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Sample records for justice distributive procedural

  1. Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice: How Experiences with Downsizing Condition Their Impact on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Roman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both procedural justice and distributive justice are important predictors of work attitudes. This research, however, fails to examine conditions that affect the relative importance of each type of justice. Here we argue that prior experiences with regard to downsizing shape individuals' workplace schemas, which…

  2. Differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates in emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, J

    2000-08-01

    Most theories of justice focus on individual-level approaches; few examine the role of contextual factors such as culture. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates (n = 120 and 58, respectively) in terms of their emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Analyses indicated that Hispanic students were more likely to use interactional justice than Caucasian respondents, but the groups did not differ in their likelihood of using distributive or procedural justice.

  3. The Association between Perceptions of Distributive Justice and Procedural Justice with Support of Treatment and Support of Punishment among Correctional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G.; Hogan, Nancy L.; Barton-Bellessa, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature exploring the relationship between correctional officer orientations toward treatment and punishment is inconsistent at best. One rarely studied aspect is the influence of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff support for treatment and punishment. For this study, ordinary least squares regression analysis of…

  4. The Association between Perceptions of Distributive Justice and Procedural Justice with Support of Treatment and Support of Punishment among Correctional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G.; Hogan, Nancy L.; Barton-Bellessa, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature exploring the relationship between correctional officer orientations toward treatment and punishment is inconsistent at best. One rarely studied aspect is the influence of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff support for treatment and punishment. For this study, ordinary least squares regression analysis of…

  5. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  6. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  7. Polarization of perceived Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H; Hernandez-Marrero, Pablo; Wielemaker, Martin

    2006-02-01

    This study examined polarization of perceptions of Procedural Justice. Two polarization mechanisms are examined, Persuasive Arguments and Social Comparisons. Participants were students enrolled in a first-year introductory business class. There were 216 participants in the Persuasive Arguments study, 429 in the Social Comparisons study. The average age of all participants was 22.3 yr. (SD = 2.1); 56% were women. Fields of study represented were business, engineering, information technology, and sports. Analysis showed under conditions of low Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with the Persuasive Arguments mechanism. Under conditions of high Procedural Justice, polarization effects were only found with Social Comparisons. Implications for group polarization and Procedural Justice theories are considered.

  8. Dentistry and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharamsi, Shafik; MacEntee, Michael I

    2002-07-01

    There is a growing concern in most countries to address the problem of inequities in health-care within the context of financial restraints on the public purse and the realities of health professions that are influenced strongly by the economic priorities of free-market economies. Dental professionals, like other health professionals, are well aware that the public expects oral health-related services that are effective, accessible, available and affordable. Yet, there is remarkably little reference in the literature to the theories of distributive justice that might offer guidance on how an equitable oral health service could be achieved. This paper considers three prominent theories of distributive justice--libertarianism, egalitarianism and contractarianism--within the controversial context of basic care and quality of life. The discussion leads towards a socially responsible, egalitarian perspective on prevention augmented by a social contract for curative care with the aim of providing maximum benefit to the least advantaged in society.

  9. A new dimension of organizational justice: procedural voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Denise; Rodwell, John

    2009-10-01

    Dimensionality of the Colquitt justice measures was investigated across a wide range of service occupations. Structural equation modeling of data from 410 survey respondents found support for the 4-factor model of justice (procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational), although significant improvement of model fit was obtained by including a new latent variable, "procedural voice," which taps employees' desire to express their views and feelings and influence results. The model was confirmed in a second sample (N = 505) in the same organization six months later.

  10. Naval Justice School Procedure Study Guide. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    number; be personally signed by the convening authority; and show his name, grade, and title -- including organizacion and unit. While R.C.M. 1302(c...accused’s convening authority may, "in his sole Naval Justice School Rev. 10/92 Publica ý on 19-45 Procedure Study Guide discretion," decide to defer the

  11. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Law Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, André; Schueler, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judg

  12. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  13. Procedural Justice in Dutch Administrative Court Proceedings

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    André Verburg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss recent developments in administrative court proceedings in the Netherlands, called the New Approach. Along with developments leading to the New Approach, it became clear that the insights from research on procedural justice deserve particular attention. The goals of the judge's actions in this respect are both that the proceedings are fair and just and that parties perceive the way they are being treated during proceedings as fair and just.Within the New Approach we discern five procedural justice elements: (1 respect, (2 voice and due consideration, (3 some influence on how proceedings will continue, (4 an explanation of how the proceedings will continue and (5 direct interpersonal contact.The introduction of the New Approach shows two important bottlenecks in Dutch administrative court proceedings, which are (i the possible or supposed collision between legally right outcomes and  procedural justice and (ii the lack of uniformity and predictability.Although what we describe and discuss in this paper focuses on the Dutch situation, many of these considerations apply to administrative court proceedings in other countries. The themes and difficulties that face the administrative law judge seem to be common to many countries.

  14. Procedural justice and quality of life in compensation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, N.A.; Akkermans, A.J.; Cuijpers, P.; Bruinvels, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    .001). Having trunk/back injury was negatively related to procedural justice (b = =-.25, p = .001). Whiplash injury and length of time involved in the claim process were not associated with any of the justice scales. Finally, procedural justice was found to be positively correlated with quality of l

  15. Why global distributive justice cannot work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a political theory of global distributive justice, as envisaged by neo-Rawlsian cosmopolitans, makes no sense. Political theorists such as Charles Beitz, Thomas Pogge, and Darrel Moellendorf have argued that John Rawls's egalitarian conception of distributive justice should be

  16. Social position, ideology, and distributive justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. d' Anjou (Leo); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. van Aarsen (Dries)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses two important questions regarding distributive justice. First we ask whether people use standards or principles of distributive justice regarding the allocation of income. The study confirms our expectation that there are at least two principles, viz., the merit and

  17. Distributive justice through taxation: European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, João Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the possibility of having distributive justice through taxes at European level. That possibility will be based on the verification of a set of conditions such as fiscal sovereignty, political community, welfare model; and personal taxes, which, according to the author, must be present at the level of the European Union in order to achieve that normative principle (distributive justice). Throughout the discussion, upon acknowledgement that those requirements are stil...

  18. The Relationship between Participation in Decision Making, and Supervisor\\\\\\'s Perceived Support with Organizational Citizenship Behaviors among Employees, with Emphasis on the Mediating Role of Procedural and Perceived Distributive Justices

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    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Among different organizational variables, social exchange theory has had an effective role in explaining and perceiving organizational citizenship behavior (OCB and organizational justice. Exchange of justice is an important aspect of social exchange theory. A number of studies have investigated the relationship between perceived organizational justice and employees' attitudes. However, the issue that is examined in organizational justice and OCB is how employees should be treated such that they perceive the existence of justice in the organization. This study aimed at examining a proposed model based on the mediating role of procedural and perceived distributive justices in the relationship between supervisor's perceived support and participation in decision making with organizational citizenship behavior       Materials & Methods   The present study is of relational type. The population of the study include all employees of Agricultural Society of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad in Iran in 2011. From 490 employees, 120 were selected based on simple random sampling method. The questionnaires in this study include (1 Participation in decision-making inventory that was invented by Parnel and Bell (2001, (2 Supervisor's support inventory that was made by Eisenberger et al. (1986, (3 Organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire which was invented by Smith et al. (1983, (4 Distributive Justice Inventory as was made by Colquitt (2001, and (5 Procedural Justice Inventory as was made by Niehoff and Moorman (1993. Also, the analysis of the data started with preliminary analysis (zero-order Pearson correlations to gain a basic insight of data. Then, more sophisticated analyzes were performed to assess the fitness of the proposed model, all of which were performed by Structural equation modeling (SEM using maximum likelihood estimation of AMOS software, 16th version (Arbuckle, 1997. In order to determine that whether the proposed

  19. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    This PhD dissertation is a contribution to discussions about personal responsibility in relation to distributive justice in health and health care. It is a contribution to contemporary political philosophy in general, but in particular to luck egalitarian theory. I aim to answer three focal...... recent political philosophical discussions of responsibility in egalitarian and luck egalitarian theory to bear on issues of social inequality in health, and access to health care. I argue that distributive justice in health and health care should be sensitive to responsibility, but also that individuals...... questions: 1) What role ought personal responsibility to play in distributive justice in health and health care? 2) What does it take for an individual to be responsible for her own health condition (or responsible in general)? And 3) what is the relation between responsibility and cost...

  20. Procedural justice and layoff survivors' commitment: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, W Lee

    2006-10-01

    Layoffs are common in today's organizations. Most studies that have examined the correlation between procedural justice and the organizational commitment of layoff survivors have yielded positive correlations, but the magnitude of the correlations varies widely. This study is the first to estimate the population correlation and to identify the primary sources that cause variation in the correlation across studies. The results indicated that justice and commitment correlations can always be expected to be positive. Based on a total sample size of 9080 individuals, the estimated mean population correlation was .34. Variation was primarily explained by attributes of the justice measure where multiple items scales and scales composed of both interactional and procedural justice items yielded higher correlations than single item measures. Therefore, it is important that employers recognize the substantial assuaging affect that procedural and interactional justice can have on survivors' organizational commitment.

  1. Procedural justice, anger, and prisoners’ misconduct : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A.; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Van der Laan, Peter H.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Procedural justice literature suggests that when criminal justice authorities treat people with fairness and respect, people will be more likely to comply with authority’s decisions and rules. Up until now, prior research has largely neglected the correctional context and often used cross-sectional

  2. Health, personal responsibility, and distributive justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    recent political philosophical discussions of responsibility in egalitarian and luck egalitarian theory to bear on issues of social inequality in health, and access to health care. I argue that distributive justice in health and health care should be sensitive to responsibility, but also that individuals...... explains why we have justice-based reasons to reduce social inequality in health. In my second article I investigate and (partly) object to a suggestion put forward by Shlomi Segall, according to which we should exchange the notion of responsibility with a notion of Reasonable Avoidability in the luck......This PhD dissertation is a contribution to discussions about personal responsibility in relation to distributive justice in health and health care. It is a contribution to contemporary political philosophy in general, but in particular to luck egalitarian theory. I aim to answer three focal...

  3. Distributive Justice Development: Cross-Cultural, Contextual, and Longitudinal Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Study One examined Swedish and American children's understanding of what constitutes fair criteria for the distribution of goods (i.e., distributive justice). Study Two compared children's distributive justice in family and peer contexts, and Study Three attempted a longitudinal assessment of distributive justice reasoning in two different…

  4. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

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    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  5. Health Care Rationing and Distributive Justice

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    Friedrich Breyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in medical technology makes it unavoidable to ration health care. In the discussion how to ration many people claim that principles of justice in distributing scarce resources should be applied. In this paper we argue that medical resources are not scarce as such but scarcity is a necessary by-product of collective financing arrangements such as social health insurance. So the right question to ask is the determination of the benefit package of such an institution. Hartmut Kliemt is currently involved in a commendable interdisciplinary research project in which principles of 'prioritization' of medical care are studied. This contribution adds a specific perspective to this endeavour: we ask how the goal of distributive justice can be interpreted in this context and compare different approaches to implementing 'just' allocation mechanisms.

  6. Psychotherapy and distributive justice: a Rawlsian analysis.

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    Wilmot, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    In this paper I outline an approach to the distribution of resources between psychotherapy modalities in the context of the UK's health care system, using recent discussions of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy as a way of highlighting resourcing issues. My main goal is to offer an approach that is just, and that accommodates the diversity of different schools of psychotherapy. In order to do this I draw extensively on the theories of Justice and of Political Liberalism developed by the late John Rawls, and adapt these to the particular requirements of psychotherapy resourcing. I explore some of the implications of this particular analysis, and consider how the principles of Rawlsian justice might translate into ground rules for deliberation and decision-making.

  7. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  8. Perspectives on "Bakke": Equal Protection, Procedural Fairness, or Structural Justice?

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    Tribe, Laurence H.

    1979-01-01

    The "Bakke" case is examined for what it has to say regarding first the area of equal protection, then the idea of procedural fairness as distinct from accuracy of result, and finally the notion of structural justice. Available from Harvard Law Review, Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138; sc $5.50.…

  9. Procedural justice seen to be done. The judiciary’s press guidelines in the light of publicity and procedural justice

    OpenAIRE

    Leonie van Lent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the recent attempts by the Dutch judiciary to gain more public acceptance of its tasks and functioning in criminal justice by enhancing its relationship with the press. The central question to be answered is to what extent the current stance towards the media, as expressed in the press guidelines, corresponds with the principle of publicity, as well as with the empirical findings in the field of procedural justice. Both the principle of publicity and the p...

  10. Another Look at Distributive Justice and the Social Studies.

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    Gregg, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses distributive justice in teaching social studies. Argues that utilitarianism is an inadequate basis for distributive justice because it does not allow for the primacy of civil or natural rights. Suggests addressing such issues in class to encourage student consideration of fundamental principles and their application to contemporary…

  11. Another Look at Distributive Justice and the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses distributive justice in teaching social studies. Argues that utilitarianism is an inadequate basis for distributive justice because it does not allow for the primacy of civil or natural rights. Suggests addressing such issues in class to encourage student consideration of fundamental principles and their application to contemporary…

  12. Distributive Justice and Free Market Economics: A Eudaimonistic Perspective

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    Michael F. Reber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, a peculiar understanding of distributive justice has developed which holds that “social justice must be distributed by the coercive force of government.” However, this is a perversion of the ideal of distributive justice. The perspective of distributive justice which should be considered is one with its roots in the school of thought referred to as self-actualization ethics or eudaimonism, which holds that each person is unique and each should discover whom he or she is—to actualize his or her true potential and to live the “good life” within the congeniality and complementarity of personal excellences of his or her fellow members of community. When a eudaimonistic perspective is considered, a definition of distributive of justice could be “the allocation of goods and utilities via the voluntary ubiquitous human interaction of self-actualizing individuals who not only recognize the human dignity of the self and other and the rights which flow from and guarantee it, but also actively will goods and utilities toward the self and other so as to manifest human dignity.” Therefore, with a eudaimonistic understanding of distributive justice, one can argue that the free market is the ubiquitous interactions of self-actualizing individuals who are giving and receiving goods and utilities for one and another’s own “happiness,” i.e. the free market is the socio-economic mechanism by which distributive justice operates. In this paper I first will overview the philosophical foundations of distributive justice. Next, I will propose a eudaimonistic definition of distributive justice. Finally, I will highlight examples of distributive justice operating in a free market economy.

  13. Perceptions of procedural justice in the retrenchment of managers

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    L. P. Vermeulen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researcher attempted to establish whether demographic variables, the context of lay-offs and layoff support factors affect retrenched managers’ perceptions of procedural justice with regard to their retrenchment. The results confirm that several factors affect managers’ perceptions of procedural justice. Five independent variables (voluntary vs. involuntary severance, lay-off magnitude, severance compensation, outplacement support and job search stress accounted for 47,9 per cent of the variance in retrenched managers’ perceptions of procedural justice. It is doubtful that managers will perceive their retrenchment as fair if organisations fail to provide considerable concrete support, including severance pay, outplacement support and job search facilities. Opsomming In hierdie studie het die navorser gepoog om vas te stel of demografiese veranderlikes, die konteks van aflegging en afleggingondersteunings-faktore afgelegde bestuurders se persepsies van prosedurele geregtigheid met betrekking tot hul ontslag beïnvloed. Die resultate toon dat verskeie faktore bestuurders se persepsies van prosedurele geregtigheid affekteer. Vyf onafhanklike veranderlikes (vrywillige vs. nie-vrywillige skeiding, omvang van aflegging, skeidingsvergoeding, uitplasingsteun en werksoekstres het 47,9 persent van die variansie in afgelegde bestuurders se persepsies van prosedurele geregtigheid verklaar. Dit is onwaarskynlik dat bestuurders hul aflegging as regverdig sal beskou, tensy organisasies aansienlike konkrete ondersteuning soos skeidingspakkette, uitplasingsteun en werksoekfasiliteite daarstel.

  14. Organization structure as a moderator of the relationship between procedural justice, interactional justice, perceived organizational support, and supervisory trust.

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    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2003-04-01

    Organizational justice researchers recognize the important role organization context plays in justice perceptions, yet few studies systematically examine contextual variables. This article examines how 1 aspect of context--organizational structure--affects the relationship between justice perceptions and 2 types of social exchange relationships, organizational and supervisory. The authors suggest that under different structural conditions, procedural and interactional justice will play differentially important roles in determining the quality of organizational social exchange (as evidenced by perceived organizational support [POS]) and supervisory social exchange (as evidenced by supervisory trust). In particular, the authors hypothesized that the relationship between procedural justice and POS would be stronger in mechanistic organizations and that the relationship between interactional justice and supervisory trust would be stronger in organic organizations. The authors' results support these hypotheses.

  15. Partiality and distributive justice in African bioethics.

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    Wareham, Christopher Simon

    2017-04-01

    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible. In this article, I claim that the plausible intuitions drawn on in favour of partiality can be satisfactorily explained on the basis of impartial moral theories. Moreover, I argue that blanket acceptance of partiality has problematic consequences for distributive justice in resource allocation in biomedical contexts. By contrast, impartial theories can justify plausible instances of partiality whilst avoiding the pitfalls of fully partial moral theories. Although this provides grounds for abandoning partiality in principle, I claim that this finding should not be seen as damaging to African medical ethics. Instead, it prompts investigation of underexplored possibilities of impartial African moral theories. To demonstrate the value of this direction, I sketch some novel and attractive conceptions that combine impartiality with elements of African ethics.

  16. What´s the monetary value of distributive justice

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo; Fong, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a simple theoretical model that can be implemented to estimate the willingness to pay for distributive justice. We derive a formula that allows one to recover the willingness to pay for distributive justice from the estimated coefficients of a probit regression and fiscal data. Using this formula and data from a 1998 Gallup Social Audit, we find that the monetary value of justice in the United States is about one fifth of GDP. We also generalize the model to estimate the v...

  17. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  18. Procedural Justice Elements of Judicial Legitimacy and their Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Persak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low trust in courts has been recorded in many EU countries. According to the procedural justice paradigm, this phenomenon has negative repercussions for judicial legitimacy, since people who (or when they distrust an authority tend also not to perceive this authority as legitimate (which, in turn, has consequences for their compliance and cooperation with this authority and its decisions. Legitimacy of judiciary, objectively conceived, has several elements, some of which are connected to procedural justice concerns. This article focuses on the latter. In the second part, moreover, the article addresses some of the possible challenges to the judicial procedural justice, drawing on sociological and socio-legal observations regarding legal institutions in the late modern world, where, for example, efficiency-oriented goals mix with justice- and other public good-oriented ones, often creating internal pressures that may impact on the legitimacy of the institution in question. Numerosos países de la UE han registrado una baja confianza en los tribunales. Según el paradigma de la justicia procesal, este fenómeno tiene repercusiones negativas para la legitimidad judicial, ya que las personas que (o cuando desconfían de una autoridad, también tienden a no percibir esta autoridad como legítima (lo que, a su vez, tiene consecuencias para su conformidad y cooperación con esta autoridad y sus decisiones. La legitimidad del poder judicial, concebida de forma objetiva, tiene diversos elementos, algunos de los cuales están relacionados con las preocupaciones de la justicia procesual. Este artículo se centra en estos elementos. En la segunda parte, además, el artículo aborda algunos de los posibles desafíos de la justicia de procesal, basándose en observaciones sociológicas y sociojurídicas relacionadas con las instituciones legales en el mundo moderno reciente, donde, por ejemplo, los objetivos orientados a la eficiencia se mezclan con objetivos

  19. Geriatric care and distributive justice: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D G; Ingman, S R

    1986-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of 16 essays on cross-national perspectives in geriatric care and distributive justice. Gill and Ingman first provide an overview of the "broad parameters under which distributive justice decisions have been and are being taken in the American medical care system," with special reference to John Rawls' A Theory of Justice. They then briefly summarize the topics of the other essays, which are organized into three sections: I. The U.S.A.: Underdevelopment of the Welfare State and Limited Geriatric Care; II. Nursing Homes: Industry or Public Service?; and III. Geriatric Care in Other Selected Countries. The authors conclude that funding health care for the elderly in terms of distributive justice is creating a dilemma for all societies. They propose the decommodification of medical services as a solution to the problem in the United States.

  20. Study on the Impact of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Alliance Commitment: an Empirical Analysis Based on Chinese Hospital Alliances%程序公平和分配公平对联盟承诺的影响:基于中国医院联盟的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡昊雯; 史会斌; 李垣

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of procedural and distributive justice on alliance commitment.Based on Chinese hospital alliances,this paper use factor analysis,hierarchical regression and moderating regression to test the hypotheses.The results indicate that procedural and distributive justice could enhance organizational commitment in alliances,and organizations which have different market position,based on the discrepancy of their characteristics,market environment and alliance position,would respond to different kinds of justice differently.These results constitute a challenge to the dominant perspective of procedural justice and can deepen the justice researches in alliances.%研究了程序公平和分配公平对联盟承诺的影响,基于我国医院联盟的背景和问卷调查,利用因子分析、层级回归和调节回归验证了相关假设。实证结果表明:程序公平和分配公平能够提高组织对联盟的承诺;具有不同市场地位的组织由于组织特征、市场环境和联盟地位的差异,对不同类型的公平具有不同的反应。这一结论对现有程序公平主导的观点提出了挑战,深化了现有关于联盟公平的研究。

  1. Children's reasoning about distributive and retributive justice across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Warneken, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4- to 10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgments about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4- to 5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4- to 5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared with reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality versus equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and the literature on moral development and fairness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafinah Begum Abdul Rahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available itical, behavioural and social sciences both in mainstream or Islam. Given its increasing relevance to the global village we share and the intensity of socio-economic problems invariably related to the distribution of resources amongst us, this work is aimed at adding value through a deeper understanding and appreciation of justice placed by the Syariah in all domains of of our economic lives. The existing works within this area appear to lean mostly towards redistributive mechanisms available in the revealed knowledge. Hence a comprehensive analysis of the notion of distributive justice from the theoretical level translated into practical terms is expected to contribute significantly to policymakers committed towards finding permanent solutions to economic problems especially in the Muslim world. It is a modest yet serious attempt to bridge the gap between distributive justice in letter and spirit as clearly ordained in the Holy Quran. The entire analysis is based on critical reviews and appraisals of the all relevant literary on distributive justice in Islamic Economics. The final product is a conceptual framework that can be used as a blueprint in establishing the notion of justice in the distribution of economic resources, i.e. income and wealth as aspired by the Syariah.

  3. Distributive Justice in Higher Education: Perceptions of Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M.; Mahony, Daniel; Crawford, Fashaad; Hnat, Hope Bradley

    2014-01-01

    For the study we report here we used the theoretical framework of organizational justice to examine academic administrator's perceptions of resource distribution decisions. We asked deans, school directors, and department chairs in one midwestern state about their perceptions of the fairness and likelihood of use of various distribution principles…

  4. Procedural justice effects on self-esteem under certainty versus uncertainty emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); A. van Hiel (Alain)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBuilding upon the idea that procedural justice effects are more pronounced when uncertainty is high, we proposed that recall of an uncertainty-eliciting emotion (fear) will render people more responsive to variations in procedural justice than will recall of a certainty-eliciting emotion

  5. Procedural justice effects on self-esteem under certainty versus uncertainty emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); A. van Hiel (Alain)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBuilding upon the idea that procedural justice effects are more pronounced when uncertainty is high, we proposed that recall of an uncertainty-eliciting emotion (fear) will render people more responsive to variations in procedural justice than will recall of a certainty-eliciting emotion

  6. The role of standing in the psychology of procedural justice: Towards theoretical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prooijen, J.-W. van; Bos, K. van den; Wilke, H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the current chapter, the authors explore the relation between social standing and procedural justice. Standing is an important construct in procedural justice theories and tends to be broadly defined as the position that people have in social groups. It is argued that the standing construct

  7. Procedural Justice Seen to Be Done:The Judiciary’s Press Guidelines in the Light of Publicity and Procedural Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie van Lent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As in other jurisdictions, the Dutch judiciary has been confronted with public unease about criminal justice and is trying to enhance its legitimacy. System and culture however contain hardly any opening for public involvement in criminal justice, and this implication of the publicity principle traditionally encounters disapproval. In its aim of (regaining confidence in the criminal justice system, publicity intertwines procedural fairness and public influence: it requires that the (perception of the lay public is taken into account when conducting proceedings and phrasing the judgment, thereby ensuring visible conformity with publicly-held fairness standards and thus a perception of legitimacy by participants and the public alike. Procedural justice research confirms these notions in finding that the perception of proceedings as fair legitimizes the judiciary and the justice system. The judiciary’s wish to enhance transparency – of which the press guidelines (2013 are the most important expression – is therefore essential. Both publicity and the procedural justice concept refer to the procedure as central in legitimization and therefore provide important arguments for allowing the audiovisual registration of criminal proceedings. As system and culture do not change easily, this may lead to more public-minded proceedings and to a shift in the public debate towards procedure.

  8. Children's Conceptions and Use of Rules of Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robertjan; Klaassen, Marianne

    1979-01-01

    Describes the equity and cognitive developmental theories of children's concepts of distributive justice and examines a methodological problem which may have influenced previous findings. Also reports a study of the relations between hypothetical arguments, real-life arguments, and real-life division behaviors of 84 children aged four to seven…

  9. Distributive justice and the harm to medical professionals fighting epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    might owe to medical professionals who are disadvantaged in these contexts. Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice, appears to fare particularly bad in that regard. If we want to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their decisions to help, cure...... and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent. The article demonstrates how a recent interpretation of luck egalitarianism offers a solution to this problem. Redefining luck egalitarianism...... as concerned with responsibility for creating disadvantages, rather than for incurring disadvantage as such, makes it possible to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their choices and that those infected because of their choice to help fight epidemics have a full claim of justice to medical...

  10. The Frontiers Approach: Defending a Sufficientarian Rule of Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    resources within and between societies are distributed. One important debate concerns which rule of distribution should govern distributive justice. Egalitarians argue that we should strive for equality as the distributive ideal. Others suggest sufficientarianism as the promising alternative, meaning....... Duress, therefore, captures the injustice of someone being below the level of a dignified human life to which they are entitled. Our reconstruction of the sufficientarian approach addresses the injustice of duress directly by suggesting a distributive scheme based on what we shall call frontiers...

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study examined the factors that predict employees’ perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. Design/Methodology/Approach - The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement as well as Time 1 (T1 perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. Findings - A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the all staff category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Research limitations/implications - Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Perceived Procedural Justice in Australian University Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factors that predict employees' perceptions of procedural justice in university settings. The paper also reviews the ethical aspects of justice and psychological contracts within employment relationships. The study examined the predictors of perceived procedural justice in a two-wave longitudinal sample of 945 employees from 13 universities by applying the Job Demands-Resources theoretical model of stress. The proposed predictors were classified into two categories: Job demands of work pressure and work-home conflict; and job resources of job security, autonomy, trust in senior management, and trust in supervisor. The predictor model also examined job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, demographic (age, gender, tenure, role) and individual characteristics (negative affectivity, job involvement) as well as Time 1 (T1) perceptions of procedural justice to ensure that tests were rigorous. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that job satisfaction at T1 was the strongest predictor of perceived procedural justice at Time 2. Employees' trust in senior management, and their length of tenure also positively predicted justice perceptions. There were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups, as non-academic employees' level of job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and their length of organizational tenure predicted procedural justice perceptions, whereas for academics, only job satisfaction predicted perceived justice. For the "all staff" category, job satisfaction was a dominant and enduring predictor of justice, and employees' trust in senior management also predicted justice. Results highlight the importance of workplace factors in enhancing fair procedures to encourage reciprocity from employees. As perceived procedural justice is also conceptually linked to the psychological contract between employees-employers, it is possible that employees' levels of job satisfaction and

  13. The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: a test of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen L; Schminke, Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Organizational justice research traditionally focuses on the unique predictability of different types of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the relative importance of these types of justice on outcome variables. Recently, researchers have suggested shifting from this focus on specific types of justice to a consideration of overall justice. The authors hypothesize that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice facets and outcomes. They present 2 studies to test this hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrates that overall justice judgments mediate the relationship between specific justice judgments and employee attitudes. Study 2 demonstrates the mediating relationship holds for supervisor ratings of employee behavior. Implications for research on organizational justice are discussed.

