettes, of which two are justice oriented, two are care oriented, and two are mixed, incorporating both orientations. Construct validity was evaluated by expert judges and, overall, was high. Cronbach's alpha was .75 for the Care subscale and .64 for the Justice subscale, indicating adequate internal consistency. Split-half reliabilities were as follows: Care, r = .72, p Moral Justification Scale shows promise as an easily administered, objectively scored measure of Gilligan's constructs of care and justice.

  13. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  14. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice.

  15. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  16. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  17. The emerging geographies of climate justice

    OpenAIRE

    Susannah Fisher

    2012-01-01

    Climate justice is a well-used concept within the international climate debate yet it has often remained little more than a static ideal. This paper brings together literatures on environmental justice, development processes, and the politics of scale to argue that we need to be more attentive to the emerging geographies of climate justice, particularly in the global South where climate change provokes questions of uneven development processes as well as environmental concerns. Through an ana...

  18. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  19. Upholding Equality and Social Justice: A Social Constructivist Perspective on Emancipatory Career Guidance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    After several years of political agendas focused on social inclusion, career guidance practice needs to return to its roots of promoting equality and social justice. This conceptual article argues that for many years there has been an overreliance on theories focused on the individual, and examines the relationship between social structures and…

  20. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Battista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL Framework. While the Framework recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a cogent statement that connects information literacy to social justice. In this article, authors concerned with social justice and civic engagement will share their reflections on the Framework from a critical pedagogical and social justice orientation.

  1. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  2. Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice: How Experiences with Downsizing Condition Their Impact on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Roman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both procedural justice and distributive justice are important predictors of work attitudes. This research, however, fails to examine conditions that affect the relative importance of each type of justice. Here we argue that prior experiences with regard to downsizing shape individuals' workplace schemas, which…

  3. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational str

  4. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  5. The Effect of Work Stress and Coping on Organizational Justice: An Empirical Investigation of Turkish Telecommunications and Banking Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutku Seckin-Celik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of coping mechanisms and work stress on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. A survey of 211 white-collar employees in the banking and telecommunications industries was taken. Multiple regression analyses were performed in order to understand the effect of coping mechanisms and work stress on organizational justice. The results showed that overall perception of justice is affected negatively by work stress and positively by coping mechanisms, except emotion-focused coping. However, sub-dimensions of organizational justice showed distinctive relationship patterns. Thus, it was concluded both individual and organizational determinants play a role in employees’ perceptions of organizational justice.

  6. Introduction: Transitions from Violence. Analysing the Effects of Transitional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Buckley-Zistel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice refers to processes of dealing with the aftermath of violent conflicts and human rights abuses in order to provide for a peaceful future. It makes use of a number of instruments and mechanisms – including tribunals, truth commissions, memory work, and reparations – which aim at uncovering the truth about past crimes, putting past wrongs right, holding perpetrators accountable, vindicating the dignity of victim-survivors, and contributing to reconciliation. The objective of this focus section is to critically assess the potential of transitional justice, its achievements thus far, any conflicting goals, and the inherent or external obstacles that limit its influence and reach. Through empirical case studies from across the globe it paints a multi-faceted picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  7. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    psychological contract between employees-employers, it is possible that employees’ levels of job satisfaction and perceptions of trust in senior management, relative to other work attitudinal outcomes, may be more effective for improving the broader working environment, and promoting staff morale.Originality/value – This study adds to research on applied business ethics as it focuses on the ethical aspects of perceived procedural justice and highlights the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures in organizational policy to encourage reciprocity and promote healthy organizational

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Perceived Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    perceptions of trust in senior management, relative to other work attitudinal outcomes, may be more effective for improving the broader working environment, and promoting staff morale. This study adds to research on applied business ethics as it focuses on the ethical aspects of perceived procedural justice and highlights the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures in organizational policy to encourage reciprocity and promote healthy organizational environments.

  10. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  11. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  12. Procedural justice in mental health courts: judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. Procedural justice in mental health courts: Judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23415372

  14. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  15. Statistics Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Statistics Essentials For Dummies not only provides students enrolled in Statistics I with an excellent high-level overview of key concepts, but it also serves as a reference or refresher for students in upper-level statistics courses. Free of review and ramp-up material, Statistics Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point, with content focused on key course topics only. It provides discrete explanations of essential concepts taught in a typical first semester college-level statistics course, from odds and error margins to confidence intervals and conclusions. This guide is also a perfect re

  16. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  17. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  18. Social Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    Social justice in education concerns three questions: whom do we teach, what do we teach, and how do we teach? In this article the author briefly discusses social justice and its related concepts, its historical underpinnings, the social climate that brought about social change, and its effect on teaching physical activity. She also gives personal…

  19. Why global distributive justice cannot work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a political theory of global distributive justice, as envisaged by neo-Rawlsian cosmopolitans, makes no sense. Political theorists such as Charles Beitz, Thomas Pogge, and Darrel Moellendorf have argued that John Rawls's egalitarian conception of distributive justice should be

  20. Social Justice in School Psychology: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…

  1. Social position, ideology, and distributive justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. d' Anjou (Leo); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. van Aarsen (Dries)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses two important questions regarding distributive justice. First we ask whether people use standards or principles of distributive justice regarding the allocation of income. The study confirms our expectation that there are at least two principles, viz., the merit and

  2. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  3. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  4. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  5. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  6. Mentoring and Organizational Justice: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.

    1997-01-01

    Usable responses from 197 of 300 Australian managers indicated those who had mentors perceived more organizational justice than those who had not. Career, psychosocial, and role modeling functions of mentoring were significantly and positively related to perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. (SK)

  7. Social Justice and Educational Administration: Mutually Exclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Carol F.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore some of the current tensions within educational administration in the USA and conclude with a few cautions for educators who engage in social justice projects. Design/methodology/approach: Using a selective case, this historical essay examines the issues of social justice and equity as they have…

  8. Are transcendental theories of justice redundant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmartya Sen’s The Idea of Justice is a very rich book, with many aspects worth discussing. I will limit myself here to one major claim that Sen makes, namely that transcendental theories of justice are redundant. I will argue that this ‘Redundancy Claim’ is mistaken, since for

  9. Values and Social Justice in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crethar, Hugh C.; Winterowd, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The construct of social justice in counseling is defined and operationalized in this article. This is followed by a discussion about the intersection between social justice in counseling and philosophy, ethics, and spirituality. A call to action for counseling professionals is offered. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  11. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  12. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  13. Mister Chief Justice. A Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, John W.

