WorldWideScience

Sample records for justice nationality regulations

  1. 28 CFR 0.92 - National Institute of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Institute of Justice. 0.92 Section 0.92 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.92 National Institute of Justice. The National...

  2. REGIONAL JUSTICE AND NATIONAL UNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Loguinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In regions of Russia who lag behind the national average both in pay and in economic development, the problem of raising living standards should be solved through a nation-wide program which would be believed by peoples of Russia regardless of ethnicity. It should include creation of jobs, leveling of wages, abolition of fees for education and for a significant portion of health services, reducing utility tariffs and prices for public transportation, introduction of an income-based progressive taxation system, improving law enforcement activities, etc. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of macroeconomic indicators of Russian economy in recent years.

  3. 41 CFR 128-1.101 - Justice Property Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Justice Property Management Regulations. 128-1.101 Section 128-1.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1...

  4. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  5. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  6. Regulating traditional justice in South Africa: a comparative analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without a reconsideration of the issues, the Bill will still be met with criticism even from those it is meant to regulate, and could potentially result in various constitutional challenges and litigations. KEYWORDS: Traditional Courts Bill; traditional justice systems; customary law; ascertainment; legal representation; hierarchy of ...

  7. 76 FR 38209 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa Huntoon, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of Justice...

  8. 77 FR 44673 - Meeting of the Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Department of Justice National Motor Vehicle Title Information System Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY... a meeting of Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS...., Washington, DC 20531. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Brighton, Designated Federal Employee (DFE...

  9. Towards a just and fair Internet: applying Rawls’ principles of justice to Internet regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, David

    2015-01-01

    I suggest that the social justice issues raised by Internet regulation be exposed and examined by using a methodology adapted from that described by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. Rawls’ theory uses the hypothetical scenario of people deliberating about the justice of social institutions from

  10. Klansman on the Court: Justice Hugo Black's 1937 Radio Address to the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasson, Martin; Aune, James Arnt

    2003-01-01

    Supreme Court Justice Hugo L. Black, known for being a liberal First Amendment absolutist and a courageous defender of individual freedom, is considered one of the best justices ever to serve on the nation's high court. This essay examines the events surrounding Justice Black's controversial nomination to the Supreme Court, focusing on his…

  11. 78 FR 51747 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Brighton, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of Justice...

  12. 77 FR 10573 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Todd Brighton, Designated Federal Employee (DFE), Bureau of Justice...

  13. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  14. National diversity and team performance: the moderating role of interactional justice climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buengeler, C.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this team-level study, we present and test a model in which two aspects of interactional justice climate, its level and its strength, interact to moderate the effects of national diversity on team performance. Connecting the literatures on team diversity and (interactional) justice climate, we

  15. CB Soyapi REGULATING TRADITIONAL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE TRADITIONAL COURTS BILL ... Customary law1 is without doubt the oldest system of law in most African societies. ... traditional leaders.2 Within such a structure, a feature which was predominant in ...... Harper E Customary Justice: From Program Design to Impact Evaluation.

  16. Just Learning: The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems into Effective Educational Systems. A Study of Juvenile Justice Schools in the South and the Nation. Special Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes the findings of the larger study, "Just Learning: The Imperative to Transform Juvenile Justice Systems into Effective Educational Systems. A Study of Juvenile Justice Schools in the South and the Nation." With awareness growing that schools are disciplining and suspending minority students at alarming rates, the…

  17. 76 FR 8778 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... 7th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20531; Phone: (202) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa...

  18. 75 FR 31815 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Department of Justice's (DOJ's) National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of DOJ's National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS) Federal Advisory... 7th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20531; Phone: (202) 305-1661. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alissa...

  19. REGULATION OF NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  20. Freedom Riders: A National Geographic Journey in Social Justice through Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Deborah A.; Clabough, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Ann Bausum is an award-winning author who has published more than eight books with National Geographic Society. Passionate about the pursuit of social justice, Bausum channels much of her energy into researching and writing books that help educate young readers about injustices and corruptions that have plagued the country. Her book, "Freedom…

  1. 75 FR 18831 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Teleconference and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Act (FACA), Public Law 92-463, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hereby provides notice... liaisons to the Tribal Operations Commission and the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee School... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9136-1] National Environmental Justice Advisory Council...

  2. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly B. Dierkhising

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.

  3. Feasibility of energy justice: Exploring national and local efforts for energy development in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islar, Mine; Brogaard, Sara; Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The energy justice framework serves as an important decision-making tool in order to understand how different principles of justice can inform energy systems and policies. The realization of the urgency of providing modern energy technology and services particularly to rural areas has prompted both the Nepalese government and development institutions to focus on community-run renewable energy facilities. It is argued that off-grid and micro-scale energy development offers an alternative path to fossil-fuel use and top-down resource management as they democratize the grid and increase marginalized communities' access to renewable energy, education and health care. However, Nepal's energy development is also heavily influenced by demands from the fast-growing economies of neighboring countries such as China and India. As a result, this article evaluates the Nepalese national energy policies by applying the key aspects of the energy justice framework and showing the feasibility constraints due to geopolitical and biophysical factors to the implementation of energy just policies in this developing country context. The empirical evidence is derived from interviews during a one-month fieldwork in the Lalitpur and Katmandu districts of Nepal, site-visits, discourse analysis of expert statements, government policies and newspaper articles as well literature review on peer-review articles. - Highlights: • Energy justice framework can be used as a decision-making tool. • Energy transitions need to be understood from multiple perspectives. • Justice principles may face geopolitical, biophysical and ethical feasibility constraints. • The implementation of energy justice principles requires attention to the problem of agency.

  4. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  5. Control of Foreign Courts: Limits and Possibilities of the National Council of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maria Barbosa Ramos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discuss the meaning and scope of external control of the judiciary, exercised by the National Council of Justice. To this end, it presented initially, the approval process and constitution of this body control, as well as the advances and setbacks in parliamentary discussions leading up to the Constitutional Amendment 45/2014. The stood out political and social expectations of its conformation in addition to the institutional framework and the powers provided for constitutionally. Finally, he approached the sense of transparency and publicity that the CNJ brought to the judiciary and how its projects and actions might represent a new paradigm for the institutions of the justice system. In this article was used explanatory critical method, it being understood that the object to be investigated can only be investigated exposed after and critically analyzed in its essential determinations. As technical procedures emphasized the bibliographical and documentary research.

  6. Community legal borderlines for nationally arranged restraints of competition. Presented with the help of decisions of the European Court of Justice with special consideration of price regulations in energy law; Gemeinschaftsrechtliche Grenzen fuer staatlich veranlasste Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen. Dargestellt anhand von Entscheidungen des EuGH unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Preisregelungen im Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasse, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the limits which are set by anti-competitive interventions of the member states of the European Community into the market. Following the introduction and the formulation of the problem, the contribution consists of the following chapters: (a) The limits of the nationally arranged restraints of competition in the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice; (b) Limits of nationally arranged restraints of competition from factual norms of the European Community contract; (c) Commitment of the member states of the European Community to the free competition due to general fundamentals of the Community law; (d) Exceptions of the prohibition nationally arranged restraints of competitions; (e) Application of the competitional obligation from paragraph 10 section 2 of the European Community Contract.

  7. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  8. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  9. The National Institute of Justice's Technology Efforts to Meet the Evolving Needs of the Responder Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2002-05-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research arm of the Department of Justice. Through its Office of Science & Technology (OS&T), NIJ has actively pursued development of better tools for public safety agencies to combat terrorism since 1997, when, pursuant to the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Penalty Act of 1996 (P.L. 104 -132), it began development of technology to better enable law enforcement agencies to combat terrorism. NIJ quickly realized that effectively combating terrorism required a multi disciplinary, multi agency response. Additionally, it came to understand that, as noted by the Gilmore Commission, the best way to prepare the responder community to deal with the consequences of terrorist incidents, was to ``emphasize programs and initiatives that build appropriately on existing State and local capabilities for other emergencies and disasters.'' For example, an effective critical incident management system is just as important to the ability to deal with a terrorist attack, such as occurred at the World Trade Center, as with a major natural disaster or the crash of a commercial airliner or passenger train. Consequently, NIJ's efforts have evolved to focus on the responder community's common, unaddressed needs for better tools to deal with critical incidents. The Institutes efforts focus on five technology areas: infrastructure security, personnel location, explosives detection and remediation, communications and information technology and training, and development of standards.

  10. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  11. International versus national regulations: Concerns and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br; Lauria, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/No. CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The existence of a traceable relationship between national regulatory standards and international recommendations is important especially when the national regulations have to be justified and explained to the public and their representatives. Guidance on various types of radiological levels in environmental media related to public exposure has been provided by the relevant international organizations, constituting a basis for the development of national regulations. However, international standards need to be clear and based on solid technical criteria. In their preparation, consideration should be given to the implications for different countries, and the differences that exist between them, for example, in social, economic and climatic aspects.

  12. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  13. Forensic Science Research and Development at the National Institute of Justice: Opportunities in Applied Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gregory

    Forensic science is a collection of applied disciplines that draws from all branches of science. A key question in forensic analysis is: to what degree do a piece of evidence and a known reference sample share characteristics? Quantification of similarity, estimation of uncertainty, and determination of relevant population statistics are of current concern. A 2016 PCAST report questioned the foundational validity and the validity in practice of several forensic disciplines, including latent fingerprints, firearms comparisons and DNA mixture interpretation. One recommendation was the advancement of objective, automated comparison methods based on image analysis and machine learning. These concerns parallel the National Institute of Justice's ongoing R&D investments in applied chemistry, biology and physics. NIJ maintains a funding program spanning fundamental research with potential for forensic application to the validation of novel instruments and methods. Since 2009, NIJ has funded over 179M in external research to support the advancement of accuracy, validity and efficiency in the forensic sciences. An overview of NIJ's programs will be presented, with examples of relevant projects from fluid dynamics, 3D imaging, acoustics, and materials science.

  14. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  15. Access to Justice for the Wrongfully Accused in National Security Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Kalajdzic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the casualties in the ‘war on terror’ is the presumption of innocence. It is now known that four Canadians who were the subject of investigation by the RCMP and CSIS were detained and tortured in Syria on the basis of information that originated in and was shared by Canada. None has ever been charged with a crime. On their return home, all four men called for a process that would expose the truth about the role of Canadian agencies in what happened to them, and ultimately help them clear their names and rebuild their lives. To date, in varying degrees, all four men continue to wait for that “process.” In this paper, I examine the access to justice mechanisms available to persons who are wrongfully accused of being involved in terrorist activities. Utilizing the case study of one of the four men, Abdullah Almalki, I explore the various processes available to him: (i a complaint to the relevant domestic complaints bodies, the Security Intelligence Review Committee and the Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP; (ii a commission of inquiry; and (iii a civil tort claim. Due in large part to the role national security confidentiality plays in these mechanisms, all three models are found to be ineffective for those seeking accountability in the national security context. Parmi les victimes de la «guerre contre le terrorisme» figure la présomption d’innocence. On sait maintenant que quatre Canadiens qui ont fait l’objet d’enquêtes par la GRC et le SCRS ont été détenus et torturés en Syrie suite à des renseignements ayant leur origine au Canada et partagés par le Canada. Nul d’entre eux n’a jamais été accusé de crime. À leur retour, tous les quatre hommes ont demandé un processus qui exposerait la vérité au sujet du rôle d’agences canadiennes dans ce qui leur est arrivé et qui éventuellement leur aiderait à rétablir leur réputation et refaire leur vie. À ce jour, à des degrés divers, tous

  16. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  17. Framing Teacher Education: Conceptions of Teaching, Teacher Education, and Justice in Chilean National Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M. Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Chile shows high inequity and socioeconomic stratification in both K-12 education and teacher preparation. Drawing on the notion of frames, this critical policy analysis examines how teaching, teacher education, and justice were conceptualized in Chile's teacher preparation policies between 2008-2015. It also analyzes the narrative stories…

  18. 78 FR 79693 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Teleconference Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... The primary topics of discussion will be (1) recommendations for integrating environmental justice into EPA's research enterprise and (2) a preliminary discussion about chemical management issues. There... submitting written comments before the Friday January 10, 2014, noon deadline. Non-English speaking attendees...

  19. Reducing the cost of administrative justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In virtually every sector of government regulation, the complaint has been lodged that the costs of administrative justice are too high. These costs in time, money, resources, and productivity can have a profound effect on the individual consumer. When applied to an energy technology such as nuclear power, costs of administrative justice can transcent time and money to have even more profound and pervasive soeietal effects. Societal costs can be expressed in terms of their impact on important national concerns, that is, the standard of living, technological superiority, and the national energy equation. Some views are presented on the interests involved in the regulation of nuclear power and what can be done to bring those interests into better balance so as to reduce the cost of administrative justice

  20. Criminal Justice Systems in Europe. A cross-national quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra-Muñoz, Jose; García-España, Elisa; Aguilar Conde, Araceli

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, the Crime Observatory of the University of Malaga has analysed police records on criminal activity, has also carried out several crime victims surveys in Spain and has worked on a detailed analysis of the prison system and its connection to the prison policy. This year´s report focuses on the Criminal Justice System, one of the big official data providers, to gather, organize and interpret a great deal of quantitative data from 2000 to 2011. Such longitudinal scrutiny of...

  1. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  2. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  3. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1990-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  4. Linking well-being with cultural revitalization for greater cognitive justice in conservation: lessons from Venezuela in Canaima National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iokiñe Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, conservation policies have often suppressed nonscientific forms of knowledge and ways of knowing nature, along with the social practices of the groups that are informed by such knowledge. Reversing this process of epistemic supremacy is crucial both for achieving greater cognitive justice in conservation areas and ensuring that conservation aims are achieved. Doing so, however, is not an easy task. In situations of cultural violence, hidden environmental knowledge is not easily made visible unless adequate conditions for it to emerge are created. I show that one way forward is by conservation engaging with the well-being agendas of indigenous people, in particular, with the construction of their life plans. This discussion is illustrated through a case study in Canaima National Park, Venezuela, where over the last 20 years, social-ecological research has been studying existing conflicts over the use of fire while supporting the development of Pemon (the indigenous peoples in this area Life Plans. Assisting in the development of life plans through participatory historical reconstructions, territorial self-demarcation processes, and facilitation of community reflexivity about its social-ecological changes and desired future has been decisive for the Pemon, and has revealed fire management knowledge that challenges conventional explanations of landscape change that simplistically place the blame for such changes on the local use of fire. This local knowledge, combined with results from studies of Pemon fire regimes, fire behavior ecology, and paleoecological research, now informs a counter narrative of landscape change that is influencing a shift in environmental discourse and policy-making toward an intercultural fire management approach. By documenting how social-ecological research has engaged with the Pemon Life Plan processes, I show the important role that cultural revitalization plays in making hidden and silenced local

  5. National Credit Regulator versus Dedbank Ltd and the practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Credit Regulator approached the then Transvaal Provincial Division of the High Court in 2008 by way of a notice of motion. In this application the Regulator prayed in terms of section 16(1)(b) of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (the "NCA") for the proper interpretation of mainly sections 86 and 87 of the same ...

  6. United Nations' Concept of Justice and Fairness in The Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perhaps the inability of the United Nations to manage some international conflicts successfully coupled with its passivity on matters that involve some powerful nations on may be responsible for its criticism by some analysts. These critics, in turn, may not have considered holistically, the UN programmes which have ...

  7. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  8. The European Court of Justice and the National Interests of the European Union’s Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Комарова

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of CJEU’s practice concerning the interpretation of national interests of the European Union’s Member States in resolving disputes submitted for its consideration. Analyzed decisions of the CJEU allows to trace its position on the matter and the evolution of practices regarding the balance between different interests – the interests of the Union and the States. Also in article there are analyzed actual problems of the modern European Union law (human rights, free enterprise, etc., its institutional system and direct the judicial authorities in the EU. For modern evolution of the EU it is highly important to have orientation not only on common interests of the EU but on interests of members states. In the late jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union there is a tendency of retreating from strict practice of favoring only to interests of the EU and interpreting interests of members states in order to find the balance between two types of interest especially after amendments of Lisbon treaty. In the context of this research it should be noted that the Court of Justice of the European Union during interpretation of national interests of member states uses the principle of self-restriction in interpretation of law. Herewith the Court quite flexible uses this principle and this leads to appearance of new highly important precedents.  It should be underlined that the Court has a negative to the application of acte claire doctrine because of some risk of been bound to act only in one direction without taking into consideration any possible changes of judicial practice in future. The conclusion is made that for the strengthening of European integration it is highly important not only the jurisprudence of the Court, but the activity of constitutional courts of member states and also their parliaments, which under Lisbon treaty got a lot of democratic competences. Exactly the cooperation of

  9. National RAM transport regulations implementation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)

  10. Quand la justice pénale internationale s’empare de la réconciliation nationale When international criminal justice captures « national reconciliation »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Liwerant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Si aujourd’hui les Tribunaux pénaux internationaux pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et pour le Rwanda affirment qu’ils ont pour objectif de favoriser la restauration de la paix, cette mission puise pourtant ses racines dans une réglementation des comportements dans la guerre. Cette généalogie révèle un changement de mission du droit pénal international qui, associant progressivement justice et paix, a conduit récemment à y adjoindre la « réconciliation nationale ». Sans être définie, la « réconciliation nationale » va s’introduire dans le vocable des juges internationaux. Ainsi, lors de la détermination de la peine, les juges vont considérer que les efforts de l’accusé en faveur de la réconciliation nationale est un élément susceptible de réduire la peine au titre des circonstances atténuantes. A partir d’une analyse de l’ensemble des décisions des deux Tribunaux pénaux internationaux, cet article analyse sens et enjeux de l’appropriation de la « réconciliation nationale » par la justice pénale internationale saisie par des impératifs collectifs.Although the international criminal courts for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda claim that their goal is to contribute to the restoration and the maintenance of peace, their mission originates in the laws of war. This genealogy reveals a shift in international criminal law’s missions. Combining « justice » and « peace », the international judges have added the notion of « national reconciliation » to their vocabulary without defining it. Thus to give a « fair sentence » judges are willing to consider the defendant’s efforts in favor of national reconciliation among the elements that they take into account as mitigating factors. Analyzing the judgments of the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and for the Rwanda, this article explores what is at stake when international criminal justice is faced with social

  11. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  12. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  13. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the supe...

  14. Monitoring the Implementation of State Regulation of National Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological tools for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. The approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “national economic security” are generalized. Assessment of the level of national economic security is a key element in monitoring the implementation of state regulation in this area. Recommendations for improving the methodology for assessing national economic security, the calculation algorithm of which includes four interrelated components (economic, political, social, spiritual one, suggests using analysis methods (correlation and cluster analysis, and taxonomy, which allows to determine the level and disproportion of development, can serve as a basis for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. Such an approach to assessing national economic security makes it possible to determine the place (rank that a country occupies in a totality of countries, the dynamics of changing ranks over a certain period of time, to identify problem components, and monitor the effectiveness of state regulation of the national economic security. It the course of the research it was determined that the economic sphere is the main problem component of ensuring the security of Ukraine’s economy. The analysis made it possible to identify the most problematic partial indicators in the economic sphere of Ukraine: economic globalization, uneven economic development, level of infrastructure, level of financial market development, level of economic instability, macroeconomic stability. These indicators have a stable negative dynamics and a downward trend, which requires an immediate intervention of state bodies to ensure the national economic security.