  14. Procedural justice versus risk factors for offending: predicting recidivism in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Erika K; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Roesch, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience respectful and fair legal decision-making procedures are more likely to believe in the legitimacy of the law and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, few studies have examined these relationships in youth. To begin to fill this gap in the literature, in the current study, the authors studied 92 youth (67 male, 25 female) on probation regarding their perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy, and then monitored their offending over the subsequent 6 months. Results indicated that perceptions of procedural justice predicted self-reported offending at 3 months but not at 6 months, and that youths' beliefs about the legitimacy of the law did not mediate this relationship. Furthermore, procedural justice continued to account for unique variance in self-reported offending over and above the predictive power of well-established risk factors for offending (i.e., peer delinquency, substance abuse, psychopathy, and age at first contact with the law). Theoretically, the current study provides evidence that models of procedural justice developed for adults are only partially replicated in a sample of youth; practically, this research suggests that by treating adolescents in a fair and just manner, justice professionals may be able to reduce the likelihood that adolescents will reoffend, at least in the short term.

  15. Distributive Justice in Education and Conflicting Interests: Not (Remotely) as Bad as You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shahar, Tammy Harel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of education and its profound effect on people's life make it a central issue in discussions of distributive justice. However, promoting distributive justice in education comes at a price: prioritising the education of some, as is often entailed by the principles of justice, inevitably has negative effects on the education of…

  16. Applying procedural justice theory to law enforcement's response to persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2007-06-01

    Procedural justice provides a framework for considering how persons with mental illness experience interactions with the police and how officer behaviors may shape cooperation or resistance. The procedural justice perspective holds that the fairness with which people are treated in an encounter with authority figures (such as the police) influences whether they cooperate or resist authority. Key components of a procedural justice framework include participation (having a voice), which involves having the opportunity to present one's own side of the dispute and be heard by the decision maker; dignity, which includes being treated with respect and politeness and having one's rights acknowledged; and trust that the authority is concerned with one's welfare. Procedural justice has its greatest impact early in the encounter, suggesting that how officers initially approach someone is extremely important. Persons with mental illness may be particularly attentive to how they are treated by police. According to this framework, people who are uncertain about their status (such as members of stigmatized groups) will respond most strongly to the fairness by which police exercise their authority. This article reviews the literature on police response to persons with mental illness. Procedural justice theory as it has been applied to mental health and justice system contexts is examined. Its application to encounters between police and persons with mental illness is discussed. Implications and cautions for efforts to improve police response to persons with mental illness and future research also are examined.

  17. The good and bad of being fair: effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Lanaj, Klodiana; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    The justice literature has paid considerable attention to the beneficial effects of fair behaviors for recipients of such behaviors. It is possible, however, that exhibiting fair behaviors may come at a cost for actors. In this article, we integrate ego depletion theory with organizational justice research in order to examine the consequences of justice behaviors for actors. We used an experience-sampling method in a sample of managerial employees to examine the relations of performing procedural justice and interpersonal justice behaviors with subsequent changes in actors' regulatory resources. Our results indicate that procedural justice behaviors are draining, whereas interpersonal justice behaviors are replenishing for actors. Depletion, in turn, adversely affected the performance of citizenship behavior, and depletion mediated relations of justice behavior with citizenship. Furthermore, 2 traits that impact self-regulatory skills--extraversion and neuroticism--moderated the replenishing effects of engaging in interpersonal justice behaviors. We conclude by discussing implications and avenues for future research.

  18. Distributive principles of economic justice: an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyuddin Baidhawy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and impoverishment in the world currently continue to increase as aresult of distributive justice systems and its principles that became the basis ofcontemporary economics did not succeed in allocating and distributing resourcesjustly. Based on this problem, this study aimed at describing the Islamic responseto the problem of distributive injustice, and how necessarily the state played arole in upholding distributive justice. Through the thematic-induction method andthe synthetic analysis, the study finds out several findings as follows. Firstly,Islam formulated three principles of distributive justice as follows: 1 the Distributionof natural and the environmental resources was in the framework of participation;2 the Redistribution of the wealth and the income were joint responsibilityof ascertaining social security, the increase in the capacity and the authorityfor them who were disadvantage; and 3 the Role of the state was certaintythat was complementary for the ethical market in order to guarantees the senseof justice and the achievement of public welfare. Secondly, according to Islam,the process of the redistribution of the wealth and the income aimed at givingsocial security on the fulfillment of basic needs for the poor; strove for the increasein the capacity through education and skills; and increased the poor’sbargaining position through their participation in decision making that was linkedwith their interests and the control on its implementation. Thirdly, the intention of establishing justice was to gain both individual and public welfare and the happiness(al-fala>h}.Kemiskinan dan pemiskinan di dunia kontemporer terus meningkat sebagai akibatsistem keadilan distributif dan prinsip-prinsipnya yang menjadi basis ekonomisaat ini tidak berhasil dalam mengalokasikan dan memeratakan sumber dayasecara adil. Berdasarkan masalah ini, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskanrespon Islam atas problem ketidakadilan distributif, dan

  19. Procedural justice seen to be done. The judiciary’s press guidelines in the light of publicity and procedural justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lent, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the recent attempts by the Dutch judiciary to gain more public acceptance of its tasks and functioning in criminal justice by enhancing its relationship with the press. The central question to be answered is to what extent the current stance towards the media, as

  20. Procedural justice and the judge-probationer relationship in a co-occurring disorders court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Myesa Knox

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of research has been conducted on treatment-based courts, there is little quantitative evidence that describes the relationship between the judge and the probationer. The present study examines perceptions of the judge-probationer relationship (JPR), procedural justice, and outcome satisfaction within a co-occurring disorders court (CODC) in Orange County, California. Based on interview and survey data from a sample of probationers within the CODC (n=24), this article argues that perceptions of procedural justice are linked to perceptions of relationship quality between the judge and probationer. Analysis of the data found that probationers in the CODC have very positive views of their relationships with the judge, and elements of relationship quality are significantly linked with perceptions of procedural justice. Procedural justice is also a predictor of satisfaction with outcome in this sample. The results show promise that procedural justice and the quality of the judge-probationer relationship can positively affect probationers with co-occurring disorders in specialty courts.

  1. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  2. The Relationship between Justice and Attitudes: An Examination of Justice Effects on Event and System-Related Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Maureen; Hess, Ronald L.; Ganesan, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    Research in organizational justice has always been interested in the relationship between justice and attitudes. This research often examines how different types of justice affect different attitudes, with distributive justice predicted to affect attitudes about specific events (e.g., performance evaluation) and procedural justice predicted to…

  3. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  4. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  5. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  6. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  7. Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed.

  8. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  9. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  10. Promoting multifoci citizenship behavior: Time-lagged effects of procedural justice, trust, and commitment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grohmann, A.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    To explain why procedural justice leads to organisational citizenship behavior (OCB), both commitment and trust have been studied—but never concurrently. Moreover, as employees aim their behaviors toward distinct targets in the workplace, citizenship behaviors as well as commitment and trust should

  11. Promoting multifoci citizenship behavior: Time-lagged effects of procedural justice, trust, and commitment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grohmann, A.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    To explain why procedural justice leads to organisational citizenship behavior (OCB), both commitment and trust have been studied—but never concurrently. Moreover, as employees aim their behaviors toward distinct targets in the workplace, citizenship behaviors as well as commitment and trust should

  12. Procedural justice in mental health courts: judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  13. Procedural justice in mental health courts: Judicial practices, participant perceptions, and outcomes related to mental health recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Sarah; Yanos, Philip; Pratt, Christina; Koerner, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Research on mental health courts (MHCs) to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and reincarceration over the potential of these problem solving courts to facilitate the recovery process and affect the slope of recovery. This study attempts to shift the focal point of interest from well-established criminal justice outcomes to the experiences and perceptions of MHC participants. The authors hypothesize that the actions of MHC judges that are consistent with procedural justice theory will engender high perceptions of procedural justice among this sample of divertees with SMI. Defendant perceptions of procedural justice in 4 NYC-area MHCs were also compared to those of uninvolved observers. Results suggest that defendant perceptions are distinct from observer perceptions, which tended to be more sensitive to the differences in judges between the four courts. Overall, participants' perceptions of procedural justice were moderate and increased between baseline and 4-month follow-up. Procedural justice was negatively correlated with symptoms at baseline and was positively correlated with participant's attitudes toward their own recovery. Between baseline and 4-month follow-up, participants in our sample tended to increase in perceptions of procedural justice; interestingly, the increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but not to an increase in attitudes toward the recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23415372

  14. Deprivation and Deservingness: Distributive Justice at Home and at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye

    An exploration of interpersonal justice suggests some connections among relative deprivation theory, justice theory, and depression research. Distinctions between home life and work life are necessary in thinking about fairness, deservingness, and deprivation. A survey of over 400 adults explored the extent to which men and women feel deprived…

  15. Justice sensitivity and distributive decisions in experimental games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; Huang, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The concept of "justice sensitivity" has been introduced as a personality disposition by Schmitt, Neumann and Montada (1995) and is supposed to explain inter-individual differences in reactions to unfair situations. Justice sensitivity can be differentiated in three subdimensions: (1) Sensitivity wi

  16. Procedural justice in prison: the importance of staff characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Molleman, Toon; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the importance of correctional staff. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between correctional officers' characteristics and prisoners' perceptions of a just treatment in prison. Our study fills this gap in knowledge. Data were used from (a) the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which prisoners held in all Dutch remand centers were surveyed (n = 1,610) and (b) the Dutch Correctional Staff Survey 2011 (n = 690). Multilevel analyses showed that prisoners perceived their treatment in prison as more procedurally just in units where there are more female officers, where officers held more positive attitudes toward rehabilitation, and where there is a higher officer-to-inmate ratio.

  17. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: multilevel survey methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Young, Douglas W; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed.

  18. Promoting multifoci citizenship behavior: Time-lagged effects of procedural justice, trust, and commitment.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grohmann, A.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    To explain why procedural justice leads to organisational citizenship behavior (OCB), both commitment and trust have been studied—but never concurrently. Moreover, as employees aim their behaviors toward distinct targets in the workplace, citizenship behaviors as well as commitment and trust should be considered as multifoci constructs. To address this, 204 industrial workers were surveyed over a period of three years. Data were analysed with Mplus using structural equation modeling. Our time...

  19. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  20. 罗尔斯程序正义思想研究--以《正义论》为中心%A Study of Rawls' Thought of Procedural Justice---Centering on his A Theory of Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶国平

    2013-01-01

    程序正义是罗尔斯正义理论的核心。在1971年出版的《正义论》中,罗尔斯将程序正义分为完善的程序正义、不完善的程序正义和纯粹的程序正义三种不同类型,以程序正义、尤其是纯粹的程序正义作为正义原则证成与实现的基础,使程序正义取得决定实体正义的优先地位。但在后正义论时期,罗尔斯的正义理论发生了“去程序化”转向,从单纯重视程序正义转向程序正义与实体正义并重。%Procedural justice is the core of Rawls' theory of justice. In A Theory of Justice, his monograph published in 1971, he classifies procedural justices into perfect procedural justice, imperfect procedural justice and pure procedural justice. He takes procedural justice, particularly pure procedural justice as the basis for formation and realization of fairness principle, and puts procedural justice in priority for achievement of substantive justice. But in his late theory, his justice theory undergoes a“de-procedure” turn, shifting from mere emphasis of procedural justice to attention to both procedural and substantive justices.

  1. distributive justice and human rights in climate policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Keywords: Climate change, human rights, justice, policy, Paris Agreement .... the issues of historical responsibility, burden sharing, and differential obligations ... environment' (Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance.

  2. The influence of the elements of procedural justice and speed camera enforcement on young novice driver self-reported speeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel; Allen, Siobhan; Watson, Barry

    2016-07-01

    Road policing is an important tool used to modify road user behaviour. While other theories, such as deterrence theory, are significant in road policing, there may be a role for using procedural justice as a framework to improve outcomes in common police citizen interactions such as traffic law enforcement. This study, using a sample of 237 young novice drivers, considered how the four elements of procedural justice (voice, neutrality, respect and trustworthiness) were perceived in relation to two forms of speed enforcement: point-to-point (or average) speed and mobile speed cameras. Only neutrality was related to both speed camera types suggesting that it may be possible to influence behaviour by emphasising one or more elements, rather than using all components of procedural justice. This study is important as it indicates that including at least some elements of procedural justice in more automated policing encounters can encourage citizen compliance.

  3. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental... and criminal justice by providing financial assistance and funding research and statistical programs... funded efforts; training programs, court improvement projects, research, and gathering statistical...

  4. Due process model of procedural justice in performance appraisal: promotion versus termination scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Heloneida C; Cole, Nina D; Flint, Douglas A

    2006-12-01

    In a laboratory study, 318 student participants (148 male, 169 female, and one who did not report sex; M age 25.0, SD = 6.0) in introductory organizational behavior classes responded to scenarios in which performance appraisal resulted in either employee promotion or termination. Each scenario had varying levels of three procedural justice criteria for performance appraisal. For both promotion and termination outcomes, analysis showed that, as the number of criteria increased, perceptions of procedural fairness increased. A comparison between the two outcomes showed that perceptions of fairness were significantly stronger for the promotion outcome than for termination.

  5. The mediating effect of distributive justice in the relationship between pay design and job satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azman Ismail; Dayang Kartini Abang Ibrahim; Antonia Girardi

    2009-01-01

    ...., pay structure and pay level) significantly correlated with job satisfaction. This result confirms that distributive justice plays an important role as a mediating variable in the pay design models of the organizational sector sample...

  6. Perceptions on Justice and Distributive Justice%公正观念与分配公正∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪青山; 罗楚亮; 谢维怡

    2015-01-01

    文章在住户调查数据的基础上,对居民关于收入分配的公平感及其与主客观因素之间的关联性进行了描述。结论显示,对不同收入来源的公平性评价与总体收入分配公平感之间通常具有较强的关联性;而这些公平性评价与个人年龄、教育程度以及收入水平之间也存在着较强的关联性。从总体收入分配公平性评价的回归分析中可推论,总体收入分配公平感较低可能源于实际收入决定机制与人们公正观念之间的背离。%Based on the household survey,the paper discusses the public opinion on current income dis-tribution and its relevance with the subjective perception and some objective variables.The basic finding shows,the conception on justice of different income sources has impacted on the distributive justice,which are highly correlated with the age,educational attainment,and income of the respondent.The regression results about the opinion on the justice of current income distribution might indicate the injustice of current income distribution by public opinion may result from the fact that the actual income generation mechanism deviates from the perceptions of justice on income determination.

  7. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  8. Climate justice is not just ice

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Discussions about climate change and justice frequently employ dichotomies of procedural and distributive justice, and inter- and intra-generational justice. These distinctions, however, often fail to acknowledge the diverse experience of climate risks, or the contested nature of many proposed solutions. This paper argues for a reassessment of debates about climate justice based upon a greater diversity of risks and solutions such as integrating the reduction of social vulnerability simultane...

  9. Children’s Reasoning about Distributive and Retributive Justice across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E.; Warneken, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4–10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgements about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4–5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4–5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared to reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality vs. equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and in relation to the literature on moral development and fairness. PMID:26845506

  10. 当代西方分配正义理论范式之争%A Study of the Different Norms in Contemporary Western Distributive Justice Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广斌; 王勇

    2011-01-01

    在社会正义问题凸显的当代中国,从当代西方正义理论范式中寻求建构正义社会的基本元素具有重要的现实意义。通过对罗尔斯等人分配正义观的解析得出,分配正义内在于权利平等自由,权利自由、过程平等是罗尔斯等人分配正义理论共同坚守的底线。分配正义理论范式之争本质上是自由、民主、平等、正义在政治基本价值体系中排序及其正义与善关系之争,争论背后的焦点则是对国家权力正当性的追问。%In contemporary China where social justice is increasingly is standing out,seeking the basic elements from Western distributive justice norms to build a just society is of great practical significance.Through an analysis of contemporary Western distributive justice theory by such scholars as John Rawls,the paper concludes that the core of distributive justice lies in rights equality and freedom,and the freedom of rights,or the freedom of rights and the equality of procedure are the bottom line for all the above-mentioned distributive justice theory.The debates on justice norms are essentially arguments over the order of freedom,democracy,equality and justice in the basic political values system and over the relationship between justice and good.The focus of the debates is the inquiry into the legitimacy of state power.

  11. Questioning fairness: the relationship of mental health and psychopathic characteristics with young offenders' perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Erika K; Shaffer, Catherine S; Viljoen, Jodi L

    2017-10-01

    Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to perceive it as legitimate and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, when individuals come into contact with the legal system, they are not blank slates - they have beliefs and personality characteristics that may systematically influence such perceptions. Our aim was to establish the extent to which demographic characteristics, legal history and clinical features, including personality characteristics, systematically influenced the degree to which young people experience the justice system as fair and legitimate. Self-report, file and interview data were collected from ninety-two 12 to 17-year-olds on probation in Western Canada. Substance use and traumatic experiences were inversely correlated with perceptions of procedural justice and legal legitimacy. Young people with higher scores on interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial facets of the psychopathy checklist: youth version believed less strongly in the legitimacy of the law, but regression analyses confirmed that only history of trauma was independently associated with perceived procedural justice and legitimacy. Those in the youngest age group were more likely to have positive perceptions of justice than older youths, but demographics and legal history otherwise did not relate to outcomes. Our findings suggest that examining the relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and offending without taking intra-individual variables into account may neglect important influences on those relationships. Other research has begun to show that young people who do not accept the law as legitimate or the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to offend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The position of victims in Serbia: Criminal procedure and possibilities of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors deal with the victim"s position in the criminal procedure, on the one hand side, and the possibilities of implementing restorative justice and its importance for the improvement of victim"s position in Serbia, on the other one. In the first part of the paper, the authors point out victim"s position within the criminal procedure and the noticed gaps, which are particularly reflected in insufficient paying attention to the victim and neglecting of his/her rights and needs. This is opposite to the strengthening of the rights of the accused party that characterizes societies, which are, as our society, on the way of democratization and improvement of human rights. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze some solutions that introduce elements of restorative justice into our system of criminal response to crime, but from the victim"s point of view. Finally, the authors also point out some further steps that should be undertaken in order to improve the victim"s position, particularly emphasizing the place and role of victim support service, witness service and special facilities in the courts for victims/witnesses, possibilities of using victim-offender mediation before reporting the crime, or staring the prosecution, or as a part of the treatment in the prison etc.

  13. UN Security Council Practice and Regional Arrangements: Procedure, Legitimacy and International Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When the United Nations Security Council first met in January 1946, it was unable to reach agreement on rules of procedure to govern its operation. Instead, “provisional” rules were adopted in anticipation of further negotiation at a later date. The same provisional rules govern the Council’s work...... today, but provide only the skeletal framework of its contemporary practice. From the early 1990s, the Council increasingly implemented informal working methods to expedite its decision-making. This paper will critically examine the tension between the procedural practice of the Security Council...... and international justice, with particular focus on regional arrangements. Herein “international justice” is the concept of criminal culpability and liability for internationally wrongful acts which give rise to individual criminal responsibility. The Council is unapologetically political but it is also obligated...

  14. Organizational justice and health; review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Organizational justice is a construct defining the quality of social interaction at work. Organizational justice can be divided into three categories: procedural justice (fairness of the decision-making procedures), distributive justice (fairness of outcomes) and relational justice (equity and fairness in the interpersonal treatment of employees by their supervisors). Organizational justice is related to employees' health and well-being. Low perceived justice has been shown to be associated with experienced stress reactions and related physiological and behavioral reactions, such as inflammation, sleeping problems, cardiovascular regulation and cognitive impairments, and with a high rate of work absenteeism. This paper is a review of the literature on organizational justice and its impact on workers' health.

  15. Distributed Leadership and Social Justice: Images and Meanings from across the School Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Philip A.; Roberts, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports data from a study investigating distributed leadership (DL) and its relationship to social justice and democratic values. The research comprised a case study of a UK secondary school, which describes itself as having a finely distributed leadership culture, and involved teaching staff, non-teaching staff, senior leaders and…

  16. An Empirical Study of the Conceptualization of Overall Organizational Justice and Its Relationship with Psychological Empowerment, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Markus Chia-Han

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, organizational justice has been conceptualized by differentiating the construct into distributive, procedural and interactional justice. In recent years, some researchers have suggested that treating organizational justice as one concept may be a better approach, since the distributive, procedural and interactional justice have…

  17. The Domain of Distributive Justice: Personal Choices, Institutions, States of Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair MacLeod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines G.A. Cohen’s celebrated critique of the Rawlsian doctrine of “the basic structure as subject.” Cohen describes the principal difference between his and Rawls’s view of “the site of distributive justice” – that is, of “the sorts of items to which principles of distributive justice apply” – by claiming that whereas in his view “both just rules and just personal choice within the framework set by just rules are necessary for distributive justice,” the Rawlsian view is that “distributive justice and injustice are features of the rules of the public order alone.” Despite the acuteness of Cohen’s criticisms of the Rawlsian positions he targets, there are important strands in Rawls’s view of the domain within which judgments of distributive justice can be made that are not adequately reflected in these positions. When these ambiguities in Rawls’s writings are given due weight, it emerges that the similarities between the views Rawls and Cohen take of the task of a theory of distributive justice are more striking than the differences. The only major difference, arguably, concerns the status of judgments about the “personal choices” the members of a society must make when their options are unconstrained by just institutional rules – that is, when the alternatives they can opt for are neither required nor prohibited by these rules. For Rawls these are choices they are at liberty to make in any way they please. According to Cohen, however, at least some of these choices must be made by direct appeal to the principles of distributive justice that underpin just institutional rules.

  18. Mechanisms linking authentic leadership to emotional exhaustion: The role of procedural justice and emotional demands in a moderated mediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Judith; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen

    2017-04-07

    In order to gain more knowledge on how the positive leadership concept of authentic leadership impacts follower strain, this study tries to uncover procedural justice as an underlying mechanism. In contrast to previous work, we exclusively base our theoretical model on justice theories. Specifically, we hypothesize that authentic leadership negatively predicts emotional exhaustion through perceptions of procedural justice. We assume that this indirect effect is conditional on followers' amount of emotional demands, and that the procedural justice-emotional exhaustion relationship is stronger when emotional demands are high. This finally results in a stronger exhaustion-reducing effect of authentic leadership. The proposed moderated mediation model was tested in a sample of N=628 employees nested in 168 teams using lagged data from three waves. Results provide support for all hypotheses. Authentic leadership is critical to employees' well-being as it contributes to an elevated perception of positive work conditions (procedural justice), especially in contexts with high emotional demands. Limitations and practical implications on leadership development are discussed.

  19. Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Hartnell, Chad A; Oke, Adegoke

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the influence of servant leadership on 2 group climates, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results from a sample of 815 employees and 123 immediate supervisors revealed that commitment to the supervisor, self-efficacy, procedural justice climate, and service climate partially mediated the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Cross-level interaction results revealed that procedural justice climate and positive service climate amplified the influence of commitment to the supervisor on organizational citizenship behavior. Implications of these results for theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Distributive Justice and Fair Distribution of Gains%分配正义与收益公正分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东

    2012-01-01

    收益公正分配是转型时期社会公正的重要维度,维系人权保护、经济发展、社会稳定与国家治理,蕴涵着分配正义理论。多种因素决定经济法分配正义是复合正义,强化在市场分配机制基础上的国家再分配职能,以促进社会基本结构的公正。经济法分配正义理论通过奠定收益分配之理论基础,提供收益分配之制度属性的路径促进收益公正分配,进而实现以社会公正为中心的可持续经济发展,推动中国社会顺利转型。而以分配正义为衡量尺度,我国收益分配制度需要进一步完善。%Fair distribution of gains is the important dimension of social justice in the social transformation period, which is crucial to human rights protection, economic development, social stability and government governance, and contains distributive justice theory. Many factors decide the distributive justice of economic Law is compound justice theory, which emphasizes redistri- bution functions of government on the basis of market distribution mechanism to promote the justice of the basic structure of society. Distributive justice theory of economic Law promotes fair distribution of gains through forming the foundation and providing legal attribute for distributive of gains, and in turn achieves sustainable development with social justice as the center, drives society transition of China smoothly. China' s legal institutions of gains distribution, need further improvement by distributive justice standards.

  1. Dutch ‘ZSM Settlements’ in the Face of Procedural Justice:The Sooner the Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Jacobs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch  ‘ZSM’ project was launched in March 2011 and implemented nationwide in 2013. Its (official aim is to (conclusively deal with frequently occurring crime (cases in a rapid, astute, selective, simple and society-oriented way, paying due attention to the interests of defendants, victims and society alike. The underlying assumption of the ZSM – and its accompanying focus on the speedy (out-of-court resolution of criminal cases that do not (necessarily merit the attention of the courts –  is that ‘speed’ is beneficial to all involved: to defendants, to victims, to the police (and the Prosecution Service and to society as such. The question that concerns the authors is whether that assumption is correct. Does a speedy (out-of-court resolution indeed do justice to all involved, and particularly defendants and (purported victims? In this contribution, the Dutch ZSM process and its focus on the speedy out-of-court resolution is analyzed from the perspective of both the requirements of Article 6 of the European Convention and the social-scientific notion of procedural justice.

  2. Distributive Justice: From Steinhaus, Knaster, and Banach to Elster and Rawls — The Perspective of Sociological Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Tom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a relatively straightforward theoretical framework about distributive justice with applications. It draws on a few key concepts of Sociological Game Theory (SGT. SGT is presented briefly in section 2. Section 3 provides a spectrum of distributive cases concerning principles of equality, differentiation among recipients according to performance or contribution, status or authority, or need. Two general types of social organization of distributive judgment are distinguished and judgment procedures or algorithms are modeled in each type of social organization. Section 4 discusses briefly the larger moral landscapes of human judgment – how distribution may typically be combined with other value into consideration. The article suggests that Rawls, Elster, and Machado point in this direction. Finally, it is suggested that the SGT framework presented provides a useful point of departure to systematically link it and compare the Warsaw School of Fair Division, Rawls, and Elster, among others.

  3. POLICE INTERACTIONS WITH THE MENTALLY ILL: THE ROLE OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana B. Kara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Police encounters with mentally ill individuals that involve the use of force by police are relatively infrequent, but sometimes quite volatile. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, poorly funded and fragmented community treatment alternatives, plus increasingly restrictive civil commitment criteria have led to increased contacts with the police. Police need to exercise restraint when using force against individuals suffering from a mental disorder. There is a clear need for specialized crisis intervention police training for dealing with the mentally ill. Procedural justice theory offers a promising approach to improving police-citizen interactions. According to this framework, the fairness with which an individual is treated during an encounter by an authority figure, such as the police, can affect the perceived legitimacy of these interactions and any disposition that flows from them. This is particularly important regarding interactions between the police and those suffering from a mental disorder.