    Intended to accompany the film "Mister Chief Justice," this study guide introduces the life of John Marshall and early U.S. history through a fictional account of a dinner party at the home of the chief justice in March, 1801. The guide presents the historical characters who attended the dinner, including John Marshall, Mary Willis Marshall, Eliza…

  14. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  15. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  16. Religious congregations as mediating structures for social justice: a multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; Allen, Nicole E

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in the field of community psychology have called for a closer examination of the mediating role that religious congregations serve in society, especially in relation to the promotion of social justice. The current study provides such an examination, offering a multilevel examination of religious individuals (n = 5,123) nested within religious congregations (n = 62) with a particular focus on how individual and congregational level variables (i.e. theological orientation, frequency of religious attendance, bonding and bridging social capital) predict individual prioritization of and participation in congregational social justice activities. Findings indicated that individual level theological orientation was associated with prioritization, and demographics and social capital bonding were associated with prioritization and participation. Furthermore, congregational bridging social capital was associated with the prioritization of justice, whereas congregational theological orientation moderated the associations between frequency of religious participation for both prioritization of and participation in congregational justice activities. These findings show that specific aspects of the congregational setting (i.e., congregational theological orientation) are important to the individual prioritization of and participation in social justice activities. These findings provide support for the role of religious congregations as mediating structures for social justice. Implications for future research are also discussed.

  17. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice and key legislative documentations. Major debates in restorative justice among Chinese scholars and a review of the indigenous restorative justice practice, criminal reconciliation (Xingshi Hejie, are provided. The study also analyzes the impetus of this soaring popularity of restorative justice in China, considering the macro social, political and legal background. Last but not least, a review of the major evaluation studies of current programs reveals that little is known about the process of various restorative justice programs from the parties’ own perspective.

  18. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  19. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  20. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  1. Social Justice and Multiculturalism: Persistent Tensions in the History of US Social Welfare and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reisch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Social justice has been a central normative component of U.S. social welfare and social work for over a century, although the meaning and implications of the term have often been ambiguous. A major source of this ambiguity lies in the conflict between universalist views of social justice and those which focus on achieving justice for specific groups. This conflict has been masked by several long-standing assumptions about the relationship between social justice and multiculturalism – assumptions which have been challenged by recent developments. The assumption that the pursuit of social justice requires the creation of a more egalitarian society has been challenged by the new political-economic realities of globalization. The assumption that the maintenance of individual rights complements the pursuit of social equality has been challenged by racially-based attacks on social welfare benefits and civil rights. Most significantly, the assumption that a socially just society is one in which different groups share a compatible vision of social justice has been challenged by the realities of multiculturalism. This paper explores the evolution of four themes regarding the relationship between social justice and multiculturalism during the past century and discusses their implications for the contemporary demographic and cultural context of the U.S. These themes are: the relationship of cultural diversity to the nation’s values and goals; the contradiction between coerced cultural assimilation and coerced physical and social segregation; the relationship between individual and group identity and rights; and the linkage between “Americanization” and the equal application of justice.

  2. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  3. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carballo Pineiro (Laura); J. Nieva Fenoll (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Spanish justice system has been shaken by the econom- ic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help

  4. 76 FR 1640 - Establishment of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. The Board will provide input into developing long-range plans... scientific rigor, as appropriate. The Board will provide an important base of contact with the...

  5. 76 FR 1641 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. The Board will provide input into developing long-range plans, advise on..., as appropriate. The Board will provide an important base of contact with the criminal...

  6. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  7. Diversity in midwifery care: working toward social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nadya; Ariss, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    As midwifery moved from lay practice to a regulated health-care profession in Ontario toward the end of the twentieth century, it brought with it many of its social movement goals and aspirations. Among these was the desire to attend to diversity and equity in the provision of birthing care. Drawing on interviews with currently practicing Ontario midwives, this paper focuses on midwives' conceptualizations of diversity and explores their everyday work to support and strengthen diversity among those using and those providing midwifery care. We argue that midwifery's recent relocation within state structured health care means neither that the social change projects of midwifery are complete nor that midwifery has abandoned its movement-based commitment to social change. Responses to social diversity in health care range from efforts to simply improve access to care to analyses of the role of social justice in recognizing the needs of diverse populations. The social justice aspiration to "create a better world" continues to animate the work of midwives postregulation. This paper explores the legacy of midwifery as a social movement, addressing the connections between diversity, social justice and midwifery care.

  8. Criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    1994-03-01

    This article discusses the processing of criminal justice on sexual assault cases in Canada. To begin with, in 1983, Bill C-127 abolished the offense of rape and indecent assault and created three new crimes of sexual assault and three parallel offenses of assault. This legislation also introduced a number of important changes to the way crimes of sexual aggression are processed by the criminal justice system. In 1991, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of the sexual assault legislation preventing a defendant from introducing evidence regarding complainant's previous sexual conduct. As a result, Bill C-49 was introduced to provide a test to determine whether a complainant's sexual history could be admitted at trial. This bill also addresses the issue of consent and the defense of mistaken beliefs in consent. The focus of the Juristat is the criminal justice processing of the three levels of sexual assault, which are elaborated in this article. In order to distinguish between the different levels, body harm relates only to physical injury and does not include psychological harm. Drawing on the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the Sentence Study, the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey, the Juristat summarizes recent trends relating to the processing of sexual assault and assault by the police and the courts. Canada's Violence Against Women Survey provides a profile of sexual assault incidents among adult women in Canada.