  15. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  16. Justice, fairness, and membership in a class: conceptual confusions and moral puzzles in the regulation of human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines conceptual difficulties with one of the ways in which justice has been understood and applied the ethical and regulatory review of human research. Justice requires the fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of research. Class membership is seen as justifying inclusion in higher hazard-no benefit research from which members of potentially vulnerable classes, such as children, typically would be excluded. I argue that class membership does not do the justificatory work it is thought to do and that the use of class membership to justify inclusion in higher hazard-no benefit research leads to unjustified discrimination of sick children and offers special protections to healthy children. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Juvenile Justice

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1998-01-01

    The third Innocenti Digest deals with the main issues connected with children and young people coming into conflict with the law and contact with the justice system. It looks at standards and problems from arrest through to the court hearing and sentencing, use of custodial measures and ways of avoiding the child’s unnecessary and counter-productive involvement with the formal justice system. It also covers prevention questions. Like previous publications in the series, it contains practical ...

  18. 75 FR 64148 - General Regulation: National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... literary giant at the Eugene O'Neill National Historical Site, California; and the artistic grace of a... that is not reasonably likely to attract a crowd or onlookers. This language is similar to the... the criteria of section 3(b)(2) requiring that all regulations be written in clear language and...

  19. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  20. Justice-based social assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  1. Community Security and Justice under United Nations Governance: Lessons from Chiefs’ Courts in South Sudan’s Protection of Civilians Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ibreck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the public authority of chiefs’ courts within the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS Protection of Civilians Sites (PoCs. After December 2013, UNMISS peacekeepers opened the gates of their bases to around 200,000 civilians fleeing war. This unintentionally created a legal and political anomaly. Over time, conflicts and crimes rose within the sites, and UNMISS improvised a form of administration. But while the internationals sought technical solutions, people displaced within the sites turned to familiar ‘customary’ methods to manage problems of insecurity, establishing chiefs’ courts. The PoC sites became an arena of plural authorities, with chiefs working alongside camp administrators, peacekeepers and humanitarian actors. We explore how and why the chiefs responded to insecurity within the sites and whether they engaged with, or diverged from United Nations actors and international norms. We demonstrate that justice remains central to the provision of security in contexts of war and displacement. International peace interventions are rightly wary of ‘customary’ justice processes that prioritise communities and families at the expense of individual rights, but this unique case shows that they are sources of trust and consistency that are resilient, adaptable and can contribute to human security.

  2. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  3. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR COMBATING DISCRIMINATION – COURT OF JUSTICE OF EUROPEAN UNION – BUCHAREST COURT OF APPEAL. CAUSE C-81/12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian JURA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation consists in closing the jurisdictional circle initiated in 2010 and analysing the national and European procedural, jurisdictional-administrative issues, in case of notifying some institutions related to certain discriminatory assertions. The investigation relies on assertions made during a radio show. On 12 October 2011 the Bucharest Court of Appeal ruled the notification of the Court of Justice of European Union related to preliminary questions formulated and ordered the suspension of the case until the settlement of the procedure. In 2013, the Bucharest Court of Appeal, although initially accepting the preliminary application of ACCEPT, submitting the case to the Court of Justice of European Union in order to determine the manner of interpretation of communitarian legislation related to the claims of plaintiff, eventually all arguments of CNCD have been accepted that is the warning is an effective, reasonable, dissuasive and (contextual proportional sanction, and such declaration cannot be understood as a discrimination in the labour field. De facto, the assertions of CNCD were in full agreement with the resolution of the Court of Justice of European Union, that is the communitarian legislation does not exclude the application of some sanctions without pecuniary character, such as the sanction with warning, since this kind of sanction does not have only a symbolic character, being a contraventional legal sanction, mainly when associated a relevant degree of advertising (such in the case, and the addressee is addressed, with arguments, directly and expressly the recommendation of meeting the non-discrimination principle, under the implicit effect of a more drastic sanction in case of relapse (discrimination in the same field.

  4. Water Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Perreault, T.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate

  5. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report, though produced as a follow-up to Safety Series No. 105, The Regulatory Process for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, is not primarily intended as guidance. Rather, its objective is to provide an overview of national decommissioning policies and regulatory practices as part of the background knowledge which is an essential precondition for good decision making. It discusses the reasons for the similarities and differences in national approach using specific examples but without giving preference to any particular scheme; it aims rather to provide factual, general information on the choices that have been or are being made, and why. As many Member States are in a transient situation between the case-by-case approach to decommissioning and the establishment of national policies, strategies and regulations, this seems the right moment to assess existing national practices worldwide and that is the purpose for which the document is issued at this time. The information gathered in this report is based on submissions by Member States which have developed or are in the process of developing decommissioning oriented policies and regulations. 29 refs

  6. 32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation of...

  7. Technical support organization of national regulators: Challenges and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, S.A.; Maqbul, N.; Kanwal, S.; Hashmi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants has always been a complex activity and so is regulating the nuclear power plants. The rapid innovation in design of nuclear power plants with substantial increase in design life from 40 years to 60 years is now considered a norm. The public acceptability of nuclear as a clean source of energy is also on the increase but with this increase is also the demand for more safety against accidental release of radioactivity. It is therefore essential that high standards of nuclear and radiation safety should be maintained and applied all over the world. However the increase acceptability will also lead to a rapid growth in nuclear energy generation capacity both in terms of construction of new nuclear power plants as well as life extension of older nuclear power plants. This will result in an unprecedented pressure on the national regulators during the licensing process. Nuclear and radiation safety are based on technical, administrative and organizational provisions. There is, therefore, a need to separate the technical review and assessment work from the main licensing process by delegating this responsibility to the technical support organizations so that regulatory decision making is not driven by the time constraints imposed by the licensing process. The paper examines the role technical support organization can play to enhance quality of technical review and thereby the effectiveness of national regulators. For the national regulators that belong to countries that import nuclear power plants and may lack an advanced industrial infrastructure at par with other exporting countries, the establishment of technical support organization within a regulatory body or as a separate organization is gaining increased importance. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) has realized this importance and proposed the Government of Pakistan for allocation of Rs. 480.00 million ($ 8 million) for the establishment of

  8. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF STATE REGULATION OF NATIONAL MACROECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Maslennikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of the economic role of the state was put up for a long time and until now every state solves this problem in different ways and only for itself, on the basis of the accumulated experience taking into account its customs and traditions. The objective need to include the state in the economic process is determined by such factors as: the need to ensure public reproduction on an extended scale, ensuring the long-term interests of the population, maintaining the balance of socio-economic interests of different population groups in the country, ensuring the unity and integrity of the country's territorial space. For this reason, the purpose of the paper is to examine the main theoretical aspects of state regulation of the economy in historical retrospect and at the present stage of the development of society. Methodology. Methodological and informational basis of the investigation are scientific articles, materials of periodicals, resources of the Internet. To achieve the goal set, the following general scientific and special methods were used: morphological analysis, system and structural-logical analysis, formalization, analogy, comparison and integration, tabular method. Results. As a result of the research, scientific and theoretical grounds for state regulation of national macroeconomic environment were presented; forms and methods of state regulation, programming as a form of perspective state regulation and principles of economic planning were considered in more detail. Practical implications. The considered forms of state regulation are relevant in the current conditions of management and can be applied by states in accordance with the level of economic development. Value/originality. The authors presented innovative forms of state regulation methods, and analyzed their effectiveness.

  9. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  10. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The National Science Board (NSB) National Science Foundation...

  11. Quality Control in diagnostic radiology according to national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienik, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the main aspects of quality control of radiological devices according to the current national regulations. Explanation of the physical principles of image formation by different test phantoms used to measure focal spot sizes is presented in appendix. The obligation for quality assurance (QA) for all X-ray systems which follows European standards was enforced in updated '' Atomic Law Act '' of 29 November 2000 . This document is the main regulatory act which establishes the basic safety standards for radiation protection in Poland. The main modifications introduced by this new Act concerned the issue of radiation protection of individuals undergoing medical examinations with the use of ionizing radiation which is regulated by EC Directive 97/43 Euratom. According to this Directive quality assurance programmes, including quality control measures need to be implemented by the holder of the radiological installation. Therefore, in the above Act the Minister of Health has been obligated to impose specific regulations describing the way of implementation of general principles laid down in the Directive. Some of these regulations, like those concerning QC tests and tolerances, have already been mentioned in the document titled '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine ''. For example, the QC program in radiography is being considered; the obligatory tests- acceptance, routine and annual- are discussed and specific procedures are being indicated. The main idea of the document '' On the conditions for safe application of ionizing radiation in medicine '' which concerns radiation protection of patients and staff against ionizing radiation used in medicine is to implement the surveillance of all X-ray systems in form of acceptance tests followed by internal tests (routine and annual) performed in accordance with European standards. (author)

  12. National Institute of Justice Center Requirements Definition, Technical Assistance, Agile Test and Evaluation and Cyber Science Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frantz, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    This task provided for assembly, definition, and completion of technical enhancements in coordination with the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center -Northeast Region (NLECTC-NE...

  13. Transgenerational epigenetics and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L; Marchant, Gary E

    2017-07-01

    Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government. To provide a broader perspective on environmental justice the article discusses two of the most commonly cited approaches to environmental justice. John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, a form of egalitarianism, is frequently invoked for the principle that differential treatment of individuals is justified only if actions are designed to benefit those with the greatest need. Another theory, the capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, focuses on whether essential capabilities of society, such as life and health, are made available to all individuals. In applying principles of environmental justice the article considers whether there is a heightened societal obligation to protect the most vulnerable individuals from hazardous exposures that could adversely affect their offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. It concludes that unless there were compelling evidence of transgenerational epigenetic harms, it is unlikely that there would be a significant impetus to adopt new policies to prevent epigenetic harms by invoking principles of environmental justice.

  14. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  15. Architectures of intergenerational justice : Human dignity, international law, and duties to future generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws attention to the constitutive requirements of intergenerational justice and exposes the limitations of regulative arguments based on international human rights law. Intergenerational justice demands constraining the regulative freedom of the international community, and it is

  16. What Do We Owe the Poles (or the Greeks)? Three Emerging Duties of Transnational Social Justice in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of social justice that operates beyond the nation-state but does so as an extra layer upon national conceptions of social justice. Thus, in the view transnational duties of social justice are complementary to national conceptions of social justice by, on the one

  17. Enviromental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  18. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  19. The burgeoning recognition and accommodation of the social supply of drugs in international criminal justice systems: An eleven-nation comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Ross; Moyle, Leah; Belackova, Vendula; Decorte, Tom; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Hathaway, Andrew; Laidler, Karen Joe; Lenton, Simon; Murphy, Sheigla; Scott, John; Stefunkova, Michaela; van de Ven, Katinka; Vlaemynck, Marieke; Werse, Bernd

    2018-06-08

    It is now commonly accepted that there exists a form of drug supply, that involves the non-commercial supply of drugs to friends and acquaintances for little or no profit, which is qualitatively different from profit motivated 'drug dealing proper'. 'Social supply', as it has become known, has a strong conceptual footprint in the United Kingdom, shaped by empirical research, policy discussion and its accommodation in legal frameworks. Though scholarship has emerged in a number of contexts outside the UK, the extent to which social supply has developed as an internationally recognised concept in criminal justice contexts is still unclear. Drawing on an established international social supply research network across eleven nations, this paper provides the first assessment of social supply as an internationally relevant concept. Data derives from individual and team research stemming from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, England and Wales, and the United States, supported by expert reflection on research evidence and analysis of sentencing and media reporting in each context. In situ social supply experts addressed a common set of questions regarding the nature of social supply for their particular context including: an overview of social supply research activity, reflection on the extent that differentiation is accommodated in drug supply sentencing frameworks; evaluating the extent to which social supply is recognised in legal discourse and in sentencing practices and more broadly by e.g. criminal justice professionals in the public sphere. A thematic analysis of these scripts was undertaken and emergent themes were developed. Whilst having an absence of local research, New Zealand is also included in the analysis as there exists a genuine discursive presence of social supply in the drug control and sentencing policy contexts in that country. Findings suggest that while social supply has been found to exist as

  20. 31 CFR 904.4 - Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Justice. 904.4 Section 904.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY-DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE) REFERRALS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 904.4 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a...

  1. 75 FR 72655 - Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and... the regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS or sanctuary) by eliminating the exemption that allows discharges from within the boundary of the sanctuary of biodegradable effluent...

  2. 36 CFR 1501.1 - Cross reference to National Park Service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL MEMORIAL TRUST GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1501.1 Cross reference to National Park Service regulations... (the Trust) adopts by cross reference the provisions of the National Park Service in 36 CFR chapter I... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross reference to National...

  3. Overview of the current National Primary Drinking Water Regulations and regulation development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotruvo, J.A.; Regelski, M.

    1989-01-01

    The promulgation of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) follows specific steps. First, the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) is published. Second, the EPA, as mandated by the SDWA Amendments, proposes maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), (enforceable standards) and maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) simultaneously. The Office of Drinking Water developed a six-phase schedule that has attempted to parallel the SDWA-specified deadlines: Phase I - Voltile organic chemicals - July 8, 1987; Phase II - Synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals - June 1989, microbials and surface water treatment - June 1989, and Lead/copper - December 1988; Phase III - Radionuclides - December 1988; Phase IV - Disinfectants and disinfection by-products - June 1989; Phase V - Other inorganic chemicals, synthetic organic chemicals, and pesticides - June 1989; and Phase VI - 25 additional chemicals - January 199. In selecting contaminants for regulation, the most relevant criteria are (1) potential health risk; (2) ability to detect a contaminant in the drinking water; and (3) occurrence or potential occurrence in drinking water. The EPA uses a three category approach for setting maximum contaminant level goals for carcinogens: Category I, strong evidence of carcinogenicity-zero; Category II, equivocal evidence - reference dose (RfD) approach or 0.00001 to 0.000001 cancer risk range; and Category III, inadequate or no evidence from animal studies - RfD approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  5. Decree 560/003. It approve the National Regulations text about dangerous goods transport by road, for national jurisdiction routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This decree approve the transport regulation in the national jurisdiction routes. Is prohibited the transport of dangerous good with contamination risk in food, medication or articles intended for human or animal use

  6. 78 FR 57177 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and... designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau of Justice Assistance; Quality and...

  7. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27 The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  8. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  9. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  10. Developing National Regulations in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufer, Barry; Redwine, Kirk; Al Khafili, Helal; Hafidh, Salem

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), in preparing, issuing and implementing regulations is seeking to be consistent with IAEA Safety Standards, to use risk informed and performance-based methodologies, to capitalise on licensing in the country of origin and to follow internationally recognised practices. FANR's intent is to produce high level regulations which are not prescriptive and which focus on the essential aspects of safety. Regulatory guides will also be provided to assist licensees with compliance. This paper discusses an overview of the regulatory framework in the UAE, the planned scope of the proposed regulations, the approach being taken under an internal management system to develop these regulations and regulatory guides in the UAE and. The current status and future plans will also be provided. (authors)

  11. 32 CFR 651.17 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental justice. 651.17 Section 651.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process...

  12. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  13. 76 FR 13226 - Meeting of the Department of Justice Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... coordination of national policy, practices, and technical solutions in support of the Administration's justice priorities. The GAC will guide and monitor the development of the Global information sharing concept. It will...

  14. Transitional Justice and National Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    reform of the state “security services” requires the reform of the army, police, judiciary, customs, immigration control, intelligence services, and...Committee in South Africa, the Equity and Reconciliation Committee in Morocco, and similar entities in Chile and Peru. 3. Achieving community dialogue

  15. 31 CFR 585.705 - Referral to United States Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Justice. 585.705 Section 585.705 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 585.705 Referral to United States Department of Justice. In the... States Department of Justice for appropriate action to recover the penalty in a civil suit in a Federal...

  16. 78 FR 5997 - Amendments to National Marine Sanctuary Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...'' with ``in the aquarium trade''. The proposed change makes grammatical correction and updates the... and clarify regulations. 2. General Permit Categories ONMS has three ways by which it may authorize... are divided into several categories that correspond with the primary purpose of the proposed activity...

  17. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  18. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  19. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  20. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Programs (including the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office for Victims...

  1. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  2. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory; Revision of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... collection requirements specified by its Regulation at 29 CFR 1910.7, ``definition and requirements for a...

  3. Electronic signatures and their specificity in national and European regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MATEFI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize the particularities of the electronic signature by reference to the national as well as to the European legislation, trying to point out its utility in the business environment as well as the controversies in this matter. The starting point of this analysis was the Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures, which establishes the legal framework for electronic signatures and the recognition of certification-service providers. Its main aim was to ease its use and help it become legally recognized within all EU countries.

  4. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002... material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...

  5. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA ANAK / Restorative Justice In Juvenile Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Pradityo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.   Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system

  6. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  7. EU Directives, national regulations and incentives for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H.; Scholz, H.; Bloem, H.; Werring, L.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union long-term strategy for security of energy supply and its commitment to curb climate change led to the adoption of a series of Strategy Papers and EU Directives. In all these, it is clearly stated that climate change is a long-term challenge for the international community and that the commitments made in the Kyoto Protocol can only be a first step. The promotion of renewable energies is a most important element of this process. It regards industry, jobs and foreign trade balance as well, generating benefit to social sustainability. Photovoltaic is a key technology with the potential not only to serve the needs in energy supply of tomorrow in a sustainable way, but already today, it can improve security and stability of electricity services at peak times, due to its decentralized nature. This paper gives an update on the EU and National legislation in place to promote the implementation of photovoltaic. (authors)

  8. Outline of the transition from national to international audit regulation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2004-01-01

    ) regulation to a predominately international orientation in audit regulation. The most central changes in audit regulations in the last years have concerned the auditor's independence. Denmark has for instance repealed the demand for general independence, according to which auditors were not allowed to have......Seen in a historic perspective, the development of audit regulation in Denmark reflects a few but very influential business scandals causing changes in law-regulation, and a profession which have reacted to confidence crises through an increasing level of selfregulation. Audit regulation also...... reflects international developments in corporate regulation initiatives often in the wake of corporate failures with global impetus on the lost of trust in listed companies and their financial reporting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the transition from national (though international inspired...

  9. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  10. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  11. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  12. Teaching for social justice education: the intersection between identity, critical agency, and social justice education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Francis; Adré le Roux

    2011-01-01

    In line with national policy requirements, educators are increasingly addressing forms of social justice education by focusing on classroom pedagogies and educational practices to combat different forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. As all educators have a role to play in dismantling oppression and generating a vision for a more socially just future, teacher education has the responsibility to capacitate pre-service teachers to work in areas of social justice education. It is, howe...

  13. Principles or Imagination? Two Approaches to Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I distinguish and discuss two approaches to global justice. One approach is Rawlsian and Kantian in inspiration. Discussions within this tradition typically focus on the question whether Rawls’s theory of justice (1971), designed for the national level, can or should be applied to the

  14. 7 CFR 1403.17 - Referral of debts to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of debts to Department of Justice. 1403.17... PROCEDURES § 1403.17 Referral of debts to Department of Justice. Debts which cannot be collected in accordance with these regulations may be referred to the Department of Justice for collection action. ...