  4. Austerity in Civil Procedure : A Critical Assessment of the Impact of Global Economic Downturn on Civil Justice in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Owusu-Dapaa (Ernest); E.A. Bediako (Ebenezer)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe demand for and availability of civil justice procedures for small claims can neither be disentangled nor extricated from the health of the economic climate of the relevant country concerned. In this article, it is argued that despite not being a developed country, Ghana was not compl

  5. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  6. JUSTICIA RESTAURATIVA Y PROCESO PENAL GARANTÍAS PROCESALES: LÍMITES Y POSIBILIDADES RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS: LIMITS AND POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mera González-Ballesteros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hace ya más de tres décadas que se han venido implementando en diversas jurisdicciones programas de justicia restaurativa en el ámbito de la justicia penal, especialmente en los sistemas de justicia penal juvenil, ofreciendo una alternativa de resolución orientada a la reparación, desjudicialización y el diálogo entre los directamente involucrados en el conflicto. Este vertiginoso desarrollo ha precedido generalmente a la regulación legal y al debate sobre estándares y garantías procesales que deben orientar estos programas. Sin embargo, a medida que los programas de justicia restaurativa han ganado terreno y se han propuesto como mecanismos de resolución en casos de mayor gravedad y de criminalidad adulta, la necesidad de establecer estándares legales se ha hecho urgente. Hasta ahora, a nivel comparado, no existe acuerdo sobre la necesidad o el contenido de las garantías procesales aplicables a los programas de justicia restaurativa. Este trabajo propone que es necesario establecer estándares procesales claros en la implementación de estos programas, pero a su vez, que ellos deben adecuarse a los principios y fines que ésta persigue.Since more than thirty years, many countries have implemented restorative justice programmes to deal with criminal matters, especially with young offenders. This programmes offer different ways to deal with the aftermaths of a crime, through diversion, reparation and the active participation of those involved in the conflict. This dramatic development has occurred, though, without broad legal regulations or deep debates regarding procedural safeguards and standards. Nevertheless, as restorative justice programmes grow and are being used to deal with serious offences and adult offenders, the need for the setting of safeguards is pressing. Until now, there is not agreement in the literature regarding the specific content of procedural safeguards for restorative justice. This paper suggests that

  7. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members.

  8. CORRECTING MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE BEING A COMPONENT TO THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of right(s or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1 A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2 A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3 An agent commis-sioned to operate by a specific ruling would ascertain and eliminate a miscarriage of justice; 4 A specific way of proving a miscarriage of justice; 5 Actual miscarriage of justice has not been subsequent upon the fault / negli-gence having been let / tolerated / omitted by the judge who passed the final adjudication. Eliminating a miscar-riage of justice by the superior court should be one of three steps required for judicial defense. The first step shall be referring to the court and the hearing of the case by the court of first instance with the final disposition of the case that should be mandatory. The second and third steps shall be eliminating a miscarriage of justice and enforcing the court‟s disposition, – should be secured by the State as the effective remedies of judicial defense, and the party con-cerned may involve these when required.

  9. What influences perceptions of procedural justice among people with mental illness regarding their interactions with the police?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Desmarais, Sarah L; Greaves, Caroline; Parent, Richard; Verdun-Jones, Simon; Brink, Johann

    2014-04-01

    According to procedural justice theory, a central factor shaping perceptions about authority figures and dispute resolution processes is whether an individual believes they were treated justly and fairly during personal encounters with agents of authority. This paper describes findings from a community-based participatory research study examining perceptions of procedural justice among sixty people with mental illness regarding their interactions with police. The degree to which these perceptions were associated with selected individual (e.g., socio-demographic characteristics), contextual (e.g., neighborhood, past experiences), and interactional (e.g., actions of the officer) factors was explored. The results of regression analyses indicate that the behavior of police officers during the interactions appears to be the key to whether or not these interactions are perceived by people with mental illness as being procedurally just. Implications of these findings for improving interactions between the police and people with mental illness are discussed.

  10. Discussion on Procedural Justice in Universities Governance%大学治理中的程序正义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋汉林

    2016-01-01

    大学治理法治化使高校内部管理中法治思维的运用变得不可或缺。在大学治理缺乏程序法治意识的背景下,倡导并以制度化方式践行程序正义理念,有助于实现权利保护、权力规范、秩序维持、自由彰显和风险防范等程序价值。大学治理中的程序正义,蕴含着程序参与、程序中立、程序对等、程序自治等四个维度,当前我国大学治理中存在着程序正义理念疏离之困境,导致大学管理决策欠缺科学性,管理评价欠缺公正性,因此,应落实程序正义理念,合理设置和科学运行决策性程序和评价性程序,以实现大学治理的科学化。%The use of laws in the universities governance makes it necessary to use laws in universities inner management .Under the background of universities’governance lacking consciousness of procedural constitutionality, advocating and using a way with system construction practices the concept of procedural justice,it is useful to realize the procedural value of right protection,right standards,order maintainance,freedom stress and risk prevention .As for procedural justice in universities governance,it contains four dimensions such as procedural participation, proce-dural neutrality,procedural equality and procedural autonomy.At present the universities governance is in the difficul-ty that distancing the concept of procedural justice.Consequently,the decisions of universities governance lack scien-tificity and the administrative evaluation lacks fairness .Therefore to realize scientism of the universities governance they should implement the concept of procedural justice,reasonably establish and scientifically run decision-making procedure and evaluation procedure.

  11. Mentoring and Organizational Justice: An Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.

    1997-01-01

    Usable responses from 197 of 300 Australian managers indicated those who had mentors perceived more organizational justice than those who had not. Career, psychosocial, and role modeling functions of mentoring were significantly and positively related to perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. (SK)

  12. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  13. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  14. 程序正义的理论困境与现实悖论%theory predicament and real paradox of the procedure justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕少波

    2013-01-01

      程序正义有利于平衡各种相互冲突的利益,确保正义理念最大限度地实现。单从理论上遵循自主、公正、理性三原则进行的制度设计以达到程序正义的目标,在实践中却受到来自人性的弱点和程序自身的干扰,造成理论与现实的脱节。同时也体现出程序正义并不能独立存在而有赖于实质正义的评判标准,但是二者并不能一劳永逸地实现社会正义,殊途同归,还须回归制度建设的道路上来,在制度建设中贯彻正义之原则以最终趋向程序正义。%Procedure justice is beneficial to balance a variety of conflicting interests and ensure maximize the realization of the idea of justice.Only at the theoretical level design system abide by independent, impartial and rational principles to achieve the goal of procedure justice,in practice, this approach suffers from the weakness of human nature and interference of program itself,therefore,The result is disconnection between theory and reality.At the same time,it illustrated that procedure justice cannot exist independently but depends on judge of the substantive justice.However,neither procedure justice nor substantive justice can not realize social justice thoroughly.Last,both them should return to the system construction of the road,in system construction to carry out the principles of justice to tend to procedure justice.

  15. Perceptions of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Study of NCAA Men's Sport Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among organizational justice components, overall job satisfaction, and organizational commitment within the intercollegiate athletics setting. Perceptions of three organizational justice components (procedural, distributive, and interactional), overall job satisfaction, and…

  16. Managing Operating Procedures in Distributed Collaborative Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hool, A.; Beuzelin Ollivier, M.-G.; Roubert, F.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, large distributed collaborative projects have become very prominent in scientific research, allowing exchanges between laboratories located in different institutions and countries and between various domains of competence. Particularly the work on nanotoxicity - a field which has only been under investigation for a few years and is still lacking regulatory framework - highlighted the need for well-controlled methods, as well as rules for the handling and disposal of used materials. To obtain comparable and reproducible results of experiments conducted in a distributed context, the standardisation and proper documentation of the applied methods is crucial. The European project NanoDiaRA, whose aim is to develop nanoparticles and biomarkers for the early diagnosis of inflammatory disease, faces this situation as it involves 15 European partners and brings together different scientific cultures and professional backgrounds. Protocols especially developed for Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and a management system were designed and implemented within the NanoDiaRA project to fulfil those needs. The main goals were the establishment of standardised Standard Operating Procedures assuring transparency and reproducibility and the provision of access to these protocols to every project partner, as well as their clear allocation to carry out precise measurements and production steps.

  17. Got political skill? The impact of justice on the importance of political skill for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Martha C; Kacmar, K Michele; Harris, Kenneth J

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of procedural and distributive justice on the relationships between political skill and task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among 175 supervisor-subordinate dyads of a government organization. Using Mischel's (1968) situationist perspective, high justice conditions were considered "strong situations," whereas low justice conditions were construed as "weak situations." We found that when both procedural and distributive justice were low, political skill was positively related to performance. Under conditions of both high procedural and high distributive justice, political skill was negatively related to performance. Finally, under conditions of low distributive justice, political skill was positively related to OCB, whereas under conditions of high distributive justice, political skill had little effect on OCB. These results highlight the importance of possessing political skill in weak but not strong situations.

  18. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism.

  19. Putting the "social" back in legal socialization: procedural justice, legitimacy, and cynicism in legal and nonlegal authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, legal socialization theory and research has been dominated by a cognitive developmental approach. However, more recent work (e.g., Fagan & Tyler, 2005) has used procedural justice to explain the legal socialization process. This article presents 2 studies that expand this approach by testing a procedural justice model of legal socialization in terms of legal and nonlegal authority. In Study 1, participants completed surveys assessing the degree to which they perceived 3 authorities (police officers, parents, and teachers) as procedurally fair, the degree to which they perceived the authorities as legitimate, how cynical they were about laws, and the extent of their rule violation during the past 6 months. Across all 3 authorities, legitimacy and legal cynicism mediated the relation between procedural justice and rule violation. Study 2 examined the model with the same 3 authority types using experimental methods. Participants read 3 scenarios describing an interaction between an adolescent and an authority figure where a rule is enforced. Within each scenario, we manipulated whether the adolescent had a voice and whether the authority enforced the rule impartially. After reading each scenario, participants rated the authority's legitimacy, their cynicism toward the authority's rule, and the likelihood they would violate the rule. Again, legitimacy and rule cynicism mediated the relation between impartiality, voice, and rule violation. In addition, impartiality had a stronger effect in the parent and teacher scenarios, whereas voice had a stronger effect in the police scenario. Results are discussed in terms of expanding legal socialization to nonlegal contexts and applying legal socialization research to prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. A Self-Interest Analysis of Justice and Tax Compliance: How Distributive Justice Moderates the Effect of Outcome Favorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon, Peter; van Dijke, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with tax authorities has been studied mainly in the fields of economics and psychology. The focus has respectively been on self-interest motives and justice concerns in tax compliance. We argue that both concerns are less divergent than is often thought. Specifically, we studied the moder

  1. Constructive Procedural Justice in Judicial Practice of Basic Courts%基层法院实践中的建构性程序正义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛

    2012-01-01

    司法实践的过程充满了对按程序正义设计的案件审理程序的创新、变通和重构。本文从探讨程序正义的规范性和实证性研究进路出发,以基层法院在案件审理中的程序运作为分析对象,指出在程序的每一个节点,在不同的案件情境中,程序运作都有可能受到来自行动者的创新,以变通的方式完成程序,行动者在接受结果的同时也间接地认同了重构的程序。由此尝试提出"建构性程序正义"以理解程序正义在我国基层法院实践中的价值和意义。%The case trial procedure is designed in the concept of procedural justice,but there are many innovations,alternatives and reconstructions of procedure in judicial practice.This article firstly discusses two kinds of research ways for procedural justice,normative procedural justice and empirical procedural justice.Second,this article analyses the operation of procedure in basic courts.It shows that in every step and in different case context,the enactment of the procedures may be deconstructed by the actors.The actors may complete the process in alternative ways,accept the case trial results and agree with the reconstructed process.Third,this article tries to propose a new concept "constructive procedural justice" to explain the values and meanings of procedural justice in judicial practice.

  2. Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training (ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeshek, Eric; Ong, James; Mohammed, John

    2013-01-01

    ADEPT (Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training) is designed to provide more effective, flexible, and portable training for NASA systems controllers. When creating a training scenario, an exercise author can specify a representative rationale structure using the graphical user interface, annotating the results with instructional texts where needed. The author's structure may distinguish between essential and optional parts of the rationale, and may also include "red herrings" - hypotheses that are essential to consider, until evidence and reasoning allow them to be ruled out. The system is built from pre-existing components, including Stottler Henke's SimVentive? instructional simulation authoring tool and runtime. To that, a capability was added to author and exploit explicit control decision rationale representations. ADEPT uses SimVentive's Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)- based interactive graphic display capability as the basis of the tool for quickly noting aspects of decision rationale in graph form. The ADEPT prototype is built in Java, and will run on any computer using Windows, MacOS, or Linux. No special peripheral equipment is required. The software enables a style of student/ tutor interaction focused on the reasoning behind systems control behavior that better mimics proven Socratic human tutoring behaviors for highly cognitive skills. It supports fast, easy, and convenient authoring of such tutoring behaviors, allowing specification of detailed scenario-specific, but content-sensitive, high-quality tutor hints and feedback. The system places relatively light data-entry demands on the student to enable its rationale-centered discussions, and provides a support mechanism for fostering coherence in the student/ tutor dialog by including focusing, sequencing, and utterance tuning mechanisms intended to better fit tutor hints and feedback into the ongoing context.

  3. The Missed Promotion: An Exercise Demonstrating the Importance of Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caza, Arran; Caza, Brianna Barker; Lind, E. Allan

    2011-01-01

    Treating employees fairly produces many positive outcomes, but evidence suggests that managers' efforts to be fair are often unsuccessful because they emphasize the wrong aspects of justice. Managers tend to emphasize distributive justice, though employees may be most concerned with procedural and interactional justice. Organizational justice…

  4. Organizational Justice as a Framework for Understanding Union-Management Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I have conceptualized union-management relations using an organizational justice framework. I consider organizational justice theory, including distributive, procedural, interactional, and what I call relational justice perspectives. Utilizing examples from my experience and research, I illustrate and discuss various forms of…

  5. Investigating Climate Compatible Development Outcomes and their Implications for Distributive Justice: Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin T.; Quinn, Claire H.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Dougill, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Governments and donors are investing in climate compatible development in order to reduce climate and development vulnerabilities. However, the rate at which climate compatible development is being operationalised has outpaced academic enquiry into the concept. Interventions aiming to achieve climate compatible development "wins" (for development, mitigation, adaptation) can also create negative side-effects. Moreover, benefits and negative side-effects may differ across time and space and have diverse consequences for individuals and groups. Assessments of the full range of outcomes created by climate compatible development projects and their implications for distributive justice are scarce. This article develops a framework using a systematic literature review that enables holistic climate compatible development outcome evaluation over seven parameters identified. Thereafter, we explore the outcomes of two donor-funded projects that pursue climate compatible development triple-wins in Malawi using this framework. Household surveys, semi-structured interviews and documentary material are analysed. Results reveal that uneven outcomes are experienced between stakeholder groups and change over time. Although climate compatible development triple-wins can be achieved through projects, they do not represent the full range of outcomes. Ecosystem—and community-based activities are becoming popularised as approaches for achieving climate compatible development goals. However, findings suggest that a strengthened evidence base is required to ensure that these approaches are able to meet climate compatible development goals and further distributive justice.

  6. An investigation on the effects of justice on customer’s trust in insurance firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Aziziha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the effects of various components of justice including distributive justice, interactional justice and procedural justice on building a mutual trust among customers in insurance firms. The proposed study of this paper uses a questionnaire originally developed by Daniels [Daniels, N. (1996. Justice and justification: Reflective equilibrium in theory and practice (Vol. 22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] and designs a questionnaire for measuring trust. The study was performed among 384 people who had used insurance services in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alphas for two questionnaires of justice and trust are 0.799 and 0.935, respectively, which are well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Spearman correlation test, the study has detected that two justice components, interactional justice and procedural justice, positively influence on customers’ trust, significantly.

  7. 亚里士多德分配正义思想的当代价值%On the Contemporary Value of Aristotle's Distributive Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃杏花

    2012-01-01

    distributive justice is an important connotation of a political, economic, and legal system. It is the core of the justice value. Exchange justice is an important form of distributive justice, and corrective justice is the effective means of the realization of distribution justice. By the corrective justice, the justice keeps close to or achieves justice. During the reform of income distribution system, review of Aristotle distributive justice has very important significance in both theory and practice.%分配正义是政治制度、经济制度和法律制度的重要内涵,是正义价值的核心所在。交换正义是分配正义的重要形式,而矫正正义是实现分配正义的有效手段。通过矫正正义,使得非正义不断接近或变为正义。在我国进行收入分配制度改革的今天,重温亚里士多德的分配正义思想具有非常重要的理论意义和实践意义。

  8. Adequacy of benefits, distributive justice and individual attitudes and behaviors: A case of public community colleges staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Bin Ismail

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the indirect effect of distributive justice in the relationship between adequacy of benefits and individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 190 usable questionnaires gathered from employees in Malaysian public community colleges (MPCOLLEGE sector. The outcome of stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis had increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, this finding confirms that distributive justice does act as a full mediating variable in the benefits program model of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Empirically Testing the Mediating Effect of Distributive Justice in the Relationship between Adequacy of Benefits and Personal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effect of adequacy of benefits and distributive justice on personal outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment using 583 usable questionnaires gathered from Malaysian public institutions of higher learning (PLEARNINGINSTITUTE sector. The outcomes of step-wise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of distributive justice in the analysis has increased the effect of adequacy of benefits on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, the findings of this study confirm that distributive justice do act as a partial mediating variable in the benefits program models of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications and limitations, as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Examining Structural Relationships between Work Engagement, Organizational Procedural Justice, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovative Work Behavior for Sustainable Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woocheol Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human/social dimension of organizational sustainability, this area of scholastic endeavor has received relatively little attention when compared to the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. On the basis of social exchange theory, this study posited the important role that employee work engagement is a key component for improving human performance for organizational sustainability. In order to do so, it suggests the important role that employee work engagement has on the relationships among various factors in the organization, including organizational procedural justice, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behaviors. A total of 400 complete responses from full-time employees in Korean organizations were used for the purpose of data analysis with structural equation modeling (SEM. The results demonstrated that organizational procedural justice is positively related with employee work engagement, knowledge sharing, and innovative work behavior. In addition, work engagement enhances employee knowledge sharing and innovative work behavior, and knowledge sharing enhances innovative work behavior. With regard to the mechanisms of these relationships, work engagement and knowledge sharing acted as significant mediators. Based on the findings, we suggested relevant research implications and recommendations for future research on sustainable organizations.

  11. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  12. Empowering Energy Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L

    2016-09-21

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure "just" transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between "green" and "just", as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  13. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  14. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  15. Policy Justice:Concept, Measurement, and Effect on Distributive Justice%分配制度公平对员工分配公平感的影响:中国组织情境下的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 龙立荣

    2014-01-01

    西方组织公平领域的主流观点认为要想提高员工的分配公平感,应着力提高分配过程的公平性以及上下级互动的公平性,即程序公平和互动公平。本研究发现:在中国组织情境下,较之程序公平和互动公平(人际公平、信息公平),分配制度公平对员工分配公平感的解释力最强;在分配制度不公平的情境下,程序公平和人际公平才会影响分配公平感,仅仅起到亡羊补牢的作用。%Based on large body of literature review and theoretical analysis, a 6-item policy justice scale was developed firstly, and then the relation between policy justice and distributive justice was examined.The result showed that policy justice was the most important predictor of distributive justice, and the effect of procedural and interactional justice was significant only on the condition of policy injustice.It can be implied that, there are two ways to pro-mote employees’ perception of policy justice.First, improve the basic practice of human resource management. Second, promote employees’ identification with organization’ s distributive concept by recruitment and training.

  16. Investigating the effects of organizational justice on development of e-banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abbasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of three components of organizational justice on development e-banking in one of Iranian banks. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of organizational justice and the other for e-banking in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for organizational justice and e-banking are calculated as 0.831 and 0.749, respectively. The study has been implemented among 385 regular customers of an Iranian bank. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study has detected that two components of organizational justice including distributive justice and procedural justice influence on e-banking, positively.

  17. Spanish version of Colquitt’s Organizational Justice Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Gracia, Liliana; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Moreno Jiménez,Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) is an important predictor of different work attitudes and behaviors. Colquitt’s Organizational Justice Scale (COJS) was designed to assess employees’ perceptions of fairness. This scale has four dimensions: distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. The objective of this study is to validate it in a Spanish sample. Method: The scale was administered to 460 Spanish employees from the service sector. 40.4% were men and 59.6% women. Result...

  18. Gender, justice and work: a distributive approach to perceptions of housework fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Francisco; Baxter, Janeen; Tai, Tsui-o

    2015-05-01

    Most women and men report that the division of domestic labor in their household is fair, despite women undertaking approximately seventy percent of housework. This raises questions about how fairness is evaluated within partnerships. We explore how parenthood and relationship transitions affect perceptions of housework fairness using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and panel regression models. Our results indicate that net of actual housework divisions, socio-demographic factors, time availability and relative resources, the transition to parenthood increases women's perceptions of housework fairness immediately following the birth of a child, but decreases them in the long run. Relationship transitions have no independent effects. Our findings suggest that parenthood transitions are associated with changes in women's identity, cognitive evaluations of fairness and feelings of entitlement, as indicated by distributive justice theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Organizational Justice Modify the Association Between Job Involvement and Retirement Intentions of Nurses in Finland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulander, Juhani; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Helkama, Klaus; Aalto, Anna-Mari

    2016-10-01

    Given the growing aging population in Finland, retaining health staff to care for them is important. In an exploration of predictors of quitting before the typical retirement age, which ranges from 63 to 68 years in Finland, we examined whether organizational justice moderated the association between job involvement and retirement intentions among nurses 50 years and over. The sample was 446 nurses (70% practical nurses) working in 134 assisted living facilities providing 24-hour care for older residents in Finland. Job involvement was measured with the Job Involvement Questionnaire, and organizational justice with a scale that tapped its three dimensions: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In covariance analyses, low organizational justice and low job involvement were associated with a higher likelihood of retirement intention. Both interactional justice and procedural justice moderated the association of job involvement with retirement intentions. Among nurses with low job involvement, those who experienced unjust treatment, that is, low interactional justice, and evaluated organizational procedures as unjust had significantly stronger retirement intentions than nurses with high levels of interactional and procedural justice. Distributive justice was associated with retirement intentions in both high and low job-involved respondents. Organizational justice may act as a buffer against retirement intention as one consequence of nurses' low job involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dutch ‘ZSM Settlements’ in the Face of Procedural Justice:
    The Sooner the Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Jacobs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch  ‘ZSM’ project was launched in March 2011 and implemented nationwide in 2013. Its (official aim is to (conclusively deal with frequently occurring crime (cases in a rapid, astute, selective, simple and society-oriented way, paying due attention to the interests of defendants, victims and society alike. The underlying assumption of the ZSM – and its accompanying focus on the speedy (out-of-court resolution of criminal cases that do not (necessarily merit the attention of the courts –  is that ‘speed’ is beneficial to all involved: to defendants, to victims, to the police (and the Prosecution Service and to society as such. The question that concerns the authors is whether that assumption is correct. Does a speedy (out-of-court resolution indeed do justice to all involved, and particularly defendants and (purported victims? In this contribution, the Dutch ZSM process and its focus on the speedy out-of-court resolution is analyzed from the perspective of both the requirements of Article 6 of the European Convention and the social-scientific notion of procedural justice.

  1. Sense of Justice in School and Civic Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resh, Nura; Sabbagh, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Contending that justice experiences in school serve as a hidden curriculum that conveys messages about the wider society and impact student attitudes and behavior, we investigate the effects of students' sense of distributive and (school) procedural justice on democratic-related attitudes: liberal democratic orientation (civil rights), social…

  2. THE MANIFESTO ON EUROPEAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW – FOUNDATION FOR CREATING A COMMON SPACE OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PANAINTE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose to analyze the content of the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law of 2013, and how this document can represent a foundation for the legal cooperation of the European states, and also for creating a unique, common space of European criminal justice. Elaborated by the European Criminal Policy Initiative and launched on November 2013, the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law contains the principles and the rules that should be followed by the European penal legislator when gives shape to the laws in the field of Criminal Procedure. This document represents a natural following of the first Manifesto, in the field of substantive criminal law of 2009. The Manifesto concerns mainly the rules and the principles of criminal procedure because, as its authors affirm, this kind of rules have increasingly been shaped lately in European regulations, and also because the regulations in this field must reflect and respect the highest standards of the rule of law, as they must continuously and without exception guarantee the fundamental rights. In this study, we propose to focus upon the legal solutions found out by the authors of the Manifesto in order to attain, during the criminal proceedings, an equilibrium between the interest of the state and even of the Union to realize an effective criminal proceedings, and the individual human rights that are affected, and also an equilibrium between the actual legal order and the traditions of the member states.

  3. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  4. The role of stigma and uncertainty in moderating the effect of procedural justice on cooperation and resistance in police encounters with persons with mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C; Angell, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Within social psychology, procedural justice theory has been used to understand variations in compliance with legal authorities such as police. Thus, it may help explain variation in cooperation and compliance in encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness (SMI), which are often fraught with difficulty and risk. In this paper, we examine the extent to which perceptions of procedural justice among persons with SMI are associated with self-reported levels of cooperation and resistance in encounters with police. We also examine stigma and encounter type as potential moderators of the procedural justice effect. 154 persons with serious mental illness who reported a police contact within the past year were interviewed using the newly developed Police Contact Experience Survey (PCES), which includes questions about the characteristics of the contact, perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and degree of cooperation and resistance. Participants also completed the Link Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination Scale (PDS). Findings suggest that greater PPJ is associated with more cooperation and less resistance. The effect on cooperation, however, is moderated by both perceived stigma and the type of encounter. The direct effect of perceived stigma (PDS) on cooperation was unexpected, with higher perceived stigma associated with greater cooperation. Findings underline the importance of both procedurally just treatment in police interactions with vulnerable individuals and further efforts to reduce the stigma of mental illness.

  5. Simplified procedure for controlling pressure distribution of a scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scramjet engines are used at extreme temperatures and velocity. New control problems involving distributed parameter control have been found concerning investigations of the control of scramjet engines whose physical states are spatially interacted. Succeeding the existing theoretical studies on the distributed parameter control for scramjet engines, this paper puts forward a simplified distributed parameter control approach for scramjet engines aimed at engineering application. The simplified control procedure uses the classical proportional-integral (PI compensation to control the target pressure distribution of scramjet engines, which is effective and applicable for practical implements. Simulation results show the validation of the simplified distributed parameter control procedure.

  6. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  7. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  8. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting.

  9. [Project to enhance bone bank tissue storage and distribution procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chen; Wu, Chiung-Lan; Chen, Chun-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Organ and tissue transplantation are now commonly preformed procedures. Improper organ bank handling procedures may increase infection risks. Execution accuracy in terms of tissue storage and distribution at our bone bank was 80%. We thus proposed an execution improvement project to enhance procedures in order to fulfill the intent of donors and ensure recipient safety. This project was designed to raise nurse professionalism, and ensure patient safety through enhanced tissue storage and distribution procedures. Education programs developed for this project focus on teaching standard operating procedures for bone and ligament storage and distribution, bone bank facility maintenance, trouble shooting and solutions, and periodic inspection systems. Cognition of proper storage and distribution procedures rose from 81% to 100%; Execution accuracy also rose from 80% to 100%. The project successfully conveyed concepts essential to the correct execution of organ storage and distribution procedures and proper organ bank facility management. Achieving and maintaining procedural and management standards is crucial to continued organ donations and the recipient safety.

  10. Distribution of Urban Services and Facilities on the basis of Social Justice (Case Study: Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tirban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   In recent years urban studies with a view of social justice is known to be one of the most important approaches. In this approach, different indices are given attention, among which access to urban services and added values of land are the most important two. One of the best optimal ways to provide urban services is to divide a city, as a system, into different parts and distribute services in proportion to demographic characteristics of each part. The present paper is based on an applied research and is descriptive-case study in nature. The data was collected through the use of existence resources, and was based on field impressions. Also, the measurement tool is based on Askalvgram and Moris taxonomy, Coefficiency, standardization of different data, and central location. The findings of the study show that urban areas of Yasouj are not different in terms of accessibility to urban services and facilities. Land price, and as a result the added value of land, follow the discussed indicators in a meaningful way. And urban services are distributed justly in different parts of the city according to the situation. As a result, first parts 1 and 2 of the city and then part 3 and 4 have received facilities and added value.

  11. Procedural Justice in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Negotiating Fairness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomlinson, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This book considers what is needed for fairness in the decisions of the UNFCCC. It analyses several principles of procedural fairness in order to develop practical policy measures for fair decision-making in the UNFCCC...