  9. Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

  10. GENDER JUSTICE AND CULTURAL DIMENSION OF RELIGION, A PROPOSAL TO APPLY THE PROPHETIC TRADITION (THE HADITH IN PROMOTING GENDER JUSTICE AMONG INDONESIAN MUSLIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqihuddin Abdul Kodir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By arguing that religion as interpretative culture of people in their context, suggested by Clifford Geertz, this paper proposes an interpretation-oriented approach to the texts of the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad rather than a critical-deconstructive approach. The interpretation-oriented approach focuses on positive reading towards the hadith that advocates issues of gender justice; whether through selecting classical methods of interpretation or applying contemporary methods suggested by progressive Muslims. As this approach does not challenge the authority of the hadith, which is accepted culturally by majority of Muslims as second source after the Quran, cultural works for gender justice are assumed to be relatively more flexible and can be further maximized. By doing so, I argue that this cultural dimension of religion –accepting its sources and working on the field of interpreting them-should be considered in promoting gender justice among Indonesian Muslims.

  11. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  12. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that

  14. Estimation and inferential statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Das, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the meaning of statistical inference and estimation. Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. Primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of statistics, the book is also useful to professionals and researchers in statistical, medical, social and other disciplines. It discusses current methodological techniques used in statistics and related interdisciplinary areas. Every concept is supported with relevant research examples to help readers to find the most suitable application. Statistical tools have been presented by using real-life examples, removing the “fear factor” usually associated with this complex subject. The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. Keeping in mind the needs of readers, as well as constantly changing scenarios, the material is presented in an easy-to-understand form.

  15. Bayesian statistics

    OpenAIRE

    新家, 健精

    2013-01-01

    © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography

  16. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal...

  17. Looking for justice: could RHM help to find it?

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Mena, Juan Martín

    2015-01-01

    1. What is Justice? 2. Reflections on some human perspectives of Justice 3. Approach to the concept of Social Justice 4. Social Justice and Labour Law: From a protective purpose to an inclusive one Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

  18. Justice Delivered Locally : Systems, Challenges, and Innovations in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the research findings of the Justice Delivered Locally (JDL) initiative of Solomon Islands' Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, which was supported by the World Bank's Justice for the Poor (J4P) program. JDL supports the Solomon Islands Government (SIG) policy of reinvigorating local-level justice systems. This is based on an understanding that developmentally impor...

  19. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  20. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  1. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... justice is an insurgent mode of social control or securitisation as well as a contextual expression of contested sovereignty directed at the state’s unwillingness or incapacity to contain dangerous forms of violent crime.......Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...

  2. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  3. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  4. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  5. Reframing Citizenship and Gender Justice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    Marshall’s classical formulation of citizenship was associated with equal rights and duties of citizens within the nation state (Marshall 1950). It was at the same time based upon inequality within the category citizen, i.e. based on gender and ethnicity, as well between citizens and non...... to reframe the concept of citizenship to include visions of gender equality and gender justice within and beyond the nation states (Siim 2013). One crucial issue is how to expand the understanding of citizenship to include cultural diversity within the nation state. Scholars have proposed a multicultural...... citizenship (Kymlicka 1995), which recognizes the diversity and accommodate the cultural difference of minority groups within the nation states. Another crucial issue is how to expand citizenship to the transnational/global level. Scholars have proposed a notion of rooted cosmopolitan citizenship (Benhabib...

  6. Development of the contemporary concept of restorative justice: Towards increased visibility of crime victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.

  7. The Concept of Justice: Argumentation and Dialogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection attempting to situate the concepts of justice and argumentation in Perelman’s approach in dialogue with the Bakhtin Circle’s theories. For this purpose, it analyses the concept of justice, deals with the concept of argumentation in order to situate its field and to emphasize how it supports the concept of justice, highlights the ethical and dialogical aspects of legal argumentation, establishing connections between Perelman’s ideas and dialogic principles of language, and, finally, attempts to show how different voices intersect in the argumentative confrontation through the analysis of two excerpts of legal discourses.

  8. 正义与社会正义辨正%Discrimination of Justice and Social Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路振召

    2011-01-01

    长期以来人们习惯于对正义和社会正义不加区分地混同使用,这无疑影响了对正义的深入理解。本文试图在厘清正义与社会正义区别与联系的基础上为对正义展开深入讨论提供一个独特的理论视角。%It has long been accustomed to indiscriminating in using justice and social justice,which undoubtedly affected the in-depth understanding of justice.This paper attempts to provide a unique theoretical perspective for in-depth discussion on justice,based on clarifying the differences between justice and social justice.

  9. Facing the Demons of the Past: Transitional Justice in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Kilara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of transnational justice have recently suggested that our understanding of transitions need not be restricted to societies moving from authoritarian regimes to democracy. In fact, “non-paradigm transitions” occur in purportedly democratic states as well, in the aftermath of large-scale and State sanctioned violations of human rights. This article focuses on one such non-paradigm transition occurring in the state of Gujarat in India post the 2002 communal carnage. The author proposes that in addition to retributive responses to human rights violations, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission should be seriously considered as a means of effecting a real transition to peace in Gujarat.

  10. Towards New Literacies and Social Justice for Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Marie Cumming-Potvin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the need to develop engineering students with high levels of technical competency as well as critical awareness for the realities of working and living ethically in the global community. Drawing on social constructivist principles of learning (Vygotsky, 1978 and a pedagogy of multiliteracies (New London Group, 1996, 2000, the paper explores new approaches for engineering education to meet the challenges embedded in current undergraduate programs and professional accreditation standards. To improve the ability of engineers to contribute to social and environmental justice, there needs to be a rethinking of engineering curriculum and pedagogy to develop engineering literacies that encompass a social and technical focus.

  11. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  12. Studying the Relationship between Incivility in Work Environment and Perceived Organizational Justice in Rafsanjan Executive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaaddini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Statistical society of the research includes 1737 employees in Rafsanjan executive systems from which 321 people were selected as the sample by Cochrane formulation. The instruments of measuring are two questionnaires. Questionnaire of incivility in work environment designed and made by researcher for which validity and reliability are obtained 0.92 and 0.94 respectively. To measure the questionnaire of organizational justice the questionnaire by validity of 0.93 was used. Reliability of both questionnaires was obtained 0.92 and 0.74 by Cronbach Alpha respectively. To test hypotheses Kendal and Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All statistical analyses were done by spss statistical software. Regarding obtained results it is determined that there is a meaningful, reverse relationship between incivility in work environment and perceived organizational justice in Rafsanjan executive systems. Based on the results of the research it is suggested that decreasing incivility in work environment provides conditions of perceiving justice and fair in organizations.