  15. 48 CFR 2852.233-70 - Protests filed directly with the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Department of Justice. 2852.233-70 Section 2852.233-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Clauses and Forms SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2852.233-70 Protests filed directly with the Department of Justice. As prescribed in 2833.102(d...

  16. 40 CFR 13.33 - Referrals to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice... COLLECTION STANDARDS Referrals § 13.33 Referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) Prompt referral. The... Justice, Washington, DC 20530. (2) Unless otherwise provided by DOJ regulations or procedures, EPA refers...

  17. 76 FR 15888 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... flora and fauna, the physiographic conditions and the historic sites and structures be permanently... wild cranberry bogs provide a glimpse into Cape Cod's past and continuing life ways. The Seashore... Military Reservation, have their own special regulations that have different dates than the standard dates...

  18. 78 FR 72605 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... LAMR. LAMR provides some land-based recreational opportunities, such as hiking, horseback riding.... The multi-use trail will also provide additional hiking opportunities on the trail, and primitive... found in the report entitled ``Cost- Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses: Proposed Regulations...

  19. 78 FR 27132 - Special Regulations of the National Park Service, Curecanti National Recreation Area, Snowmobiles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... designated for travel by snowmobiles from the access points to the frozen surface of Blue Mesa Reservoir... History of Curecanti National Recreation Area The Blue Mesa Dam and Reservoir, Morrow Point Dam and... as Blue Mesa Lake). The high-water mark is defined as the point at which the reservoir is at maximum...

  20. 78 FR 72028 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Curecanti National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...-substantive edits. The final rule revises the section heading for Sec. 7.51 from ``Curecanti Recreation Area... paragraph 7.51(e) to designate three groups of routes and areas where motor vehicles may be used off park...) and (f). The revisions and additions read as follows: Sec. 7.51 Curecanti National Recreation Area...

  1. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Exploring homosexuals' citizenship in Denmark from a justice perspective, this article critically interrogates society's supposed gay-friendliness by asking how far it has moved in achieving sexual justice, and inquiring into the gains and pains of the existing modes of achieving this end...... and representation within family law, civil society, and in the labour market. In conclusion, I suggest the possibility of different evaluations of the level of sexual justice reached, a mainly positive, partially negative one. Additionally, I discuss the gains and pains of the existing normalizing politics....

  2. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  3. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK and also supported by European Union (EU presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European Union Rule of Law Mission known as EULEX. In the course of implementation of their mandates transitional justice processes were not a priority for UNMIK and EU presences. With the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA the EU made transitional justice part of the Kosovo accession demands. In December 2015, the Government of Kosovo approved its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (NAPISAA. The General Principles of the SAA, included within the NAPISAA oblige Kosovo Government to approve a National Transitional Justice Strategy. This paper analyses EU peace and institution-building support and their impact in transitional justice processes in Kosovo. Through analysing the mandate and actions on the ground it draws conclusions if EU is an active participant in transitional justice process in Kosovo or transitional justice policies are promoted by EU only as part of its enlargement strategy. Finally, the paper gives recommendations as a basis for future elaboration of an EU approach to transitional justice.

  4. Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding : International Center for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Currently, the United Nations and other agencies advance a broad set of empirical claims concerning the power of transitional justice to promote peace in post-conflict situations. One of the most important is that prosecutions, reparations, official truth-telling, apologies, memorials and reform of abusive security institutions ...

  5. Measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) : A cross-national validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, M.N.; Molina, P.; Abler, B.; Kessler, H.; Vanbrabant, L.G.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355587327; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) across two European nations. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor

  6. 78 FR 16628 - Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaries Regulations on Introduced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Register on October 1, 2009 (74 FR 50740) concerning regulations on the introduction of introduced species... Sanctuaries (ONMS) conducted a joint review of the management plans for Gulf of the Farallones, Monterey Bay and Cordell Bank national marine sanctuaries (hereafter referred to as the ``Joint Management Plan...

  7. Potential Environmental Justice Areas - (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  8. Skepticism of the Western System on Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farihah Mohd Noor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justice is an elusive concept; it is controversial,yet very important to mankind. This paper seeks to explain the challenges found in the work of justice and to explore justice as defined by the West and by Islam. The findings show that there is stark difference especially in the philosophical aspect in how justice is interpreted and applied from the viewpoint of the West and Islam. Findings also show that Islamic approach to justice is more durable and dynamic as theguidance is deeply entrenched in the divine revelation of the Holy Quran; since no human being has the ability of creating, being by nature, fallible and as such produces excellent impact. The impact of justice in Islam can be seen from the Islamic history itself. Unfortunately, since the world has been dominated by the secularsystem; divine law has slowly been rejected and has been taken as irrelevant and backdated. The researcher also seeks to show why Muslims fail despite of the existence of rich and forceful Islamic ways. In order to overcome the setback, the researcher proposes some reforms for Muslims to return to its original state of Islam that encourages just and good governance. This finding is important as it can provide insights to the government as tools in combating acts ofinjustice more consistently and forcefully. As injustice is an endemic and the main reason for the collapse of society, this discussion attempts to show that Islamic idea of justice is actuallyable to solve all problems no matter how big the scale is. The positive and incredible impact not only will be enjoyed by the ruler and the governed, but also by the whole nation, Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

  9. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MU–K001. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance; the Bureau of Justice Statistics; the National Institute of Justice; the Office for ...

  10. Tensions between Scottish National Policies for onshore wind energy and local dissatisfaction - insights from regulation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)

  11. National radiation exposures and risks caused by implementing EPA's proposed revised national primary drinking water regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1993-05-01

    This report estimates risks to workers and the public associated with treatment processes and their associated waste products that would be mandated under proposed regulations of radium, radon, and uranium in drinking water. Three scenarios were examined: (1) all wastes flushed to the sanitary sewer; (2) all wastes disposed on land; (3) similar to (2) but radon removal by granulated activated carbon rather than packed tower aeration. Risks considered included accidental injury and cancer. Worker risks for both scenarios I and II were estimated to be 0.025 and 0.01 deaths per year of operation for radium-226 and radium-228, respectively. Worker risks for uranium were estimated to be 0.13 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 0.5 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Worker risks for radon removal were estimated to be 1.7 deaths/year of operation for scenario I and 2.2 deaths/year of operation for scenario II. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for radium-226 were 4 x 10 -4 and for radium-228 were 9 x 10 -5 deaths/year of operation. Risks to the public for scenarios I and II for uranium were 7.3 x 10 -2 and 2 x 10 -4 , respectively. Risks to the public for scenario I and II for radon were 24 deaths/year of operation and for scenario III were nil. Public risks were quantified only for people exposed during a year of operation. For example, effects of public exposures in future years via groundwater contamination associated with landfill of treatment waste were not considered

  12. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  13. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  14. 28 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Federal Financial Assistance Administered by the Department of Justice to Which This Subpart Applies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (BJA), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), including block, formula, and discretionary...-473); the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, 42 U.S.C. 5601-5751, as amended...

  15. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  16. "Restorative Justice": History of the Term's International and Danish Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I explore the historical origin and development of the use of the term “restorative justice” in published sources. The main argument is that the growing popularity of the term and its expanding use makes increasingly blurred what restorative justice is. I begin by investigating....... In the 2000s, the term began to appear in United Nations and European Union documents, illustrating that restorative justice had become an internationally recognised approach to justice. After describing this international development, I analyse the Danish context, where the term “restorative justice” began...... to appear in writings around the year 2000. Around the same time, the existing Danish victim offender mediation programme became connected to restorative justice. Later, Danish practices outside the area of criminal justice became associated with the term. In conclusion, I argue that a potential problem...

  17. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Wijayanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of national labor law system guarantees fair is one of legal reform to achieve access to justice. This study aims to analyze whether the system of labor law has given capacity to achieve access to justice as the basis for implementing international labor relations in Asia. The method of this study is a normative legal research with statute approach. The findings support that there was an inconsistency on the substance of the legal structures that affect the low legal culture. The substance of the national labor law systems have not adapted the comprehensive International Labor Organization (ILO conventions. Less robust system of national labor laws affect access to justice in the weak field of labor in the region. How To Cite: Wijayanti, A. (2016. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 17-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.144

  18. Measuring Intergenerational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern with intergenerational justice has long been a focus of economics. This essay considers the effort, over the last three decades, to quantify generational fiscal burdens using label-free fiscal gap and generational accounting. It also points out that government debt -- the conventional metric for assessing generational fiscal justice,– has no grounding in economic theory. Instead, official debt is the result of economically arbitrary government labelling decisions: whether to call receipts “taxes” rather than “borrowing” and whether to call payments “transfer payments” rather than “debt service”. Via their choice of words, governments decide which obligations to put on, and which to keep off, the books. The essay also looks to the future of generational fiscal-justice analysis. Rapid computational advances are permitting economists to understand not just direct government intergenerational redistribution, but also how such policies impact the economy that future generations will inherit.

  19. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  20. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  1. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  2. Analysis of Driving Safety Criteria Based on National Regulations for the Suspension Systems of NGVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Mauricio Martinod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work analyses the technical evaluation process of the suspension system for vehicles that have been adapted to natural-gas-fuelled engines from power light-duty gasoline, and diesel vehicles; this evaluation is done through a mechanical review established by national regulations. The development of this analysis is focused on establishing the relationship between the natural-gas-fuelled equipment and the dynamic effect caused by the extra-weight, according to two measuring criteria that determine the safety and driving comfort, these are: (i tire-road adhesion index; and (ii tire excitation phase angle. The paper also proposes new elements that can be added to the current national regulations and that are currently applied to assess the suspension of natural gas vehicles, recorded using a test standard benchmark for the evaluation of the suspension.

  3. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  4. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co......Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded...

  5. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations: An Impediment to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-02

    00-00-2007 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The International Traffic in Arms Regulations: An Impediment to National Security 5a . CONTRACT...2008 2. REPORT TYPE Program Research Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a . CONTRACT NUMBER The International Traffic in Arms...certain level of ITAR problems, such as on Koreasat 5 with its dual civil and military uses, U.S. companies will often choose not to expend the bid and

  6. Berkeley Lab Pilot on External Regulation of DOE National Laboratories by the U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Gary H.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission entered into an agreement in November 1997 to pursue external regulation of radiation safety at DOE national laboratories through a Pilot Program of simulated regulation at 6-10 sites over a 2 year period. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the oldest of the DOE national laboratories, volunteered and was selected as the first Pilot site. Based on the similarities and linkages between Berkeley Lab and nearby university research laboratories, Berkeley Lab seemed a good candidate for external regulation and a good first step in familiarizing NRC with the technical and institutional issues involved in regulating laboratories in the DOE complex. NRC and DOE team members visited Berkeley Lab on four occasions between October 1997 and January 1998 to carry out the Pilot. The first step was to develop a detailed Work Plan, then to carry out both a technical review of the radiation safety program and an examination of policy and regulatory issues. The Pilot included a public meeting held in Oakland, CA in December 1997. The Pilot concluded with NRC's assessment that Berkeley Lab has a radiation protection program adequate to protect workers, the public and the environment, and that it is ready to be licensed by the NRC with minor programmatic exceptions. A draft final report of the Pilot was prepared and circulated for comment as a NUREG document (dated May 7, 1998). The report's recommendations include extending NRC regulatory authority to cover all ionizing radiation sources (including accelerators, x-ray units, NARM) at Berkeley Lab. Questions remaining to be resolved include: who should be the licensee (DOE, the Lab, or both)?; dealing with legacy issues and NRC D and D requirements; minimizing dual oversight; quantifying value added in terms of cost savings, enhanced safety, and improved public perception; extrapolating results to other national laboratories; and

  7. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the

  8. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  9. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  10. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings: The state-of-art of national regulations in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziata, Eleonora; Frey, Marco; Rizzi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in buildings is an important objective of energy policy and strategy in Europe. A survey questionnaire was conducted among the 27 European Union Member States. This study aims to provide an overview of the current national regulatory framework focusing on three aspects: 1) integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy requirements, 2) translation of investments in energy saving into economic value, 3) commitment towards “nearly zero-energy” target. The study shows that European countries have adopted different approaches in the design of their national regulatory framework. This heterogeneity consists of four main factors: different authorities involved in energy regulations, traditional building regulations and enforcement models, different contextual characteristics, and maturity of the country in the implementation of energy efficiency measures. These differences are important to take into account country's profile in order to improve the sharing of best-practices and energy efficiency governance among European Union Member States. - Highlights: ► We analyze the legal status for energy efficient buildings in 27 European Countries. ► We examine building markets, renewable technology and “nearly zero-energy” targets. ► European Member States provide a heterogeneous environment to the recast of EPBD. ► National regulatory frameworks have evolved different structures and responsibilities. ► We provide directions in further enforcing energy efficiency in buildings regulation

  11. Transposition of the new European Union audit regulation into the Croatian national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Sever Mališ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The audit reform in the EU had as a consequence the adoption of the new regulatory framework. The European Parliament adopted Directive 2014/56/EU amending the Directive 2006/43/EC on statutory audit in the EU and the EU Regulation No. 537/2014 containing requirements that relate specifically to the statutory audit of public interest entities. Each Member State needs to transpose the Directive into its national legislation and also ensure its implementation. Within the framework of transposing the Directive into the national regulation, each Member State had many options that allows them to tailor the provisions of the national law according to their needs and specific aspects of the national audit markets. However, the number of options brings risks that are connected to additional audit procedures and inefficiencies in the process of performing audit with the potential effects on the quality and cost of audits. The aim of this article is to analyse the most important (not used options of the Directive and Regulation according to the Croatian national legislation. In that sense, the article provides information about the definition of statutory audit and the subjects of statutory audit as well as the definition of public interest entities in Croatia. In addition, the audit profession in Croatia is analysed in the context of the “European audit passport”. The results of this research can be a base for future comparisons between Croatia and the other EU Member States. Finally, the implementation of this provisions will answer the question: Does the implementation of different options bring convergence or divergence within the single EU audit services market?

  12. Resolving society's energy trilemma through the Energy Justice Metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions continue to increase to the detriment of society in many forms. One of the difficulties faced is the imbalance between the competing aims of economics, politics and the environment which form the trilemma of energy policy. This article advances that this energy trilemma can be resolved through energy justice. Energy justice develops the debate on energy policy to one that highlights cosmopolitanism, progresses thinking beyond economics and incorporates a new futuristic perspective. To capture these dynamics of energy justice, this research developed an Energy Justice Metric (EJM) that involves the calculation of several metrics: (1) a country (national) EJM; (2) an EJM for different energy infrastructure; and (3) an EJM which is incorporated into economic models that derive costs for energy infrastructure projects. An EJM is modeled for China, the European Union and the United States, and for different energy infrastructure in the United Kingdom. The EJM is plotted on a Ternary Phase Diagram which is used in the sciences for analyzing the relationship (trilemma) of three forms of matter. The development of an EJM can provide a tool for decision-making on energy policy and one that solves the energy trilemma with a just and equitable approach. - Highlights: • Energy justice advances energy policy with cosmopolitanism and new economic-thinking. • An Energy Justice Metric is developed and captures the dynamics of energy justice. • The Energy Justice Metric (EJM) compares countries, and energy infrastructure. • EJM provides an energy policy decision-making tool that is just and equitable.

  13. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  15. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  16. How to address the ethics of reproductive travel to developing countries: a comparison of national self-sufficiency and regulated market approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G K D; Martin, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    One of the areas of concern raised by cross-border reproductive travel regards the treatment of women who are solicited to provide their ova or surrogacy services to foreign consumers. This is particularly troublesome in the context of developing countries where endemic poverty and low standards for both medical care and informed consent may place these women at risk of exploitation and harm. We explore two contrasting proposals for policy development regarding the industry, both of which seek to promote ethical outcomes and social justice: While one proposal advocates efforts to minimize cross-border demand for female reproductive resources through the pursuit of national self-sufficiency, the other defends cross-border trade as a means for meeting the needs of vulnerable groups. Despite the conflicting objectives of the proposed strategies, the paper identifies common values and points of agreement between the two, including the importance of regulations to safeguard those providing ova or surrogacy services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Criminal Justice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  18. The Social Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Gladys; Pollard, William

    2010-01-01

    This article shines an important light on the continuing struggle of disabled people for dignity, citizenship rights, and access to the marketplace. Common threads bind the struggle for basic human rights among disenfranchised groups, offer experience and approaches to facilitate change, and move society towards social justice. The philosophy…

  19. Criminal Justice Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  20. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities...

  1. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  2. 'No Peace without Justice or No Justice without Peace?' : Some reflections on a Complex Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay addresses the convoluted relationship between international criminal justice and peace by drawing parallels with the dialectics between these concepts within a domestic legal order. While it is acknowledged that national criminal law enforcement is functional in keeping and restoring the

  3. Teaching for Social Justice Education: The Intersection between Identity, Critical Agency, and Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis; le Roux, Adré

    2011-01-01

    In line with national policy requirements, educators are increasingly addressing forms of social justice education by focusing on classroom pedagogies and educational practices to combat different forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. As all educators have a role to play in dismantling oppression and generating a vision for a more…

  4. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  5. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  6. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  7. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  8. Education and Criminal Justice: The Educational Approach to Prison Administration. The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucien; Cosman, J. W.

    The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners do not express the basic principle that would support a serious educational approach to prison administration. The crucial missing rationale is the concept of the inherent dignity of the individual human prisoner. This concept has certain basic educational implications,…

  9. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  10. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  11. Social Justice for Crossover Youth: The Intersection of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  12. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  13. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  14. Some internationl law elements of national nuclear regulations from the Polish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The essential contents of the Polish Nuclear Act from 1986 reflects on one hand needs and possibilities of the industrial use of nuclear energy and, on the other, international obligations of Poland. Poland is a State with a limited activity regarding to industrial use of nuclear energy; the main international-law elements of national nuclear regulations can be described as follows: 1. The good-neighborliness principle concerning the siting of nuclear installations in border areas. 2. An adequate concept of nuclear damage. 3. An adequate concept of liability for nuclear damage. (orig./HSCH)

  15. Choosing children: intergenerational justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila

    2005-03-01

    In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.

  16. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  17. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  18. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  19. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  20. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J; Epstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-05

    Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  1. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  2. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  3. Remote nursing certified practice: viewing nursing and nurse practitioner practice through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlier, Denise S; Browne, Annette J

    2011-06-01

    Remote Nursing Certified Practice (RNCP) was introduced in 2010 to regulate nursing practice in remote, largely First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada. These are communities that often experience profound health and health-care inequities. Typically nurses are the main health-care providers. Using a critical social justice lens, the authors explore the clinical and ethical implications of RNCP in terms of access to equitable, high-quality primary health care.They examine the fit between the level and scope of health services provided by registered nurses working under RNCP and the health needs of remote First Nations communities. In doing so, they draw comparisons between nurse practitioners (NPs) and outpost nurses working in NP roles who historically were employed to provide health care in these communities.The authors conclude by calling for nursing regulations that support equitable, high-quality primary care for all British Columbians.