  12. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  13. A Field Study of Participant Reactions to a Developmental Assessment Centre: Testing an organisational justice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Harris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although assessment centres are being increasingly employed for developmental purposes, there has been a dearth of research regarding them. We investigated an organisational justice theory model suggested by Cohen-Charash and Spector (2001 in this relatively novel context. The model included antecedents (e.g., perceived validity, organisational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice and procedural justice, and one outcome (i.e., feedback utility perceptions. Most of our hypotheses were supported, suggesting much evidence for this model. The predicted effect for perceived fakability was not supported. Contrary to our hypothesis, distributive justice perceptions were at least as important as procedural justice perceptions in predicting feedback utility perceptions. A direct test of the effect of context on organisational justice theory is recommended.

  14. Economic growth, climate change, biodiversity loss: distributive justice for the global north and south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Jon

    2008-12-01

    Economic growth-the increase in production and consumption of goods and services-must be considered within its biophysical context. Economic growth is fueled by biophysical inputs and its outputs degrade ecological processes, such as the global climate system. Economic growth is currently the principal cause of increased climate change, and climate change is a primary mechanism of biodiversity loss. Therefore, economic growth is a prime catalyst of biodiversity loss. Because people desire economic growth for dissimilar reasons-some for the increased accumulation of wealth, others for basic needs-how we limit economic growth becomes an ethical problem. Principles of distributive justice can help construct an international climate-change regime based on principles of equity. An equity-based framework that caps economic growth in the most polluting economies will lessen human impact on biodiversity. When coupled with a cap-and-trade mechanism, the framework can also provide a powerful tool for redistribution of wealth. Such an equity-based framework promises to be more inclusive and therefore more effective because it accounts for the disparate developmental conditions of the global north and south.

  15. Linking organizational justice to burnout: are men and women different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Carolina; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Ramos, José; Peiró, José M

    2005-06-01

    This study tested the links from organizational justice with burnout and the moderating role of sex in these relationships. A total of 279 contact employees (149 men and 130 women) were surveyed in 59 hotels. A questionnaire was used to measure distributive, procedural, and interactional justice as well as employees' burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and efficacy). Hierarchical regression models, calculated to test the hypothesized effects, indicated the predominance of procedural justice over distributive and interpersonal with regard to the direct relationships between organizational justice and burnout. Analysis also showed that links from interactional justice with exhaustion and cynicism were greater for women than for men. In contrast, there were no significant sex differences on the efficacy dimension.

  16. (Injustice contexts and work satisfaction: The mediating role of justice perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the social context, namely (injustice climate and target, in workers' justice perceptions and satisfaction. Individual's justice judgments are expected to mediate the relationship of (injustice climate and target with work satisfaction. We found mediation effects of procedural justice in the relationship between justice climate and satisfaction, and interactional justice in the relationship between injustice target and satisfaction. Distributive justice does not affect the relationship between the (injustice context and satisfaction. Findings demonstrate the relevance of framing organizational justice in a socially contextualized perspective since they seem to influence individual justice reactions and work attitudes. Using an experimental methodology, it was possible to explore the role of seldom studied contextual variables.

  17. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  18. Advancing climate justice and the right to health through procedural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaux J

    2014-06-14

    Scholars have increasingly recognized the ways in which climate change threatens the human rights of people around the world, with a disproportionate burden on the rights of already vulnerable persons. At particular risk to these populations is the right to health, as well as to interconnected human rights. Yet, scholars have generally not provided a thorough assessment of precisely how human rights law can catalyze a response to climate change to effectively avert health harms. This article suggests that human rights law is better suited to guide procedural responses to climate change and its health harms than it is to guide substantive decision-making. This article describes the ways in which climate change implicates the right to health and then analyzes human rights law's response. While acknowledging the intrinsic value of human rights in prompting climate change action, the article focuses its analysis on human rights' instrumental value in this arena.

  19. 甄选程序公平感的来源及其负面溢出效应%Antecedents and Negative Spillover Effect of Selection Procedural Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱其权; 龙立荣

    2012-01-01

    如何提升应聘者的公平感、降低拒聘带来的负面溢出效应是招聘实践中亟待解决的问题.基于甄选过程采取纵向研究设计,以416名应届毕业生求职者为样本,分别在应聘前、应聘后结果知晓前和结果知晓后3个时点收集数据,运用层次回归分析方法,考察落选者报复意愿的预测变量、甄选程序公平感的来源及其中介效应.研究结果表明,工作吸引力和雇佣期望对应聘者的甄选程序公平感有显著的正向预测作用,消极情感的预测作用不显著;工作吸引力、甄选程序公平对落选者的报复意愿有显著的负向预测作用,雇佣期望和消极情感对报复意愿有正向预测作用;甄选程序公平的中介效应不显著;良好的工作设计和合理公平的招聘过程有助于降低招聘的负面溢出效应.%It is a critical practical issue to explore how to promote applicants' justice and reduce the negative spillover effects of rejection. This study explored the predictors of selection procedural justice and retaliatory intention of rejecters, and the mediation effect of selection procedural justice. Data has been collected from 416 graduate job seekers with a longitudinal questionnaire survey design in three time point; before selection, after selection but not known result, and after known result. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that: Job attractiveness and hiring expectancy predicted selection procedural justice perception of job seekers significantly, whereas negative affection was not supported; Job attractiveness and selection procedural justice exerted negative influence on retaliatory intention of rejecters, while hiring expectancy and negative affection had positive influence; the mediation effect of selection procedural justice was not supported. The result implied that appropriate job design and sound selection process would reduce the negative spillover effects of recruitment.

  20. Work gets unfair for the depressed: cross-lagged relations between organizational justice perceptions and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jessica; Bliese, Paul D; Lang, Jonas W B; Adler, Amy B

    2011-05-01

    The organizational justice literature has consistently documented substantial correlations between organizational justice and employee depression. Existing theoretical literature suggests this relationship occurs because perceptions of organizational (in)justice lead to subsequent psychological health problems. Building on recent research on the affective nature of justice perceptions, in the present research we broaden this perspective by arguing there are also theoretical arguments for a reverse effect whereby psychological health problems influence perceptions of organizational justice. To contrast both theoretical perspectives, we test longitudinal lagged effects between organizational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice, interactional justice, interpersonal justice, informational justice, and procedural justice) and employee depressive symptoms using structural equation modeling. Analyses of 3 samples from different military contexts (N₁ = 625, N₂ = 134, N₃ = 550) revealed evidence of depressive symptoms leading to subsequent organizational justice perceptions. In contrast, the opposite effects of organizational justice perceptions on depressive symptoms were not significant for any of the justice dimensions. The findings have broad implications for theoretical perspectives on psychological health and organizational justice perceptions.

  1. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Turnover Intention: A Survey on Hospital Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Sokhanvar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High organizational justice and its factors are associated with reduced turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 135 nurses working in Labafi Nejad Hospital in Tehran, Iran, 2015. The data were collected using Beugre's (1998 questionnaire of organizational justice questionnaire. To analyze the data, Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA tests were performed using SPSS, version 20. Results: Mean organizational justice and turnover intention scores were 68.85±7.67 and 47.8±12.47, respectively. Among the different types of organizational justice, the highest mean score was pertinent to interactional justice (75.24±16.68. A significant inverse correlation was observed between turnover intention and organizational justice (r=-0.36, interactional justice (r=-0.38, and procedural justice (r=-0.36, while no association was noted between turnover intention and systemic and distributive types of justice. Furthermore, there was no link between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in personnel’s intention to leave their job, and given high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to promoting justice and employees’ satisfaction and enhancing stability in their organizations by reinforcing positive attitudes in the employees.

  2. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Employee's Job Satisfaction: The Malaysian Companies Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong K. Fatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research study analyzed the impact of organizational justice as encompassed by two components, namely distributive justice and procedural justice on employee’s job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. This study revealed a positive and significant relationship showing that the foundation of an employee’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment is within the application of both distributive and procedural justice, and this supports a significant negative relationship to turnover intention. Approach: This study included the design and distribution of a self-administered questionnaire to 300 Malaysian employees working for small and middle size companies in the Malaysia, Klang Valley. The sample consisted of managerial and non-managerial employees who volunteered to participate in this study. The results supported the hypothesis that distributive and procedural justice has significant relationship with employee’s job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. Result: This finding implied that the higher the level of employee’s perception towards fairness to the means used to determine outcomes (procedural justice and fairness of the outcomes employees receive (distributive justice tended to increase the level of employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment while reduces turnover intention. Therefore, organizations that take a proactive approach to understand employee’s perceptions of distributive and procedural justice, and provide appropriate working environment can potentially reap benefits including cost associated to employee retentions. Conclusion: The findings in this study would help managers and business organization in Malaysia to formulate strategies that involved work factors such as distributive and procedural justice to improve the management of human resource development. These strategies would help in influencing positive behaviors among

  3. Promoting employee wellbeing: the relevance of work characteristics and organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katrina J; Noblet, Andrew J; Rodwell, John J

    2009-09-01

    Research focusing on the relationship between organizational justice and health suggests that perceptions of fairness can make significant contributions to employee wellbeing. However, studies examining the justice-health relationship are only just emerging and there are several areas where further research is required, in particular, the uniqueness of the contributions made by justice and the extent to which the health effects can be explained by linear, non-linear and/or interaction models. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the main, curvilinear and interaction effects of work characteristics and organizational justice perceptions on employee wellbeing (as measured by psychological health and job satisfaction). Work characteristics were measured using the demand-control-support (DCS) model (Karasek and Theorell, 1990) and Colquitt's (2001) four justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational) assessed organizational justice (Colquitt, 2001). Hierarchical regression analyses found that in relation to psychological health, perceptions of justice added little to the explanatory power of the DCS model. In contrast, organizational justice did account for unique variance in job satisfaction, the second measure of employee wellbeing. The results supported linear relationships between the psychosocial working conditions and the outcome measures. A significant two-way interaction effect (control x support at work) was found for the psychological health outcome and the procedural justice by distributive justice interaction was significant for the job satisfaction outcome. Notably, the findings indicate that in addition to traditional job stressors, health promotion strategies should also address organizational justice.

  4. On Distributive Justice of Socialist Market Economy%论社会主义市场经济的分配正义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝云

    2016-01-01

    Distributive justice is the necessary requirement of market economy. The distributive justice of free market capitalism economy theory and Marxist principle of distributive justice have many differences. To solve the current problems of distribution justice theory and practical confusion, we need deeply to analyze the view of distributive justice of the capitalist free market economy, and to understand and grasp the essence of Marx's theory of distribution. Only in this way, we can identify the characteristics of socialist distributive justice, and then establish the realization of distributive justice in our country at present stage path.%分配正义是市场经济的必然要求。然而,不同的市场经济理论有不同的分配正义观,资本主义自由市场经济的分配正义理论与马克思的分配正义原则存在诸多分歧。我国社会主义市场经济的分配正义理论与现实难题的解决,既要对资本主义自由市场经济的分配正义观进行深入剖析和批判,并汲取有价值的合理成分,又要认真理解和把握马克思的分配正义理论的实质。只有这样,才能认清社会主义分配正义的特点,进而确立现阶段我国分配正义的实现路径。

  5. The Impact of Psychological Science on Policing in the United States: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Effective Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tom R; Goff, Phillip Atiba; MacCoun, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The May 2015 release of the report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing highlighted a fundamental change in the issues dominating discussions about policing in America. That change has moved discussions away from a focus on what is legal or effective in crime control and toward a concern for how the actions of the police influence public trust and confidence in the police. This shift in discourse has been motivated by two factors-first, the recognition by public officials that increases in the professionalism of the police and dramatic declines in the rate of crime have not led to increases in police legitimacy, and second, greater awareness of the limits of the dominant coercive model of policing and of the benefits of an alternative and more consensual model based on public trust and confidence in the police and legal system. Psychological research has played an important role in legitimating this change in the way policymakers think about policing by demonstrating that perceived legitimacy shapes a set of law-related behaviors as well as or better than concerns about the risk of punishment. Those behaviors include compliance with the law and cooperation with legal authorities. These findings demonstrate that legal authorities gain by a focus on legitimacy. Psychological research has further contributed by articulating and demonstrating empirical support for a central role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy, providing legal authorities with a clear road map of strategies for creating and maintaining public trust. Given evidence of the benefits of legitimacy and a set of guidelines concerning its antecedents, policymakers have increasingly focused on the question of public trust when considering issues in policing. The acceptance of a legitimacy-based consensual model of police authority building on theories and research studies originating within psychology illustrates how psychology can contribute to the development of evidence

  6. Organizational uncertainty and stress among teachers in Hong Kong: work characteristics and organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin; Cox, Tom

    2016-03-30

    A growing literature now exists examining the relationship between organizational justice and employees' experience of stress. Despite the growth in this field of enquiry, there remain continued gaps in knowledge. In particular, the contribution of perceptions of justice to employees' stress within an organizational context of uncertainty and change, and in relation to the new and emerging concept of procedural-voice justice. The aim of the current study was to examine the main, interaction and additive effects of work characteristics and organizational justice perceptions to employees' experience of stress (as measured by their feelings of helplessness and perceived coping) during an acknowledged period of organizational uncertainty. Questionnaires were distributed among teachers in seven public primary schools in Hong Kong that were under threat of closure (n= 212). Work characteristics were measured using the demand-control-support model. Hierarchical regression analyses observed perceptions of job demands and procedural-voice justice to predict both teachers' feelings of helplessness and perceived coping ability. Furthermore, teacher's perceived coping was predicted by job control and a significant interaction between procedural-voice justice and distributive justice. The addition of organizational justice variables did account for unique variance, but only in relation to the measure of perceived coping. The study concludes that in addition to 'traditional' work characteristics, health promotion strategies should also address perceptions of organizational justice during times of organizational uncertainty; and, in particular, the value and importance of enhancing employee's perceived 'voice' in influencing and shaping justice-related decisions.

  7. PROCEDURAL JUSTICE AND TRANSPARENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Commerce has made the primary decision on the antidumping and anti-subsidy case concerning the grain oriented flat-rolled electrical steel. It is the first time that China conducted anti-subsidy investi-gation on imports and made antidumping and anti-subsidy investigation on the imports from the same country at the meantime. The principal of the Bureauof Fair Trade for Imports and Exports of the MOF-COM made interpretation of the relevant situations concerning the case.

  8. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Bos, K. van den

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that percei

  9. The Effect Of Perceived Justice On Customer Satisfaction In The Service Recovery Context: Testing Mediating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ellyawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of service failure through the model of service recovery evaluation. The study focuses on the concept of justice theory to determine the influence of emotions on the three dimensions of justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional for consumer satisfaction. The study considered a sample of 102 retailers in the Yogyakarta region in Indonesia, whose customers had experienced service failure and received service recovery. This study hypothesizes that perceived justice will significantly affect customer satisfaction directly in the context of service recovery satisfaction. It is further hypothesized that there will be a significant indirect effect of perceived justice on customer satisfaction in the context of service recovery satisfaction through emotions. This study employs the hierarchical regression model and shows that perceived justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional significantly and directly affects customer satisfaction. Further findings indicate that perceived justice also significantly and indirectly affects customer satisfaction. Positive emotions influence the effect of perceived justice on customer satisfaction. Negative emotions only mediate between perceived procedural justice and satisfaction. Thus, negative emotions do not elicit perceived distributive and interactional justice to unsatisfied retailer as consumers. The mediating variables are only partial mediations. The findings hold significant implications for the theory and practice of service recovery management, especially for retailers and service providers.

  10. [Resource allocation and justice in distribution of services in medical management of elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesch, G; Heuft, G

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the most important arguments in medical allocation based on an analysis of the relevant literature. The main arguments of rationing scarce medical resources are scrutinized. Especially the use of age limit considerations are critically reviewed. The discussion takes place against a backdrop of aggravating pressure on old people as cost factors. As a basis for further discussion, the authors give a brief history of theories of justice in philosophy. Finally minimum requirements for a constructive and responsible discussion are stated.

  11. 转型期中国公众的分配公平感:结果公平与机会公平%Chinese People’s Perception of Distributive Justice in Transitional China:Outcome Justice and Opportunity Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟天广

    2012-01-01

    本文考察了中国公众的结果公平感和机会公平感,检验并比较了社会结构解释和相对剥夺解释在中国的适用性。研究发现,大多数公众认可结果公平和机会公平,且机会公平感高于结果公平感,但二者仅微弱相关。结果公平感由收入水平决定,机会公平感主要受教育水平影响。外资和私营单位雇员比国有和集体单位雇员更具机会公平感,城市中下层就业者对结果和机会分配均持批评态度。"个体相对剥夺"而不是"群体相对剥夺"对分配公平感有决定性影响,结果公平感只受横向剥夺影响,而机会公平感则主要受纵向剥夺影响。%Perception of distributive justice, or people’s perception of the distribution status of valued resources, is particularly important in a society under transition. Since the implementation of Reform and Opening Policy, China has followed her transitional strategy of "economic development being the center" and the basic principle of "giving priority to efficiency with due consideration to fairness" in the distribution system. However, this strategy for transition has led to unequal growth in China. How people perceive the distribution status in transitional society not only determines the legitimacy of the reform but also affects the design of basic economic and social systems in the country. Considering the multidimensional nature of distributive justice, this paper attempts to explore the public perception of outcome justice and opportunity justice. To be specific, the paper empirically examines the national survey data in 2009 regarding the Chinese people’s perception of outcome justice and opportunity justice, and further analyzes the relationship between the two. Next, the paper provides some explanations from the perspectives of social structure and relative deprivation. Most Chinese people have acknowledged the descriptions of both outcome justice (58.18%) and opportunity

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Objective: Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women’s Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre’s organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman’s and Anova statistical tests. Results: Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel’s intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees’ satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them. PMID:27482163

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF HOSPITAL NURSES IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Sogand; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Omrani, Amir; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Kakemam, Edris; Najafi, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, human resources are of the major capital for organizations. Workforce retention is required to improve organizational efficiencies. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between organizational justice (as one of the most influential factors) and turnover intention was investigated. This descriptive-analytic study was done in the Comprehensive Jame Women's Hospital of Tehran in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 135 nursing staff members. The data were collected using a questionnaire of Beugre's organizational justice and analyzed by the use of Spearman's and Anova statistical tests. Averages of organizational justice was obtained to be 68.85 ± 7.67 . Among different sorts of organizational justice, the highest average score of 75.24 ± 16.68 was achieved relevant to interactional justice. A significant relationship was observed between organizational justice (r = -0.36), interactional justice (r = -0.38), and procedural justice (r = -0.36) and turnover intention, but no relation was found between turnover intention and systemic and distributive justice. Furthermore, there was no relationship between demographic variables, organizational justice, and turnover intention. Considering the prominent role of organizational justice in the personnel's intention to stay or leave and due to the high costs of recruiting and training new staff, managers should pay especial attention to justice and provide their employees' satisfaction and stability in their organizations by creating a positive mindset in them.

  14. 基于贡献原则的幼儿分配公平性%Distributive Justice of Young Children Based on the Principle of Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 刘文; 朱琳; 张玉

    2014-01-01

    Distributive justice concerns how individuals distribute resources in a fair manner, including three main principles: equity, equality and need. Firstly, we review the concepts and principles of distributive justice based on the equity principle. Secondly, the paper examines the characteristics of distributive justice judgment and behavior on young children, with conclusion that young children could perform distributive justice judgment and behavior. Then the paper examines the factor influencing the development of children’s distributive justice including theory of mind and situational involvement level from two key aspects of cognitive and emotional processing. Finally, the paper calls for future research to focus on the specific content, exploring the developmental characteristics, influencing factors and internal mechanism of young children's distributive justice based on the principle of equity.%分配公平性是指个体如何以公平的方式对资源进行分配,其主要依据3个原则:贡献(equity)、平等(equality)和需要(need)。最新研究表明,幼儿很早就已经具有基于贡献原则的分配公平性判断与行为,双加工理论对于该研究结果能够给出更为适当的解释,心理理论与情境卷入水平分别从认知和情绪方面对幼儿分配公平性的发展有着重要影响。未来研究应注重研究内容的具体化,对幼儿基于贡献原则的分配公平性发展特点、相关影响因素及其内部动机进行深入探究。

  15. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  16. Societal preferences for distributive justice in the allocation of health care resources: a latent class discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedgel, Chris; Wailoo, Allan; Akehurst, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that resources should be allocated in a way that produces the greatest outputs, on the grounds that maximizing output allows for a redistribution that could benefit everyone. In health care, this is known as QALY (quality-adjusted life-year) maximization. This justification for QALY maximization may not hold, though, as it is difficult to reallocate health. Therefore, the allocation of health care should be seen as a matter of distributive justice as well as efficiency. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to test consistency with the principles of QALY maximization and to quantify the willingness to trade life-year gains for distributive justice. An empirical ethics process was used to identify attributes that appeared relevant and ethically justified: patient age, severity (decomposed into initial quality and life expectancy), final health state, duration of benefit, and distributional concerns. Only 3% of respondents maximized QALYs with every choice, but scenarios with larger aggregate QALY gains were chosen more often and a majority of respondents maximized QALYs in a majority of their choices. However, respondents also appeared willing to prioritize smaller gains to preferred groups over larger gains to less preferred groups. Marginal analyses found a statistically significant preference for younger patients and a wider distribution of gains, as well as an aversion to patients with the shortest life expectancy or a poor final health state. These results support the existence of an equity-efficiency tradeoff and suggest that well-being could be enhanced by giving priority to programs that best satisfy societal preferences. Societal preferences could be incorporated through the use of explicit equity weights, although more research is required before such weights can be used in priority setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Job insecurity and organizational consequences: How justice moderates this relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli, Beatrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of job insecurity has been related to several organizational outcomes, both immediate and long-term. However, since the strength of these effects have been found to vary across studies, it is essential to identify factors that could influence the relationships. The current study examines interaction effects between job insecurity and organizational justice (distributive, procedural and interactional for various organizational consequences (affective organizational commitment, citizenship behaviours and perceived performance, some of which have received little research attention. Data from 248 blue collar workers in the Italian organizational context showed the buffer effects of procedural and interactional justice on affective organizational commitment and citizenship behaviours. However, contrary to expectations, the results also indicated that high organizational justice exacerbated the negative impact of job insecurity on perceived performance. Implications for research on job insecurity and the moderating role of organizational justice are discussed.

  18. EXAMINING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF COLQUITT'S ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE SCALE IN A PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR CONTEXT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, Colquitt developed an Organizational Justice Scale that intended to measure procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice. The dimensionality of the scale has been tested in subsequent studies with diverging results. Given the fact that contextual differences may account for more variation across research sites than individual differences, the deviating research findings may be due to context. This study examined the dimensionality of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale in a new context: the public health sector. The procedural and informational justice dimensions were highly correlated, but confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor solution provided a better fit than a three-factor solution. All fit indices for the four-factor model were consistent with a good model. There was, however, evidence of a potential omitted factor, procedural-voice justice, which has also been found in a previous examination of the measure in the public sector.

  19. Perceived justice and recovery satisfaction: the moderating role of customer-perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Subhash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recovery strategies are critical to service providers in their efforts to maintain satisfied and loyal customers. While the existing research shows that recovery satisfaction is a function of customer perception of distributive, procedural and interactional justice, the present study considers an important contextual factor - customer-perceived quality of the service provider in the evaluation of justice dimensions and satisfaction. To test the hypotheses proposed, a survey was carried out in the mobile services context. The findings reveal that customer-perceived quality affects the evaluation of justice dimensions and its outcomes. The findings reveal that while distributive justice enhances recovery satisfaction for low perceived quality services, the procedural justice resulted in greater satisfaction in high perceived quality services. Thus, by understanding the role of customer-perceived quality, service managers can deliver effective recovery strategies thereby enhancing satisfaction and loyalty.

  20. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Justice Climate Research in Organizational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jakopec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fairness is important to people in different roles, especially in the workplace. Scientists have traditionally studied organizational justice at the individual level of analysis, dealing with employees' individual justice evaluations. Although this perspective remains important, justice can be explored at the group level of analysis as well. Justice climate represents team members' shared perception of justice in the workplace. It usually emerges through modeling behavior, or through the social information processing. Shared justice perceptions can originate from the processes that, as the time goes by, make co-workers more similar to one other. Individuals and teams assess three things: outcomes (distributive justice, decision-making processes (procedural justice and interpersonal treatment (interactional justice. Teams, as well as individuals, can attribute (injustice to numerous sources, as long as they hold that source accountable for the treatment they are experiencing. Therefore, employees can evaluate formal authorities' justice (climate, such as supervisor or organization as a whole, but the justice (climate from the ones that do not have the formal authority over each other, their peers or clients. Accordingly, employees can simultaneously perceive one source as entirely fair while the other as completely unfair. Perceptions of justice, both individual and group ones, are associated with numerous organizationally relevant outcomes, expressed in the form of attitudes or behaviors. The interaction of different sources of justice (climate has significant effects on employees (shared reactions as well. Justice climate, as a collective construct, is differentially operationalized at the higher level: additive compositional model, direct consensus model, referent-shift approach model, dispersion model and the process composition model. This paper provides an overview of the up-to-date findings, as well as the guidelines for further justice

  1. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan......This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... pressure requirements the fan was dimensioned for the branch with the least pressure resistance. The decentralised fans then provided sufficient pressure to overcome the exact resistance in the corresponding branch. The results show that by using decentralised fans in duct systems instead of dampers...

  2. Constitutionalization of arbitration and its impact in standard legislation reform, CPP (Criminal Procedure Code and in criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pablo Rodríguez Hurtado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the close relationship between criminal procedure and constitutional law within a democratic State framework as well as the guarantees provided from a constitutional point of view in accordance with the current context of human rights globalization. Then, the author approaches us to criminal procedure main principles and guarantees, procedural models historically formed. Finally, it presents an interesting Criminal Procedural Code analysis describing guarantees, principles and procedural models recognized in our country.

  3. 联盟契约对知识整合的影响研究--基于公平感知的分析%The Effects of Contracts on Knowledge Integration:The Role of Perceived Justices of Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展军; 王龙伟

    2013-01-01

      基于契约治理、联盟公平及制度理论,提出了联盟显性契约与规范契约影响分配公平与程序公平的权变观点,并考察联盟公平对知识整合的影响。研究认为,显性契约与分配公平正相关,与程序公平负相关;规范契约与分配公平和程序公平均正相关。制度环境对这些关系会产生调节效应:法规实施无效率负向调节显性契约与分配公平、程序公平之间的关系,但正向调节规范契约与分配公平、程序公平之间的关系;政府支持正向调节显性契约与分配公平、程序公平之间的关系,但负向调节规范契约与分配公平、程序公平之间的关系。相比于分配公平,程序公平对知识整合会产生更强的影响。%Drawing on contract governance, alliance justice and institutional theories, this study offers a contingent view of the effects of explicit contracts and normative contracts on perceived distributive justice and procedural justice, and explores the relative influences of perceived justices on knowledge integration. The study suggests that explicit contracts have a positive effect on distributive justice and negative effect on procedural justice respective-ly, and normative contracts have positive effect both on distributive justice and procedural justice. Further more, all these effects depend on institutional environments. Legal enforcement inefficiency negatively moderates the rela-tionships between explicit contracts and distributive justice or procedural justice, but positively moderates the rela-tionships between normative contracts and distributive justice or procedural justice. Whereas government support positively moderates the relationships between explicit contracts and distributive justice or procedural justice, but negatively moderates the relationships between normative contracts and distributive justice or procedural justice. Fi-nally, we propose that perceived procedural

  4. Spanish version of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gracia, Liliana; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) is an important predictor of different work attitudes and behaviors. Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale (COJS) was designed to assess employees' perceptions of fairness. This scale has four dimensions: distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. The objective of this study is to validate it in a Spanish sample. The scale was administered to 460 Spanish employees from the service sector. 40.4% were men and 59.6% women. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported the four dimensions structure for Spanish version of COJS. This model showed a better fit to data that the others models tested. Cronbach's alpha obtained for subscales ranged between .88 and .95. Correlations of the Spanish version of COJS with measures of incivility and job satisfaction were statistically significant and had a moderate to high magnitude, indicating a reasonable degree of construct validity. The Spanish version of COJS has adequate psychometric properties and may be of value in assessing OJ in Spanish setting.