  13. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  14. The Intersections of Work, Health, Diversity, and Social Justice: Helping People Living with HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Although counseling psychology has discussed vocational issues, health concerns, diversity, and social justice, discussion of these topics has typically been narrowly focused. This article uses the example of persons with HIV (PWHIV) to demonstrate how these areas can be intertwined. The counseling psychology literature is also examined to…

  15. Social Justice Leadership in Multicultural Schools: The Case of an Ethnically Divided Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study focusing on the perceptions of elementary school principals who espouse a critical multicultural approach and show signs of a social justice leadership style. The study has taken place in an ethnically divided society (Cyprus) in which the political situation seems to influence the ways in…

  16. The rise and fall of access to justice in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, H.D.; de Graaf, K.J.; Jans, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the development of access to justice for environmental organisations in Dutch law. It consists of two parts. The first part focuses on the rise of environmental organisations' right of access to the courts, and considers case law and legislation relating to the General Administ

  17. Tech-Prep: The School-to-Work Connection in Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, David; Gray, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that community colleges should focus more on academics than on technical skills when preparing students to enter the criminal justice system. Asserts that the technical skills needed by workers in law enforcement can be acquired in the police academy, while crucial critical thinking and writing skills are better taught in the college…

  18. Fieldwork Using the Professional Development Schools Model: Developing a Social Justice Orientation and Multicultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Krell, Megan M.; Hayden, Laura A.; Gracia, Robert; Denitzio, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Practicum fieldwork was conducted in an urban high school setting using a Professional Development Schools (PDS) model, with a focus on multicultural and social justice counseling competencies (MSJCC). Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the journal responses of 16 counseling students to ascertain MSJCC development during…

  19. Social Justice in India: Perspectives from School Leaders in Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Sauers, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on social justice from the perspective of five school leaders in Delhi, India. Four of the schools in the study are affluent. One school serves primarily students who live in extreme poverty. Through interviewing these leaders, two major themes were identified. First, these leaders tended to view human rights as a driver of a…

  20. Psychological Sense of Community and University Mission as Predictors of Student Social Justice Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Diaz, Elissa; Schamberger, Antú; Carollo, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Psychological sense of community (PSOC) is a construct that may facilitate social action in university students. Similarly, a social justice-focused university mission statement might also facilitate social action and interest. The current study investigated whether psychological sense of community, agreeing with the mission statement, and taking…

  1. Toward a Globally Sensitive Definition of Inclusive Education Based in Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    While many policies, pieces of legislation and educational discourse focus on the concept of inclusion, or inclusive education, the field of education as a whole lacks a clear, precise and comprehensive definition that is both globally sensitive and based in social justice. Even international efforts including the UN Convention on the Rights of…

  2. Organizational Justice Perceptions of Virginia High School Teachers: Relationships to Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William R. Travis

    2012-01-01

    An emergent research base suggests that teacher perceptions of fairness with respect to interactions with school administrators, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes have much to contribute to our understanding of effective schools. This study focused on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship…

  3. Transitional justice and liberal post-conflict governance : synergies and symmetries, frictions and contradictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, Dustin Nachise

    2016-01-01

    “Transitional justice” is a field of practice, policy and study that focuses on the ways that societies respond to legacies of large-scale atrocities though tribunals, truth commissions, reparations, and other mechanisms. Over the last thirty years, transitional justice has become the globally domin

  4. The Marginalisation of Social Justice as a Form of Knowledge in Teacher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises the analytical concepts developed in the work of Basil Bernstein to reflect on the ways in which discourses such as social justice are especially vulnerable in teacher education in England. In particular, under new-managerial regimes the forms of knowledge which are emphasised and valued focus on the instrumental and…

  5. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  6. Teaching for Justice in the Social Studies Classroom: Millions of Intricate Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makler, Andra, Ed.; Hubbard, Ruth Shagoury, Ed.

    Intended to help teachers make the move from traditional textbooks to a more issue-centered, interdisciplinary social studies curriculum, this collection of essays comes from teachers who describe how to focus on teaching for and toward justice, with critical pedagogy as an underlying theme. The teachers' stories in this collection show the…

  7. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. The Board of Corrections…

  8. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion…

  9. The Intersections of Work, Health, Diversity, and Social Justice: Helping People Living with HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Although counseling psychology has discussed vocational issues, health concerns, diversity, and social justice, discussion of these topics has typically been narrowly focused. This article uses the example of persons with HIV (PWHIV) to demonstrate how these areas can be intertwined. The counseling psychology literature is also examined to…

  10. Social Justice and the Philosophical Foundations of Critical Peace Education: Exploring Nussbaum, Sen, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore a "realization-focused" capabilities theory of social justice, as articulated by AmartyaSen and Martha Nussbaum, as foundational to a theory of critical peace education. Paulo Freire's philosophy of critical pedagogy has had and continues to have a profound influence on the theory and…

  11. The Entanglement of Leadership Styles and Social Justice Leadership: A Case Study from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the leadership styles of one principal who enacts social justice practices to benefit marginalized students, especially migrant and poor students. The context is how societal challenges and their consequences--in this case the rapid increase of immigration to Cyprus and the recent economic crisis--influence this principal's…

  12. Organizational Justice Perceptions of Virginia High School Teachers: Relationships to Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William R. Travis

    2012-01-01

    An emergent research base suggests that teacher perceptions of fairness with respect to interactions with school administrators, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes have much to contribute to our understanding of effective schools. This study focused on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship…

  13. Organizational Learning in Schools Pursuing Social Justice: Fostering Educational Entrepreneurship and Boundary Spanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The field of socially just educational leadership is focused on promoting improvements in the teaching and learning environment as demonstrated by student learning gains, particularly for traditionally marginalized students. The field has identified priorities (i.e., school improvement, democratic community, and social justice) and steps to pursue…