  4. School menus in Santa Catarina: Evaluation with respect to the National School Food Program regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Marreira Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess compliance of school menu planning with the National School Food Program's regulations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 133 menus for 542 schools in 49 municipalities of the state of Santa Catarina. The menus were assessed according to the National School Food Program's regulations, the "Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population" and the "Qualitative Evaluation of Menu Components for Schools". The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Nearly all (98.5% municipalities met the requirement of technical responsibility for menu development and 81.0% acquired foods from family farms. The menus contained fruits (87.2% and non-starchy vegetables (94.0%, but the frequencies of fruits and non-starchy vegetables were smaller than two to three times a week. The most common high-sodium and high-fat foods were commercially processed meats (53.0%, but their frequency was smaller than once a week. Likewise, the frequencies of beverages (natural fruit juice, coffee, and tea were smaller than once a week. Most menus (85.1% repeated foods during the week, and only 3.0% of the menus listed organic foods. CONCLUSION: Some school menus from Santa Catarina need to be revised with respect to the frequency of fruits and non-starchy vegetables, high-sugar foods, high-sodium foods, and high-fat foods, and need to increase food diversity and variety.

  5. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many uranium legacy sites in Russia and ex-Soviet republics in the Central Asia, which are decommissioned now. In Russia, there is a number of operating uranium mines and ore milling facilities to be decommissioned after termination of their life cycle. Today, the list of Russian subsoil areas of the federal significance includes 135 uranium deposits. The uranium legacy management is accompanied with the environmental impact. The intensity of such impact depends on the amount of generated waste, degree of its confining and dispersion in the environment. The whole question reduces itself to the following: to what extent this impact is harmful to the environment and human health. The proper regulation of this problem is a criterion for the safe work. Today, the advanced guidance document is under development 'Health-care requirements for design and operation of facilities for uranium ore mining and milling'. In order to enhance the regulatory framework, the following tasks are urgent: introduction of the existing exposure situation in the national laws and regulations in compliance with the ICRP statutory system; development criteria for remediation of sites and their gradual return to uncontrolled use. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary SNF and Radioactive Wastes storage; review of possibilities and methods for optimization of the remediation strategies under development; identification of the special category - R W originated from the uranium ore mining and milling. Some regulatory problems assume to be solved under the Eurasian Economic Community inter-state target programme 'Reclamation of areas of the Eurasian Economic Community member-states affected by the uranium mines'. Within this programme, by examples of the uranium legacy facilities in Kyrgyzstan and in Tajikistan, posed to trans-border disasters and required urgent remediation, the

  6. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines. PMID:23234422

  7. 75 FR 48625 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Dual Nationals and Third-Country...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... previous policy regarding the treatment of dual nationals and foreign nationals was reconsidered. The... technology. Regulatory Analysis and Notices Administrative Procedure Act This amendment involves a foreign... amend the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to update the policies regarding end-user...

  8. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  9. 8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. 1245.9 Section 1245.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT... nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102-404. (a) Principal applicant status. All...

  10. Justice systems and ICT
    What can be learned from Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Velicogna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT opens up new opportunities to significantly improve the administration of justice. The availability of web services, the use of electronic filing, the electronic exchange of legal documents, the possibility of on-line legislation and case law are only some examples that are spurring judicial administrations around the world to rethink their current functions and activities. ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, thus helping judiciaries to provide adequate services. As many empirical examples show, this is, however, not always the case. The interaction between technology and highly regulated organisations, such as courts, may often lead to unexpected results. Europe, with its different institutional settings and experiences, allows the exploration of a variety of solutions that can be implemented to support the administration of justice. Most importantly, it also provides the opportunities for a unique insight into the dynamics and problems that may characterize such experiences. This article seeks to provide an empirically derived account on the uses of ICT within the courts and for judicial data interchange. The article is based on data collected through several research projects by the Research Institute on Judicial Systems of the Italian National Research Council, in partnership with other European institutions, including Universities and Ministries of Justice.

  11. Poverty and social justice in the devolved Scotland: Neoliberalism meets social democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Gill; Mooney, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on current debates in social policy, this paper considers the extent to which social justice has and is informing social policy making in devolved Scotland. Relating to the work of social justice theorists Young, Fraser and Lister in particular, it critically examines some key Scottish social policy measures since 1999, considering some of the ways in which these have been constructed in terms of social justice and which make claims to the Scottish national. Through a focus on the iss...

  12. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  13. Justice and feelings: Toward a new era in justice research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); K. van den Bos (Kees)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position

  14. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past

  15. Applying Social Justice Principles through School-Based Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathan; von der Embse, Daniel; von der Embse Meghan; Levine, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Social justice has recently received attention within the school psychology community. Yet, social justice is a nebulous term, as opined by Connelly (2009), who cautioned against searching for what is wrong and instead striving for the highest standards and recognizing needs of every unique child. Shriberg and colleagues (2008) have sought to…

  16. Doing justice to social justice in South African higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African ...

  17. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  18. Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against Occupational ... of section 35 of Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 130 of ... of the Mankayi case for the system of occupational health and safety in South Africa. ... KEYWORDS: Occupational health; diseases; injuries; employees; protection; ...

  19. Justice on Both Sides: Transforming Education through Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Maisha T.

    2018-01-01

    Restorative justice represents "a paradigm shift in the way Americans conceptualize and administer punishment," says author Maisha T. Winn, from a focus on crime to a focus on harm, including the needs of both those who were harmed and those who caused it. Her book, "Justice on Both Sides," provides an urgently needed,…

  20. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  2. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  5. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  6. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  7. National competent authorities. List no. 4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  8. National competent authorities. List no. 5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-09-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 17. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 edition (Safety series no.6 )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-06-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  11. National competent authorities. List no. 2. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  12. National competent authorities. List no. 1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1967 edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  13. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. MIGRATORY THREATS TO NATIONAL SECURITY OF UKRAINE: CURRENT CHALLENGES AND WAYS OF REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychailo Romaniuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to disclose the migratory threats which are connected with external and mass internal inter-regional migrations, which are caused by the annexation of the Crimea and military aggression in Donbas by Russia. Methodological and practical aspects of improving the management of intensive interstate and inter-regional migratory processes, negative consequences of which threaten national security of the country because of hybrid war in Donbas, illegal migration, worsening of the demographic situation, departure of scientists and specialists abroad are described in the article too. The main strategic objective, which consists of maintenance of state sovereignty, territorial integrity of Ukraine, and also integration in European and migratory space, ensuring close to the world standards of quality and length of life, realization of rights and freedoms of citizens, is formulated. Actions and tasks of the state migratory policy, ways and methods of regulation of external migrations of the population are considered. Principal reasons of external migrations of population are identified and analysed. The inwardly-regional, interregional and intergovernmental migrations of population of Ukraine in the years of its state independence (1991- 2014 are analyzed in details. The results of analysis showed that migratory activity goes down on inwardly-regional and interregional levels. Also intensity of exchange of population went down between the regions of country. At the same time Ukraine for years state independence through depopulation processes lost 6,5 million persons, and in the external migratory moving of population of loss made over 1 million persons. The problem of illegal external labour migration is considered. It is noted that illegal migration from Ukraine to the threats to national security in the Law of Ukraine "On the National Security of Ukraine" is not included, and a threat to national security posed by illegal

  15. 77 FR 3123 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore-Off-Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ..., Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore--Off-Road Vehicle Management AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule designates off-road vehicle (ORV... operation of motor vehicles off of roads within areas [[Page 3124

  16. A national approach to the regulation of water discharge from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.L.

    1985-09-01

    This paper is concerned with outlining the development of a national approach to the regulation of water discharge from uranium mines in Australia. The history of the Australian uranium industry is briefly sketched to illustrate the changes that have taken place in environmental management, and more particularly water management, over this period. The main focus of the paper is on the requirements relating to the establishment of effluent discharge limits contained in the Code of Practice on the Management of Radioactive Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores, 1982. The code adopts a site specific approach to the formulation of discharge limits rather than providing generic recommendations. This approach requires the application of a rigorous and disciplined methodology

  17. 7 CFR 1717.1203 - Relationship between RUS and Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship between RUS and Department of Justice. 1717.1203 Section 1717.1203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt § 1717.1203 Relationship between RUS and Department of Justice...

  18. 5 CFR 185.140 - Stays ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. 185.140 Section 185.140 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.140 Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. If, at any time...

  19. 45 CFR 2506.11 - Will the Corporation refer debts to the Department of Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will the Corporation refer debts to the Department of Justice? 2506.11 Section 2506.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... Corporation refer debts to the Department of Justice? The Corporation will refer to DOJ for litigation debts...

  20. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  1. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  2. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people

  3. Corporate accountability and transitional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Michalowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, transitional justice processes do not address the role of corporations in dictatorships or in armed conflicts that give rise to the need for dealing with grave and systematic human rights violations. However, there is a growing awareness that in many contexts corporations contribute to these violations, often in the form of corporate complicity with the principal violators. An argument can therefore be made that to achieve the aims of transitional justice and establish a holistic narrative of the past as well as obtain justice and reparations for victims requires investigating and addressing the role of corporate actors. This article uses the example of Colombia’s Justice and Peace process to show some of the complexities, opportunities and challenges that arise if transitional justice measures focus primarily on criminal law and create a specific legal framework, outside of the ordinary justice systems, only for a limited group of primary perpetrators, in the Colombian case for members of the armed groups who demobilised. It is argued that the exclusion of corporate actors in contexts where their role is regarded as significant leads to victims seeking alternatives ways to obtain justice and that both victims and corporations would benefit if transitional justice mechanisms addressed the role of corporations.

  4. Educational Justice and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, Tammy Harel

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the effects of incorporating information and communication technologies in schools in terms of distributive justice. To do so, four issues that are central to educational justice are discussed: scarcity of resources, the positional nature of education, peer effects, and biases in educational decision-making. The discussion…

  5. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  6. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  7. Modelling air quality according to INSPIRE data specifications, ISO standards and national regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachelski Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment is an activity of many institutions, organizations and communities from global to regional and local scales. Any activity in this area needs structured database records, using advanced methodology, given, among others, in INSPIRE documents, ISO standards of 19100 series, and national regulations. The goal of this paper is to analyse both the legal provisions related to the air quality and also data sources associated with the prevention of air pollution. Furthermore, the UML application schema of the spatial data related to the air protection is proposed, for the use by urban planners. Also, the overview of the methodology of geographic information is given, including the Unified Modelling Language (UML, as well as the basic concepts of conceptual models within the INSPIRE project. The study is based on the relevant literature and documents, as well as on the expert knowledge gained through urban planning practice, as well as on the analysis of the spatial planning regulations. The UML application schema for different aspects related to the air protection, as presented in this paper, is an example of how to use the methodology also in other fields of the environment protection. Spatial planners know how to improve the air quality, but in the present state of law they often suffer from the lack of planning tools for real actions. In the spatial planners work an important issue are data that allow a thorough analysis of the area.

  8. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.

  9. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  10. International criminal justice: a pillar for the international rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The international criminal justice has experienced a rapid change over the past years. This circumstance has underscored the need for interaction and complementation between international and domestic law. Some authors consider that the international criminal justice, and the activities of its tribunals, jeopardize the legality of international law. Our vision is that international criminal justice is a central pillar of the rule of law, at the national and the international levels. Far from undermining the legality of international law, international criminal justice paves the way towards a true international public order.

  11. Chiropractic and social justice: a view from the perspective of Beauchamp's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Social justice in public health involves the process and product of a community acting to fairly distribute advantages and burdens to improve the health of its population and to reasonably take care of the disadvantaged. Although publications are available about chiropractic public health history, programs, and policy, the potential role of chiropractic in social justice has received little attention. This article discusses Beauchamp's 4 principles of social justice and suggests actions that the chiropractic profession may consider to participate in the practice of social justice in the field of public health. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Justice becomes a Living Experience for Students, Faculty, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This social justice course was the result of a service-learning project with African American and First Nations peoples of a Southern community telling their story of desegregation through the creation of a video documentary project. Combining the pedagogy of service-learning with documentary video making, a social justice project was created that…

  13. 36 CFR 1201.11 - Will NARA refer claims to the Department of Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will NARA refer claims to the Department of Justice? 1201.11 Section 1201.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... claims to the Department of Justice? NARA will refer to DOJ for litigation claims on which aggressive...

  14. 14 CFR 1264.139 - Stays ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. 1264.139 Section 1264.139 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Justice. If at any time the Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney General designated by the Attorney...

  15. Restorative Justice Practice: Cooperative Problem-Solving in New Zealand's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This article links capability for cooperative problem-solving with socially just global development. From the perspective of the United Nations Development Programme, the work of global development, founded on a concept of global justice, is capability-building. Following Kurasawa, the article proposes that this form of global justice is enacted…

  16. Social Justice in Preservice and Graduate Education: A Reflective Narrative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Margaret R.; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    This research shows how two teacher educators, one from Canada and one from the United States, have attempted to imbue their preservice and graduate education practices with a sense of social justice, despite the downgrading of the importance of social justice by accreditation agencies such as National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher…

  17. Forum: Communication Activism Pedagogy. Communication Activism Pedagogy and Research: Communication Education Scholarship to Promote Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lawrence R.; Palmer, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The recent formation of the National Communication Association's Activism and Social Justice Division puts a spotlight on the extent to which instructional communication and instructional communication research have advanced--or even should advance--the goals of social justice. To examine this issue, two of the leading scholars on this topic,…

  18. REDD+ on the rocks? Conflict Over Forest and Politics of Justice in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikor, Thomas; Cầm, Hoàng

    In Vietnam, villagers involved in a REDD+ (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) pilot protect areas with rocks which have barely a tree on them. The apparent paradox indicates how actual practices differ from general ideas about REDD+ due to ongoing conflict over forest, and how contestations over the meaning of justice are a core element in negotiations over REDD+. We explore these politics of justice by examining how the actors involved in the REDD+ pilot negotiate the particular subjects, dimensions, and authority of justice considered relevant, and show how politics of justice are implicit to practical decisions in project implementation. Contestations over the meaning of justice are an important element in the practices and processes constituting REDD+ at global, national and local levels, challenging uniform definitions of forest justice and how forests ought to be managed.

  19. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.

  20. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  1. Converting the GSR part3 into a national regulations for the protection and safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatim, Abdulrahman

    2016-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources depends on a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. The project aimed at converting the IAEA GRS Part 3 into National regulations in Sudan for the protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources. The regulations developed covered general requirements for radiation protection, verification of safety, planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situation. The Government of Sudan is expected to empower the Sudanese Nuclear Radiological Regulatory Authority (SNRAA) and other relevant authorities to undertake the conversion of IAEA GSR Part 3 into national regulations to be used to regulate all facilities and activities in Sudan. (au)

  2. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  3. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  4. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  5. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  6. The Prisoners' Rights Protection in Indonesia Law System of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidan Haidan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the provision of the prisoner’s rights protection in Indonesia law system of justice and its relation to the exemption conditional (EC in correctional institution. As an important issue, here is if the defendant override rules associated with the controversial issue in society, they will both at national and international level, such as human rights issues. The case was appeared recently, especially in the connection with the cases of exemption conditional, i.e. Pollycarpus Budihari Priyanto’s case. The case has become the center of public attention, especially after release of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, who has been freeing the prisoners that related to the homicides Human Rights Activists (HRA i.e Munir Said Thalib. In the community, this decision raises the pro and contra. This paper concludes that all persons deprived of their liberty will be treated with humanity and guaranteed them with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person to be in accordance with the existing rules. In this case, the government of Indonesia has given the rights of prisoners through the stages of development of the inmates according to the stage of the penal process that refers to laws and regulations and implementation of technical regulations. The paper also recommends that the need for the government to deliver data either traditionally or electronically linked plan of exemption conditional.

  7. An Analysis of the Convergence Level of Tangible Assets (PPE) According to Romanian National Accounting Regulation and IFRS for Smes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Madalina Buculescu (Costica); Bogdan Nicolae Velicescu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims a comparative analysis between IFRS for SMEs and Romanian national accounting regulations concerning measurement of formal convergence level of definitions, treatment and policies of Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) and highlighting main national fiscal rules related. With the purpose to not contribute only to the measurement of PPE formal level of harmonization, we intend to analyze some PPE related accounting practices used by Romanian certified accountants. To this effec...

  8. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF

  9. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  10. Coordination of Croatian National Legislative with EU Commission Regulation on the Application of Euratom Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Medakovic, S.

    2012-01-01

    Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in the view of increasing quantities of nuclear materials produced, used, carried and recycled in the Community, and also development of trade in these materials, especially in the scope of the successive enlargements of the EU, it is essential to ensure effectiveness of safeguards. Commission Regulation on the application of Euratom safeguards of 8 February 2005 is a comprehensive regulation dealing with basic technical characteristics and particular safeguard provisions of installations for the production, separation, reprocessing, storage or other use of source material or special fissile material, as well as nuclear material accountancy, transfer between states and some specific provisions. Croatia signed the 'Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)' and a few years later 'Protocol Additional' to this Agreement that stipulates strict obligations of the Republic of Croatia under Safeguards in connection with NPT. Also, in Croatia is on power 'Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety' which, beside others, establishes measures for ensuring the safe performance of practices involving ionising radiation sources, nuclear activities, radioactive waste disposal and the physical protection of ionising radiation sources and nuclear facilities. But on power is also 'Ordinance on control of the nuclear materials and special equipment' which refers to an old 'Act on nuclear safety', and also takes into account provisions of the NPT and 'Protocol Additional' regarding safeguards. A new ordinance should be promulgated in accordance with new act. As a new act also should be corrected before Croatia joins EU, an extensive job must be done in adjusting Croatian national legislative to Euratom safeguards.(author).

  11. A hermeneutic of justice. Justice as discernment in Matthew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some important dictionaries for the study of the New Testament, δικαιοσύνη has two meanings: justice in the sense of distributive justice and righteousness as a relational notion. In Matthew, we discover that the word concerns a threefold loyalty: loyalty to the law, loyalty to fellow people, and loyalty to the will of God. In the ...

  12. 75 FR 76319 - Amendments to National Marine Sanctuary Regulations Regarding Low Overflights in Designated Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... resources, Natural resources, Penalties, Recreation and recreation areas, Research, Water pollution control... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 [0908041219... Designated Zones AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  13. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton is at the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, and includes the... elk, moose, bison, pronghorn, grizzly and black bears, grey wolves, and coyotes. Other species such as...

  14. Justice, legal validity and the force of law with special reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to account for this coherence Dooyeweerd developed a theory in which both the ... On this basis the difference between law and justice is specified by ... legal principles and the regulatively deepened (disclosed) principles of legal ...

  15. National Items on European Union Regulations. Final report; Nationale Koppen op EG-regelgeving. Eindrapportage definitief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witmond, B.; Van Zutphen, F.; De Bas, P.; Koopman, A. [Ecorys, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groen, W. [OpdenKamp Adviesgroep, Den Haag (Netherlands); Slot, P.J.; Schild, F.; Josaputra, A.L. [Europa Instituut, Universiteit Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    Second round of reporting of and complaints from trade and industry on 'items' in Dutch law and regulation from a legal perspective. In this study, the notion national item is defined, among others, as an EU directive that has been implemented by the Netherlands. An in-depth analysis has been conducted for three subjects: IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control); Packaging; and Waste. Moreover, the results are given of a quick scan of another 31 cases, among which several energy related subjects. [mk]. [Dutch] Tweede ronde van meldingen van en klachten uit het bedrijfsleven over 'koppen' in de Nederlandse wet-en regelgeving, bekeken vanuit een juridisch standpunt. In dit onderzoek wordt het begrip nationale kop onder meer gedefinieerd als een EG-richtlijn die door Nederland is geimplementeerd. Er is voor drie onderwerpen een diepte-analyse uitgevoerd: IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control); Verpakkingen; en Afval. Daarnaast worden de resultaten gegeven van een Quick Scan van nog 31 Cases, waaronder enkele energiegerelateerde onderwerpen.