  5. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.

  6. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  8. Organizational Justice and the Shortage of Nurses in Medical & Educational Hospitals, in Urmia-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabad, Heidar Sharifi; Yazdanpanah, Abbas; Hessam, Somayeh; Chimeh, Elham Ehsani; Aghlmand, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One of the most important reasons of turnover is perceptions of organizational justice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived organizational justice and its components on turnover intentions of nurses in hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was among nurses. 310 samples were estimated according to Morgan Table. Two valid and reliable questionnaires of turnover and organizational justice were used. Data analysis was performed using the software SPSS20. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the normality and relationship between variables with Pearson and Spearman correlation test were analyzed. Results: Most people were married and aged between 26 and 35 years, BA and were hired with contraction. The mean score of organizational justice variable was 2.59. The highest average was the interactional justice variable (2.81) and then Procedural fairness variable (2.75) and distributive justices (2.03) were, respectively. The mean range of turnover variable was 3.10. The results showed weak and negative relationship between various dimensions of organizational justice and turnover in nurses. Conclusion: Organizational justice and turnover had inverse relationship with each other. Therefore how much organizational justice in the organization is more; employees tend to stay more. Finally, suggestions for improvement of justice proposed. PMID:26383199

  9. 马克思正义视域下的我国分配正义原则探析%Analysis of the Principles of Distributive Justice in China from the Perspective of Marx' s View of Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒前毅; 卓铭

    2012-01-01

    Marx believes that social production determines distribution of the justice of social income distribution and that it is organic unity of social productive forces and relations. China's current distributive justice must adhere to Marxist concept of historical one. In particular, it should persist in the following three principles. Briefly, social distribution is consistent with social production and the size of contribution and also combined with social security. These principles must be an organic unity and indispensable.%马克思认为,社会生产决定社会分配的正义属性,而社会生产是生产力和生产关系的有机统一。我国现阶段的分配正义必须以马克思的历史正义观为指导,具体地讲,就是要坚持如下三个原则,即社会分配与社会生产相一致原则、社会分配与贡献大小相一致原则和社会分配与社会保障相结合原则。上述三项原则必须做到有机统一,缺一不可。

  10. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  11. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  12. The decline of the Fossil Age is the rise of distributive justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bannas

    2011-02-01

    st century, energy is the source, the prerequisite and the legitimation of the model of power and consumption of the last century. However, there is neither the material basis nor the energy availability for us to pursue further, and around the globe, the resource-hungry and energy-hungry lifestyle of the past decades. This lifestyle never brought happiness (cp. Kasser, 2002. It could never be achieved throughout the world. Today, energy no longer embodies the genie from the bottle, who works wonders, but rather a model for limitless economic growth, material excess and the accumulation of economic, social and political power by one group at the expense of the others. Energy is frequently seen as being synonymous with the climatic and ecological crisis, with greenhouse gases, global injustice and military conflicts. At the same time, though, energy today once again represents hope. The age of renewable energy has dawned and, with its potential for decentralised production, its polycentric supply infrastructure and ecological balance, it represents a new technological age. Renewable energy gives new strength to ideas of good governance, of justice, participation and stewardship of our social goods.

  13. An unsettled bargain? Mothers' perceptions of justice and fairness in paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Mara A; Martin, Bill; Baxter, Janeen; Rose, Judy

    2017-06-01

    Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work. The results indicate that most mothers view their workplace arrangements as fair, consistent with a distributive justice framework. Many women also place great importance on interactional justice, particularly in their experiences in negotiating flexibility. The article also identifies differences across employment type with women in jobs with career prospects more likely to invoke interactional justice frameworks than women in jobs with few career prospects.

  14. Social Justice and Job Distribution in Japan: Class, Minority and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kaori H.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Japanese high school students in terms of 1995 post-school destinations and types of jobs obtained. Describes the school-based job referral process that systematically regulates job distribution for high school graduates, including high school-employer networks and guidance for students in employment-related…

  15. Justice judgements, school failure, and adolescent deviant behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Cristina; Gouveia-Pereira, Maria; Carugati, Felice

    2012-12-01

    The current paper is based on two different approaches. One is the relational model of authority (Tyler & Lind, 1992), which addresses the effects of justice perceptions on the legitimacy of authorities and behavioural compliance. The other is Emler and Reicher's theory (1995, 2005), which explains the involvement of adolescents in delinquency through their relationship with the institutional authorities of society. To provide empirical evidence for the linkage of these perspectives, analysing the relationship between justice perceptions about teachers and the involvement of adolescents in deviant behaviour. Our hypotheses are that teachers' justice is negatively related with deviant behaviour and that this relationship is mediated through the evaluation of institutional authorities, after controlling for school failure. Three hundred and ninety adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years. Participants completed the following scales: perceptions of justice about teachers, evaluation of institutional authorities, and deviant behaviour. Data were examined through correlation and bootstrap analyses. Justice judgments about teachers were negatively related with deviant behaviour, and this relationship was partially mediated by the evaluation of institutional authorities, even after controlling for school failure. However, procedural justice revealed a much stronger relationship with deviance, compared to distributive justice. As predicted, these results suggest that when adolescents perceive school authorities as fair, other institutional authorities are likely to be perceived in a similar way and the more those authorities are positively evaluated, the less often adolescents engage in deviant conduct. Results are discussed according to the theories underlying our hypothesis. Directions for future research are suggested. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Affect of Leader - Member Exchange on the Employee Performance on The Role of the Employees’ Perception of Organizational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TURGUT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study can be expressed in two different ways. The first one is two find out the effects of the leader - member exchange on employees organizational justice perception and performances. The second one is to investigate whether or not if organizational justice plays a mediation role on the relationship between leader-member exchange and employee performance. In order to reach our goal, a study has been conducted with the participation of 471 school teachers employed by 20 different schools that provide secondary educational level in Çorum. Results reveal that leader-member exchange has positive and significant effect on organizational justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational and employee performance, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice have positive and significant effect on employee performance, also shows that procedural, interpersonal and informational justice have full mediation role on the relationship that occur between leader-member exchange and employee performance.

  17. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  18. Cross-cultural differences in distributive justice: a comparison of Turkey and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Berman, Virginia A; Berman, John J; Cukur, Cem Safak

    2012-01-01

    When allocators make decisions about distributing resources, they face a dilemma if the expectations for consequences that will flow from particular choices are incongruent with each other. For example, a certain allocation choice might be expected to make an allocator appear warm and likable but unfair. Previous research has found that culture can shape these perceptions and, thus, their congruence or incongruence. The present study further investigated these ideas. Differences between Turkish and U.S. students' perceptions of allocators who distributed resources on the basis of merit vs. need were investigated. Results revealed an allocation dilemma among the U.S. but not among the Turkish students. Specifically, the U.S. students perceived greater incongruence among allocation consequences for both merit and need choices than did the students from Turkey for whom perceptions of allocator's fairness were more aligned with perceptions of allocator's warmth.

  19. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  20. On the Distributive Justice of Land Added Value in the Process of Urban Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeyi; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    It is an unarguable fact that the urban-rural dual structure led to two different results. On the one hand,it had been playing a great role in the city development and prosperity,and on the other hand,it had led the slow development of rural economy and the income gap between rural and urban areas. The government makes efforts to promote the process of urbanization to maintain the sustained development of China’s economy and economic transformation which are the two needs of the Chinese reality. But in the top-level design of the policy,the government did not give a fair profits distribution to all social groups. On the contrary,the result of urban development is based on the expense of a part of the people’s interests in exchange for the interests of another parts of the people,and especially on the government expropriation in the process of urban expansion. Under Land Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China,the government monopolized the expropriation right of the rural land,and the rural collectives and farmers as the land owner and constructors respectively have no rights to decide the land use purposes. In fact,they are forced to accept the land compensation,and because of the little bargaining rights,they gain little from the land value increment. Comparatively,the governments became the biggest beneficiary who made use of the land as a source and capital to earn the achievement in their official career and more money required by the urban development. The paper mainly analyzes the current situation of the distribution of the land added value,elaborates the reasons why the government strives for the land interests,and discusses what farmers lose in the government expropriation. Last but not lest,the author reflects on the land reform and gives a proposal on distribution of land added value.

  1. Relations between teachers’ organizational justice perceptions and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the school: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Demir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to investigate the relationship between teachers’ organizational justice perceptions and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the school via meta-analysis. An extensive literature search was conducted to identify both published and unpublished reports that examined the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of justice, job satisfaction and the organizational commitment to minimize potential availability bias. In total, research reports have identified providing usable data for 24 independent samples. Eight of these studies were published and 16 were unpublished dissertations. In this study, as indicator of effect size is chosen the correlation coefficient. Random effects model was preferred according to heterogeneity tests conducted for organizational commitment and job satisfaction. As a result of meta-analysis, it was found that distributive justice correlated positively with organizational commitment. There is a positive correlation between interactional justice and organizational commitment.  Interactional justice has a significant relationship with organizational commitment. Teachers’ overall perception of justice was positively related to organizational commitment. The distributive justice was found to have a significant relationship with teachers’ job satisfaction. Procedural justice was found to be significantly related to the teachers’ job satisfaction. There is a positive correlation between interactional justice and teachers’ job satisfaction. Finally, organizational justice positive correlated with job satisfaction.

  2. Three Liberal Theories of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří MACHÁČEK

    2013-01-01

    The mail goal of this thesis is to introduce the modern theory of liberal justice with a focus on distributive justice. In addition, the author addresses the issue of value neutrality in the liberal state and the concept of equality in liberal theory. The author presents the concept of "justice as fairness" described by liberal political philosopher John Rawls. Afterwards his concept is subjected to criticism of other contemporary liberal philosophers Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin. The aut...

  3. The impact of outcome orientation and justice concerns on tax compliance: the role of taxpayers' identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael

    2002-08-01

    Previous research has yielded inconsistent evidence for the impact of justice perceptions on tax compliance. This article suggests a more differentiated view on the basis of 2 congenial theories of procedural and distributive justice. The group-value model and a categorization approach argue that taxpayers are more concerned about justice and less about personal outcomes when they identify strongly with the inclusive category within which procedures and distributions apply. Regression analyses of survey data from 2,040 Australian citizens showed that 2 forms of tax compliance (pay-income reporting and tax minimization) were determined by self-interest variables. For 2 other forms (nonpay income and deductions), inclusive identification had an additional effect and moderated the effects of self-interest and justice variables as predicted.

  4. Effect of Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Effectiveness with the Moderating Role of Strategic Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kafayat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this era of highly competitive business environment every organization strives to be successful, and for that an organization pays great emphasis on organizational justice and job satisfaction of its employees in order to be effective and successful. This study investigates the impacts of organizational justice and Job Satisfaction on organizational effectiveness with moderating variable of strategic commitment. The organizational justice is subdivided into three types: Distributive Justice, Procedural justice, Interactional justice while job satisfaction is also divided into three dimensions as well: Working Condition, Job security and Autonomy. This study is an effort to contribute in the body of knowledge and helpful for organizations to improve their effectiveness. The data for this study is collected from Telecommunication sector of Pakistan via questionnaire.

  5. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Island Paralegal (Student) Command Division N/A TAD from/to until (give date) Naval Justice School, Newport, Rhode Island 3255 Whereabouts for next 30...If a lesser forum is desired, handle according to procedures set out elsewhere in this book. I IV-41 LEGAL OFFICER RELIEVING CHECKLIST A. GEN t . One

  6. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  7. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  8. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  9. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  10. Two-Stage Sampling Procedures for Comparing Means When Population Distributions Are Non-Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen

    Two-stage sampling procedures for comparing two population means when variances are heterogeneous have been developed by D. G. Chapman (1950) and B. K. Ghosh (1975). Both procedures assume sampling from populations that are normally distributed. The present study reports on the effect that sampling from non-normal distributions has on Type I error…

  11. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice.

  12. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal;

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education...

  13. What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Bege; Denier, Yvonne; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map the various principles of justice that are linked to benefit sharing and analysed their meaning to the concept of benefit sharing. Five principles of justice (commutative, distributive, global, procedural, and compensatory) have been shown to be relevant in the nuances of benefit sharing in both global health research and bioprospecting. The review findings indicate that each of these principles of justice provides a different perspective for a different benefit sharing rationale. For example, commutative justice provides a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on fair exchange of benefits between research sponsors and communities. Distributive justice produces a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on improving the health needs of the vulnerable research communities. We have suggested that a good benefit sharing framework particularly in global health research would be more beneficial if it combines all the principles of justice in its formulation. Nonetheless, there is a need for empirical studies to examine the various principles of justice and their nuances in benefit sharing among stakeholders in global health research.

  14. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  15. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  16. A study on the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghafourian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship and organizational commitment in Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some employees of Islamic Azad University and, using structural equation modeling, we investigate the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship as well as organizational commitment. The study selects 142 people from 255 regular employees who work for the university and distributes the questionnaire designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been determined for organizational citizenship, organizational justice and commitment as 0.924, 0.94 and 0.73, which are well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that procedural justice has the most effect on organizational commitment followed by interactive justice and distributive justice. In addition, obedience has the most influential effect followed by loyalty, partnership, innovation and behavior. Finally, the survey shows that organizational citizenship is influenced mostly by loyalty and partnership. In summary, the effect of organizational justice on organizational citizenship and organizational commitment has been confirmed.

  17. Research on the Value of Procedural Justice of Right to Remain Silent%沉默权的程序正义价值探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东升

    2013-01-01

    The development of Right to Remain Silent system has gone through two stages of beginning to establish and being limited ,and several centuries has passed since its sprout till maturity .There are many versions of Right to Silence system in China’s academic circles .The dispute of whether introducing the Right to Remain Silent at the beginning has become the problem of how to adopt it .The system of right to silence in the new revised criminal procedural law is still not established ,but the value of its procedural jus‐tice is beyond doubt .Entitling the criminal suspect and the defendant Right to Silence is the basic require‐ment of the principle of presumption of innocence .The establishment of Right to Silence System is condu‐cive to ensure the basic human rights of criminal suspects and defendants ,which can help to strengthen the defense power so as to achieve balance between the prosecution and the defense ,which can guarantee the implementation of procedural justice and due process of law .%  沉默权制度自萌芽到成熟历经几个世纪,它的发展经历了从开始确立到有所限制的两个阶段。对于沉默权制度我国学界是众说纷纭,从一开始的是否引进沉默权的论争到现在已经演变成了如何引进沉默权的问题。虽然近来新修定的刑事诉讼法中仍然没有确立沉默权制度,但其程序正义价值毋庸怀疑。现代刑事诉讼法基本原则之一的无罪推定原则,要求赋予犯罪嫌疑人、被告人以沉默权。沉默权制度的确立有助于保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的基本人权,从而加强辩护方的防御力量,实现诉讼中的控辩平衡,它是贯彻正当法律程序原则和实现程序正义的基本保障。

  18. An Innovative Teaching Design for Income Distribution and Social Justice%《收入分配与社会公平》创新课例设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱印

    2012-01-01

    本文从课例选取依据、基本内容和要求、创新课例研制、研制意图说明四个方面对《收入分配与社会公平》创新课例设计进行了介绍。%This paper introduces an innovative teaching design for Income Distribution and Sociai Justice from selection basis, basic contents and requirements, innovative teaching design research and research indication.

  19. A procedure for distributing recruits in manpower systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhosuehi Virtue U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we treat the following problem: Given a stable Gani-type personflow model and assuming no negative recruitment, what recruitment distribution at the n − step is capable of generating a staff-mix that closely follows the desired structure? We relate the problem to the challenge of universities in Nigeria towards reaching the desired academic staff-mix by rank specified by the National Universities Commission (NUC. We formulate a population-dynamic model consisting of aggregate-fractional flow balance equations within a discrete-time Markov chain framework for the system. We use MATLas a convenient platform to solve the system of equations. The utility of the model is illustrated by means of academic staff flows in a university-faculty setting in Nigeria.

  20. Employee Age Alters the Effects of Justice on Emotional Exhaustion and Organizational Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, Justin P.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Fairness in the workplace attenuates a host of negative individual and organizational outcomes. However, research on the psychology of aging challenges the assumption that fairness operates similarly across different age groups. The current research explored how older workers, vis-à-vis younger workers, react to perceptions of fairness. Integrating socioemotional selectivity theory and the multiple needs theory of organizational justice, we generated novel predictions regarding the relations between perceptions of workplace justice, emotional exhaustion, and employee deviance. Specifically, we hypothesized and found that employee age moderates the negative relation between justice facets and deviance (Study 1) and emotional exhaustion (Study 2). We also found that emotional exhaustion mediates the differential effects of justice on deviance, and that this relation depends on employee age (Study 2). Relative to younger workers, older workers are more sensitive to informational and interpersonal justice; in contrast, relative to older workers, younger workers are more sensitive to distributive and procedural justice. The research supports and extends existing theory on organizational justice and on the psychology of aging. Moreover, it highlights the importance of considering employee age as a focal variable of interest in the study of justice processes, and in organizational research more generally. PMID:28428764

  1. A Research Study For Procedural Justice As A Factor in Employee Retention(İşgöreni Örgütte Tutma Aracı Olarak Prosedürel Adalete İlişkin Bir Araştırma Çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi DOĞAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly aims to explore the relationship between employees’ perceptions for procedural justice and their intentions to stay with an organization by an applied research in a motorcycle firm. Secondly, it tries to determine and compare the effects of employees’ perceptions for procedural justice and demographic variables on their intentions to stay in an organization. For these aims, a survey questionnaire designed by the author was used in the study. A total of 106 completed questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 81.5%. And the study results indicate that there was a positive relationship between employees’ procedural justice perceptions and their intentions to stay. But there was a negative relationship between employees’ perceptions for procedural justice and two demographic variables; vocational experience and educational degree. Also study results indicate that procedural justice had the strongest impact on employee intention to stay, and followed by vocational experience and educational degree. The main result of the study for organizations was employees’ intentions to stay could be increased through promoting employees’ perceptions for procedural justice in an organization.

  2. The ideal of equal health revisited: definitions and measures of inequity in health should be better integrated with theories of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Asada, Yukiko

    2009-11-18

    The past decade witnessed great progress in research on health inequities. The most widely cited definition of health inequity is, arguably, the one proposed by Whitehead and Dahlgren: "Health inequalities that are avoidable, unnecessary, and unfair are unjust." We argue that this definition is useful but in need of further clarification because it is not linked to broader theories of justice. We propose an alternative, pluralist notion of fair distribution of health that is compatible with several theories of distributive justice. Our proposed view consists of the weak principle of health equality and the principle of fair trade-offs. The weak principle of health equality offers an alternative definition of health equity to those proposed in the past. It maintains the all-encompassing nature of the popular Whitehead/Dahlgren definition of health equity, and at the same time offers a richer philosophical foundation. This principle states that every person or group should have equal health except when: (a) health equality is only possible by making someone less healthy, or (b) there are technological limitations on further health improvement. In short, health inequalities that are amenable to positive human intervention are unfair. The principle of fair trade-offs states that weak equality of health is morally objectionable if and only if: (c) further reduction of weak inequality leads to unacceptable sacrifices of average or overall health of the population, or (d) further reduction in weak health inequality would result in unacceptable sacrifices of other important goods, such as education, employment, and social security.

  3. Organizational justice and mental health: a multi-level test of justice interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Abubakar, Amina; Arasa, Josephine Nyaboke

    2014-04-01

    We examine main and interaction effects of organizational justice at the individual and the organizational levels on general health in a Kenyan sample. We theoretically differentiate between two different interaction patterns of justice effects: buffering mechanisms based on trust versus intensifying explanations of justice interactions that involve psychological contract violations. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model with responses from 427 employees in 29 organizations, only interpersonal justice at level 1 demonstrated a significant main effect. Interactions between distributive and interpersonal justice at both the individual and the collective levels were found. The intensifying hypothesis was supported: the relationship between distributive justice and mental health problems was strongest when interpersonal justice was high. This contrasts with buffering patterns described in Western samples. We argue that justice interaction patterns shift depending on the economic conditions and sociocultural characteristics of employees studied.

  4. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-08-15

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals.

  5. The Moderating Effects of Corporate Image on the Relationship between Perceived Justice Dimensions and Consumer Attitudes and Repurchase Intentions from Online Shopping in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ghalandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of perceived justice dimensions on consumer attitude (Satisfaction with the recovery, overall firm satisfaction and trust and repurchase intentions by considering the role of corporate image. Totally, 400 questionnaires were distributed to university students, that 380 questionnaires were used for the final analysis, which the results from analysis of them based on simple linear regression and multiple hierarchical regression show that distributive justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery and consumers’ trust; Procedural justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery, overall firm satisfaction and repurchase intentions; Interactional justice has a positive influence on satisfaction with the recovery, consumers’ trust and repurchase intentions; Satisfaction with the recovery has a positive influence on consumers’ trust, overall firm satisfaction and repurchase intentions; Consumers’ trust has a positive influence on repurchase intentions; Overall firm satisfaction has a positive influence on repurchase intentions. The study also showed that corporate image plays a moderating role in the relationship between perceived justice dimensions and overall firm satisfaction, consumers’ trust and repurchase intentions; also corporate image plays a moderating role in the relationship between interactional justice and satisfaction with the recovery. However, the moderating role of corporate image was not found in the relationship between distributive justice, procedural justice and satisfaction with the recovery.

  6. 21 CFR 606.165 - Distribution and receipt; procedures and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution and receipt; procedures and records. 606.165 Section 606.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Records and Reports § 606.165 Distribution...

  7. The effects of Justice Oriented Service Recovery on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Retail Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrem Sisay Assefa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to investigate the effects of justice oriented service recovery on customer satisfaction in retail banks in Ethiopia. It also attempts to assess how recovery satisfaction in turn affects customer loyalty.  In order to realize the research objectives, data were collected through survey questionnaire from a total of 400 customers who have experienced service failures and recovered by the banks during the past one year.  The study utilizes the instrument developed by Tax et al. (1998. Findings reveal that, perceived justice namely procedural justice, interactional justice and distributive justice were found to be positively related to recovery satisfaction.  Recovery satisfaction is also positively related with customer loyalty.

  8. A Test of the Relationships among Perceptions of Justice, Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harif Amali Rifai

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors influencing organizational citizenship behavior in an organization. These factors include procedural justice, distributive justice, job satisfaction and commitment. Although previous studies have investigated commitment as antecedent of OCB, most of them did not specifically explain the type of commitment hypothesized. In terms of commitment, this study utilizes the specific type of commitment, i.e. affective commitment. The theoretical model proposes both distributive justice and procedural justice as antecedents of job satisfaction and job satisfaction has an effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB through affective commitment. SEM analysis of survey data from 383 nurses who are working for private hospitals in Indonesia supports that the theoretical model has met goodness-of-fit criterions. The findings concluded that there are significant relationships between both procedural justice and distributive justice and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has a significant impact for developing affective commitment. The results also support that affective commitment is a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior.

  9. 功利主义不讲分配正义吗--论约翰·密尔的分配正义理论%Can Utilitarianism not Be Compatible with Distributive Justice---On John Stuart Mill’ s Theory of Distributive Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继亮

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally , it is suggested that because John Stuart Mill is a classical utilitarian who advo-cates the claims of utilitarianism , he cannot hold the idea of distributive justice in a coherent way .In fact, such opinion does not make sense .Mill holds a kind of an abstract idea of treating people equally , under which he advocates three kinds of concrete ideas of distributive justice .These are the principle of giving every-one the equal property to his equal labor in the domain of distributing wealth , the principle of paying tax ac-cording to equal capability of paying in the domain of taxing , and the principle of distributing daily necessities according to people ’ s basic needs in the domain of social welfare .Mill’ s such concrete ideas of distributive justice all point to the same goal:social utility or the improvement of humankind .%按照传统的观点来看,密尔是一个功利主义者,作为一个功利主义者,他有可能为了实现功利最大化而不顾及分配正义。这种看法有失偏颇,因为密尔持有一种抽象的分配正义主张,在这种抽象的分配正义主张的指引之下,他在财产分配领域、税收领域以及社会福利领域分别提出了三种较为具体的分配正义准则。这三种具体的分配正义准则都是为了促进人类社会的进步。

  10. The Effect of Perceived Justice on Satisfaction, Value, Trust and Affect: Evidence from a Business-to-Business Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the effect of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice on satisfaction, value, trust and affect. Furthermore, this study argues whether this variables influences behavioral intentions in a B2B setting. To test these relationships, the present study uses data from 198 members of purchasing committee in medical laboratory. Structural equations modeling using PLS was performed to empirically test the relationship between the constructions this study. The results of the structural equation analysis reveal that all of these hypotheses are supported. Following a discussion of the results, research limitations and directions for future research are offered.

  11. On Thomas Pogge’s Theory of Global Justice. Why We Are Not Collectively Responsible for the Global Distribution of Benefits and Burdens between Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Pogge’s ingenious and influential Rawlsian theory of global justice asserts that principles of justice such as the difference principle or, alternatively, a universal criterion of human rights consisting of a subset of the principles of social justice apply to the global basic structure...

  12. Justice in development? An analysis of water interventions in the rural South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venot, J.P.J.N.; Clement, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a fruitful convergence between the distributive and procedural dimensions of environmental justice theory and current debates in the field of development studies over capitals and capabilities, institutions, and discourse formation to shed new light on natural resource management

  13. Justice in development? An analysis of water interventions in the rural South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venot, J.P.J.N.; Clement, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a fruitful convergence between the distributive and procedural dimensions of environmental justice theory and current debates in the field of development studies over capitals and capabilities, institutions, and discourse formation to shed new light on natural resource management

  14. Justiça distributiva em crianças de 5 a 10 anos de idade Distributive justice in children from 5 to 10 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi investigar os tipos de princípios de justiça distributiva utilizados por crianças de diferentes faixas etárias. Participaram deste estudo 120 crianças, com idades variando entre 5 e 10 anos, de ambos os sexos. Suas concepções sobre justiça distributiva foram avaliadas através de um dilema constituído por quatro histórias, nas quais duas crianças tinham que decidir dar ou não mais blocos de brinquedo a uma outra criança que chegava atrasada à escola. Os resultados mostraram que (a uma tendência ao igualitarismo absoluto caracteriza, sobretudo, as crianças de 5 a 6 anos; (b a utilização de julgamentos eqüitativos torna-se cada vez maior à medida que a idade das crianças avança; (c os julgamentos que levavam em consideração a importância da cooperação e do respeito mútuo foram identificados mesmo em crianças de 5 a 6 anos. Enfim, estes resultados são discutidos no contexto da pesquisa sobre o desenvolvimento moral infantil e a justiça distributiva.The main aim of this research was to investigate the types of principles of distributive justice. A sample of 120 children, whose ages ranged from 5 to 10 years, of both sexes, took part in the investigation. Their conceptions about distributive justice were evaluated through a dilemma constituted by four stories, in which two children had to decide whether or not to give more toy blocks to another child that arrived late at school. The results showed that (a a tendency to absolute equality characterizes children of 5 to 6 years old; (b the use of equity judgments increase with age; (c the judgments that considered the importance of cooperation and mutual respect were present even in children 5 to 6 years old. Finally, these results are discussed in the context of research on child moral development and distributive justice.