  14. Pushing Comfort Zones: Promoting Social Justice through the Teaching of Aboriginal Canadian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, Lynne; Johnston, Ingrid; Yang, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight findings from a teacher inquiry group study designed to explore possibilities for teaching contemporary Canadian literature to promote issues of social justice in secondary classrooms. Drawing on Boler and Zembylas's notion of a "pedagogy of discomfort," our paper will focus on the experiences of two teachers…

  15. EU Support for Justice and Security Sector Reform in Honduras and Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    This desk study reviews the literature on EU programmes that supported security and justice reform in Guatemala and Honduras, focusing on two programs: the programme in support of the security sector (PASS) in Honduras and the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG). The

  16. The Marginalisation of Social Justice as a Form of Knowledge in Teacher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises the analytical concepts developed in the work of Basil Bernstein to reflect on the ways in which discourses such as social justice are especially vulnerable in teacher education in England. In particular, under new-managerial regimes the forms of knowledge which are emphasised and valued focus on the instrumental and…

  17. Social Justice and the Philosophical Foundations of Critical Peace Education: Exploring Nussbaum, Sen, and Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore a "realization-focused" capabilities theory of social justice, as articulated by AmartyaSen and Martha Nussbaum, as foundational to a theory of critical peace education. Paulo Freire's philosophy of critical pedagogy has had and continues to have a profound influence on the theory and…

  18. Women in transnational migrant activism: supporting social justice claims of homeland political organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the conceptions of social justice of women active in transnational migrant politics over a period of roughly 20 years in the Netherlands. The novel focus on migrant women reveals that transnational politics is almost completely male-dominated and -directed. Two of the exceptions

  19. A Learning Architecture: How School Leaders Can Design for Learning Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The field of socially just educational leadership focuses on reducing inequities within schools. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how one strand of social learning theory, communities of practice, can serve as a powerful tool for analyzing learning within a school ostensibly pursuing social justice. The author employs a core…

  20. Pushing Comfort Zones: Promoting Social Justice through the Teaching of Aboriginal Canadian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, Lynne; Johnston, Ingrid; Yang, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight findings from a teacher inquiry group study designed to explore possibilities for teaching contemporary Canadian literature to promote issues of social justice in secondary classrooms. Drawing on Boler and Zembylas's notion of a "pedagogy of discomfort," our paper will focus on the experiences of two teachers…

  1. A Learning Architecture: How School Leaders Can Design for Learning Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The field of socially just educational leadership focuses on reducing inequities within schools. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how one strand of social learning theory, communities of practice, can serve as a powerful tool for analyzing learning within a school ostensibly pursuing social justice. The author employs a core…

  2. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, public transportation providers, and other... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR.... Chapter IV--Integrating Principles of Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning and...

  3. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... of a social being. In each category, we argue, achieving sufficiency requires different distributional patterns depending on how the capabilities themselves work and interrelate. This argument adds a new dimension to the way capabilitarians think about social justice and changes how we should target instances...

  4. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal

  5. Environmental Justice Challengers for Ecosystem Service Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In pursuing improved ecosystem services management, there is also an opportunity to work towards environmental justice. The practice of environmental valuation can assist with both goals, but as typically employed obscures distributional analysis. Furthermore, valuation technique...

  6. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  8. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  9. Enviromental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  10. Handbook For Military Justice and Civil Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    entire class—that he was a real bad dude. Apparently, while at the reformatory, he was diagnosed as having a schizoid personality with alternating...deterioration of the brain, mental retardation, or psychiatric disorders . Personality disorders not rising to the level of mental illness do not...para. 6105. a. Basis: personality disorder (1) Correct Naval Justice School Rev- 2/96 Publication IV-46-7 Handbook for Military Justice

  11. Distributive justice through taxation: European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, João Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the possibility of having distributive justice through taxes at European level. That possibility will be based on the verification of a set of conditions such as fiscal sovereignty, political community, welfare model; and personal taxes, which, according to the author, must be present at the level of the European Union in order to achieve that normative principle (distributive justice). Throughout the discussion, upon acknowledgement that those requirements are stil...

  12. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  13. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  14. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  15. Histoplasmosis Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...

  16. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  17. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  18. Children’s Reasoning about Distributive and Retributive Justice across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E.; Warneken, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4–10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgements about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4–5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4–5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared to reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality vs. equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and in relation to the literature on moral development and fairness. PMID:26845506

  19. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers.

  20. Freedom, security and justice: the thin end of the wedge for biometrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Juliet

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an area of EU policy where the application of information and communication tecnology (ICT) poses acutely difficult problems for policymakers: freedom, security and justice. It focuses on the absence of an ethical debate about the adoption of ICT-based instruments in this area. It highlights the implausibility of simply adopting codes of ethical practice from the health sector to close the public trust deficit. It argues that health and justice professionals need to cooperate in order to create a code of ethical e-governance fit for an e-governance age.

  1. Sources of Legal Nihilism in the Sense of Justice of the Population of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Nazariva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the consideration of reasons and sources of an origin of legal nihilism as forms of the deformed sense of justice of citizens in Russia. By means of use of a deductive method the understanding of the term "legal nihilism" is formed. In article approaches to understanding of legal nihilism by the analysis of comparison of various positions of the leading philosophers are considered. Article considers development of sense of justice of the population against the historical processes happening in Russia throughout centuries. Relationships of cause and effect of formation and development of legal nihilism as reactions to social changes of society come to light.

  2. Energy Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Kathleen B.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of electrification and some of the worst education statistics worldwide. In the absence of strong infrastructure for a reliable grid system and quality universal primary schooling, the poor suffer significantly. Though substantial research has been done on both issues separately, the relationship between the two has yet to be explored. This thesis uses social justice theories to introduce the connections between energy poverty and an individual's education capabilities through a case study in Zambia. Case study research was carried out in the urban low-resource settlements of Lusaka, Zambia over a period of two months with Lifeline Energy, using methods of participant observation. Drawing on trends discovered in survey responses, interviews and feedback from a distribution of renewable technologies, this study demonstrates that a lack of modern forms of energy detracts from education. By synthesizing the data with Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir's scarcity theory, the research reveals that energy poverty hinders an individual's ability to study and gain a quality education and diminishes their available cognitive capacity to learn by tunneling attention to the resource deficit. Furthermore, it supports the claim that energy poverty is not gender neutral. The research concludes that the scarcity caused by energy poverty can be lessened by the investment in and use of small-scale renewable technologies which alleviates some of the daily stress and grind of poverty. This thesis lays the groundwork to recognize energy poverty as an injustice. Keywords: Energy Poverty, Education, Gender, Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarcity, Capabilities Approach..