  16. National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP

  17. Organizational Justice Perception According to Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki YÜKSEKBİLGİLİ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many different researches on the subject of organizational justice, there is no research on organizational justice perception according to generations. In this study, the research subject is defined if there is a difference on the perception of organizational justice between x and y generations. After a conduct of 430 surveys the Organizational Justice Scale is used. As a result, it is proved that there is no significant difference between the organizational justice perceptions according to generations

  18. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    -Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace....... To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia...

  19. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  1. Social Justice, Civil Society and the Dramatist in Democratic Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as a democratic nation-state is ailing. One of the consequences of this ailment is the cascading standard of social justice in the country. Instead of correcting the trend, the leaders continue to rationalize every action taken by government and describe Nigeria's democracy as being unique to the cultural environment, ...

  2. Justice John Paul Stevens and the Erotic Boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marc

    Justice John Paul Stevens of the United States Supreme Court has ruled on obscenity cases in seven instances since his appointment. His rulings reveal that he regards obscenity as a nuisance rather than as a danger threatening to undermine the nation's morality, that he supports a nationwide standard to adjudicate obscenity cases, and that he…

  3. Creativity, Social Justice and Human Rights within Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susannah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes philosophical concepts of adult learning and their application as integrated with creative problem solving within the context of social justice and human rights. The context is framed by the work of the United Nations (1992) which emphasizes importance of women's roles and creativity in the process of forming a…

  4. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  5. Bullying in Schools: An Overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Ken; Tombari, Martin L.; Bennett, Laurie J.; Dunkle, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers from the National Center for School Engagement conducted a series of studies to explore the connections between bullying in schools, school attendance and engagement, and academic achievement. This bulletin provides an overview of the studies funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), a summary of the…

  6. Is there an internal justice system at CERN?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    The problem of assessing the internal justice system was recently once again in the spotlight in the Common System of the United Nations, in particular the UN, and its subsidiary bodies. The question evidently arises at CERN, even if the Management would be offended by this diagnosis. What leads the Staff Association to raise this issue?

  7. The Justice Project in South Asia | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will produce research papers and five films in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and India on violent conflict and its aftermath; conflict and gender-based violence; justice delivery systems; group conflict, public space, and state order; and land, conflict, and the nation state. These films and papers aim to influence ...

  8. Teaching for social justice education: the intersection between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with national policy requirements, educators are increasingly addressing forms of social justice education by focusing on classroom pedagogies and educational practices to combat different forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. As all educators have a role to play in dismantling oppression and generating ...

  9. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  10. International frameworks, national problems: mining OHS regulation in South Africa and Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaw, A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective occupational health and safety (OHS) regulation is a critical foundation for healthy and safe mining, but the nature of the risks and the diversity of the mining industry create particular challenges for OHS regulation and enforcement...

  11. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical....

  12. REFLECTIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MINOR'S RIGHTS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: FROM THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS TO THE COMMUNITY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, BONCIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes an examination of the development rights of juveniles in conflict with the law in terms of legal regulations adopted by the Council of Europe, the European Union and its Member States. Approaching the settlement of all matters relating to human rights, including the rights of the child, it searched the extent to provide a mechanism in respect of children's rights and how its rights are reflected both of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Community and of national regulations of the Member States of the European Union. Declarative character of the Community provisions do not provide sufficient protection and uniformity toward juvenile rights in this matter, being treated differently in different countries depending on national and regional legal regime. Analysis of international treaties, customary, and national case law emphasized the need for prevention of juvenile delinquency and juvenile protection by merging rules at Community level in order to ensure a common, reasonable and sufficient protection for the juvenile in general and those found in conflict with law in particular.

  13. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  14. O poder dos juízes: Supremo Tribunal Federal e o desenho institucional do Conselho Nacional de Justiça The power of judges: the Supreme Court and the institutional design of the National Council of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo desenvolve o argumento de que o Conselho Nacional de Justiça (CNJ, criado no Brasil em 2004, foi fruto de um arranjo político com base na concretização da Reforma do Poder Judiciário. Neste arranjo os interesses do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF prevaleceram sobre os demais e, por consequência, o resultado da emenda constitucional de número 45 foi um CNJ dirigido por integrantes da Corte maior brasileira. Para sua consecução utilizamos uma revisão da literatura especializada e análise de dados. O argumento é desenvolvido a partir da lógica de que aprovar um desenho institucional do CNJ atrelado aos interesses do STF é a melhor estratégia a ser desenvolvida pelos membros da Corte. Isto pode ser justificado por: 1 Os juízes do STF são importantes atores políticos; 2 A existência de uma independência judicial garantida por prerrogativas institucionais reforça ainda mais sua importância política; 3 Sistemas políticos com alto grau de fragmentação aumentam a probabilidade dos juízes (do STF emplacarem seus interesses; 4 A existência do mecanismo de revisão judicial amplia o grau de influência das Supremas Cortes e 5 Por fim, a existência de mecanismos informais de persuasão facilitam o êxito dos juízes do STF. A partir do caso estudado podemos constatar que: o desenho institucional brasileiro, que potencializa a possibilidade de intervenção judicial no processo decisório, e o sistema político altamente fragmentado geraram, em grande medida, uma Suprema Corte (STF poderosa e centralizadora do policy-making Judiciário, se tornando, neste aspecto, uma terceira câmara do processo decisório.This article argues that the National Council of Justice (CNJ, created in Brazil in 2004, was the result of a political arrangement based on the achievement of the Reform of the Judiciary. In this arrangement the interests of the Federal Supreme Court (STF prevailed over the others and therefore the result of a

  15. Collaborative, cross-national studies on health and safety in seafaring for evidence-based Maritime policy and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf C

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, maritime health and safety policies and regulations were sparsely based on health and safety research, and only a small number of countries contributed to new research. To strengthen maritime health and safety research activities by presenting a study example and discussing the possibilities and needs for more national and cross-national research. In a cross-national epidemiological study example, the seafarers from eleven countries completed small, anonymous questionnaires concerning the working conditions on their latest tours at sea while waiting for their health examinations. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities, e.g., the length of the tours at sea, the proportional distribution of officers and non-officers, the mean age structure, the injury incidence rates, and the differences of occupational safety standards. The analysis of all data together increased the statistical strength of the multivariate analyses and allowed for valid comparisons among the nationalities. The questionnaire data was used successfully in the collaborative study example, but other data sources and methods are useful for health and safety research in seafaring as well. More national and cross-national research on maritime health and safety is warranted.

  16. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  17. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  18. The Information Center of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carregado, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is addressed particularly to the scientific community users and, as a whole, to any individual in society, whichever his profession or working environment, who is interested in getting acquainted of improving his/her knowledge in the areas of radiological protection and nuclear safety, as well as in other related areas of medicine, biology, engineering, mathematics and physics. The purpose of this paper is the diffusion of the broad spectrum of bibliography and the introduction of the technological-computerized media utilized as tools by the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation in providing responses to a huge number of both internal and external requests for information. There is a large number of professionals and/or researchers who visit the facilities of our Information Center or who get in touch - through the post service, e-mail or telephone - consulting on the available material, either in paper (books, periodical publications, etc.) or in the form of microfilms, video, tapes, CD-ROM, etc. This paper is both descriptive and explanatory; a description is provided of the bibliographical material managed by the Information Center and a brief explanation is given on the techniques and methods used in providing the information requested by the users. Fundamentally, the Center's bibliographical material includes: periodical publications, books, reports, microfilms, etc., all of them related to radiological protection and nuclear safety. Data bases are available in CD-ROM, the most important one being the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Center has also its own data bases, such as the GPRS (primary documents) and standards (both domestic and international), UNESCO's MicroIsis software is used for the Center's data bases: PERSIS (periodical publications), DOCSIS (books) and ARCAL (magazines from the Latin American territory). This paper will definitely serve as a safe

  19. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents' well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence.

  20. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice.......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...

  1. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  2. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  3. 78 FR 16622 - Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuaries Regulations on Introduced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... any organism that has been genetically modified (15 CFR 922.81). This final rule, combined with a... not apply if NOAA were willing and able to modify its regulations to except (i.e., allow) all state... Governor's concerns that would also meet NOAA's goals. For GFNMS, NOAA proposed to modify the regulations...

  4. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  5. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  6. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  7. Engaging Global Justice Through Internships (Penultimate Draft)

    OpenAIRE

    Ericka Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Engaging with Global Justice through InternshipsGlobal justice, on its face, seems like an impossible task. As individuals, even citizens of wealthy and powerful countries, the task of economic, social and political justice seems to outstrip our intellectual, practical and emotional abilities. Considering the scope of 'global' justice, it would appear that a massive coordinated effort would be necessary to overcome the problems of global injustice, yet it would seem such coordination may be i...

  8. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  9. The rights of the medically uninsured: an analysis of social justice and disparate health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    As technological advances in the United States continue to improve the effectiveness of medical interventions, expectations among Americans of both improved health and extended life expectancy have also increased. At the same time, many of the population continue to lack the insurance necessary to access even the most basic healthcare services (Institute of Medicine, 2004; Tunzi, 2004; Saha & Bindman, 2001). With approximately 18,000 avoidable deaths attributed annually to inadequate medical coverage and 43.6 million individuals currently without insurance benefits, the need to address the disparity in access to treatment and a means of social justice in the distribution of health care is all too clear (Crispen & Whalen, 2004). As a nation relying on market mechanisms to regulate the costs and quality of available health resources (Baldor, 2003; Saha&Bindman, 2001), the welfare of society as a whole may soon be threatened by the provision of marginal services to a select minority as increasing numbers of the uninsured continue to experience less favorable clinical outcomes and higher mortality rates (Tunzi, 2004; Litaker & Cebul, 2003; Jackson, 2001; Sox, Burstin, Edwards, O'Neil et al., 1998). The author will first examine the consequences of being among the growing number of uninsured individuals in the United States. Attention will then be given to exploring the social justice issues inherent in this critical problem and evaluating these issues through the perspective of both libertarian and feminist theory. Using these theories, innovative strategies for attaining distributive justice in the provision of health care will be offered with recommendations for utilizing these alternative approaches to develop and implement future health policy.

  10. Counseling psychology trainees' perceptions of training and commitments to social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Amanda M; Spanierman, Lisa B; Greene, Jennifer C; Todd, Nathan R

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined social justice commitments of counseling psychology graduate trainees. In the quantitative portion of the study, a national sample of trainees (n = 260) completed a web-based survey assessing their commitments to social justice and related personal and training variables. Results suggested that students desired greater social justice training than what they experienced in their programs. In the qualitative portion, we used a phenomenological approach to expand and elaborate upon quantitative results. A subsample (n = 7) of trainees who identified as strong social justice activists were interviewed regarding their personal, professional, and training experiences. Eleven themes related to participants' meanings of and experiences with social justice emerged within 4 broad categories: nature of social justice, motivation for activism, role of training, and personal and professional integration. Thematic findings as well as descriptive statistics informed the selection and ordering of variables in a hierarchical regression analysis that examined predictors of social justice commitment. Results indicated that trainees' perceptions of training environment significantly predicted their social justice commitment over and above their general activist orientation and spirituality. Findings are discussed collectively, and implications for training and future research are provided. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 17055 - Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Regulations on the Use of Spearfishing Gear; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Spearfishing Gear; Correction AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS... Federal Register on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7361) on the use and possession of spearfishing gear in Gray..., that included a description of new requirements on the use and possession of spearfishing gear in Gray...

  12. 75 FR 39168 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ...; Areas of the National Park System AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: The... activities. We removed historic wallpaper from the dining room and upstairs bedroom areas for cleaning... comment on this rule would be unnecessary and contrary to the public interest, we find under the...

  13. USA SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE AND EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The US Supreme Court and the European Court of Justice are coordinating constitutional review. Although the European Union does not have a constitution, the European Court often engages in what functionally amounts to constitutional review, particularly in relation to the quasi-federal structure of the EU. Both courts have engaged in the constitutionalization of politics and seem in risk of politicizing the constitution. The threats to their respective powers and legitimacy are different. The US Supreme Court is vulnerable to internal forces (the President, Congress, national public opinion whereas the European Court is vulnerable to external forces (the member states and, in particular, theirs constitutional courts.

  14. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  15. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  16. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law

  17. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law.

  18. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations: An Impediment to National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahon, Steven G

    2008-01-01

    The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is putting United States (U.S.) advanced technology and weapons companies at a competitive disadvantage, particularly in the fields of satellite manufacturing and technology...

  19. National regulations for diagnostics in health surveillance, therapy and compensation of hand-transmitted vibration injury in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shin'ya

    2002-01-01

    During the period of technological innovation and rapid economic development, portable power tools were introduced on a large scale in Japan. Vibration disease from the operation of those tools and its prevention and therapy became urgent social problems in the 1970s. This paper aims to introduce national regulations in Japan for diagnostics in the health surveillance, certification, therapy and compensation of vibration disease and evaluates them in the present perspective. Relevant laws, regulations and administrative directives were described in chronological order. Effect of those laws, regulations and directives were evaluated by statistics. Relevant regulations were established in 1947 and were revised in the 1960s and 1970s. According to those regulations, administrative directives were issued. Relevant vibration-disease statistics improved from the 1970s to 1990s. The annual ratio of workers examined was 95% to 100% in national forests (NFs), 47.3% in 1980 and 40.8% in 1990 in private industry (PI). The number of workers certified in NFs was 1,796 from 1971-1975, with a decrease to nine from 1991-1995, while in PI there were 9,783 from 1976-1980, decreasing to 2,331 from 1991-1995. However, in the construction industry the number increased again in the 1990s. The top four workers certified by the type of tool from 1994-1997 were operators of rock drills, chainsaws, pick hammers and concrete vibrators. The annual number of workers under treatment (at highest level) was 3,605 (1982; NFs) and 13,501 (1987; PI), with a decrease to 3,481 (1997; NFs) and 8,958 (1997; PI). Regulations for compensation covered 3,670 workers from 1965 to 1997 (NFs) and 22,723 from 1976 to 1997 (PI) in medical treatment benefits, and 189 (NFs) and 15,448 (PI) in disability benefits during the same term. The national regulations developed in Japan since 1965 for health surveillance, certification, therapy and compensation of hand-transmitted vibration disease have proven effective for

  20. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  1. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  2. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  3. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  4. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  5. Flaunting It for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    By examining various movements in education in "Flaunt It! Queers Organizing for Public Education and Justice," Quinn and Meiners show a systematic and intentional "straightening" of American public schools. Throughout the book, the authors explore how various public and private realms operate to try to silence queer voices, and they discuss ways…

  6. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  7. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  8. Social Justice and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Christine; Torrance, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    The revised professional standards for the teaching profession in Scotland are underpinned by a set of values which includes a detailed articulation of social justice for education covering rights, diversity and sustainability. There is a future orientation in these standards that privileges the contribution of teachers and leaders to realizing a…

  9. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  10. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  11. Two Ideals of Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwaggon, James

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This essay takes up McClintock's (2004) critique of educational discourses as overly dependent upon a distributive model of justice and largely ignorant of the formative assumptions that ground educational policy and practice. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The question that McClintock's analysis begs is…

  12. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  13. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    .... Increase abundance and condition of selected key species including corals, queen conch, long spined sea..., Rooms 165 C and D, 2295 Victoria Ave., Fort Myers, FL 33901. Consultation Under National Historic...

  14. Access to justice within the sustainable self-governance model

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tully

    2004-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the development and operation of non-state models of global governance and the extent to which they conform to principles of good governance. Focusing primarily on issues of access to justice and secondarily on the independence of such bodies from the industries which they purport to regulate, this paper argues that adjudicative mechanisms established by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and firms may not produce outcomes which are considered 'just' by t...

  15. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  16. Fact sheet: National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet contains a summary of what the regulations will do, establish, and provide; regulatory impact in regards to benefits and costs; treatment technique requirements; tap water monitoring for lead and copper; water quality monitoring (other than lead and copper); monitoring schedules, regulatory schedules for large, medium-sized, and small systems

  17. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS) mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron...

  18. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... existing regulations and the promulgation of new regulations, section 3(a) of E.O.12988, ``Civil Justice... constitutional and statutory authority supporting any action that would limit the policymaking discretion of the...

  19. Income, Wealth and Health Inequalities - A Scottish Social Justice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Elspeth; Duncan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers health inequalities through a social justice perspective. The authors draw on a variety of existing sources of evidence, including experiential, scientific and contextual knowledge. The authors work with NHS Health Scotland, a national Health Board working to reduce health inequalities and improve health. Working closely with the Scottish Government and with a variety of stakeholders across different sectors, NHS Health Scotland's vision for a fairer, healthier Scotland is founded on the principles of social justice. The paper takes social justice as the starting point and explores what it means for two interlinked paradigms of social injustice-health inequality and income inequality. Utilising the wealth of evidence synthesised by NHS Health Scotland as well as drawing on the writings and evidence of philosophers, epidemiologists, the Scottish Government and international bodies, the authors explore the links between income and wealth inequality, social justice, the right to health and health inequalities. The paper ends by considering the extent to which there is appetite for social change in Scotland by considering the attitudes of the people of Scotland and of Britain to poverty, inequality and welfare.

  20. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  1. Broadcast Advertising of Medical Products and Services: Its Regulation by Other Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jon T.

    1972-01-01

    Restraints imposed on medical advertising through the broadcast media reflect a worldwide concern for public protection in a sensitive area, where problems of ignorance and misrepresentation are enlarged by false hope. The author examines the broadcast codes of seventeen free-world nations, with respect to their provisions on medical advertising.…

  2. National tax regulation, voluntary international standards and the GATS : Argentina – financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis; Hoekman, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Can a WTO Member discriminate against foreign suppliers of services located in jurisdictions that refuse to share information with a government to permit it to determine if its nationals engage in tax evasion? Does it matter if the Member uses standards developed by an international body as the

  3. 78 FR 37713 - General Regulations; National Park System, Demonstrations, Sale or Distribution of Printed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Statistical Abstract, in 2012 there were approximately 282 million visits to units of the National Park System...: 16 U.S.C. 1, 3, 9a, 462(k). 0 2. In Sec. 2.51 revise the introductory text of paragraph (f) to read...), paragraph (b)(4), and the introductory text of paragraph (e) to read as follows: Sec. 2.52 Sale or...

  4. 76 FR 54001 - Agency Information Collection (National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) Regulations) Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 and administered by the Department of Health and Human... Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0621] Agency Information Collection (National...

  5. The implications of migration theory for distributive justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of empirical theories of migration for normative accounts of migration and distributive justice. It examines neo-classical economics, world-systems theory, dual labor market theory, and feminist approaches to migration and contends that neo-classical economic theory in isolation provides an inadequate understanding of migration. Other theories provide a fuller account of how national and global economic, political, and social institutions cause and shape m...