  15. A Brief Analysis of Procedures Injustice under the Influence of Unspoken Rules of Justice--In the perspective of Mama Xie’s Case%浅析司法潜规则影响下的程序不正义--以“蟹妈案”为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石君

    2013-01-01

    司法潜规则是我国社会主义法治建设路上的一只拦路虎,它的形成受到传统法律文化等各方面的影响,它的盛行架空了诉讼程序法律,损害了程序正义,最终使得实体正义难以保障。本文针对司法潜规则的成因、表现提出对司法潜规则的应对之道,即唤醒公民权利意识,强调司法去行政化,促进司法独立,培育程序正义理念。%The unspoken rules of justice are in the way of China’s socialist legal construction like a stumbling block. They are formed by the traditional legal culture and the prevalence usurps legal proceedings, damages the procedural justice and ultimately makes substantive justice difficult to guarantee. In this paper, according to the cause and the performance of the unspoken rules of justice, some ways are proposed to deal with the unspoken rules of justices:awaken citizens’ awareness of civil rights, emphasize non-administration justice, promote judicial independence, and foster the concept of procedural justice.

  16. On the relationship between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations among Iranian EFL learners: A structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One problem which can be observed in the field of EFL/ESL learning is that a number of English major BA and MA students are not highly committed to their major and decide not to continue their graduate studies. Sometimes even graduate students from English majors prefer to extend their education or work in an unrelated field. This might be attributed to the extent to which they perceive evaluation procedures and outcomes as fair. Considering this, the present study investigates first the relationships between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations. The study, then, uses structural equation modeling in order to examine whether identity orientation has any mediating effect on the relationship between justice judgment and outcomes. Participants were74 students in Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University selected based on convenience sampling. They filled out three questionnaires on distributive and procedural justice judgments, rule compliance and outcome satisfaction, and personal and social identity orientations. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and structural equation modeling. Based on the obtained findings, procedural justice had significant positive correlation with rule compliance and distributive justice was significantly correlated with outcome satisfaction. The generated structural equation model also indicated that justice judgments only directly affected outcomes and identity had no mediating effect on the causal relationship between the two.

  17. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  18. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment with Job Satisfaction in Employees of Northern Tehran Health Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Safi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, the organizations are obligated to take sufficient attention to human resources in order to attain greater efficiency and ultimately achieve their goals. Considering the importance of desirable behavior in organizations and its impact on the attitudes and perceptions of employees, it is necessary to pay special attention to the treatment of staff and their needs. The present study was prepared to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment and job satisfaction among health care employees in north Tehran.Materials and Methods: The study was done descriptive-analytical among employees with at least 6 months of experience and with a sample size of 259 patients at the health center. Data collection tools consisted job satisfaction, organizational justice and organizational commitment questionnaires. SPSS software was used for data analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient and T-test was used for independent groups and regression.Results: The mean (SD of Job satisfaction in employees was 50.1 (12.3, perceived organizational justice was 66.4 (1.17 and organizational commitment was 61.3 (5.7, out of 100. The result value of the correlation coefficient indicates positive and significant relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment with job satisfaction. Also, components of affective commitment and normative commitment has a significant relationship with job satisfaction, and all of the components of organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice have a significant positive correlation with job satisfaction. Regression analysis indicated that organizational justice and organizational commitment are able to predict job satisfaction of the employees. But the components of procedural justice and distributive justice were not able to predict job satisfaction, and job satisfaction can be predicted only

  19. A Graphical Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Distribution Constant of Iodine and the Stability Constants of Trihalide Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwa, I. A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a graphical procedure which allows the distribution constant of iodine to be determined simultaneously with the trihalide anion stability constant. In addition, the procedure extends the experimental chemistry from distribution equilibria to important thermodynamic and bonding features. Advantages of using the procedure are also…

  20. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Quality Performance among Healthcare Workers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Attia Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organization justice refers to the extent to which employees perceive workplace procedure, interactions, and outcomes to be fair in nature. So, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and quality performance among health care workers. The study was conducted at the Public Hospital in Fayoum, Egypt. The study included a convenience sample of 100 healthcare workers (60 nurses and 40 physicians that were recruited. Tools used for data collection included (1 questionnaire sheet which is used to measure health workers’ perception of organizational justices. It includes four types: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. (2 Quality performance questionnaire sheet: this tool was used to examine health workers’ perception regarding their quality performance. It contained three types: information, value, and skill. The results revealed that a positive correlation was found between organizational justice components and quality performance among the various categories of health workers’ perception (P≤0.05. It has been recommended to replicate the study on a larger probability sample from different hospital settings to achieve more generalizable results and reinforce justice during organization of ministry centers in Egypt.

  1. The relationship between organizational justice and quality performance among healthcare workers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Salwa Attia

    2014-01-01

    Organization justice refers to the extent to which employees perceive workplace procedure, interactions, and outcomes to be fair in nature. So, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and quality performance among health care workers. The study was conducted at the Public Hospital in Fayoum, Egypt. The study included a convenience sample of 100 healthcare workers (60 nurses and 40 physicians) that were recruited. Tools used for data collection included (1) questionnaire sheet which is used to measure health workers' perception of organizational justices. It includes four types: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. (2) Quality performance questionnaire sheet: this tool was used to examine health workers' perception regarding their quality performance. It contained three types: information, value, and skill. The results revealed that a positive correlation was found between organizational justice components and quality performance among the various categories of health workers' perception (P ≤ 0.05). It has been recommended to replicate the study on a larger probability sample from different hospital settings to achieve more generalizable results and reinforce justice during organization of ministry centers in Egypt.

  2. 四类分配公平指标对工作满意度的影响%Effects of Four Types of Distributive Justice on Job Satisfaction Using a Large-Scale Representative Sample of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 白新文

    2012-01-01

    基于Adams和Jasso的两种分配公平理论以及自我和他人两类参照对象,本研究将分配公平感测量区分为自我参照的主观公平感、他人参照的主观公平感、自我参照的客观公平感和他人参照的客观公平感四类指标.通过采用大规模代表性样本,探讨四类公平感指标对工作满意度的影响及作用方式.结果表明,自我参照的主观公平感指标对工作满意度有显著预测作用,其他三类指标预测作用不显著;实际收入负向调节自我参照的主观公平感对工作满意度的影响.四类分配公平感指标中只有自我参照的主观公平感对工作满意度有预测作用;低收入群体自我参照的主观公平感对其工作满意度的预测作用更强.%The current study aimed to explore the effects of four types of distributive justice indices,i.e.,subjective self-reference justice,subjective other-reference justice,objective self-reference justice and objective other-reference justice,on job satisfaction using a large-scale representative sample of China. Results suggested that subjective self-reference justice was the significant predictor of job satisfaction,and the other three indices were not; the actual income negatively moderated its effect on job satisfaction. Conclusions: among all the four types of distributive justice indices,only the subjective self-reference justice was the significant predictor of job satisfaction; the subjective self-reference justice had greater impact on job satisfaction when the income was low rather than high.

  3. A procedural approach to distributing responsibilities in R&D networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2010-01-01

    In professional settings, people often have diverse and competing conceptions of responsibility and of when it is fair to hold someone responsible. This may lead to undesirable gaps in the distribution of responsibilities. In this paper, a procedural model is developed for alleviating the tension

  4. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  5. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Battista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL Framework. While the Framework recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a cogent statement that connects information literacy to social justice. In this article, authors concerned with social justice and civic engagement will share their reflections on the Framework from a critical pedagogical and social justice orientation.

  6. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’ approac

  7. Impact of organizational justice on satisfaction, commitment and turnover intention: Can fair treatment by organizations make a difference in their workers’ attitudes and behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri S. Rai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of organizational justice on specific attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. The data were collected from 511 staff members from ten health and rehabilitation centers in a southern state in the United States. Pearson Correlations and Hierarchical Regression were used to analyze data. The findings revealed that distributive justice influenced job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Procedural justice is only associated with organizational commitment. Informational justice affected only job satisfaction. Interpersonal justice was not related to any attitude or behavior included in this study. These findings suggest that if organizations want to improve job satisfaction and organizational commitment while reducing turnover intention, they need to pay more attention to developing programs and policies as well as leadership styles that encourage fairness.

  8. TWO-PROCEDURE OF MODEL RELIABILITY-BASED OPTIMIZATION FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, considerable emphasis has been laid to the reliability-based optimization model for water distribution systems. But considerable computational effort is needed to determine the reliability-based optimal design of large networks, even of mid-sized networks. In this paper, a new methodology is presented for the reliability analysis for water distribution systems. This methodology consists of two procedures. The first is that the optimal design is constrained only by the pressure heads at demand nodes, done in GRG2. Because the reliability constrains are removed from the optimal problem, a number of simulations do not need to be conducted, so the computer time is greatly decreased. Then, the second procedure is a linear optimal search procedure. In this linear procedure, the optimal results obtained by GRG2 are adjusted by the reliability constrains. The results are a group of commercial diameters of pipes and the constraints of pressure heads and reliability at nodes are satisfied. Therefore, the computer burden is significantly decreased, and the reliability-based optimization is of more practical use.

  9. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  10. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  11. ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AS A DETERMINANT OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND INTENTION TO LEAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hassan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study, which investigated how perception of equity and justice played an important role in employees' commitment to the organization and intent to leave. The sample consisted of 181 middle and lower level managers from the banking and finance, production and manufacturing, and service sectors. The results hypothesized that both internal and external equity perceptions are positively related to commitment and negatively related to intent to leave. Among all the facets, equity promotion appeared to be the most significant predictor. Both distributive and procedural justice factors made significant contributions to employees' organizational commitment and intent to leave.

  12. VIEW OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE THEORY IN SPORT MANAGEMENT CONSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer KARADEMİR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to show the sport manager to importance of the organizational justice which affects on the attitude and behavior of the sport organization workers, in order to obtain organizational and individual success.It is necessary to realize the factors which negative effects on people performance and accounting the human requirements and expectations because the human factor is really important in the area of social, political, economy and management in order to provide productivity. This study was prepared with theoretical frame and under the light of related literature. It was evaluated in sportive extent of perceptional styles of the distributional, procedural and Interactional justice types is accepted as organizational justice variables in perceptional As a result the sport of today became a sector as economical mean and industry. Management of sport cannot be thought separated from general management. For this reason in order to obtain success in national and international competition every aspect of the sport, the sport manager who has the power of directing and managing sport beware of the organizational and individual success depend on the justice approach to organization workers and as well as every innovation progress.

  13. The priority of justice: a framework approach to ethics in program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Francis J

    2007-11-01

    The situations of evaluation are inevitably complex and various, often involving conflicts between ethical principles as well as among aims or stakeholders. To meet this challenge, evaluators and stakeholders need an interpretive framework to clarify the issues at hand and open the way to workable solutions. This paper provides a three-part framework of justice to guide practitioners in this interpretive task. First, evaluation is instituted to serve the public with fidelity to the values, standards, and ideals that characterize it as a profession and as an office deserving the public trust, here called public justice. Second, these requirements evoke and entail the more general demands of fair process, mutual respect, and right action known as procedural justice. Third, the operations of office and just process must serve the public good, meeting the demands of distributive justice that govern the allocation of goods and benefits. This framework takes as a starting point the priority of justice as articulated by John Rawls: "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is to thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust" (1971, p. 3).

  14. An Analysis of the Distribution of Student Financial Aid and Social Justice in China: A Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiehua

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese government's stated objective of student financial aid (SFA) policy is to help students from low-income families to access higher levels of education. This article first explores the possible associations between the distribution of SFA and students' various demographic and academic backgrounds. Then it presents the findings regarding…

  15. Organizational Justice and Stress:Moderating Effect of Equity Sensitivity%组织公正感与压力的关系:公平敏感性的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚家文; 王怀勇; 刘永芳

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty employee samples from Shanghai and Shenzhen were studied through questionnaire investi-gation to assess the effect of organizational justice on stress and the function of equity sensitivity.The results show that distributive justice,procedural justice,interpersonal justice,and informational justice all had significant negative effects on stress,the effects of interpersonal and informational justice were more significant,and equity sensitivity moderated the relationship between distributive justice,procedural justice and stress.%以上海市和深圳市180名企业员工为样本,运用问卷调查法探讨组织公正感对压力的影响及公平敏感性在这种影响中所起到的作用。研究结果表明:分配公正、程序公正、人际公正与信息公正均对压力有显著的负向影响,其中人际公正与信息公正对压力的影响更显著,公平敏感性在分配公正、程序公正与压力之间起到调节作用。

  16. Toward an Urban Political Ecology of Energy Justice: The Case of Rooftop Solar in Tucson, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Remington Santiago

    A central challenge of the twenty-first century is to transition to a low-carbon energy system to reduce the risks of climate change. For Pima County, Arizona, where electricity accounts for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions, this requires rapid deployment of grid-tied renewable energy resources. In light of this challenge, photovoltaic solar has emerged as an important solution, providing the top source of new US electric generating capacity installed in 2016. However, there is still no consensus about the optimal scale for solar (centralized power plants, or small, decentralized systems) and the socio-economic implications for low income households. This thesis explores the implications of rooftop solar for energy justice through empirical research about a southern Arizona electric utility rate case. Utilities argue that existing rate structures shift costs from solar owners to lower-income ratepayers, while critics say the utility's proposed rate changes are unjust and that rooftop solar benefits all ratepayers. Drawing on my empirical data and an urban political ecology (UPE) approach, I analyze competing narratives that speak to three types of justice: distributive, procedural, and recognition. While dominant justice claims revolve around the distribution of costs through rates, competing narratives emphasize procedural and recognition (in)justice. Focusing on political economy, power relations, and the materiality of the grid, I reframe the utility's cost shift argument as a strategic narrative and explain why this justice claim is ultimately validated. I propose that UPE can further an energy justice analysis by understanding procedural and recognition injustice as systemic products of rate of return regulation and the material configuration of the electric grid.

  17. A procedural approach to distributing responsibilities in R&D networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Neelke

    2010-10-01

    In professional settings, people often have diverse and competing conceptions of responsibility and of when it is fair to hold someone responsible. This may lead to undesirable gaps in the distribution of responsibilities. In this paper, a procedural model is developed for alleviating the tension between diverging responsibility conceptions. The model is based on the Rawlsian approach of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus. The model is applied to a technological project, which concerned the development of an in-house monitoring system based on ambient technology. The development of this innovative technology raised questions among the technological researchers about its social acceptance and the way issues related to privacy and security should be addressed. The case is analyzed in terms of two procedural norms (reflective learning and inclusiveness), which are based on literature on policy and innovation networks. Analysis of the case shows that, in a pluralist setting, a procedural approach can be useful for encouraging discussion on the legitimacy of different responsibility conceptions and the question what a fair responsibility distribution amounts to.

  18. A step toward a common measure of organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharee-Lawler, Saree; Rodwell, John; Noblet, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a public sector context utilizing an organizational justice measure developed by Colquitt in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis and standard error scree test supported four dimensions of justice as measured by Colquitt's scale. There was evidence of a new factor called procedural-voice justice that taps a possible association with the concept of voice. Future research on organizational justice must investigate its dimensionality based on more representative samples to develop a more globally applicable measure.

  19. Procedure for recording the simultaneous activity of single neurons distributed across cortical areas during sensory discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Adrián; Nácher, Verónica; Luna, Rogelio; Alvarez, Manuel; Zainos, Antonio; Cordero, Silvia; Camarillo, Liliana; Vázquez, Yuriria; Lemus, Luis; Romo, Ranulfo

    2008-01-01

    We report a procedure for recording the simultaneous activity of single neurons distributed across five cortical areas in behaving monkeys. The procedure consists of a commercially available microdrive adapted to a commercially available neural data collection system. The critical advantage of this procedure is that, in each cortical area, a configuration of seven microelectrodes spaced 250–500 μm can be inserted transdurally and each can be moved independently in the z axis. For each microelectrode, the data collection system can record the activity of up to five neurons together with the local field potential (LFP). With this procedure, we normally monitor the simultaneous activity of 70–100 neurons while trained monkeys discriminate the difference in frequency between two vibrotactile stimuli. Approximately 20–60 of these neurons have response properties previously reported in this task. The neuronal recordings show good signal-to-noise ratio, are remarkably stable along a 1-day session, and allow testing several protocols. Microelectrodes are removed from the brain after a 1-day recording session, but are reinserted again the next day by using the same or different x-y microelectrode array configurations. The fact that microelectrodes can be moved in the z axis during the recording session and that the x-y configuration can be changed from day to day maximizes the probability of studying simultaneous interactions, both local and across distant cortical areas, between neurons associated with the different components of this task. PMID:18946031

  20. ARBITRATION CORRECTNESS OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES ACCORDING TO PRIORITY DISTRIBUTION PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Khavruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of a priority distribution principle provides a possibility to establish rights and obligations of the parties while executing statistical quality control of products.Procedures of quality control from the side of a manufacturer and a consumer according to PDP are accompanied by certain decisions taken by the parties which in their turn are components of the arbitration characteristic. Arbitration characteristics show probability dependences of  an arbitration situation occurrence on quality indices, parameters of  control plans and decision-making rules.The paper considers cases when control procedures of  a supplier and a  consumer are correct.  The paper also shows that unified control plans and a decision-­making rules do not guarantee generally a correctness of double control procedures. The paper reveals that an intervention of standardization bodies  which is estimated by different amount of expenses depending on a choice of control plans and results is required  in order to ensure a correctness of the control procedures by the parties.

  1. Environmental Justice Challengers for Ecosystem Service Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In pursuing improved ecosystem services management, there is also an opportunity to work towards environmental justice. The practice of environmental valuation can assist with both goals, but as typically employed obscures distributional analysis. Furthermore, valuation technique...

  2. Identification procedure in the modal control of a distributed elastic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Belyaev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to provide the separation of the eigenmodes of elastic objects from the sensor signals and to make it possible to independently affect the modes with the use of actuators when realizing the modal system of controlling an elastic object with distributed parameters. The present paper puts forward an identification procedure which allows separating the vibration modes of the object in measured and control signals in the absence of the object model simulation. The control operability of this procedure was verified by experiment through making a system of active suppression of forced bending vibrations of a metal beam. The experiment showed the high control efficiency of the realized modal system.

  3. A procedure to characterize geographic distributions of rare disorders in cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual point data can be analyzed against an entire cohort instead of only sampled controls to accurately picture the geographic distribution of populations at risk for low prevalence diseases. Analyzed as individual points, many smaller clusters with high relative risks (RR and low empirical p values are indistinguishable from a random distribution. When points are aggregated into areal units, small clusters may result in a larger cluster with a low RR or be lost if divided into pieces included in units of larger populations that show no increased prevalence. Previous simulation studies showed lowered validity of spatial scan tests for true clusters with low RR. Using simulations, this study explored the effects of low cluster RR and areal unit size on local area clustering test (LACT results, proposing a procedure to improve accuracy of cohort spatial analysis for rare events. Results Our simulations demonstrated the relationship of true RR to observed RR and p values with various, randomly located, cluster shapes, areal unit sizes and scanning window shapes in a diverse population distribution. Clusters with RR We propose a cluster identification procedure that applies parallel multiple LACTs, one on point data and three on two distinct sets of areal units created with varying population parameters that minimize the range of population sizes among units. By accepting only clusters identified by all LACTs, having a minimum population size, a minimum relative risk and a maximum p value, this procedure improves the specificity achieved by any one of these tests alone on a cohort study of low prevalence data while retaining sensitivity for small clusters. The procedure is demonstrated on two study regions, each with a five-year cohort of births and cases of a rare developmental disorder. Conclusion For truly exploratory research on a rare disorder, false positive clusters can cause costly diverted research efforts. By

  4. 某三甲综合医院临床护士分配公平感现状及影响因素%Distributive justice and influencing factors of nurses in a third-A level comprehensive hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逸文; 刘帆; 廖燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation of distributive justice of nurse, snd provide scientific information for nursing human resource management. Methods Investigating 462 nurses in some third-A level general hospital with distributive justice Index 1, 2 to know the situation of distributive justice. Results 462 surveys were distributed and 457 nurses completed them, resulting in a response of 98.92% ,448 surveys was utilized. The mean score of self justice was (17.82 +4. 93), work situation justice was (16.89 ±4.23). There were statistical differences in justice among different departments [(19.42 +4.19), (17.18 ±4.21),(17.06 ±4.46), respectively,F = 3.502,P <0.05], there were statistical differences in work situation justice among different duties [(19.06 ± 3.03),(17.58 +3.68),(16.18±4.16),F=4.974,P<0.01)]. Multiple logistic regression analysis shows that department and job duty were main influencing factors (P < 0.05). Conclusions Nursers feel distribution general fair.Departments and job duty influence the sense of justice.%目的 了解临床护士的分配公平感现状,分析其影响因素为护理人力资源管理决策提供依据。方法 采用分配公平指数量对某三甲综合医院448名护士进行调查,以了解护士的公平感现状。结果 448名护士自我公平感条目评分平均(17.82±4.93)分,工作情境公平感评分平均(16.89±4.23)分。不同岗位护士在自我公平感方面的比较差异有统计学意义[(19.42 ±4.19),(17.18±4.21),(17.06±4.46)分,F=3.502,P<0.05],在工作情境公平的感知上的差异有统计学意义[(19.06±3.03),(17.58±3.68),(16.18±4.16)分,F=4.974,P<0.01)];不同科室护士在自我公平感和工作情境公平的感知方面的比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。经影响因素的多元逐步回归分析显示,科室和岗位是护士公平感的影响因素(P<0.05)。结论 护士对医院的各项分配感觉

  5. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  6. Optimization procedure for algorithms of task scheduling in high performance heterogeneous distributed computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmeen A. Bahnasawy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing, the schedule by which tasks are assigned to processors is critical to minimizing the execution time of the application. However, the problem of discovering the schedule that gives the minimum execution time is NP-complete. In this paper, a new task scheduling algorithm called Sorted Nodes in Leveled DAG Division (SNLDD is introduced and developed for HeDCSs with consider a bounded number of processors. The main principle of the developed algorithm is to divide the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG into levels and sort the tasks in each level according to their computation size in descending order. To evaluate the performance of the developed SNLDD algorithm, a comparative study has been done between the developed SNLDD algorithm and the Longest Dynamic Critical Path (LDCP algorithm which is considered the most efficient existing algorithm. According to the comparative results, it is found that the performance of the developed algorithm provides better performance than the LDCP algorithm in terms of speedup, efficiency, complexity, and quality. Also, a new procedure called Superior Performance Optimization Procedure (SPOP has been introduced and implemented in the developed SNLDD algorithm and the LDCP algorithm to minimize the sleek time of the processors in the system. Again, the performance of the SNLDD algorithm outperforms the existing LDCP algorithm after adding the SPOP procedure.

  7. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  8. An Empirical Study of Organizational Justice as a Mediator in the Relationships among Leader-Member Exchange and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover intentions in the Lodging Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Ryong

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of interpersonal working relationships on employees' justice perceptions and the effects of those perceptions on employees' work-related attitudes and behavior in the hospitality industry. This study examined the mediating role played by distributive and procedural justice in linking leader-member exchange and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions in the hospitality industry. The model was evaluated using stru...

  9. Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men's and women's justice violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleo, Suzette

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men's and women's work behaviors. The current work draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of procedural and interactional justice rules. The results of four experimental studies demonstrate that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate those organizational justice rules that coincide with the content of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Specifically, women were rated less favorably than men when they exhibited interactional injustice (Study 1 and Study 4), but not when they engaged in procedural injustice (Study 2). Findings also indicate that interactional justice violations (e.g., being impolite, not caring about the well-being of subordinates), but not procedural justice violations, are deemed less acceptable for female managers than male managers (Study 3). Overall, the findings suggest that reactions to injustice can be influenced by expectations of how men and women should behave. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  11. 罗尔斯分配正义及对我国分配问题的启示%Rawls Theory of Distribution Justice from the Perspective of Contemporary China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红杰; 郭金彪

    2014-01-01

    Rawls theory of justice is not only to inherit the traditional conception of justice, but for its innovation and develop-ment. It deeply discusses the relationship between individual and society. Distributive justice is the core problem in transformation peri-od Chinese social encounters, and it is also the reason of social conflicts. The basic principles and ideas for solving the distribution pro-posed by Rawls give us a sketch of a freedom and equality of social vision . "The theory of justice" can be said to provide a solution to social injustice for us.%罗尔斯的正义论不只是对传统正义观的继承,更是对其的创新和发展。它较为深刻地论述了个人与社会关系这一带有普遍意义的社会基本问题。分配正义是转型期中国社会遇到的核心问题,是诱发各种社会矛盾的根源之一。罗尔斯所提出的解决分配不正义的基本原则和设想,给我们勾画了一个自由又平等的社会愿景。其《正义论》可以说给我们提供了一个解决社会不正义的极其优化的解决方案。

  12. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  13. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  14. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.

  15. Inquisitorial Procedures and General Principles of Law: The Duty of Care in the Case Law of the European Court of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The question of who is in charge of providing (and possibly proving) the relevant information for decision-making appears to be one of the key questions resulting in the classification of a procedure as “adversarial” or “inquisitorial.”

  16. Set up the Thinking of Rule of Law and Adhere to Procedural Justice---Taking Case of Simpson as an Example%树立法治思维坚守程序正义--以辛普森案为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王墨

    2015-01-01

    习近平总书记指出:“要努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。”笔者认为要实现这一目标最重要的就是要树立法治思维,坚守程序正义。本文首先分析比较了法律事实和客观事实,实体正义和程序正义两组法律概念的内涵及外延,并以此为切入点深入论述了树立法治思维,坚守程序正义是我国各级领导干部亟需培养的能力。其次,从公安侦查权、检察院起诉权、法院审判权以及犯罪嫌疑人的权利四个角度阐述美国辛普森杀妻案中体现出来的程序正义思想。最后,分析辛普森案件中的程序正义思想对我国司法实践的借鉴意义。%Our Chairman Xi Jinping pointed out:"We should try to make ordinary people feel justice in every judicial case."The author believes that to achieve this goal,the most important thing is to establish the thinking of rule of law and adhere to the procedural justice.This paper firstly compares two sets of legal concepts:the legal facts and the objective facts,the conno-tation and extension of substantive justice and procedural justice.From this starting point,this article discusses how to establish the thinking of rule of law,in order to adhere to the procedures of justice,which is urgently needed by all levels of officials in China.Secondly,this article analyzes the procedural justice in the Simpson case from the following four angles:the police,the prosecution,the court and the rights of criminal suspects.Finally,this article analyzes how to employ the procedural justice in our country.

  17. Justice in the genetically transformed society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores some of the challenges raised by human genetic interventions for debates about distributive justice, focusing on the challenges that face prioritarian theories of justice and their relation to the argument advanced by Ronald Lindsay elsewhere in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Also examined are the implications of germ-line genetic enhancements for intergenerational justice, and an argument is given against Fritz Allhoff's conclusion, found in this issue as well, that such enhancements are morally permissible if and only if they augment primary goods.

  18. Connections between the ivory tower and the multicolored world: linking abstract theories of social justice to the rough and tumble of affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye J; Franco, Jamie L

    2003-01-01

    This article seeks to combine the social psychologist's interest in articulating and testing concepts with the public policymaker's interest in the effective implementation of specific policies and programs. The first part of the article applies knowledge about distributive and procedural justice to understanding some of the opposition to affirmative action. The application also reveals some lacunae-specifically concerning rule change-in how social psychologists have looked at procedural justice issues. In the second part of the article, we discuss the problem of rule change and propose a set of conceptualizations about the conditions that govern people's reactions to rule change. We end by reflecting on some changes in our studies of procedural justice.

  19. THE BUBNOV–GALERKIN PROCEDURE IN PROBLEMS OF MOBILE (SCANNING CONTROL FOR SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakelyan Sh. Kh.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to apply the Bubnov–Galerkin procedure to solve scanning control problems for systems with distributed parameters. The algorithm is described in details for three-dimensional linear heat equation It allows to reduce the solution of control problem to finite-dimensional nonlinear moments problem. The procedure of derivation of moments problem is illustrated in details on the example of one-dimensional equation of thermal conductivity. The solution of obtained moments problem is found in a particular case. Based on obtained results a computer simulation is done using COMSOL Multiphysics platform in one-dimensional case for a rod. The main dependences of control function against input data of the problem are revealed. The state of the rod for several (constant values of the source intensity is expressed in terms of graphs and illustrations. Corresponding illustrations are brought in case of control absence (null-power source for comparison. An effective numerical scheme for solving the obtained system of nonlinear constraints is suggested in the case of extended class of admissible controls. Calculation of control parameters is reduced to the simplest problem of nonlinear programming.