  3. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  4. Practical Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, L

    2016-01-01

    Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.

  5. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  6. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  7. Teaching and Learning Social Justice through Online Service-Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy L. Guthrie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Creating a virtual classroom in which diverse students feel welcome to discuss and experience topics related to social justice, action, and change is a study in the value of connectedness and collaboration. Through a combination of technologies, pedagogies, and on-site experiences, virtual cultures develop that encourage the formation of demanding yet stimulating learning environments in which communications and interactions are intellectually transformative. This article explores student perceptions of their participation in an online service-learning course while working in local service organizations. Qualitative methodology was used to identify the philosophical intersection at which multiple pedagogies meet: social justice, service-learning, civic engagement, and leadership as instructed in a web-based environment. This study illustrates the capacity for intentionally constructed online educational experiences focused on social justice, civic engagement, and leadership to affect learning and to provide educators with pedagogical best practices to facilitate requisite change in teaching practice.

  8. Nursing responsibilities and social justice: an analysis in support of disciplinary goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Pamela J; Willis, Danny G

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is asserted as a responsibility of the nursing profession. However, a reliable conception of social justice that can undergird practice, research, education, and policy endeavors has proved elusive. We discuss this as a problem for the profession and propose Powers and Faden's model of social justice as useful for nursing purposes because of its focus on exploring and rectifying underlying causes of injustice as they lie within the fabric of society. Their model asserts 6 essential dimensions of well-being as universal human needs. These dimensions are interrelated and nonhierarchical. A serious deficiency in any one affects other dimensions and interferes with the ability to experience "a minimally decent life." The model is applied to the problem of child abuse and the effects of its aftermath on well-being as an example of its potential for structuring nursing knowledge development, practice, and policy initiatives.

  9. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  10. Success in School for Justice-Involved Girls: Do Specific Aspects of Developmental Immaturity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney-Caron, Emily; Goldstein, Naomi E. S.; Giallella, Christy L.; Kemp, Kathleen; Romaine, Christina Riggs

    2016-01-01

    Developmental immaturity (DI) may help explain some of the variability in aspects of academic achievement among girls in the juvenile justice system, a population with high rates of truancy, dropout, and school failure. This study examined the relationships among the decision making and independent functioning components of DI, verbal intelligence, and academic achievement within this population. Using data from 60 girls in residential juvenile justice facilities, multiple regression analyses indicated that verbal IQ moderated the relationship between the DI construct of decision making and academic achievement. Self-reported school attendance and number of previous arrests did not significantly mediate the relationship between DI and academic achievement. These results may indicate that the decision-making factor of DI may be particularly important, and, if results are replicated, future intervention efforts could focus more on improving this skill within this juvenile justice population. Additionally, the overall importance of the full DI construct is an important area of future study. PMID:28082833

  11. Success in School for Justice-Involved Girls: Do Specific Aspects of Developmental Immaturity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney-Caron, Emily; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Giallella, Christy L; Kemp, Kathleen; Romaine, Christina Riggs

    2016-01-01

    Developmental immaturity (DI) may help explain some of the variability in aspects of academic achievement among girls in the juvenile justice system, a population with high rates of truancy, dropout, and school failure. This study examined the relationships among the decision making and independent functioning components of DI, verbal intelligence, and academic achievement within this population. Using data from 60 girls in residential juvenile justice facilities, multiple regression analyses indicated that verbal IQ moderated the relationship between the DI construct of decision making and academic achievement. Self-reported school attendance and number of previous arrests did not significantly mediate the relationship between DI and academic achievement. These results may indicate that the decision-making factor of DI may be particularly important, and, if results are replicated, future intervention efforts could focus more on improving this skill within this juvenile justice population. Additionally, the overall importance of the full DI construct is an important area of future study.

  12. Justice and care: the implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan debate for medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, V A

    1992-12-01

    Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant 'justice orientation' and the under-valued 'care orientation'. Based on her discernment of a 'voice of care', Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically, I question whether the medical moral domain is adequately described by the norms of impartiality, universality, and equality that characterize the liberal ideal. My analysis of justice-oriented medical ethics, focuses on the libertarian theory of H.T. Engelhardt and the contractarian theory of R.M. Veatch. I suggest that in the work of E.D. Pellegrino and D.C. Thomasma we find not only a more authentic representation of medical morality but also a project that is compatible with the care orientation's emphasis on human need and responsiveness to particular others.

  13. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  14. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  15. Navigating the Meanings of Social Justice, Teaching for Social Justice, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunhee

    2017-01-01

    This article uses well-received contemporary scholarship--works by Iris Young, Nancy Fraser, Morva McDonald, Connie North, and Geneva Gay--to illuminate a high degree of coherence among the substantive meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice, and multicultural education. Based on these relationships, the article suggests that…

  16. Learning to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice: Negotiating Social Justice and Mathematical Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Tonya Gau

    2013-01-01

    This article describes teachers' collective work aimed at learning to teach mathematics for social justice. Teacher interviews, discussions, lessons, and written reflections were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and teachers' conversations were examined concerning the relationship between mathematical goals and social justice goals.…

  17. Social Justice Educational Leaders and Resistance: Toward a Theory of Social Justice Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A subgroup of principals--leaders for social justice--guide their schools to transform the culture, curriculum, pedagogical practices, atmosphere, and schoolwide priorities to benefit marginalized students. The purpose of the article is to develop a theory of this social justice educational leadership. Research Design: This empirical…

  18. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  19. Justice-Sensitive Education: The Implications of Transitional Justice Mechanisms for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of "justice-sensitive education"--derived from the ideals and practices of transitional justice (TJ) in countries emerging from conflict. It describes three mechanisms for this: structural reforms (relating to inequity and division); curriculum change (the treatment of history, human rights and…