  6. Justice transitoire et consolidation de la paix : Centre international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Actuellement, l'Organisation des Nations Unies et d'autres organismes mettent de l'avant que la justice transitoire favorise la paix après les conflits. L'une des assertions les plus importantes veut que les poursuites, les mesures réparatrices, les aveux officiels, les excuses, les monuments et commémorations, de même que ...

  7. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and also supported by European Union (EU) presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European U...

  8. ER-E2 regulation. Implementation of the national protocol for quality control of instrumentation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is the adoption and enforcement of the 'Protocol National Quality Control Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine'; as well as the establishment of an annual program of external audits, which take place on CCEEM, in order to verify compliance with the established considerations into protocols. It is applicable to all entities within the NHS who perform the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba, both for use 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

  9. 75 FR 25110 - Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 540 [BOP-1149] RIN 1120-AB49 Inmate Communication With News Media: Removal of Byline Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice Department. ACTION: Interim final rule; technical correction. [[Page 25111

  10. Social Justice : Perspectives from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...

  11. Basic Military Justice Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    unmistakable odor of burning marijuana outside the accused’s barracks room, acted correctly when he demanded entry to the room and placed all occupants under...conspirator in furtherance of the conspiracy to be the act of all the conspirators. Suppose, therefore, that A and B agree to burn down the Naval Justice...September 19CY, without authority, fail to go at the time precribed to his appointed place of duty, to wit: the 0600 restricted muster on the fantail. (2

  12. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcar...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive.......Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...

  13. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  14. Development of a National System to Regulate Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashev, M.; Kutuzova, T.; Sakalo, V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides brief information on development of the legislative framework and regulatory requirements in transport of radioactive materials in Ukraine. The application of IAEA documents is demonstrated and their contribution to the improvement of the national regulatory control system and processes of its harmonization with international safety requirements is underlined. Proposals for coordination and interaction enhancement in order to improve safety in safe transport of radioactive materials are defined in the conclusion. (author)

  15. Towards an Explicit Justice Framing of the Social Impacts of Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that biodiversity conservation practice will benefit from assessment of environmental justice outcomes, especially in contexts of poverty and social marginalisation. Whilst there is an existing body of work that implicitly considers the justices and injustices arising from biodiversity conservation interventions, we suggest that a more explicit justice assessment might complement this work. We develop some general guidelines for such assessment, drawing on traditions of social and environmental justice, highlighting the importance of considering two types of justice outcome: distribution and recognition. We note the non-equivalence of these different justice values, implying that they cannot be traded-off against each other. We try out these guidelines through a case study of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. We find that the assessment helps us to identify intolerable social impacts of conservation, notably failures to adequately address the long-term impoverishment and domination of the indigenous Batwa people, and offers constructive insight for how conservation can better align with the need for environmental justice.

  16. Decree 519/984 Radioactive Materials and Ionizing Radiations: regulates the activities related to its use in the whole National Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present regulation regulates the use and application of the radio-active substances and the ionizing radiations in the whole territory of the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay. as well as the competent national authority . Between the articles but excellent they are the radiological protection and safety ,permission ,radiological inspection,infraction and corresponding sanctions [es

  17. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM TERHADAP JUSTICE COLLABORATOR TERKAIT PENANGANAN TINDAK PIDANA KORUPSI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Ekayanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this thesis raised regarding Legal Protection against Justice Collaborator in the handling of corruption in Indonesia. The objectives of this study are to be analyzed with both forms of regulation and identify the type of protection provided by the laws of the State of Indonesia justice collaborator and determine the accuracy of the strength of the evidential value of the testimony in the trial of a justice collaborator, by analyzing the legal provisions in the legislation other law relating to witnesses. This type of research is used in a scientific journal this is the kind of normative legal research, because there is disharmony norm based research in the form of a legal vacuum regarding the setting justice collaborator in formal laws and regulations in Indonesia, as well as the legal ambiguities in the text of the legislation on Article 10 paragraph (2 Law No.. 13 of 2006 on the Protection of Witnesses and Victims of the justice collaborator testimony that can be used as consideration to give the judge for leniency. Having regard to the development of the current law that requires courage and willingness of law enforcement in combating corruption as an extraordinary crime, it is necessary to break the law through the use of an instrument justice collaborator.

  18. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Maria; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice. This study suggests that neuroticism, agreeableness and openness are involved in perceptions of organisational justice and that personality should be considered in research and in practices at the workplace. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. The future of morality and international justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Vojin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper will be on the issue of justice, specifically in international relations. In that context, a number of existing theories of international justice will be briefly reviewed. Afterwards, I will turn to the question of what justice actually is. The assertion that justice is based on the idea of freedom will be substantiated. I will attempt to support my position with Doyle's and Kant's argumentation. It will be concluded that there are robust arguments in favor of the thesis that our historical development is marked by a gradual expansion of freedom and justice. Furthermore, we have strong reasons to aspire liberal internationalism based on the idea of humanity's gradual approximation of some form of global state because such a conception might be the best warrant of justice in international relations.

  1. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  2. Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A; Conlon, D E; Wesson, M J; Porter, C O; Ng, K Y

    2001-06-01

    The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.

  3. Access to Justice for Persons with Disabilities: An Emerging Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Larson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with disabilities often find themselves marginalized by society and by our justice systems. We can improve access to justice by training better advocates. Advocates not only must be knowledgeable concerning relevant laws and regulations, but also must be able to interact effectively on a personal, professional level with persons who have disabilities. We also want to make certain that persons with disabilities have the opportunity to learn to advocate for themselves and for other persons with disabilities. Technologies are available that can help us accomplish these goals. This article provides a brief survey of legal protections (and gaps in such protection for persons with disabilities. Successful advocate training programs from around the world are identified and described. The article provides examples of how technology is being used to support these efforts and provides suggestions regarding additional ways in which technology could be employed. Law schools around the world have begun to embrace the goal of better advocacy, but improving access will require well-prepared advocates to answer the call. Training advocates to provide services to a population that may have significantly different needs even within that population may be a more efficient and effective way to improve access to justice than by attempting to draft laws and regulations that somehow address all possible circumstances.

  4. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  5. Geographies of justice: preschool-childcare provision and the conceptualisation of social justice

    OpenAIRE

    S L Holloway

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990s geographers of diverse philosophical orientations have shown a renewed interest in questions of justice. The author draws on empirical work on childcare provision in Sheffield, England, in order to evaluate two different approaches to the geography of justice and hence the theories of social justice which lie behind these; in particular she explores the different geographies of childcare produced by the territorial-justice approach, which is based on a liberal conception of s...

  6. What Justice Entails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Muñiz-Fraticelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In The Birthright Lottery, Ayelet Shachar subjects the institution of birthright citizenship to close scrutiny by applying to citizenship the historical and philosophical critique of hereditary ownership built up over four centuries of liberal and democratic theory, and proposing compelling alternatives drawn from the theory of private law to the usual modes of conveyance of membership. Nonetheless, there are some difficulties with this critique. First, the analogy between entailed property and birthright citizenship is not as illustrative as Shachar intends it to be; second, the mechanism of the birthright privilege levy is insufficient for addressing structural impediments to growth; and third, the principle of ius nexi, while an important corrective to currently dominant principles of nationality, will likely have effects both unnecessary and insufficient to correct the injustices that Shachar identifies. In the end, the most significant improvements in the lives of the neediest persons on the planet are more likely advanced through conventional arguments for the lowering of barriers to the circulation of goods, labor, and capital. This shift in attention from opening borders to extending citizenship risks being a distraction from more effective means of addressing the injustices associated with global inequality.Dans son livre The Birthright Lottery, Ayelet Shachar soumet l’institution de la citoyenneté par droit de naissance à un examen rigoureux, en appliquant à la citoyenneté la critique philosophique et historique de la propriété héritée construite pendant quatre siècles de théorie démocratique libérale, et en proposant aux modes habituels d’attribution de la citoyenneté une alternative séduisante tirée de la théorie du droit privé. Néanmoins, cette critique comporte certaines difficultés. Premièrement, l’analogie entre la transmission de la propriété par l’institution de la taille et la citoyenneté par

  7. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  8. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  9. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brenda L.; Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  10. Organizational Justice and the Intent to Share: Knowledge Sharing Practices among Forensic Experts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational climate and organization culture can be some of the leading factors in hindering knowledge sharing within the organization. It is generally accepted that successful knowledge management practice, including knowledge sharing, comes as a result of a conducive and knowledge sharing friendly environment. Organizations that promote and reward collective work generate a trustful and a more collaborative learning culture. The perception of fairness in an organization has been considered an important indicator of employee behavior, attitude, and motivation. This study investigates organizational justice perception and its impact on knowledge sharing practices among forensic experts in the Turkish National Police. The study findings revealed that senior officers, who are experts in the field, have the strongest organizational justice perception. Meanwhile, noncommissioned officers or technicians bear positive but comparatively weaker feelings about the existence of justice within the organization. The study argues that those who satisfy their career expectations tend to have a higher organizational justice perception.

  11. Music-making for health and wellbeing in youth justice settings: mediated affordances and the impact of context and social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; de Viggiani, Nick; Moriarty, Yvonne; Pilkington, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Young people in the criminal justice system experience significant health and wellbeing issues that often stem from poverty and disadvantage and, in turn, are linked with offending and reoffending behaviour. There is ongoing interest in interventions such as participatory music programmes that seek to foster social reintegration, support mental wellbeing and equip young offenders with life skills, competencies and emotional resilience. However, there is a need for a situated understanding of both positive and negative experiences that shape potential outcomes of music projects. This article reports on a research study undertaken between 2010 and 2013 with 118 young people aged 13-21 years across eight youth justice settings in England and Wales. Using mixed methods we explored the experiences of young people and their responses to a participatory music programme led by a national UK arts charity. Here, we explore the impact of young people's encounters with music and musicians with reference to the notion of 'musical affordances' (DeNora , ). We examine the ways that such affordances, including unintended outcomes, are mediated by features of the youth justice environment, including its rules and regulations, as well as issues of power, identity and social relations. © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  12. Repair of steam generator heating tubes by roll-expanded plugs: approach to cover multiple national regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N. [AREVA NP Gmbh, Erlangen (Germany); Kostroun, F. [AREVA NP Canada Ltd., Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)

  13. Repair of steam generator heating tubes by roll-expanded plugs: approach to cover multiple national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.; Ziegler, B.; Schoenheit, N.; Kostroun, F.

    2012-01-01

    During operation, steam generators in nuclear power plants are subject to degradation mechanisms which have an impact on the component life-time. Most affected are the heating tubes which constitute the barrier of the contaminated primary cycle to the secondary side. Various corrosive attacks may cause wall thinning which requires tube repair. A common repair method is to plug the tubes by roll expanded plugs. This is a fast method, easily applicable and requires less equipment or personnel qualification as needed for weld plugs. After insertion, the plugs act as a pressure boundary from primary to secondary side. Although the function of the roll plug is simple, the different national regulations define the requirements which need to be fulfilled by a roll plug differently. In order to reduce the tooling as well as the plug types to a minimum, an approach according to one common design for different regulations and steam generator types is profitable. It was found, that the regulations according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code in combination with the German Safety Standards of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission covers the regulations of the majority of utilities. To develop a roll plug which suits the different regulatory demands, efforts were made to consider all technical and regulatory boundary conditions implied on roll expanded plugs. This covering approach had an impact on the plug design, which was required to be Helium tight after installation and suitable for a 40 year component lifetime also in accident and emergency conditions. To prove the suitability of the plug design a comprehensive testing programme of the mechanical and chemical properties of the designed roll-expanded plug was launched. A summary of the plug design and testing as well as the main test results are described. (author)

  14. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  15. Restorative Justice as Social Justice for Victims of Gendered Violence: A Standpoint Feminist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims…

  16. Example of a single national regulator responsible for both transport safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, P.; Lahkola, A.; Markkanen, M.; Hellstén, S.

    2016-01-01

    Safety and security in the use of nuclear energy and in the use of radiation, including the transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, share a common objective: to protect people, society, environment, and future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Some measures for safety contribute to those for security, and vice versa, while some requirements of one conflict with those of the other. The differences in the requirements arise from the difference in the threat against which the measures are designed: accident vs. intent. A coordinated approach endeavours to take advantage of the similarities and to avoid the problems caused by the differences. One way to implement it is to have one competent authority responsible for the regulatory control of safety and security. It is the experience in Finland that this enables an efficient regulatory system. From the operators’ point of view, a one-stop shop regulatory authority ensures that requirements for safety and security are consistent. Both safety and security require the involvement of and cooperation between several authorities—regulatory, rescue, law enforcement—and operators. The approach in Finland is built on cooperation and a clear division of competences and responsibilities. One regulatory authority provides a fixed point of contact within the professional cooperation network as well as for the public. The one regulatory authority is also easily identifiable, as appropriate, as a point of contact in international cooperation in implementing nuclear and radiation safety and security. Whatever the national regulatory framework and the assignment of responsibilities between authorities, cooperation is essential in house, nationally, and internationally. (author)

  17. Responsible nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...

  18. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  1. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  2. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  3. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  4. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  5. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  6. National competent authorities. List no. 13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  7. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  8. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  9. National competent authorities. List no. 11. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  10. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  11. National competent authorities. List no. 10. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  12. National competent authorities. List no. 7. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  13. National competent authorities. List no. 9. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  14. National competent authorities. List no. 6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  15. National competent authorities. List no. 14. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  16. National competent authorities. List no. 16. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  17. National competent authorities. List no. 15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  18. National competent authorities. List no. 12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended) (Safety series no. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness

  19. National competent authorities. List no. 8. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (Safety series no. 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    Any national or international authority designated or otherwise recognised as such for any purpose in connection with the transport Regulations is known as a competent authority. In the Member States such a body has the responsibility for establishing national legislation to bring the Agency's transport Regulations into effect and for assuring compliance with its requirements. Depending on the national regulatory or institutional framework the functions of the competent authority may be assigned to one or more bodies. To assist Member States in implementing the transport Regulations and carrying out responsibility for compliance assurance, the IAEA continues to maintain this updated list of designated national competent authorities. Member States are annually requested to verify the list for correctness and completeness.

  20. Media Exposure and Racialized Perceptions of Inequities in Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Wright

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.

  1. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  2. Voyageurs National Park: Water-level regulation and effects on water quality and aquatic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; LeDuc, Jaime F.

    2018-01-01

    Following dam installations in the remote Rainy Lake Basin during the early 1900s, water-level fluctuations were considered extreme (1914–1949) compared to more natural conditions. In 1949, the International Joint Commission (IJC), which sets rules governing dam operation on waters shared by the United States and Canada, established the first rule curves to regulate water levels on these waterbodies. However, rule curves established prior to 2000 were determined to be detrimental to the ecosystem. Therefore, the IJC implemented an order in 2000 to change rule curves and to restore a more natural water regime. After 2000, measured chlorophyll-a concentrations in the two most eutrophic water bodies decreased whereas concentrations in oligotrophic lakes did not show significant water-quality differences. Fish mercury data were inconclusive, due to the variation in water levels and fish mercury concentrations, but can be used by the IJC as part of a long term data set.

  3. Strengthening global health security by embedding the International Health Regulations requirements into national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin

    2018-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.

  4. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  5. Perception on justice, trust and tax compliance behavior in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellywati Mohd Faizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between justice and trust with tax compliance behavior in Malaysia was studied. Previous studies have acknowledged the perception that justice does have an impact on tax compliance. This study distinguishes justice into procedural justice, distributive justice, and retributive justice. Therefore, this study examined the effect of these three types of justice on tax compliance. Trust also influences the act of tax compliance and it also has a relationship to the element of justice. Perceptions from individual taxpayers were gathered using questionnaires from previous studies. The findings suggest only procedural justice and trust affect tax compliance and procedural justice was positively and significantly correlated to trust. However, trust does not mediate the relationship between justice and compliance. This research will contribute to the tax literature with widened scope on justice in Malaysia.

  6. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  7. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  8. Impact of the internal contamination monitoring for national and international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the internal radiation dose received by workers between 1984 and 1994 was performed, after a brief description of IPEN facility. The National and International Recommendation aims to reduce the workers' doses below 1/10 of the annual limits. The routine monitoring should be eliminated, if the individual annual dose is below 3/10 of the annual limits. In this case, only the operational monitoring should be maintained. In principle, the concept of restricted area should be reviewed, because, according to Publication 26 of ICRP, 1977, it should be a supervised area instead. The new concept of restricted area recommended by the Publication 60, ICRP 1991, should be adjusted accordingly. Thus, the classification used by the Commission-controlled areas and supervised areas will be with the foreseeable dose and not with the actual dose. When the individual annual dose is kept below 1/10 of the annual limits, the routine monitoring is not necessary, and only operational monitoring is needed. Finally, the future possible activities of the Individual Internal Dosimetry Laboratory at IPEN are discussed, after the elimination of individual monitoring. (authors). 8 refs

  9. Emblems of justice in the contemporary Moldavian heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Andrieş-Tabac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The independence of the Republic of Moldova has determined a new prestige of the judicial power in our country. In the field of symbols, this change was manifested in the gradual abandonment of the totalitarian, in effect, Soviet corporate emblems and the spontaneous adoption of new corporate emblems, universal in essence, traditional and easily recognizable. In the first stage, several judicial institutions developed their own para-heraldic emblems based on the image of goddess Themis, which have different artistic solutions and quality. At the next stage, with the foundation of the National Committee of Heraldry under the President of the Republic of Moldova in 1995, state institutions, including those related to the justice system, gradually opted for developing new corporate heraldic and vexillological symbols in accordance with universal and national scientific standards, up to their official registration in the General Armorial of the Republic of Moldova. The new heraldic emblems feature balance scales, a symbol with a very rich tradition in the Romanian principalities. There are a number of other emblems of justice, e.g. a sword, a gladium, fasces lictoriae, a magistrate’s hat. The process of developing of coats of arms and flags of the bodies of justice continues to this day. The author reviews new corporate emblems and flags of some institutions of the Republic of Moldova, such as the Constitutional Court, the Prosecutor’s Office, the Ministry of Justice, the Forensic Science Center under the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the criminal investigation services of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

  10. Electronic Data Exchange within European Justice: A Good Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Carboni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the most debated and controversial issues regarding the changes which are taking place in the Justice domain: the complexity of developing and implementing ITC systems that ‘actually work’, and doing so with a reasonable budget and in a reasonable time. While the number of studies on National experiences is slowly growing (see for example Fabri & Contini 2001, Fabri 2007, Contini & Lanzara 2009, Reiling 2012, filling an often-mentioned gap in justice sector literature, building on the European project e-CODEX case study, the authors point the attention to a somewhat new and unexplored phenomenon, the concrete attempt to build cross-border electronic data exchange within the European justice field. e-CODEX (e-Justice Communication via Online Data Exchange is the first European Large Scale Pilot in the domain of e-Justice. The project is carried out by 19 partners either being or representing their national ministries of justice of 15 European countries, plus the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE, the Conseil des Notariats de l'Union Européenne (CNUE and the National Research Council of Italy (through two of its institutes - IRSIG-CNR and ITTIG-CNR. To provide a better grasp of the project scale, its overall budget is over 14 M euro and about 14 hundred person-months are committed to it. The project aims at improving cross-border access of citizens and businesses to legal means in Europe, as well as to improve the interoperability between legal authorities of different Member States. With a case based approach, e-CODEX is developing and will be soon implementing an interoperability layer to connect existing National Systems in order to provide cross border e-justice services. The project commitment includes running a live pilot in a ‘production environment’ for a duration of twelve months. The electronic services that have been so far selected are: European Payment Order (EPO, European Small

  11. Fundamental concepts used in national regulation: is the terminology sufficiently clear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferch, R.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Ferch, consultant to the NEA, gave a series of examples where expressions have different meanings, including 'undue burden' and 'ultimate safety objectives' which are related to the basis for defining regulatory criteria. Safety and protection are often not defined in regulatory documents. Starting from IAEA definitions, he explained that there are also several dimensions along which we might range various interpretations of the term 'safety': absolute protection vs. levels of acceptability; control of the source of the hazard vs. protection of those subjected to the hazard; protection against high-probability low-consequence risks vs. protection against low-probability high-consequence risks; freedom from health hazards vs. freedom from risk of injury or damage; protection against human actions vs. protection against inanimate hazards. He noted that the scope of the IAEA definitions is limited to protection against health hazards arising from exposures to radiation. One important aspect of the use of common- language terms, especially ones that have as much emotional importance as 'safety' and 'protection', is the aspect of connotation meanings. For example, the concept of safety often carries connotations of familiarity with the risk and of control over the risk. Allowing time to build familiarity is often cited as one of the reasons for adopting a phased, staged or stepwise approach to repository development and contributes in some countries to requirements for reversibility and retrievability. The discussion of the meaning of terms is further complicated when translations between languages are involved. Some languages may not have separate words for concepts of 'protection', 'safety', 'security' and 'safeguards'. The challenge for regulators is to develop regulatory criteria that protect present and future generations from the hazards contained within a repository but also that are likely to be understood by and acceptable to the generations immediately

  12. [National system of protection against electromagnetic fields 0 Hz-300 GHz in the light of current legal regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) occurs when man is exposed to the effect of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and contact currents different from those resulting from physiological processes in the organism or other natural phenomena. In Poland, the system of protection against EMF has been functioning for over 35 years. In 2001, when the Minister of Labor and Social Policy issued the regulation introducing the maximum admissible intensities (MAI) for electromagnetic fields and radiation within the range of 0 Hz-300 GHz, the system was directed mainly towards evaluation of exposure to EMF occurring in the occupational environment. The system is linked via MAI values with human protection in the natural environment. In this paper, the background, principles and the range of the national system of protection against EMF and its monitoring are presented. The project of implementation of EU directives, following Poland's accession to the European Union is also discussed.