  20. Measurement of spatial dose distribution for evaluation operator dose during nero-interventional procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Chul [Division of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The spatial dose distribution was measured with ionization chamber as preliminary study to evaluate operator dose and to study dose reduction during neuro-interventional procedures. The zone of operators was divided into four area (45, 135, 225, and 315 degree).We supposed that operator exist on the four area and indicated location of critical organs(eyes, breast, gonad). The spatial doses were measured depending on distance( 80, 100, 120, and 140 cm) and location of critical organs. The spatial doses of area of 225 degree were 114.5 mR/h (eyes location), 143.1 mR/h (breast location) and 147 mR/h (gonad location) in 80 cm. When changed location of x-ray generator, spatial dose increased in 18.1±10.5%, averagely. We certified spatial dose in the operator locations, Using the results of this study, It is feasible to protect operator from radiation in neuro-interventional procedures.

  1. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.

  2. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  3. An inverse modeling procedure to determine particle growth and nucleation rates from measured aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Verheggen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical nucleation theory is unable to explain the ubiquity of nucleation events observed in the atmosphere. This shows a need for an empirical determination of the nucleation rate. Here we present a novel inverse modeling procedure to determine particle nucleation and growth rates based on consecutive measurements of the aerosol size distribution. The particle growth rate is determined by regression analysis of the measured change in the aerosol size distribution over time, taking into account the effects of processes such as coagulation, deposition and/or dilution. This allows the growth rate to be determined with a higher time-resolution than can be deduced from inspecting contour plots ('banana-plots''. Knowing the growth rate as a function of time enables the evaluation of the time of nucleation of measured particles of a certain size. The nucleation rate is then obtained by integrating the particle losses from time of measurement to time of nucleation. The regression analysis can also be used to determine or verify the optimum value of other parameters of interest, such as the wall loss or coagulation rate constants. As an example, the method is applied to smog chamber measurements. This program offers a powerful interpretive tool to study empirical aerosol population dynamics in general, and nucleation and growth in particular.

  4. Paper justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, T A

    2000-01-01

    This article relates the case of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of rape and their efforts to exercise their rights to terminate the pregnancy. The first victim was a 12-year-old girl from Bolivia and the second was Paulina, a 13-year-old resident of Baja California, Mexico. Though abortion is illegal in both countries, in the case of rape the procedure is "unpunishable" in Bolivia and legal in Mexico. Despite these laws, the girls, their families and their advocates contend repeatedly with local government and Catholic Church officials on the issue. Only the first victim successfully exercised her right to terminate her pregnancy through the efforts of her family and the decision of Penal Judge Luis Ledezma. This paper also highlights the need for reforms in the abortion law in both countries.

  5. David and Goliath : the procedures for selling ENEL distribution lines to city-owned companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofri, L. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Economics

    2005-03-31

    This paper analyzed the economic impacts of the provisions under Article 9 of the Bersani Decree, relating to the sale of the ENEL distribution networks to city-owned companies, with particular reference to the ENEL-AEM Milano case. The Bersani Decree states that the sale of networks must be made according to normal market rules, but also rules that ENEL is obliged to sell its own distribution network. Through the use of analytical instruments inspired by the contract theory, this study highlighted several contradictions in the decree. It was noted that the deferment to private parties bargaining to perform the sale was contradictory, as it was counterbalanced and blocked by the legal compulsion to sell. The Bersani Decree influences the bargaining power of the parties by handing it over to the city-owned company, who then make as low an evaluation of the contract as possible. This has prompted several companies to seek arbitration. If the arbitrators are unable to arrive at a satisfactory price, the contract will not be completed. The refusal to accept a proposed price may be seen as an attempt to negotiate a different purchase price. In addition, magistrates undertake the bargaining power that would be be granted to both parties to respect the Bersani Decree, in that the magistrate has the power to order one or both parties to conclude the contract. The independent setting of the sale is compromised and does not necessarily reflect the evaluations of parties involved. Appeals to appraisers, hearings and research mean that the costs to both parties, and society, increases. It was suggested that legislators should allow the market to work independently, without mandating the terms of private companies' transactions, and without additional procedural phases. A market-oriented formulation could avoid useless extensions and costs in the sale of ENEL-owned distribution networks to city-owned companies. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. 团队薪酬分配规则与分配公平感%Team -based Reward Allocation Rules and Employees' Distributive Justice Perceptions of Team - based Reward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海霞

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of two key team - based pay characteristics ( namely reward allocation rules and incentive intensity) on the distributive justice perception of team - based reward in task - interdependent teams. In a scenario experiment, a 2 × 2 completely randomized design was employed. Relative to equality reward allocation , equity reward allocation is found to be associated with significantly higher distributive justice perceptions of team -based reward. Incentive intensity negatively moderates the effects of equality reward allocation (but not the equity reward allocation) on the distributive justice perception of team - based reward. The theoretical and practical implications of this research are discussed, and research orientation is provided finally.%员工对团队薪酬分配的公平感是影响团队薪酬激励效果的重要因素.采用一个2×2的模拟情境实验,对团队薪酬的两个关键特征(分配规则和激励强度)对员工团队薪酬分配公平感的影响进行了验证.结果表明:公平分配情境下被试的团队薪酬分配公平感显著高于平均分配情景下,激励强度对平均分配规则下的团队薪酬分配公平感具有显著的反向调节作用.最后对研究的理论和实践意义做了探讨,并提出了未来的研究方向.

  7. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  8. A Comparison of Four Restorative Conferencing Models. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Gordon; Umbreit, Mark

    This bulletin focuses on four restorative conferencing models within the juvenile justice system: victim-offender mediation; community reparative boards; family group conferencing; and circle sentencing. The bulletin first describes each of the four restorative justice models, presenting information on background, concept, procedures and goals,…

  9. Analyzing the relationship between perceived justice and satisfaction after service failures: a case study in a telecom company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Augusto Vasconcelos Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The zero defect is something virtually unachievable in service operations, which makes the ability of companies to effectively manage customer complaints derived from service failures an important condition for its success in the long term. This article evaluates the influence of justice perceptions in customer satisfaction after a complaints management process. The case of a cell phone company is analyzed in which a survey with 496 customers who complained to the firm’s call center was applied. Customers’ justice perceptions and its relationship with satisfaction after the procedure were evaluated. The results obtained with a logistic regression analysis indicated that perceptions of procedural and distributive justice influenced significantly satisfaction, while the interpersonal justice, despite having had the high individual mean, didn’t showed any significant relationship with this construct. Some important reflections are made based on these results, considering that many elements of justice poorly evaluated had great influence on the final satisfaction, which indicated the need for the company to review its priorities in terms of processes evaluation and employee training.

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turłukowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the development of administrative justice in Poland over the last centuries. In particular, the author examines administrative jurisdiction before 1918, when Poland regained its independence, the period of the Duchy of Warsaw, the Kingdom of Poland, and the practice on Polish territory under Austrian and Prussian control. The author then moves to modern law by presenting the judicial system in Poland in general, especially the differences between the separate systems of general courts and administrative courts, and analyses the jurisdiction of voivodship (regional administrative courts, and the basic principles of judicial and administrative proceedings. The focus of study is mainly devoted to judicial and administrative procedure, rather than an administrative process of citizens before administrative authorities regulated in a separate Code of Administrative Procedure. The article describes the role of the judge (pointing out the differences between the active role of first instance judges and the limited capabilities of the judges of the appeal and the powers of the Supreme Court, in particular its power to adopt resolutions, which has agreat importance for the unification of the jurisprudence. A brief analysis is given to class actions, which in the Polish legal system are inadmissible in court and administrative proceedings. The articles provides a statistical cross-section illustrating the role of administrative jurisdiction. The author concludes with observations pointing up the progress of administrative jurisdiction in Poland, not only in the legal sense, but also in the cultural sense.

  11. Effect of different pretreatment procedures on the particle size distribution results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, Dóra; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Pál, Tamás; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    For soil particle size distribution (PSD) laser diffraction is a widely used and fast method. Although the data results are input data for further measurements and modeling applications, there are just few papers highlighting the effect of the pretreatment techniques on the PSD results. According to the different standards there are distinct sample preparation procedures for laser diffraction, which contain chemical (using sodium hexametaphosphate, anhydrous calcium carbonate or hydrogen peroxide) and physical (using ultrasounds) dispersion techniques to remove the cementing agents and break down the aggregates. To measure the effect of the sample preparation on PSD results 8 soil layer samples from typical Hungarian soil horizons were studied. We applied the most commonly used international (Buurman et al. 1996; Van Reeuwijk 2002; Burt 2004) and national (Hungarian Standard, MSZ-08 0205-78 1978) sample preparation procedures with and without modifications, therefore 8 distinct sample preparation series were carried out for each soils. The role of soil organic matter (SOM) content in the aggregate formation was analyezed on humic Arenosol sample. To measure the effect of carbonate as a cementing agent Loess and calcaric Arenosol sample was analysed. The effect of small particles as binder material was investigated by using Luvisol Clay and Red Clay samples. Solonetz, Chernozem, and 'Erubáz'(a shallow soil type influenced by high SOM content and the volcanic parent rock) were used to represent the interaction effects of at least two binders. The pretreated soils were analyzed by the Horiba Partica LA-950 Analyser. The applied refractive indexes differ from each other (real part: 1.55-1.60; imaginary part: 0.10-0.50) according to the soil type and the pretreatment procedure. The dispersion medium was distilled water in all cases. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to classify the measured PSD results. Results show that sample preparation is very important

  12. Does the justice concur witn court adjudication of criminal case?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berova D.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two formulas are confronted in the article: “justice in the Russian Federation is administered only by court” and “court adjudicates criminal cases”. Different scientific standpoints are analyzed. The viewpoint on justice as any court procedural activity (including pre-trial control of preliminary investigation bodies and arguments justifying it are studied, notably justice is not only judicial proceeding and conclusion on guilt and liability, but also deciding issues on arrest, search, taking other measures of criminal procedure constraint. The author proposes to consider justice in its direct meaning and in the narrow sense as the court activity on trying and adjudicating criminal cases. The rest of the court’s functions including the function of pre-trial control of preliminary investigation bodies cannot be considered as justice. The criminal case adjudication totally concurs with justice, and “justice” remains the priority legislative term. It is proved that justice as criminal case adjudication begins in the stage of preparing for judicial sitting, but it is executed in all the following degrees of jurisdiction and also when reopening the case due to newly discovered facts. In such cases reversal and revision of a sentence are possible, which is court’s prerogative forming a justice function. The judicial proceeding in the stage of executing a sentence is not considered as justice because in this case the sentence is not reversed or revised, its legality and validity are not examined and questioned, but execution of punishment can be amended.

  13. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... of a social being. In each category, we argue, achieving sufficiency requires different distributional patterns depending on how the capabilities themselves work and interrelate. This argument adds a new dimension to the way capabilitarians think about social justice and changes how we should target instances...

  14. A simplified calculation procedure for mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) based on multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a novel, rapid and easy calculation procedure for Mass Isotopomer Distribution Analysis based on multiple linear regression which allows the simultaneous calculation of the precursor pool enrichment and the fraction of newly synthesized labelled proteins (fractional synthesis) using linear algebra. To test this approach, we used the peptide RGGGLK as a model tryptic peptide containing three subunits of glycine. We selected glycine labelled in two (13) C atoms ((13) C2 -glycine) as labelled amino acid to demonstrate that spectral overlap is not a problem in the proposed methodology. The developed methodology was tested first in vitro by changing the precursor pool enrichment from 10 to 40% of (13) C2 -glycine. Secondly, a simulated in vivo synthesis of proteins was designed by combining the natural abundance RGGGLK peptide and 10 or 20% (13) C2 -glycine at 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 3 : 1 ratios. Precursor pool enrichments and fractional synthesis values were calculated with satisfactory precision and accuracy using a simple spreadsheet. This novel approach can provide a relatively rapid and easy means to measure protein turnover based on stable isotope tracers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Decentralized operating procedures for orchestrating data and behavior across distributed military systems and assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method for a highly decentralized yet structured and flexible approach to achieve systems interoperability by orchestrating data and behavior across distributed military systems and assets with security considerations addressed from the beginning. We describe an architecture of a tool-based design of business processes called Decentralized Operating Procedures (DOP) and the deployment of DOPs onto run time nodes, supporting the parallel execution of each DOP at multiple implementation nodes (fixed locations, vehicles, sensors and soldiers) throughout a battlefield to achieve flexible and reliable interoperability. The described method allows the architecture to; a) provide fine grain control of the collection and delivery of data between systems; b) allow the definition of a DOP at a strategic (or doctrine) level by defining required system behavior through process syntax at an abstract level, agnostic of implementation details; c) deploy a DOP into heterogeneous environments by the nomination of actual system interfaces and roles at a tactical level; d) rapidly deploy new DOPs in support of new tactics and systems; e) support multiple instances of a DOP in support of multiple missions; f) dynamically add or remove run-time nodes from a specific DOP instance as missions requirements change; g) model the passage of, and business reasons for the transmission of each data message to a specific DOP instance to support accreditation; h) run on low powered computers with lightweight tactical messaging. This approach is designed to extend the capabilities of existing standards, such as the Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA).

  16. Advancing system and policy changes for social and racial justice: comparing a Rural and Urban Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devia, Carlos; Baker, Elizabeth A; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Barnidge, Ellen; Golub, Maxine; Motton, Freda; Muhammad, Michael; Ruddock, Charmaine; Vicuña, Belinda; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-02-21

    The paper examines the role of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within the context of social justice literature and practice. Two CBPR case studies addressing health inequities related to Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease were selected from a national cross-site study assessing effective academic-community research partnerships. One CBPR partnership works with African Americans in rural Pemiscot County, Missouri and the other CBPR partnership works with African American and Latinos in urban South Bronx, New York City. Data collection included semi-structured key informant interviews and focus groups. Analysis focused on partnerships' context/history and their use of multiple justice-oriented strategies to achieve systemic and policy changes in order to address social determinants of health in their communities. Community context and history shaped each partnership's strategies to address social determinants. Four social justice approaches (identity/recognition, procedural, distributive, and structural justice) used by both partnerships were identified. These social justice approaches were employed to address underlying causes of inequitable distribution of resources and power structures, while remaining within a scientific research framework. CBPR can bridge the role of science with civic engagement and political participation, empowering community members to become political agents who integrate evidence into their social justice organizing strategies.

  17. Inequality, Social Justice and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Researching the redistribution processes in the framework of welfare economics is primarily carried out through the analysis of implementation opportunity of the social justice principle. Distributive justice involves the redistribution of income and resources in proportion to certain criteria. However, there is still no consensus on these criteria, which would clearly judge the fairness of the distribution.Individual needs, rights, desert or specific contributions of citizens in the development of society, the product outcomes, and many others can be served as the justice criteria. According to an egalitarian tradition, if not identified relevant distinguishing criteria, we can talk about the existence of the presumption of equality. Establishing equality means the advantages elimination of one individual over others. The paper attempts to analyze the egalitarian policies measures to implementation of equal opportunities, treatment and results, which ideally should neutralize all negative effects of a high degree of social inequality and achieve the desired goals of social policy. The paper also provides the argument concerning the realization possibility of the general equality idea. The author focuses on the existence of the exclusions in the equality policy - on the idea of «positive discrimination», which determines the appearance of conflicts between individual and public interests.

  18. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive....

  19. restorative justice, criminal justice and access to justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wide range of human rights that are enshrined in ... series, which tend to glorify the role of the prosecutor in a dramatic depiction of good versus bad. However, reality ... unpredictable transformation'.6 Models of practice ..... Funding and resources are also needed. 18 .... Restorative Justice Week, Protea Hotel, Umhlanga.

  20. Cross-level relationships between justice climate and organizational citizenship behavior: perceived organizational support as mediator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Li; Teng, Eryue; Qiu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the cross-level relationships between procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice climate and organizational citizenship behavior...

  1. Perceived Justice in Political Marketing: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Susila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to criticize and develop the construct of equity theory within the framework of perceived justice. Specifically, this study aims to investigate perceived justice construct in political marketing perspective. Sample of the research consist of voters of political parties in Indonesia.Data were collected through interviews and a survey using a structured questionnaire with a purposive sampling method to 150 respondents. The study use exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach Alpha method to test the construct validity. The research also use measurement model of structural equation model (SEM which is the same as confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Qualitative method also used in this research to investigate the new construct of perceived justice in political marketing. Result of the study found that procedural justice has weak construct validity and the definition of the construct is not clear. Findings the new concept of justice in a political marketing perspective discussed in this article.

  2. Procedural justice and trust in authority:A mechanism for acceptance of public policy%程序公正与权威信任:公共政策可接受性机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玄娜

    2016-01-01

    China is in a period of social transformation and social change,and social risk is increasing.One important characterization is that group events frequently occur.It hints that people do not accept public policy.If formulation and implementation of public policy does not fully consider public acceptability,it is likely to constitute a new social risk,threatening social stability.Therefore,how to effectively improve public acceptance of public policy has become a major problem that should be solved in our country.The objectives of this study are to establish a model of acceptance of public policy and satisfaction with government with the impact of procedural justice,outcome favorability and trust in authority (cognitive trust and affective trust) and to effectively enhance the acceptance of the policy.Through scenario,experiment,and cross-sectional survey,this study tries to investigate the interaction between procedural justice and outcome favorability on acceptance of public policy and satisfaction with government,and the boundary effect of trust in authority on this mechanism,on the basis of which to further analyze the moderation of cognitive trust and affective trust on the relationship between acceptance of policy,satisfaction with government and their factors.The results can be used to improve public satisfaction with the policy,and to provide a scientific basis for government policy.%中国正处于深刻的社会转型和社会变迁时期,社会风险加剧.其中一个重要的表征就是群体性事件频发.事件的背后,反映出民众对公共政策的不认可,如果公共政策的制定和执行不能充分考虑民众的接受性,极有可能构成新的社会风险,威胁社会稳定.因此,如何有效地提高民众对公共政策的接受性已经成为我国亟需解决的重大问题.项目欲建立程序公正、结果宜人性和权威信任(认知信任和情感信任)对公共政策可接受性、政府满意度的影响模型,从而

  3. Justiça distributiva: uma revisão da literatura psicossocial e desenvolvimentista Justicia distributiva: una revisión de la literatura psicosocial y de desarrollo Distributive justice: a review over psychosocial and developmental literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues Sampaio

    2009-12-01

    la justicia distributiva serán revistos y criticados. Por fin, serán hechas algunas consideraciones acerca del campo de estudios en la actualidad.Distributive justice assigns a construct related to the way as the people evaluate the distributions of positive goods (income, freedom, positions politicians or negatives ones (punishment, sanctions, penalties in society. When making distributive judgments, the individuals are concerned if the distribution favored or it harmed the involved ones, using parameters or principles that determine which distributive method is more or less just of being applied in the context of the distribution. Related to the distributive justice, many theoretical and empirical studies have been carried through. The main aim of the present work is to make a revision of psychological literature regarding the concept of distributive justice. It will be presented the main psychosocial and developmental theories that deal with this subject. Then, some important empirical studies on distributive justice will be reviewed and criticized. Finally, some consideration about the field of nowadays studies will be made.

  4. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  5. Imagining Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  6. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that

  7. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  8. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  9. Citizenship and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Bernts (Ton); L. d' Anjou (Leo); D. Houtman (Dick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDiscussions on the problems of the welfare state are increasingly framed in terms of citizenship rather than social justice. The popularity of the concept of citizenship raises the question of its implications for social justice theory and research. In this article it is argued that wher

  10. PERCEPTION OF JUSTICE, POST SERVICE RECOVERY SATISFACTION, INTENTION TO REVISIT AND WOM RECOMMENDATIONS OF FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITING BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sudiarta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of perceptions of distributive, procedural and interactional justice on post-service recovery satisfaction and post-service recovery satisfaction effect on the intention to revisit and WOM recommendations of foreign tourists to Bali. The respondents of this study were foreign tourists who visited Bali and ever experienced complaint. The number of eligible samples was 100 respondents. The questionnaire was given to tourists visiting tourist attractions of Tanah Lot, Kintamani and Besakih. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis, namely structural equation modeling (SEM. The results of this study indicated that the perception of distributive justice, procedural and interactional had a positive and significant effect on the post-service recovery satisfaction of foreign tourists who visited Bali. The study also found a positive and significant effect of post-service recovery satisfaction on the intention to revisit and the intention of recommending positive WOM of foreign tourists who visited Bali.

  11. Active Aerodynamic Blade Distributed Flap Control Design Procedure for Load Reduction on the UpWind 5MW Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.G.; Resor, B.R.; Berg, D.E.; Barlas, T.K.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a system identification approach and procedure that is employed for distributed control system design for large wind turbine load reduction applications. The primary goal of the study is to identify the process that can be used with multiple sensor inputs of varying types (such a

  12. Tableau-based decision procedure for the multiagent epistemic logic with all coalitional operators for common and distributed knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai; Goranko, Valentin; Shkatov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    We develop a conceptually clear, intuitive and feasible decision procedure for testing satisfiability in the full multiagent epistemic logic CMAEL(CD) with operators for common and distributed knowledge for all coalitions of agents mentioned in the language. To that end, we introduce Hintikka str...

  13. Fairness heuristics and substitutability effects: inferring the fairness of outcomes, procedures, and interpersonal treatment when employees lack clear information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin; Ren, Run; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Johnson, Russell E

    2015-05-01

    Employees routinely make judgments of 3 kinds of justice (i.e., distributive, procedural, and interactional), yet they may lack clear information to do so. This research examines how justice judgments are formed when clear information about certain types of justice is unavailable or ambiguous. Drawing from fairness heuristic theory, as well as more general theories of cognitive heuristics, we predict that when information for 1 type of justice is unclear (i.e., low in justice clarity), people infer its fairness based on other types of justice with clear information (i.e., high in justice clarity). Results across 3 studies employing different designs (correlational vs. experimental), samples (employees vs. students), and measures (proxy vs. direct) provided support for the proposed substitutability effects, especially when inferences were based on clear interactional justice information. Moreover, we found that substitutability effects were more likely to occur when employees had high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure. We conclude by discussing the theoretical contributions and practical implications of our findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Tableau-based decision procedure for the multi-agent epistemic logic with operators of common and distributed knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Goranko, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    We develop an incremental-tableau-based decision procedure for the multi-agent epistemic logic MAEL(CD) (aka S5_n (CD)), whose language contains operators of individual knowledge for a finite set Ag of agents, as well as operators of distributed and common knowledge among all agents in Ag. Our tableau procedure works in (deterministic) exponential time, thus establishing an upper bound for MAEL(CD)-satisfiability that matches the (implicit) lower-bound known from earlier results, which implies ExpTime-completeness of MAEL(CD)-satisfiability. Therefore, our procedure provides a complexity-optimal algorithm for checking MAEL(CD)-satisfiability, which, however, in most cases is much more efficient. We prove soundness and completeness of the procedure, and illustrate it with an example.

  15. Intergenerational justice: how reasonable man discounts climate damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future gener

  16. Intergenerational justice: how reasonable man discounts climate damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future

  17. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  19. Naval Justice Procedure Study Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The civilian charges had been dismissed eight days after the accused enlisted.) In Russo, the accused suffered from a condition known as dyslexia ; a...person with dyslexia , who has not had proper special education, cannot read. The recruiter was advised of the accused’s inability to read, a nonwaivable...who are, in his opinion, best qualified for the duty by reason of "age, education, training, experience , length of service, and judicial temperament

  20. Naval Justice School Procedure Study Guide. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    for law enforcement purposes. A and related information collaction and retention high degree of specialized training and experience is actions. It also...suffered from a condition known as dyslexia ; a person with dyslexia , who has not had proper special education, cannot read. The recruiter was advised of...the duty by reason of "age, education, training, experience , length of service, and judicial temperament." Art. 25(d)(2), UCMJ. A CA also "is free to

  1. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  2. Bread and Roses: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Justice and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally. PMID:27754351

  3. [The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior between organizational justice and organizational effectiveness in nursing organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wall Yun; Yoon, Sook Hee

    2009-04-01

    This study was a secondary analysis to verify the mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) between organizational justice (OJ) and organizational effectiveness (OE) in nursing organizations. The RN-BSNs and their colleagues in Seoul and Busan were subjects. The data was collected for 20 days between September 13 and October 2, 2004. Two hundred eighty three data sets were used for the final analysis. The fitness of models were tested using AMOS 5. The fitness of hypothetical model was moderate. Procedural Justice (PJ), Interaction Justice (IJ) and Distributive Justice (DJ) had direct effects on Job Satisfaction (JS), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Turnover Intention (TI) in OE, and indirect effects on JS, OC and TI mediated by OCB. The modified model improved with ideal fitness showed the causal relations among OE. In modified model, PJ, IJ and DJ had direct positive effects on OCB and JS and OC in OE, and indirect effects on JS and OC mediated by OCB. JS and OC in OE had a direct negative effect on TI. OCB mediated the relationship between OJ and OE, so the nursing managers should enhance OCB of the nurses in order to improve OE.

  4. State Autonomy and Re-distribution Ability:a Frame for China’ s Distributive Justice in Transformation%国家自主性与再分配能力:转型中国分配正义的一个解释框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晒

    2014-01-01

    Distributive justice co-exists with human .Whether to solve the problem of distributive justice is directly related to the success or failure of human society .There are two main factors which influence redis-tributive Justice:one is the nation’s“fiscal capacity” as the“input” end, the other is the nation’s“redistri-bution ability” as the “output” end.In the transformation of China , due to the restriction of state autonomy loss, on the basis of economic growth and strong fiscal capacity , the powerful redistribution ability has not been realized, which seriously affects the distributive justice .Therefore, to promote the distributive justice of the transformation of China , China ’ s state autonomy should be reconstructed on the premise of the guarantee of strong fiscal capacity to achieve strong redistribution ability .%分配正义是与人类同生共存的问题。能否解决好分配正义问题,直接关系着人类社会的兴衰成败。影响再分配正义的因素主要有两个:一个是作为“输入”端的国家“财政汲取能力”,一个是作为“输出”端的国家“再分配能力”。转型中国,由于受“国家自主性”流失的制约,在经济增长和“财政汲取能力”较强的基础上,并没有实现强大的“再分配能力”,从而严重影响了分配正义。因此,要推进转型中国的分配正义,应该在确保强大的“财政汲取能力”的前提下,重建转型中国的“国家自主性”,以实现强大的“再分配能力”。

  5. Variations on Justice: Argentina's pre- and -post transitional justice and justice to-come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    of these three kinds of justice and the changes they underwent in the past two decades. By offering a grounded analysis of justice in the pre- and the post-transitional justice phases in Argentina the paper contributes to ongoing debates about the meaning of justice and the possibility of reconciliation in post-conflict...