  20. Learning to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice: Negotiating Social Justice and Mathematical Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Tonya Gau

    2013-01-01

    This article describes teachers' collective work aimed at learning to teach mathematics for social justice. Teacher interviews, discussions, lessons, and written reflections were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and teachers' conversations were examined concerning the relationship between mathematical goals and social justice goals.…

  1. Social Justice Educational Leaders and Resistance: Toward a Theory of Social Justice Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A subgroup of principals--leaders for social justice--guide their schools to transform the culture, curriculum, pedagogical practices, atmosphere, and schoolwide priorities to benefit marginalized students. The purpose of the article is to develop a theory of this social justice educational leadership. Research Design: This empirical…

  2. Rethinking Discussions of Justice in Educational Research: Formative Justice, Educational Liberalism, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research tends to borrow accounts of justice from scholarship embedded within the structures and commitments of other disciplines or fields of study. This has created a body of educational research that largely responds to the "justice" goals of those disciplines rather than education qua education.…

  3. The Principle Of Justice In Magna Carta Libertatum And Its Influence On The Law In General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zendeli Emine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to expound the principle of justice, as a fundamental value and as an immanent category of law, as well as one of the fundamental human rights, prescribed and guaranteed by a myriad of international instruments and documents. After a brief historical account, by focusing on Article 40 of the Magna Carta Libertatum, which states that: “To No One Will we Sell, To No One Will we refuse or delay, right or justice”, this article claims to show the importance of incorporation of this principle in the provisions of the Magna Carta and its impact on the development of theory and legislation in the past and present. Moreover, the article intends to explore the extent of influence that the priciple of justice has on the functioning of the law in general. Since justice implicates the permanent and constant will to render each person his due, and this achieved through equality, it results that justice means being equal. In this context, the article will explore the concept of equality as a precondition of justice, as well as the conditions and modalities for its implementation.

  4. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  5. How to object to radically new technologies on the basis of justice: the case of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David

    2013-10-01

    A recurring objection to the exploration, development and deployment of radical new technologies is based on their implications with regards to social justice. In this article, using synthetic biology as an example, I explore this line of objection and how we ought to think about justice in the context of the development and introduction of radically new technologies. I argue that contrary to popular opinion, justice rarely provides a reason not to investigate, develop and introduce radical new technologies, although it may have significant implications for how they ought to be introduced. In particular I focus on the time dependency of justice objections and argue that often these function by looking only at the implications of the introduction of the technology at the point of introduction, rather than the more important long-term impact on patterns of distribution and opportunity.

  6. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  7. Statistical Literacy: Developing a Youth and Adult Education Statistical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Keli Cristina; Lucchesi de Carvalho, Dione

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the notion of literacy--general and statistical--in the analysis of data from a fieldwork research project carried out as part of a master's degree that investigated the teaching and learning of statistics in adult education mathematics classes. We describe the statistical context of the project that involved the…

  8. Relationships are building blocks to social justice: Cases of biblical justice and African Ubuntu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaelo T. Kgatla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The entire Bible is full of themes calling humans to live justly with one another and fear God who is the author of justice. The first book of the Bible, Genesis, carries the story of God’s relationship with his people. Their relationship is bound by social justice and mutual love in reciprocity. This article argues that African Ubuntu has an affinity with the Bible’s message of justice and mutual caring for one another. Ubuntu presupposes that humans were created in God’s image and indicates that characteristics such as kindness, charity, equality, love of one’s neighbours and voluntarily dispensing justice to others are present in human life. God created humans to be bound to one another in caring love, coexistence and total dependence. In today’s world, social justice requires good judgement from those who are in privileged positions to implement it.

  9. How does justice smell? Reflections on space and place, justice and the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flowing from a joint consultation on Spatial Justice and Reconciliation on 21–22 September 2015, hosted by the Centre for Contextual Ministry and the Ubuntu Research Project of the University of Pretoria, this article reflects on the notions of space and justice from the perspective of a contemporary theological anthropology as ‘embodied sensing’, where the making of meaning is sensed in the body. The argument is put forward that spatial justice is an embodied endeavour and that it cannot be achieved disconnected from the bodies of the persons in the concrete context where justice is strived for and where bodies can flourish. The relation between spatial justice, sense of place, human flourishing and the embodied sensing of meaning is explored.

  10. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  11. Job burnout and organizational justice among medical interns in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei-Min; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    New challenges are occurring in the medical education in Mainland China, and the main risk is the loss of excellent physician candidates. This is due to lack of respect; a large, strong labor force; relatively low remuneration; unstable relationships between patients and doctors; pressures from the public media; and the possible existence of organizational injustice within the hospital. The study reported here looked at one of the in-hospital risks, psychological job burnout and organizational justice, to identify the possible internal cause-effect relationship at the two major general hospitals both affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The aim of the reported study was to analyze the related factors associated with job burnout in Chinese medical interns in Shanghai and to provide some suggestions to better their occupational development. A total of 135 medical interns were investigated and assessed by the Organizational Justice Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between organizational justice and job burnout (r=-0.298, P=0.000), suggesting the existence of job burnout among the participant interns. In particular, emotional exhaustion and cynicism were statistically more significant; the comparison between the N group (from Nanjing) and S group (Shanghai) showed significant difference in participation and reduced professional efficacy (POrganizational justice should be promoted more, and school authorities should pay more attention to outside "non-home" interns. Finally, it is essential that the medical interns themselves establish reasonable judgment of their valuable profession.

  12. Values and religiosity as predictors of engagement in social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Carollo, Olivia; Schamberger, Antú; Clifton-Soderstrom, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that values, including religious values and motivations, might facilitate social justice work. Individuals might view social justice work as an expression of religious beliefs, values, and practices, or as an expression of their personal morals and values. The current study examined the role of religious variables and secular values to predict attitudes, intentions to engage in social justice, perceived norms around social justice, and perceived ability to engage in social justice within a culturally and religiously diverse student population. Implications of the study results for social justice education are presented and discussed.

  13. Justice at the millennium, a decade later: a meta-analytic test of social exchange and affect-based perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.