  13. Justice seems not to be for all: Exploring the scope of justice

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Nunes, Aline; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Correia, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The idea that “justice is for everyone” seems to be over. A justice perception can have unfair consequences for those who are perceived not to be included within the boundaries of fairness. This is what the scope of justice is all about: who is within and who is outside of the “justice boundaries”. This paper intends to clarify the concept and explain how social psychologists work with it in real-life contexts. We argue that the scope of justice is a key concept that helps us to understand a ...

  14. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  15. The role of the Gosatomnadzor of Russia in national regulating of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, M.V.; Sitnikov, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    As at the end of 1999, the Gosatomnadzor of Russia supervised 6551 radiation sources, including 1285 unsealed sources with individual activity from a minimal level to 1x10 12 Bq and a total activity of 585x10 12 Bq, and also 5266 sealed sources with individual activity from 30 to 1x10 17 Bq and the total activity of more than 11x10 17 Bq. A national infrastructure has been created in the Russian Federation in order to regulate the safety of nuclear energy use. The infrastructure includes the legal system and the regulatory authorities based on and acting according to it. The regulation of radiation safety, including assurance of radiation source safety and radioactive material security (management of disused sources, planning, preparedness and response to abnormal events and emergencies, recovery of control over orphan sources, informing users and others who might be affected by lost source, and education and training in the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials), is realized within this infrastructure. The legal system includes federal laws ('On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and 'On Public Radiation Safety'), a number of decrees and resolutions of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation, federal standards and rules for nuclear energy use, and also departmental and industrial manuals and rules, State standards, construction standards and rules and other documents. The safety regulation tasks have been defined by these laws, according to which regulatory authorities are entrusted with the development, approval and putting into force of standards and rules in the nuclear energy use, with issuing licenses for carrying out nuclear activities, with safety supervision assurance, with review and inspection implementation, with control over development and realization of protective measures for workers, population and environment in emergencies at nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities. Russian national regulatory

  16. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1121-0218] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be... Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 Seventh...

  17. 28 CFR 0.128b - Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations. 0.128b Section 0.128b Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Foreign Claims... the United States are published in 45 CFR chapter V. ...

  18. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  19. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...... the aims of international criminal justice....

  20. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  1. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if, with...

  2. Social Justice Advocacy in Graduate Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Amy Gratch

    2018-01-01

    This article includes a description and analysis of a graduate teacher education course designed to engage teachers in taking action for social justice. In the course, students participate in a community of learners in which they examine their cultural identities and engage in social justice advocacy work. Students developed content knowledge and…

  3. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  4. African Transitional Justice Research Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... little African-led research on the cultural appropriateness and impact of such models of transitional justice. This grant will facilitate the creation and sustainable expansion of an electronically-based research network on options and lessons learned pertaining to transitional justice. A second objective is to build the capacity ...

  5. Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sandra Pavelka

    2007-01-01

    A modern-day movement is transforming the way that communities and justice systems think about and respond to crime and wrongful occurrences. This response implements a holistic continuum of services, providing for prevention, intervention, diversion, commitment, probation, reentry, and aftercare. This approach--known as restorative justice--seeks…

  6. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  7. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  8. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  9. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  10. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Implications for Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Magnus O.

    2016-01-01

    Educational justice is a major global challenge. In most underdeveloped countries, many students do not have access to education and in most advanced democracies, school attainment and success are still, to a large extent, dependent on a student's social background. However, it has often been argued that social justice is an essential part of…

  11. Educational Justice, Segregated Schooling and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical debate on educational justice currently focusses on the Anglo-American situation. This essay brings in an additional perspective. It provides a justice-oriented critique of the segregated education systems in German-speaking countries. First, arguments that are commonly put forward in favour of these systems are rejected. Second,…

  12. Economic globalisation and economic justice: Covenanting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...

  13. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  14. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  15. The Law of Peoples and Global Justice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 135-150 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : international justice * global justice * Rawls * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Karangan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution

  17. An Introduction to Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Eglash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marx proposed that capitalism’s destructive force is caused, at root, by the alienation of labor value from its generators. Environmentalists have added the concept of unalienated ecological value, and rights activists added the unalienated expressive value of free speech, sexuality, spirituality, etc. Marx’s vision for restoring an unalienated world by top-down economic governance was never fulfilled. But in the last 30 years, new forms of social justice have emerged that operate as “bottom-up”. Peer-to-peer production such as open source software or wikipedia has challenged the corporate grip on IP in a “gift exchange” of labor value; community based agroecology establishes a kind of gift exchange with our nonhuman allies in nature. DIY citizenship from feminist makerspaces to queer biohacking has profound implications for a new materialism of the “knowledge commons”; and restorative approaches to civil rights can challenge the prison-industrial complex. In contrast to top-down “distributive justice,” all of the above are cases of bottom-up or “generative justice” 

  18. Child poverty and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Claudia; Pauli, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty and social inequality in Western countries are growing both in scope and in complexity. The clustering of income poverty in urban settings reflects the complex process of residential segregation. Living in segregated neighbourhoods with much poverty and predominantly substandard housing is usually associated with poor physical, chemical and social environmental living conditions at the individual and community level which influence and shape children's health both directly and indirectly. This paper shows research data on the link between child poverty and income-related health inequalities according to the unequal exposure to environmental hazards as well as the unequal distribution of environmental resources in the domestic environment and within the local context as an increasing public health issue in Germany. The links between these factors are drawn from the conceptual framework of environmental justice. Examples are shown of integrated approaches to alleviate social and environmental disparities at the community level. The implications of environmental justice for public health include the need to uncover the link between socioeconomic factors and environmental health disparities related to the man-made environment. Developing relevant indicators for environmental inequalities in the context of housing and health is an important task for public health research. More emphasis should be placed on a comprehensive holistic approach to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors modify children's susceptibility and exposure to environmental hazards, particularly in low-income areas.

  19. Comparison of legislation, regulations and national health strategies for palliative care in seven European countries (Results from the Europall Research Group): a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Karen; Woitha, Kathrin; Ahmed, Nisar; Menten, Johan; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2013-07-17

    According to EU policy, anyone in need of palliative care should be able to have access to it. It is therefore important to investigate which palliative care topics are subject to legislation and regulations in Europe and how these are implemented in (national) health care plans. This paper aims to deliver a structured overview of the legislation, existing regulations and the different health care policies regarding palliative care in seven European countries. In 2008 an inventory of the organisation of palliative care was developed by the researchers of the Europall project. Included were two open questions about legislation, regulations, and health policy in palliative care. This questionnaire was completed using palliative care experts selected from Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain. Additionally, (grey) literature on palliative care health policy and regulations from the participating countries was collected to complete the inventory. Comparative analysis of country specific information was performed afterwards. In all countries palliative care regulations and policies existed (either in laws, royal decrees, or national policies). An explicit right to palliative care was mentioned in the Belgium, French and German law. In addition, access to palliative care was mentioned by all countries, varying from explicit regulations to policy intentions in national plans. Also, all countries had a national policy on palliative care, although sometimes mainly related to national cancer plans. Differences existed in policy regarding palliative care leave, advance directives, national funding, palliative care training, research, opioids and the role of volunteers. Although all included European countries have policies on palliative care, countries largely differ in the presence of legislation and regulations on palliative care as well as the included topics. European healthcare policy recommendations should support palliative care access

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL RIGHT IN THE MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL SOTO MUÑOZ

    2017-01-01

    This article describes that the military right comes from the constitutional regulation of the use of force. This regulation imposes a particular duty of obedience to the military, that is guarded at the same time, by the military disciplinary right and the military penal code. It informs that although military justice is not forbidden by the international right of the Human Rights, is considered as a regulation of restricted application. Also details, the valid requisites presented by the in...

  1. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  2. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  3. 75 FR 19659 - Bureau of Justice Assistance; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New Collection Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Federal Law Enforcement Officers Congressional Badge of Bravery. The Department of Justice... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OMB Number 1121-NEW] Bureau of Justice...

  4. Diversity in midwifery care: working toward social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nadya; Ariss, Rachel

    2014-08-01

    As midwifery moved from lay practice to a regulated health-care profession in Ontario toward the end of the twentieth century, it brought with it many of its social movement goals and aspirations. Among these was the desire to attend to diversity and equity in the provision of birthing care. Drawing on interviews with currently practicing Ontario midwives, this paper focuses on midwives' conceptualizations of diversity and explores their everyday work to support and strengthen diversity among those using and those providing midwifery care. We argue that midwifery's recent relocation within state structured health care means neither that the social change projects of midwifery are complete nor that midwifery has abandoned its movement-based commitment to social change. Responses to social diversity in health care range from efforts to simply improve access to care to analyses of the role of social justice in recognizing the needs of diverse populations. The social justice aspiration to "create a better world" continues to animate the work of midwives postregulation. This paper explores the legacy of midwifery as a social movement, addressing the connections between diversity, social justice and midwifery care.

  5. The Theoretical and Methodological Bases to Form the Parity of State Regulation of the National Economy and Market Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahno Tetiana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the existing approaches regarding the optimal balance of mechanisms of economic regulation and identify factors that influence the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation of economy. The analysis of the existing studies has made it possible to establish that the mixed economy model, which is organized on the basis of the market price system but uses various forms of government intervention to correct macroeconomic instability, is the most optimal one for effective development. The smoothing, preventing of negative consequences of effects of market regulators is the goal of state regulation of economy. It is substantiated that the optimal correlation of mechanisms of state regulation and market self-regulation is not a constant value. The maximum effective ratio in application of these mechanisms will not always be achieved under condition of equal government intervention and self-regulation. It depends on the country’s potential, its involvement in the system of the world market economy, level of development of the society, as well as historical features of the country’s development and phase of the economic cycle. Prospects for further research are the substantiation of a new paradigm for the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation in the context of financial uncertainty and effect of supranational regulators, growing contradictions of globalization-regionalization based on the use of the system and synergetic approach.

  6. Contemporary Issues of Social Justice: A Focus on Race and Physical Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis; Clark, Langston

    2016-09-01

    Ongoing events in the United States show the continual need to address issues of social justice in every social context. Of particular note in this article, the contemporary national focus on race has thrust social justice issues into the forefront of the country's conscious. Although legal segregation has ran its course, schools and many neighborhoods remain, to a large degree, culturally, ethnically, linguistically, economically, and racially segregated and unequal (Orfield & Lee, 2005). Even though an African American president presently occupies the White House, the idea of a postracial America remains an unrealized ideal. Though social justice and racial discussions are firmly entrenched in educational research, investigations that focus on race are scant in physical education literature. Here, we attempt to develop an understanding of social justice in physical education with a focus on racial concerns. We purposely confine the examination to the U.S. context to avoid the dilution of the importance of these issues, while recognizing other international landscapes may differ significantly. To accomplish this goal, we hope to explicate the undergirding theoretical tenants of critical race theory and culturally relevant pedagogy in relation to social justice in physical education. Finally, we make observations of social justice in the physical education and physical education teacher education realms to address and illuminate areas of concern.

  7. 75 FR 45154 - National Security Division; Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1124-0003] National Security Division; Agency Information...), National Security Division (NSD), will be submitting the following information collection request to the..., 10th & Constitution Avenue, NW., National Security Division, Counterespionage Section/Registration Unit...

  8. Victims, civil society and transitional justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of victim organizations in the transitional justice process is examined in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. These organizations emerged in the context of the top-down accountability agenda driven by the international crisis intervention in the Balkan wars and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY. By contrast, in Latin America victim organizations emerged as a self-conscious movements of individuals galvanized by their traumatic experience of state repression and demanding accountability from the bottom-up. In BiH accountability became a condition for re-establishing state political and legal authority but also international financing for reconstruction and progress towards EU accession. Victim organizations were part of the NGO sector which grew rapidly in response to the neoliberal governance model of selforganizing civil society to transform post-socialist and postwar BiH. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs, run largely by professional middle class displaced from careers in the downsized state bureaucracy, became intermediaries between external donors and war affected populations. Victim organizations participated in the transitional justice process by supporting victims/witnesses in international and national prosecutions, tracing the missing persons and supporting the right of return of displaced populations. In BiH, victims’ organizations did not emerge as social movements advocating for citizenship and social justice, but became incorporated in the neoliberal governance model, sponsored by international agendas for stabilization, democratization and EU accession.

  9. Intergenerational Justice: How Reasonable Man Discounts Climate Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future generations. The formal principle of equality simply requires us to treat like cases as like. If intergenerational justice is to have any meaning, it would require future generations to receive the same treatment under the law and the same treatment from the authorities, as far as cases are like. In the context of climate change, the reasonable man standard from tort law is of particular relevance. There is no justification to handle pollution across generational boundaries according to norms which differ from the (international laws for handling pollution across national borders. It is argued that this implies, for example, that a zero social rate of time preference should be used in cost-benefit analysis of climate policy: climate damage experienced by future generations should be discounted neither for their higher expected wealth, nor purely for their being remote.

  10. Justice and Immigration: The Effect of Moral Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous media news items suggest on a daily basis that people tend to use harsher criteria when they judge immigrants than members of their own in-group. In the present research project, we were interested in studying individual justice judgments of a violation of a law by an Italian (in-group or an immigrant (out-group member and the influence of moral exclusion processes on the assessment. In particular, we examined whether those people who tend to exclude out-groups from their scope of justice will give such biased judgments and will adopt double standards, while inclusive people will not. A total of 255 people evaluated the seriousness of a crime in two different law-breaking scenarios in which the offender’s and the victim’s nationalities were systematically changed (either Italian or Romanian. Moreover, participants completed a scale measuring the moral inclusion/exclusion of other social groups. As hypothesized, participants who tended to exclude some groups from their moral community judged the Romanian more harshly than the Italian culprit. On the contrary, those people that tended to have a more inclusive moral community did not show any difference in evaluation. In conclusion, the present research highlights the importance of considering the effect of moral inclusion/exclusion processes on the evaluation of justice events, especially in an intergroup context.

  11. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  12. Climate Change, Climate Justice, and Environmental Health: Implications for the Nursing Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Breakey, Suellen

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice. Discussion paper. A literature search of electronic databases was conducted for articles, texts, and documents related to climate change, climate justice, and human health. The literature suggests that those who contribute least to global warming are those who will disproportionately be affected by the negative health outcomes of climate change. The concept of climate justice and the role of the Mary Robinson Foundation-Climate Justice are discussed within a framework of nursing's professional responsibility and the importance of social justice for the world's people. The nursing profession must take a leadership role in engaging in policy and advocacy discussions in addressing the looming problems associated with climate change. Nursing organizations have adopted resolutions and engaged in leadership roles to address climate change at the local, regional, national, and global level. It is essential that nurses embrace concepts related to social justice and engage in the policy debate regarding the deleterious effects on human health related to global warming and climate change. Nursing's commitment to social justice offers an opportunity to offer significant global leadership in addressing the health implications related to climate change. Recognizing the negative impacts of climate change on well-being and the underlying socioeconomic reasons for their disproportionate and inequitable distribution can expand and optimize the profession's role

  13. Royal Decree No 2101/1976 of 10 August 1976 implementing the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Royal Decree implements the national Regulations for the transport of dangerous goods by road, based on the European Agreement concerning International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) to which Spain became a party on 22nd November 1972. The implementing provisions lay down that the national regulations do not apply to transport not exceeding 50 km or to loads below one tonne. Furthermore, the Decree prescribes the period within which vehicles and their markings as well as packaging conditions for dangerous goods must comply with its requirements. It is recalled that radioactive materials are classified as dangerous goods in Class 7. (N.E.A.) [fr

  14. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  15. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  16. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  17. The social and professional structure of international justice: from scholarly insiders to the pull of multinational corporate law firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dezalay, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Where does international justice draw its authority in an international scene largely driven by self-regulated professional markets for the settlement of transnational disputes? To revisit this classical debate, this article connects the professional and social structure of dispute settlement mechanisms to their social credibility among users of international justice. Drawing on extensive biographical databases, it suggests that the growth of investor-state disputes is favoring a shift from a...

  18. Revisiting public health preparedness: Incorporating social justice principles into pandemic preparedness planning for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayman, Harvey; Ablorh-Odjidja, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Public health professionals are responsible for ensuring the health of the nation, which requires that planners for public health emergencies recognize that not including protection for underserved or marginalized communities poses a risk to the entire population. To assure the protection of these populations in the event of a pandemic outbreak, preparedness planning will benefit from the application of several principles of social justice in assuring the protection of all individuals. This article will review the history between public health and social justice, provide a brief review of pandemic preparedness planning efforts, discuss the importance of and make recommendations for the incorporation of principles of social justice in the development of pandemic preparedness plans, and highlight some of the challenges faced by public health in effectively and equitably meeting its charge to protect the nation's health.

  19. Penyelesaian Tindak Pidana Lalu Lintas Melalui Pendekatan Restorative Justice sebagai Dasar Penghentian Penyidikan dan Perwujudan Asas Keadilan dalam Penjatuhan Putusan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nella Sumika Putri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penyelesaian tindak pidana kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia dapat diselesaikan melalui sistem peradilan pidana,namun pada umumnya pelaku mengadakan proses perdamaian di luar pengadilan dengan keluarga korban sehingga terjadi kesepakatan perdamaian antara para pihak. Model perdamaian tersebut dikenal dengan model pendekatan restorative justice yang sampai saat ini belum diakomodir dalam peraturan perundang-undangan sehingga aparat penegak hukum menjadi ragu untuk menjadikan kesepakatan perdamaian sebagai pertimbangan untuk menghentikan atau melanjutkan penyidikan. Putusan pengadilan juga belum menempatkan perdamaian antara para pihak sebagai dasar untuk melepaskan pelaku. Mekanisme ini hanya terbatas sebagai pertimbangan untuk meringankan pidana kepada terdakwa. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, upaya pendekatan restorative justice dalam perkara kecelakaan lalu lintas lebih memberikan rasa keadilan baik bagi pelaku maupun korban. Akan tetapi, pelaksanaan penghentian penyidikan karena telah dilakukan pendekatan restorative justice dalam tindak pidana kecelakaan lalu lintas tidak dapat dilakukan secara absolut karena terdapat beberapa kriteria yang harus dijadikan patokan dalam pengambilan keputusan mengenai penyidikan. Abstract Traffic accident crime is resolved by the criminal court. Mostly, however, the perpetrators hold a peace process outside the court with the victims and their families in the model of an agreement among them. This model is known as the restorative justice model. There is no specific legislation on restorative justice as an alternative approach to adjudicate traffic accident, which makes it difficult for the law enforcer to consider restorative justice as a basis to continue or discontinue an investigation. Furthermore, there is no court regulation justifying the use of restorative justice approach as a groundwork to release the perpetrators. This thesis finds that restorative justice approach is more equitable in solving

  20. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  1. Criminal Justice Contact, Stressors, and Obesity-Related Health Problems Among Black Adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Paul C; Parker, Lauren; Thorpe, Roland

    2018-04-01

    Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status. Using the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), modified Poisson regression analyses were used to determine the association between criminal justice contact, stressors, and obesity-related health problems among a national sample of Black adults (n = 5008). In the full model, the odds of experiencing obesity-related health problems for Black adults who had criminal justice contact was reduced (PR, 1.23 to 1.14) and not statistically significant. Black adults who reported experiencing family stressors (PR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.36), financial stressors (PR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.47), and personal stressors (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.31) were statistically significant and higher than those who reported not experiencing any of these stressors; neighborhood stressors was not statistically significant. The evidence suggests a relationship between the stressors associated with criminal justice contact and obesity-related health status. These findings emphasize the need to further explore the family, financial, and personal stressors for Black adults with criminal justice contact in order to further our understanding of their obesity-related health problems.ᅟ.

  2. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  3. Gilabert on the Feasibility of Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Macleod

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss the analysis of the feasibility of global justice developed by Pablo Gilabert in his recent book From Global Poverty to Global Equality: A Philosophical Exploration. Gilabert makes many valuable contributions to this topic and I agree with most of his analysis. However, I identify a distinction between strategic justification and moral justification that Gilabert neglects. I show how this distinction is useful in addressing objections to the feasibility of global justice. I also claim that Gilabert makes some problematic assumptions concerning the way in which global justice is morally demanding.

  4. The first year of implementation of the Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 mandates the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development to report annually on the implementation of the Child Justice Act to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. On 1 April 2011 a year had passed since the implementation of the Child ...

  5. 24 CFR 17.9 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... Procedures § 17.9 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 17.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  6. 5 CFR 177.108 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.108 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  7. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel...

  8. 10 CFR 1014.7 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1014.7 Section 1014.7... § 1014.7 Referral to Department of Justice. (a) When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 1014.6, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  9. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees and...

  10. 40 CFR 1620.8 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  11. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...

  12. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of the...

  13. The values underlying the Draft Common Frame of Reference: what role for fairness and 'social justice'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of the provisions of the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR), in order to assess if the DCFR perceives contract law only as a tool for regulating private law relations between equally strong parties or if it contains elements of 'social justice' in favour

  14. The new police and criminal justice data protection directive : A first analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Allegedly the Police and Criminal Justice Data Protection Directive (henceforth, the “Directive”) is the little-known, much overlooked part of the EU data protection reform package that stormed into the EU legislative agenda towards the end of 2015. Its counterpart, regulating all other personal

  15. Dilemmas of Justice in Peace/Coexistence Education: Affect and the Politics of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Bekerman, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    Lyotard (1988) argued that the major problem of this time may be understood in terms of two issues: the impossibility of avoiding conflicts and the absence of a universal genre of discourse to regulate them. In this article, the authors closely follows Lyotard's ideas to problematize claims about the university of justice. Then, the authors…

  16. On the relationship between justice and forgiveness: are all forms of justice made equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates whether, following a wrongdoing, the restoration of justice promotes forgiveness. Three studies - one correlational recall study and two experimental scenario studies - provide evidence that while a restored sense of justice is overall positively related to forgiveness, forgiveness is highly dependent on the means of justice restoration being retributive (punitive) versus restorative (consensus-seeking) in nature. The findings showed that, overall, restorative but not retributive responses led to greater forgiveness. Although both retributive and restorative responses appeared to increase forgiveness indirectly through increased feelings of justice, for retributive responses these effects were counteracted by direct effects on forgiveness. Moreover, the experimental evidence showed that, while feelings of justice derived from restorative responses were positively related to forgiveness, feelings of justice derived from retributive responses were not. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Breathless: Schools, Air Toxics, and Environmental Justice in California

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation on both federal and state levels has placed the intersection between children’s health and environmental justice on the forefront of public policy debate. This study looks at the intersection of air quality, children’s health, and school performance in the context of environmental equity in California. Information from the U.S. EPA’s National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is used to calculate a respiratory hazard ratio for each of California’s census tracts. These ratios ar...

  18. Medical education for social justice: Paulo Freire revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasGupta, Sayantani; Fornari, Alice; Geer, Kamini; Hahn, Louisa; Kumar, Vanita; Lee, Hyun Joon; Rubin, Susan; Gold, Marji

    2006-01-01

    Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities.

  19. What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Waltenberg , Fábio

    2004-01-01

    D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...

  20. Global Justice and Two Conceptions of Practice-Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Malte Frøslee

    2013-01-01

    Practice-dependence has recently gotten a lot of press in political theory, not only for methodological reasons, but also because of its ostensible support for statism – the view that the scope of principles of justice is limited to the nation-state. This article aims to refute the claim that pra......Practice-dependence has recently gotten a lot of press in political theory, not only for methodological reasons, but also because of its ostensible support for statism – the view that the scope of principles of justice is limited to the nation-state. This article aims to refute the claim...... that practice-dependence necessarily entails statism. It distinguishes two senses of practice-dependence in Rawls’s work in order to elucidate how statism follows not from Rawls’s practice-dependence methodologyas such , but from the kind of practices on which his conception depends. By distinguishing basic...... practices from institutionalised practices, we can identify a conception of practice-dependence, realised in the work of Jürgen Habermas, which entails cosmopolitanism. Finally, the article contrasts Rawls’s internal criticism of the nation-state with Habermas’s external criticism and argues in favour...

  1. The United Nations and counter-terrorism after September 11:towards an assessment of the impact and prospects of counter-terror 'spill-over' into international criminal justice cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper focuses on the recent role of the United Nations (UN) after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in improving the effectiveness and commitment of states to counterterrorism through the development of domestic legislation, policy and practice. The post- Cold War context provided a facilitative environment for the UN Security Council enabling ad hoc or case-by-case responses to acts of terrorism during the 1990s. However, the paper argues that the intervention of the Security Council in t...

  2. From distributive to procedural justice. Justice as a constitutive value of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The justice as an ethical value can be considered constitutive for contemporary administrative systems. These ones are asked to transpose into practice the ideal of justice in the community. The functioning of a modern state cannot be conceived without a series of institutions that would guarantee the achievement of justice. The legal system was established specifically to administer justice. Modern democratic systems felt the need for certain courts and extrajudicial procedures to create justice. The institutions required to implement the extrajudicial distribution of justice are part of the public administration, representing a central element of it. The model of a political system based on justice is a minimalist one; the role of the state is limited to making it possible for individuals to follow their own ideal of welfare. Opposed to justice, the ideal of welfare requests the state, and implicitly the administration, to ensure the individual the minimum conditions to live in that community. The minimal state centered on justice is the result of a modern paradigm with post-Kantian reverberations, which emphasize the rationality of human action. If the individual is rational, he only needs fair conditions in order to pursue his own welfare. The role of the administration is to ensure those conditions and to oversee the distribution of goods and services, as well as the distribution and redistribution of added value.

  3. What Justice for Rwanda? Gacaca versus Truth Commission?

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice, which seeks justice and focuses on the perpetrators, appears to be inadequate to lead a society towards reconciliation. Therefore, some forms of restorative justice, which emphasize the healing of the whole society, seem necessary. In Rwanda, gacaca courts and a truth commission are complementary...

  4. Childhood football play and practice in relation to self-regulation and national team selection; a study of Norwegian elite youth players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstad, Martin K; Høigaard, Rune; Johansen, Bjørn Tore; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Haugen, Tommy

    2018-03-09

    Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses. The results revealed that high self-regulated players were more likely to be selected for national initiatives, and increased their involvement in peer-led football practice and adult-led football practice during childhood, compared to players with lower levels of self-regulation. While national level players reported higher levels of peer-led football play in childhood, the interaction effect suggest that the regional level players increased their involvement in peer-led play during childhood compared to national level players. In conclusion, the findings indicate that childhood sport participation may contribute to later differences in self-regulation, and highlights the importance of childhood engagement in football-specific play and practice in the development of Norwegian youth football players.

  5. Interaction of Reward Seeking and Self-Regulation in the Prediction of Risk Taking: A Cross-National Test of the Dual Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether…

  6. Temporal Justice, Youth Quotas and Libertarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quotas, including youth quotas for representative institutions, are usually evaluated from within the social justice discourse. That discourse relies on several questionable assumptions, seven of which I critically address and radically revise in this contribution from a libertarian perspective.

  7. Governance and Justice | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This program fosters better governance and justice systems so people can lead ... A man peers through a hole in a wall that separates Tijuana, Mexico, from the United States. ... Denial of health care or an education is unthinkable for most.

  8. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  9. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of recent debates on multiculturalism and value-pluralism, the pressing questions now focuses on whether social cohesion and the notion of justice are sustainable and can be upheld, at least from a European perspective. There are many theoretical and academic responses, mainly from...... liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  10. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  11. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  12. Justice et miséricorde

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, René

    2012-01-01

    On n’imagine pas de justice sans possibilité de faire miséricorde ; inversement, une miséricorde qui ne tiendrait pas compte de la justice ne serait plus la miséricorde. Les deux notions sont liées, mais sur un socle inégal : car la justice inspirée par la loi naturelle déborde la justice positive, de même que la misère des miséreux ne se laisse pas ramener au mal commis par le misérable. En découlent des variations où l’on peut voir se profiler trois moments : 1. La loi coutumière est bouscu...

  13. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  14. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ..., rulemaking, and policy formulation. The DOT Order sets forth steps to prevent disproportionately high and... Circular as a whole. Some commenters expressed concerns about perceived administrative and financial... Engagement With Environmental Justice Populations Chapter III contains recommended strategies and techniques...

  15. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  16. Problematising Development in Sustainability: Epistemic Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... justice in education for sustainable development (ESD) and presents alternative ... that global definitions of development cement the dominant hegemonic discourse .... constituted by collective community and ecological components, social responsibility becomes.

  17. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  18. Climate Change, Social Justice and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Barker; Şerban Scrieciu; David Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Terry Barker, Şerban Scrieciu and David Taylor discuss the implications of climate change for social justice and the prospects for more sustainable development pathways. They state that the analysis and discussions surrounding the climate change problem, particularly those drawing on the traditional economics literature, have relied on a crude economic utilitarianism that no moral philosopher would endorse. Such arguments have typically ignored the concept of justice itself and wider e...

  19. Environmental Justice and the Spatial Distribution of Outdoor Recreation sites: an Applications of Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation sites and their proximity to census block groups (CBGs), in order to determine potential socio-economic inequities. It is framed within the context of environmental justice. Information from the Southern Appalachian Assessment database was applied to a case study of the Chattahoochee National Forest in...

  20. A Charity/Justice Partnership for U.S. Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that it is imperative to end hunger in the United States and to go beyond a national perspective, taking a global perspective to fight hunger elsewhere in the world. Sees America's first response to hunger being charity and considers charity and justice. Discusses efforts of Campaign to End Childhood Hunger and Maine Coalition for Food…

  1. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  2. Depoliticization of the Language of Social Justice, Multiculturalism, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the depoliticization of the language of social justice, multiculturalism, and multicultural education in this moment of neoliberalism and multiculturalism, and in each section includes both national and international examples of depolicizaton to point out the pervasiveness of depolicization throughout the world.…

  3. Education and Development: Dynamics of Access, Equity, and Social Justice in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghenekohwo, Jonathan E.; Torunarigha, Young D.

    2018-01-01

    Widening access to education as social justice is basic in any discourse on educational investment, growth and development in developing country such as Nigeria. Presently, there is disconnect between educational development expectations and public policy frameworks designed to drive the united nations sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2030…

  4. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  5. Teaching for Social Justice: Motivations of Community College Faculty in Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sonia; Blount, Stacye; Dickinson, Charles A.; Better, Alison; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers; Tyler, Deidre; Kisielewski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article evaluates the reasons for career choice and job satisfaction among community college faculty who teach sociology, in relation to a social justice motivation for teaching. Using closed- and open-ended response data from a 2014 national survey of community college sociology faculty, this study finds that a preponderance of faculty do…

  6. SOCIAL JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire Diker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from  the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced  by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on  inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic,  ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the  rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework  for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the  last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into  consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could  be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of  Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their  problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects  have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in  Turkey. In this paper, we will

  7. Procedural (in)justice in the implementation of solar energy: The case of Charanaka solar park, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenneti, Komali; Day, Rosie

    2015-01-01

    Solar PV is being rolled out on a large scale in India and other emerging economies, but in the enthusiasm for solar’s promise of plentiful, low carbon energy, the social and environmental justice concerns accompanying such infrastructure development are in danger of being overlooked. In this context, this paper, using the case study of ‘Charanaka Solar Park’ in Gujarat state, qualitatively analyses the degree of provision for procedural justice in solar energy implementation in India using a framework drawn from social environmental and energy justice literatures. The case study illustrates how the failure of various aspects of procedural justice can result in unnecessarily large impacts on the livelihoods of rural communities and the further marginalisation of those of lowest status. We conclude with discussion of the aspects of procedural justice that need attention in low carbon energy developments in developing countries alongside some policy and governance suggestions for the achievement of this in India and elsewhere. - Highlights: • Procedural justice issues in Charanaka solar park implementation are examined • New insights into participation, enfranchisement, and recognition are provided • Lack of information sharing and acknowledgement of local knowledge • Lack of adequate participation and enfranchisement of the affected communities • Consideration of procedural justice important for success of National Solar Mission

  8. Black–White Disparities in Criminal Justice Referrals to Drug Treatment: Addressing Treatment Need or Expanding the Diagnostic Net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McElrath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S. 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks.

  9. Black–White Disparities in Criminal Justice Referrals to Drug Treatment: Addressing Treatment Need or Expanding the Diagnostic Net?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Karen; Taylor, Angela; Tran, Kimberly K.

    2016-01-01

    Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence) may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks. PMID:27706092

  10. Fiber Arts and Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kuhn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiber arts, because they are practiced in different forms around the globe, have the potential to teach us much about generative justice that unites labor, ecological, and expressive values. The ecological mutualism documented in Navajo corrals supports traditional weaving, dyeing, food, and medicinal practices in a sustainable and generative cycle that survives despite disruption and exploitation. The network of fiber craftspeople, retailers, ranchers, teachers, spinners, and dyers and their organizations supports the social mutualism of fiber communities. Fiber arts practices can benefit individuals, communities, the environment, and public health, among other things. Conscious fiber activism and critical making can also be used to explicitly draw attention to problems such as overconsumption, waste, industrial “fast fashion,” labor exploitation, environmental degradation, toxic risks, intolerance, and the devaluing of women and their work. Fiber arts have the potential to support environmental and social mutualism and catalyze a new aesthetic of long-term attachment to meaningful objects and communities, reinforcing the creation and conservation of expressive, ecological, and labor value. 

  11. Towards Communicative Justice in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge. I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest. I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies. Although the Bolivarian socialist government provided access to care, professionals denigrated parents' contributions to care and communication and reduced complex, unequal relations between languages to practical problems of translation. Pointing to parallels with US social movements, I suggest that responding to demands for communicative justice in health requires seeing how health inequities are entangled with health/communicative inequities. The typographical slash points to importance of challenging the subdisciplinary boundary-work that relegates their study to non-overlapping conversations in medical and linguistic anthropology.

  12. THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN ADMINISTRATIVE COURT AND COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosilja Britvić Vetma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dialogue judges between administrative court and Court of Justice of the European Union, and determines the most important elements of this cooperation. Special attention was given preliminary ruling procedure and position of Croatian administrative courts in it. In the following paper, the relationship between tha national administrative courts, the Courts of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights after the Treaty of Lisbon. This paper also discusses the solutions adopted in other countries, special attention was paid to the influence of French administrative law on cooperation (dialogue between the courts due to a strong influence on the development of that cooperation.

  13. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (emission of CFB is very low for the new NER due to its innate property.

  14. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  15. Restorative Justice at Work: Examining the Impact of Restorative Justice Resolutions on Juvenile Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Programs with restorative justice ideals attempt to incorporate victims and community members into the administration of justice. Although these programs have become increasingly popular, only a few programs in the United States have been the focus of prior studies. Using official juvenile court data from an urban, metropolitan area, this study…

  16. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  17. The Administration of Justice in al-Andalus and the Principles of Justice in Constitutional Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    exanimating some of the distinctive elements of the Andalusian administration of justice and the role that specialized judges developed. The paper then exposes the meaning and scope of modern principles of justice, as prescribed by Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in Article 14...

  18. Navigating the Meanings of Social Justice, Teaching for Social Justice, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunhee

    2017-01-01

    This article uses well-received contemporary scholarship--works by Iris Young, Nancy Fraser, Morva McDonald, Connie North, and Geneva Gay--to illuminate a high degree of coherence among the substantive meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice, and multicultural education. Based on these relationships, the article suggests that…

  19. Rethinking Discussions of Justice in Educational Research: Formative Justice, Educational Liberalism, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research tends to borrow accounts of justice from scholarship embedded within the structures and commitments of other disciplines or fields of study. This has created a body of educational research that largely responds to the "justice" goals of those disciplines rather than education qua education.…

  20. Commentary: School Psychologists as Advocates for Racial Justice and Social Justice: Some Proposed Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Shriberg acknowledges that social justice and racial justice are critical frameworks from which to view school psychology. Individually and collectively, the works in this special issue of "School Psychology Forum" have added a tremendous service to the field. In addition to advancing research, the articles challenge…