  14. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2005-01-01

    In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin

  15. Introductory statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon M

    2010-01-01

    In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this

  16. Statistics Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  17. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory H

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  18. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  19. Ecological information needs for environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Harris, Stuart; Harper, Barbara; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a template for the ecological information that is essential to examine environmental risks to EJ populations within average communities, using case studies from South Carolina (Savannah River, a DOE site with minority impacts), Washington (Hanford, a DOE site with Native American impacts), and New Jersey (nonpoint, urbanized community pollution). While the basic ecological and public health information needs for risk evaluations and assessments are well described, less attention has been focused on standardizing information about EJ communities or EJ populations within larger communities. We suggest that information needed about EJ communities and populations includes demographics, consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of their regional environment (for example, maintenance and cosmetic, medicinal/religious/cultural uses), eco-dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes. A purely demographics approach might not even identify EJ populations or neighborhoods, much less their spatial relation to the impact source or to each other. Using information from three case studies, we illustrate that some information is readily available (e.g., consumption rates for standard items such as fish), but there is less information about medicinal, cultural, religious, eco-cultural dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes, all of which depend in some way on intact, functioning, and healthy ecosystems.

  20. The nature of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, W Allen

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on everyday applications as well as those of scientific research, this classic of modern statistical methods requires little to no mathematical background. Readers develop basic skills for evaluating and using statistical data. Lively, relevant examples include applications to business, government, social and physical sciences, genetics, medicine, and public health. ""W. Allen Wallis and Harry V. Roberts have made statistics fascinating."" - The New York Times ""The authors have set out with considerable success, to write a text which would be of interest and value to the student who,

  1. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  2. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  3. Statistical Mechanics of US Supreme Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward; Broedersz, Chase; Bialek, William; Biophysics Theory Group Team

    2014-03-01

    We build simple models for the distribution of voting patterns in a group, using the Supreme Court of the United States as an example. The least structured, or maximum entropy, model that is consistent with the observed pairwise correlations among justices' votes is equivalent to an Ising spin glass. While all correlations (perhaps surprisingly) are positive, the effective pairwise interactions in the spin glass model have both signs, recovering some of our intuition that justices on opposite sides of the ideological spectrum should have a negative influence on one another. Despite the competing interactions, a strong tendency toward unanimity emerges from the model, and this agrees quantitatively with the data. The model shows that voting patterns are organized in a relatively simple ``energy landscape,'' correctly predicts the extent to which each justice is correlated with the majority, and gives us a measure of the influence that justices exert on one another. These results suggest that simple models, grounded in statistical physics, can capture essential features of collective decision making quantitatively, even in a complex political context. Funded by National Science Foundation Grants PHY-0957573 and CCF-0939370, WM Keck Foundation, Lewis-Sigler Fellowship, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Winston Foundation.

  4. SEER Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  5. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  6. CMS Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...

  7. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  8. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  9. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  10. Multiparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich

    2007-01-01

    This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...

  11. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  12. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  13. On the relationship between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations among Iranian EFL learners: A structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One problem which can be observed in the field of EFL/ESL learning is that a number of English major BA and MA students are not highly committed to their major and decide not to continue their graduate studies. Sometimes even graduate students from English majors prefer to extend their education or work in an unrelated field. This might be attributed to the extent to which they perceive evaluation procedures and outcomes as fair. Considering this, the present study investigates first the relationships between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations. The study, then, uses structural equation modeling in order to examine whether identity orientation has any mediating effect on the relationship between justice judgment and outcomes. Participants were74 students in Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University selected based on convenience sampling. They filled out three questionnaires on distributive and procedural justice judgments, rule compliance and outcome satisfaction, and personal and social identity orientations. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and structural equation modeling. Based on the obtained findings, procedural justice had significant positive correlation with rule compliance and distributive justice was significantly correlated with outcome satisfaction. The generated structural equation model also indicated that justice judgments only directly affected outcomes and identity had no mediating effect on the causal relationship between the two.

  14. The Control about the Legalization of the Procedure for the Judicial Justice-Focusing on the Design of the Regulations about the Normalization of the Open Trial%司法公开的程序合法化控制--以庭审公开规范化运行规则设计为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东洋; 刘万里; 李彬

    2015-01-01

    The judicial openness is the core of the trial openness,but the present practice of the trial openness does not show its values and some defaults are found for its real practice such as regulations and ideological concepts.There is close relationship between the trial openness and the control of unscientific procedure and therefore,the certainty of the range for the open trial of the cases and the estab-lishments of the relative technological specifications are based on the principle of the open trial according to the solutions and improve-ment of the regulations about open trial.Then justified procedure is developed to realize the judicial justice with the control of the proce-dure beyond the trial openness.%庭审公开是司法公开的核心内容,但当前的庭审公开实践并未达到其应有价值,在制度规则、意识理念等具体操作层面还存在诸多不足。庭审公开的问题与其缺乏科学的程序控制关系重大,需要我们从解决并完善庭审公开现有机制的诸多问题出发,在庭审公开原则的基础上,明确案件公开审理的范围,制定相关技术规范,将庭审公开置于程序控制之下,构建一种具有正当性的程序规则,以实现司法正义。

  15. Students' Attitudes toward Statistics across the Disciplines: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Gu, Lucy L.; Hart, Christian L.; Nichols-Whitehead, Penney

    2012-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward statistics were investigated using a mixed-methods approach including a discovery-oriented qualitative methodology among 684 undergraduate students across business, criminal justice, and psychology majors where at least one course in statistics was required. Students were asked about their attitudes toward statistics and…

  16. Students' Attitudes toward Statistics across the Disciplines: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Gu, Lucy L.; Hart, Christian L.; Nichols-Whitehead, Penney

    2012-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward statistics were investigated using a mixed-methods approach including a discovery-oriented qualitative methodology among 684 undergraduate students across business, criminal justice, and psychology majors where at least one course in statistics was required. Students were asked about their attitudes toward statistics and…

  17. University-school partnerships for social justice in mathematics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University-school partnerships for social justice in mathematics and science education: the case ... My purpose in this paper is to situate a university-school mathematics and science education partnership within a social justice ... Article Metrics.

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  19. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice sc

  20. 75 FR 70293 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Fall meeting...