  6. Physical Concepts and Modeling Procedures for Picosecond and Subpicosecond Distributed Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Sonnet Software (makers of em, an electromagnetic structure 3 simulator for arbitrary geometries.) Both versions of SPICE we have currently otter...of the diatomic lattice .................... 73 5.3 Radiation sources on the distributed doubler ................. 77 5.4 Layout of the distributed...upper branch is possible, as demonstrated by I 3 CHAPTER 5. DISTRIBUTED FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION 73 I popm I I * 0 c k*1 (per section) Figure 5.2

  7. Like water for justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is

  8. Potential Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  9. 高校教师组织公平感对其工作倦怠的影响%The effect of organizational justice on job burnout of college teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光莉; 陈超然

    2013-01-01

    Objective The effect organizational justice on job burnout of college teachers was explored to reduce the level of teachers'job burnout . Methods 600 college teachers were investigated with the scales of job burnout and organizational justice . Results Organizational justice was related negatively to job burnout . Procedural justice , distributive justice and interactive justice can predict job burnout . Conclusion Organizational justice can predict the level of job burnout in college teachers .%目的探讨高校教师组织公平感对其工作倦怠的影响,为有效降低教师工作倦怠提供帮助。方法用工作倦怠量表(MBI)和 Niehoff&Moorman (1993)所编制的组织公平感问卷对600名高校教师进行调查分析。结果学校组织公平感与教师工作倦怠有非常显著的负相关;程序公平、分配公平和互动公平与教师工作倦怠回归十分显著,它们都是教师工作倦怠的负向预测因子。结论教师对学校组织公平感越高,其工作倦怠水平越低。

  10. The Relationship Between Organizational Justice And Commitment: A Case Study In Accommodation Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Yazıcıoğlu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determinate the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment in accommodation enterprises. It was also aimed to determinate that relationship in term of distributive justice, process justice and interaction justice. In this scope a case study was carried out on 426 employee who work in holiday village and 4-5 stars hotel in Muğla province. The questionnaire forms were used to collect data from sample group. According to the analyzing of collected data, a significant relationship was found between general organizational justice, distributive justice, process justice, interaction justice and organizational commitment at the 0,05 significant level. The level of the relationship for general organizational justice and organizational commitment was 62,4%. The level of the relationship between distributive justice and commitment was 51%, between process justice and commitment was 45%, between interaction justice and commitment was 62%. Also the differentiation of those relationships in term of gender, education level and the type of enterprises were searched.

  11. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  12. Gender and Climate Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Agostino; Rosa Lizarde

    2012-01-01

    Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde explore the concept of climate justice as a rights approach to climate change. They propose that those in the South who are most affected by environmental changes need to receive justice from those in the North who are most responsible for climate change. They apply a gender lens to climate change, analyzing how women have been specifically hit by the phenomenon and how they are responding.

  13. JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PERSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brčić Kuljiš, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Symbol of justice is a blindfolded lady. Blind to all diversity, it provides impartial law and equal treatment for all citizens. Their rationality, cooperativeness, autonomy and independence confirm their legal equality. However, what about the people who, for various reasons, do not meet those conditions? Can a political community apply the principles of (political) justice to them? Does it relate to them unfairly excluding them from political relationships or building relationships with the...

  14. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  15. Seeking Social Justice in the ACRL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Andrew; Ellenwood, Dave; Gregory, Lua; Higgins, Shana; Lilburn, Jeff; Harker, Yasmin Sokkar; Sweet, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to address the possibilities and challenges librarians concerned with social justice may face when working with the ACRL "Framework." While the "Framework" recognizes that information emerges from varied contexts that reflect uneven distributions of power, privilege, and authority, it is missing a…

  16. Efficiency of Pay for Performance Programs in Romanian Companies and the Mediating Role of Organizational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriesi Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the influences of pay for performance programs on employee performance in the Romanian context, by comparing a sample of employees in companies in which such programs are implemented to a sample of employees in organizations in which performance is not used as a criterion in deciding financial rewards. Results show that the work performances of the former, as evaluated by the direct supervisors of each employee, are significantly higher than those of the latter, and that this effect of performance pay is partly mediated by its positive effects on employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. Furthermore, results indicate that the individual – level financial incentive systems are more efficient in fostering work performance than the team – level performance pay programs in the Romanian employee sample, and that they also have stronger effects on the two dimensions of organizational justice.

  17. 组织公平感对薪酬满意度的影响%Relationship between Organizational Justice and Pay Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 郑晓明

    2009-01-01

    The survey data were from 609 questionnaires of 21 companies of different districts in China. On the base of controlling some individual and organizational variables, the results of HRA (hierarchical regression analysis) showed that interactional justice was the total mediator between procedural and distribute justice and pay administration satisfaction \\ pay level satisfaction; And distribute justice was the total mediator between procedural and interactional justice and add pay satisfaction \\ benefit satisfaction. There was significant interaction between international justice and position on pay administration satisfaction; and there was significant interaction between distributes justice and position on adds pay satisfaction.%通过问卷调查得到全国21家企业609份有效问卷.在控制了基本的个人和组织变量后,层次回归分析结果显示,在中介作用上,程序公平和分配公平通过交互公平的完全中介作用影响薪酬管理和薪酬水平满意度,程序公平和交互公平通过分配公平的完全中介作用影响加薪和福利满意度.在交互作用上,交互公平与岗位对薪酬管理满意度有显著的交互作用,分配公平与岗位在加薪满意度上有显著的交互作用.这些结果的启示意义是:在薪酬管理过程中要重视员工的组织公平感,加强薪酬的沟通和交流,确保薪酬管理的公平性.

  18. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of obtaining numerically maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions is addressed. In recent literature, a certain successive approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, is shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, a general iterative procedure is introduced, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. With probability 1 as the sample size grows large, it is shown that this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. The step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the separation of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  19. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining numerically maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions. In recent literature, a certain successive-approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, was shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, we introduce a general iterative procedure, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. We show that, with probability 1 as the sample size grows large, this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. We also show that the step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the 'separation' of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  20. The Concept of Media Justice and Its Dimensions -- Based on the "5W" Mode of Communication%论媒介正义的概念及其维度——基于拉斯韦尔“5W”传播模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁靖华

    2012-01-01

    While studying Lasswell's basic mode of communication, drawing on previous research on theory of justice, media justice can be decomposed into four dimensions: the Media channel resources related to distributive Justice,the communication process related to procedural justice,the information content related to information justice, the relationship between communicators and recipients related to interpersonal justice.The path to achieve Media justice is to fully meet the above four justice requirements throughout the whole process of media communication activities%本文以拉斯韦尔“五W”经典传播模式为研究视角,借鉴前人有关正义理论研究成果,将媒介正义分解为四个维度:一是涉及媒介传播渠道资源的分配正义,二是涉及媒介传播过程的程序正义,三是涉及媒介传播信息内容的信息正义,四是涉及传播者与接受者关系的人际正义。媒介正义的实现路径,即是在媒介传播活动的整个过程中全面贯彻落实上述四种正义要求。

  1. A procedure to characterize geographic distributions of rare disorders in cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meter, Karla C Van; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2008-01-01

    Background Individual point data can be analyzed against an entire cohort instead of only sampled controls to accurately picture the geographic distribution of populations at risk for low prevalence diseases. Analyzed as individual points, many smaller clusters with high relative risks (RR) and l....... Results Our simulations demonstrated the relationship of true RR to observed RR and p values with various, randomly located, cluster shapes, areal unit sizes and scanning window shapes in a diverse population distribution. Clusters with RR...

  2. New Configuration and Novel Reclosing Procedure of Distribution System for Utilization of BESS as UPS in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Chul Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new configuration and novel reclosing procedure of a distribution system with a battery energy storage system (BESS used as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS in a smart grid. The proposed new configurations of the distribution systems are the installation of a circuit breaker (CB on both sides of the distribution line, the replacement of the recloser with a CB and protective relay, and the requirement of a communication method. The proposed reclosing procedure performs the reclosing of the CB at the load side and then judges the fault clearance using the load current. If the fault is cleared, the synchronism checking between the main source and the BESS is performed. After completing this, the CB at the main source side is reclosed. The smart grid environment, including a new distribution system, BESS, and reclosing method are modeled with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP/ATPDraw. To verify the proposed method, the various simulations according to the fault clearance time are performed and analyzed. The simulation results show that the BESS can be operated as a UPS and successful reclosing is possible.

  3. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  4. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2016-12-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  5. Village Elder SHAN Gang:The Difficulties of Realizing Procedural Justice in Customary Society and the Causes%《被告山杠爷》:乡土社会程序正义实现的困境及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷怡

    2015-01-01

    In the movie Village Elder SHAN Gang,the dispute resolution“procedure”used by elder SHAN Gang was suitable for local villagers,which yet was a violation of the laws of the modern legal procedure. Relationship between villagers in a customary socie-ty is transforming from defamiliarization to rationalization,which is embodied in a dual-structure where the basic form of social ac-quaintances is still retained. Villagers still prefer no-litigation dispute resolutions mostly and the high cost of litigation to achieve proce-dural justice is an inherent defect,making procedural justice in the contemporary sense hard to penetrate into their daily lives.%电影《被告山杠爷》中,山杠爷解决纠纷的“程序”是适合乡土的,但却是违反现代法律的“程序”。乡土社会正在发生陌生化和理性化的改变,纠纷解决呈现双重空间结构,但是熟人社会的基本形态仍然保留,无讼的法律文化传统依旧存在,诉讼程序本身存在的高成本缺陷,使得现代意义上的程序正义难以渗入。

  6. 价值认同对程序公平与组织公民行为之间关系的作用研究%The Effects of Vale Alignment on the Relationship Between Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 宋合义; 薛贤

    2012-01-01

    基于对组织公民行为及组织公平的文献回顾,具体考察了薪酬程序公平分别对于指向个体与指向组织公民行为的影响作用。随后,结合盟约关系理论解释了员工对组织的价值认同对组织公民行为的影响作用,从而构建立了价值认同对于程序公平与组织公民行为之间关系的调节作用模型。结果表明,薪酬程序公平同指向个体和组织的组织公民行为都有显著的正向关系,并且员工对于组织的价值认同能够调节这二者之间的关系,降低由于薪酬程序不公平所导致的组织公民行为投入减少的负面效果。依据研究结果,指出未来的人力资源管理实践应该通过具体措施来改善员工对组织的价值认同状态,从而有利于组织得到期望的产出。%Based on the review of literature on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational justice, this study in more detail investigated the effects of payment procedural justice on organizational citizenship behavior di- rected to individuals and organizations. Moreover, this study attempted to explain the effects of employees' value alignment on organization on organizational citizenship behavior using the theory of covenant relationship, which led to the building of a moderation model of value alignment on the relationship between payment procedural jus- tice and organizational citizenship behavior. The results showed that payment procedural justice of employees had a significantly positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior directed to both individuals and organi- zations. Moreover, value alignment as a moderator reduced the effects of low procedural justice on organizational citizenship behavior. According to the conclusions, future human resource practices should improve the value agree- ment between organization and staff by detailed operation in order to get desired outcomes

  7. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  8. [Justice in health. Comment on the theory by Norman Daniels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauprich, O

    2009-05-01

    This comment outlines the current approach of Norman Daniels and illustrates its connection to the important theory of political justice by John Rawls. Despite some conceptual imprecision and a lack of coherency between his substantial and procedural account of justice, Daniels' approach qualifies as a benchmark for other current and future theories of justice and health. The social and political implications of his theory are far reaching: We are still far from protecting our health in the way we owe it to each other.

  9. The Moderate Effect of Responsibility Attribution on the Relationship between Justice and Affective Commitment%责任归因对公平感与情感承诺关系的调节作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀勇; 刘永芳

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, exploring justice in the workplace a from multi - source perspective has become a hot topic in the fields of managerial psychology. Scholars found that justice in the workplace included organization/supervisor distributive justice, organization/ supervisor procedural justice, organization/supervisor interpersonal justice and organization/supervisor informational justice ( Byrne & Cropanzano, 2000). However, little research has been done to explore one of the reactions : affective commitment, particularly affective commitment to organization and supervisors. Furthermore, researchers know even less about the factors that strengthen or reduce these relationships. It is unknown whether individuals always react to the perceived fairness of each source or if there are factors that will strengthen the fairness perception -reaction relationship. In order to answer the above questions, this paper used two methods : one was open questions, which used key-event techniques to ask employees to recall unfair events that had happened to themselves and to describe them in their own words. The other method was response scales, which asked employees to rate the items frankly based on the said unfair events. Response scales included Justice Scale, Responsibility Attribution Scale and Affective Commitment Scale. Specifically, Justice was measured by a twenty --four-item survey, which consisted of organization procedural justice, and interpersonal justice, informational justice and supervisor procedural jus- tice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice~ Analysis of reliability indicated that the internal consistency ct coefficient was. 86, ~ 89, . 87, . 87, . 88, and . 89 respectively, indicating good reliability. For validity, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the six - - factor-model fit the data better, indicating good construct validity. Responsibility attribution was measured by a Three --items survey, which consisted of organization

  10. The Effect of Transformational Leadership on Follower Performance and Satisfaction:The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital and the Moderating Role of Procedural Justice%变革型领导对员工绩效和满意度的影响:心理资本的中介作用及程序公平的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋杨; 王辉; 岳旖旎; Fred Luthans

    2012-01-01

    通过对国内一家企业共785位员工及其直接主管的问卷调查,考察了下属心理资本在变革型领导与下属工作绩效及满意度之间关系的中介作用以及程序公平对该关系的调节作用.研究结果显示:1)下属的心理资本与其工作绩效和满意度正向相关;2)下属的心理资本部分中介了变革型领导对下属工作绩效及满意度的正向关系;3)下属的程序公平调节了变革型领导对下属心理资本的影响.具体而言,下属的程序公平感越高,变革型领导与下属心理资本的正向关系越强,反之越弱;4)进一步地,程序公平调节了下属心理资本对变革型领导一工作绩效和满意度的中介作用,即:程序公平感越高,变革型领导通过心理资本对下属的工作绩效和满意度所产生的作用就越强,反之越弱.最后讨论了该研究的理论意义和应用价值.%This study examines the mediating effect of psychological capital (PsyCap) and the moderating effect of procedural justice on the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' job performance and satisfaction. PsyCap refers to an individual's positive psychological capacities consisting of elements of hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy. We argue that transformational leadership shapes followers' PsyCap, which in turn, contributes to their job performance and satisfaction. Transformational leadership is able to influence followers' PsyCap in that each of its components (i.e., charisma or idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration) is able to foster followers' state of hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy. To further explicate the mediating effect of PsyCap, our second objective is to examine the moderating role of procedural justice. Drawing upon the relational model of authority, we hypothesize that procedural justice moderates the relationship between

  11. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  12. Change in organizational justice and job performance in Japanese employees: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of one-year change in organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) with job performance in Japanese employees. This study surveyed 425 men and 683 women from a manufacturing company in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) and the scales on demographic characteristics, were administered at baseline (August 2009). At one-year follow-up (August 2010), the OJQ and WHO-HPQ were used again to assess organizational justice and job performance. The change in organizational justice was measured by dichotomizing each OJQ subscale score by median at baseline and follow-up, and the participants were classified into four groups (i.e., stable low, adverse change, favorable change and stable high). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed. After adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics and job performance at baseline, the groups classified based on the change in procedural justice differed significantly in job performance at follow-up (ANCOVA: F [3, 1097]=4.35, pchange in interactional justice did not differ significantly in job performance at follow-up (p>0.05). The present findings suggest that keeping the level of procedural justice high predicts higher levels of job performance, whereas the psychosocial factor of interactional justice is not so important for predicting job performance.

  13. A Procedure to Obtain Reliable Pair Distribution Functions of Non-Crystalline Materials from Diffraction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    A simple numerical method, which unifies the calculation of structure factors from X-ray or neutron diffraction data with the calculation of reliable pair distribution functions, is described. The objective of the method is to eliminate systematic errors in the normalizations and corrections of t...

  14. 分配公平与程序公平对工作倦怠的影响%THE INFLUENCE OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE AND PROCEDURAL JUSTICE ON JOB BURNOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超平; 时勘

    2003-01-01

    为了探讨分配公平与程序公平对工作倦怠的影响,根据3家企业294份调查问卷的结果对工作倦怠量表MBI-GS进行了修订.然后,利用修订的MBI-GS和组织公平量表在6家企业进行了调查,524份有效问卷的调查进一步验证了MBI-GS的构想效度和信度;t检验和方差分析结果表明,人口统计学变量会影响组织公平和工作倦怠;分层回归的结果发现,在控制了人口统计学变量后,组织公平对工作倦怠具有较强的预测作用;进一步的优势分析表明,预测情绪衰竭时,分配公平相对来说更重要,贡献了已解释方差的65.91%;预测玩世不恭时,程序公平相对来说更重要,贡献了已解释方差的56.07%.

  15. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…

  16. toward a curriculum for justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profound justice; i.e. justice that is based on reasonableness and, more ... way to conduct a curriculum enquiry, since it acknowledges the crisis of ..... The principle of having a caring curriculum necessitates that we create learning-teaching.

  17. 组织公平与工作绩效的关系:组织支持感的中介作用%The Relationship between Organization Justice and Job Performance:The Mediation Effect of Perceived Organizational Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁崎; 孙多勇; 彭黎明

    2013-01-01

    基于327份样本的调查研究,探讨了组织公平四维度(分配公平、程序公平、领导公平和信息公平)对工作绩效(任务绩效和情境绩效)的影响,以及组织支持感的中介作用.结果表明:组织公平四维度、组织支持感与任务绩效、情境绩效均显著相关;组织支持感在领导公平、信息公平对任务绩效、情境绩效的影响中起部分中介作用;在分配公平、程序公平对情境绩效的影响中起完全中介作用.结论:组织公平各雏度对任务绩效、情境绩效的影响机制并不完全相同,提高组织支持感是减少组织不公平对绩效影响的重要途径.%By using a sample of 327 questionnaires,this study explore the influence of organizational justice (distributive justice,procedural justice,leadership justice and information justice) on job performance (task performance and contextual performance),and the mediating role of Perceived Organizational Support (POS).The results demonstrate that there is a high correlation among organizational justice,task performance,contextual performance and POS.POS just partly mediates the relationship of leadship justice,information justice and task performance,contextual performance; and fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice,procedural justice and contextual performance which implies mechanism of the effect of organizational justice on task performance is different from that of contextual performance.This study also proposes that improving employees' POS is the important way which can reduce the adverse influence of organizational unjustice on job performance.

  18. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  19. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZERTY

    of procedural law in juvenile justice matters was the Criminal Procedure Ordinance. 2 ..... He may in particular order a social investigation into the material and .... shall be carried out in conformity with the rules of ordinary law. 47. The place of ...

  20. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  1. Childhood, Agency and Youth Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to reframe debates in the sphere of youth justice in order to move away from narrow and one-sided conceptualisations of young people who offend and appropriate forms of intervention with them. Whilst different positions have been adopted within the field of youth justice, largely around "justice" or "welfare" models of practice,…

  2. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  3. English Only and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    1999-01-01

    Sketches the strengths and weaknesses of the approach to social justice offered by John Rawls, an approach that continues to dominate discussions about social justice and public policy. Contrasts that conception with a critically realistic approach to judging social justice, and argues that the latter is more respectful of minority group…

  4. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  5. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  6. Comparison of regional index flood estimation procedures based on the extreme value type I distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of different methods for estimating T-year events is presented, all based on the Extreme Value Type I distribution. Series of annual maximum flood from ten gauging stations at the New Zealand South island have been used. Different methods of predicting the 100-year event...... considered applying either a log-linear relationship between at-site mean annual flood and catchment characteristics or a direct log-linear relationship between 100-year events and catchment characteristics. Comparison of the results shows that the existence of at-site measurements significantly diminishes...

  7. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  8. A hybrid downscaling procedure for estimating the vertical distribution of ambient temperature in local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikopoulou, I.; Philippopoulos, K.; Deligiorgi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere is defined by a combination of dynamic and radiation transfer processes and plays an important role in describing the meteorological conditions at local scales. The scope of this work is to develop and quantify the predictive ability of a hybrid dynamic-statistical downscaling procedure to estimate the vertical profile of ambient temperature at finer spatial scales. The study focuses on the warm period of the year (June - August) and the method is applied to an urban coastal site (Hellinikon), located in eastern Mediterranean. The two-step methodology initially involves the dynamic downscaling of coarse resolution climate data via the RegCM4.0 regional climate model and subsequently the statistical downscaling of the modeled outputs by developing and training site-specific artificial neural networks (ANN). The 2.5ox2.5o gridded NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset is used as initial and boundary conditions for the dynamic downscaling element of the methodology, which enhances the regional representivity of the dataset to 20km and provides modeled fields in 18 vertical levels. The regional climate modeling results are compared versus the upper-air Hellinikon radiosonde observations and the mean absolute error (MAE) is calculated between the four grid point values nearest to the station and the ambient temperature at the standard and significant pressure levels. The statistical downscaling element of the methodology consists of an ensemble of ANN models, one for each pressure level, which are trained separately and employ the regional scale RegCM4.0 output. The ANN models are theoretically capable of estimating any measurable input-output function to any desired degree of accuracy. In this study they are used as non-linear function approximators for identifying the relationship between a number of predictor variables and the ambient temperature at the various vertical levels. An insight of the statistically derived input

  9. Distribution of bacteria on hands and the effectiveness of brief and thorough decontamination procedures using non-medicated soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, A N; Halablab, M A; Gould, D J; Miles, R J

    1997-04-01

    Our perception of the role of hand washing in the clinical situation is based on experimental studies in which test-bacteria are usually inoculated onto the skin surface and removed using hand washing preparations containing antiseptics. In this study, we have investigated the distribution of bacteria on the hands of volunteers and the effectiveness of long (3 minute) and brief (10 second) washes in removing both naturally-occurring and artificially-inoculated bacteria (Micrococcus sp.), using only soap and water. There was a tenfold reduction in median counts of artificially inoculated bacteria following both long and brief washes. However, less than 50% of naturally-occurring bacteria were removed and, for hands previously disinfected by immersion in 70% ethanol, the washing procedure increased bacterial counts. In both unwashed hands, and hands washed following a strict protocol, the mean variation in counts of naturally-occurring bacteria at different sites (wrists, dorsal surface, palmar surface, fingertips and interdigital spaces) was only two-fold. The efficiency of recovery of naturally-occurring organisms was estimated by repeated swabbing, to be more than 60%. The data question the value of typical hand wash procedures recommended by many authorities for use in clinical situations and of the perfunctory hand washes frequently adopted by nursing staff in busy wards. Experimental evidence is required to justify procedures and to identify the precise circumstances in which they are of value.

  10. Justice under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c

  11. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co...

  12. Sociology of justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebig, S.; Sauer, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the empirical justice research done so far within sociology and aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of what constitutes a sociological approach. In order to do so, we first introduce the multilevel model of sociological explanation and derive four

  13. Journals and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the process of journal deselection from the point of view of justice and argues that when journal cuts are necessary, libraries should first, reduce all departments to core holdings; second, ask departments with expensive journals for permission to implement an efficiency principle; third, if refused permission, implement an equal…

  14. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  15. Justice in context: assessing contextualism as an approach to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buckley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Moral and political philosophers are increasingly using empirical data to inform their normative theories. This has sparked renewed interest into questions concerning the relationship between facts and principles. A recent attempt to frame these questions within a broader approach to normative theory comes from David Miller, who has on several occasions defended ‘contextualism’ as the best approach to justice. Miller argues that the context of distribution itself brings one or another political principle into play. This paper examines this claim. It considers several plausible strategies for carrying out Miller's general project and argues that each strategy fails. Nevertheless, the author maintains that an investigation into why they fail paves the way for a philosophically plausible account of the relationship between facts and principles.

  16. Effect of precipitation procedure and detection technique on particle size distribution of CaCO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, C.; Coto, B.; Peña, J. L.; Rodríguez, R.; Merino-Garcia, D.; Pastor, G.

    2010-09-01

    The deposition of inorganic salts ("scales") such as calcium carbonate is an important flow assurance problem during crude oil production. The knowledge of the features of the precipitated solids, mainly the particle size and morphology, is crucial to understand the nature of the solids and to avoid or reduce the effect of their deposition. For instance, the use of additives is one of the most usual procedures to mitigate this problem. Additives interact with scale-forming substances either by increasing the induction time, or by inhibiting crystal growth, changing the morphology of solids. In this work, CaCO 3 was precipitated by two different experimental methods: by mixing sodium carbonate and calcium chloride at 25 °C (method 1), and by changing the pH (method 2). Precipitated solids were analyzed by means of the following techniques: laser diffraction (LD), focused-beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), in order to select a method for the determination of particle size of solids similar to scales, in order to study these deposits at the beginning of their formation and to evaluate the effect of additives in the scales particle size. Results were compared to those of scale deposits extracted from crude oil pipelines. SEM and XRD characterization showed that both the precipitation methods lead to calcium carbonate as a mixture of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, with rhombohedral morphology for method 1 and spherical for method 2. The effects of temperature, kinetics and Mg 2+ presence in the morphology of CaCO 3 were evaluated. Thus, the solids obtained by static bottle test and real scales are mainly formed by long needle-shaped aragonite. The comparison of the several particle size characterization methods determinates that an LD is a fast and sensitive technique for spherical and non-spherical solids, and it is a convenient technique for the analysis of scales extracted from oil pipelines.

  17. Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support: Impact on Negative Work-Home Interference and Well-being Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Babic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that negative work-home interference (NegWHI impacts upon several work attitudes and behaviors. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employee well-being, it is important to identify concepts related to NegWHI and investigate their effects on well-being outcomes. This study examines the mediating role of (1 perceived organizational support (POS in the relationship between organizational justice (OJ and NegWHI; and (2 NegWHI in the relationships between POS and four well-being outcomes. A total of 509 employees of a Belgian hospital were surveyed. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping method. Results showed that POS partially mediates the relationships between distributive and passive procedural justice and NegWHI, and fully mediates the relationship between the other justice dimensions and NegWHI. NegWHI partially mediates the relationships between POS and both job satisfaction and intention to quit, and fully mediates the relationship between POS and job strain. Furthermore, POS is positively related to job engagement. This study showed that organizations can help employees to better manage their work and family lives and reduce the impact of NegWHI by enhancing employees’ feeling that they are supported by their organization. In order to increase POS, organizations need to promote justice in the workplace.

  18. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  19. Intergenerational justice of what: welfare, resources or capabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of intergenerational justice concerns the specification of a 'currency of advantage' that can be used to evaluate distributive outcomes across time. Environmental theorists have introduced several innovative currencies of justice in recent years, such as ecological space and critical natural capital. However they have often downplayed the application of established currencies (such as welfare, resources or capabilities) to issues of futurity. After exploring the merits of ...

  20. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  1. Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoextea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitional justice is often understood as a field or toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article explores to what extent transitional justice is a relevant way of understanding the transformations taking place in the Basque Country in the post-conflict situation created since the final ceasefire was declared by ETA on October 20, 2011. The article analyses different aspects of the field of transitional justice and the experience in Spain and the Basque Country. It underlines the prevalence of truth-seeking processes (over amnesia and of addressing violations and victims' suffering to conclude with the need to enhance the rule of law and traditional-individualised-justice and transitional justice.

  2. "People's Trials" in Communist China: An Informal Approach to Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    Describes the contemporary Chinese justice system highlighting the elements of "western" justice it embodies. Presents lesson plans, complete with objectives, procedures, and all required materials, for illustrating the system with two recent Chinese criminal cases which were heard in "people's courts." (JDH)

  3. Social justice and religious participation: a qualitative investigation of Christian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R; Rufa, Anne K

    2013-06-01

    This investigation examines how self-identified Christians in the Midwest U.S. understand and work for social justice, with a focus on their process of social justice development and the role of religious congregations in promoting social justice. Using a grounded theory analysis of 15 in-depth interviews, results indicated multiple understandings of social justice such as meeting basic needs, fixing social structures and systems to create equal distributions of resources, promoting human rights and dignity, and as a religious responsibility. Participants also described a process of social justice development facilitated by exposure to injustice, mentors, educating others, and the importance of finding a social justice community. Distinct personal barriers to social justice engagement were identified such as resources and negative emotions, whereas congregational leadership was important for congregational involvement. General frustration with congregations was expressed regarding low social justice engagement; however, participants balanced this frustration with hope for the positive potential of congregations to promote social justice. Together these findings show multifaceted understandings of social justice and a dynamic process of social justice development for these self-identified Christians. Implications for future research and partnership with religious individuals and congregations also are discussed.

  4. Revisiting the destination ranking procedure in development of an Intervening Opportunities Model for public transit trip distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, Mohsen; Trépanier, Martin; Morency, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An Enhanced Intervening Opportunities Model (EIOM) is developed for Public Transit (PT). This is a distribution supply dependent model, with single constraints on trip production for work trips during morning peak hours (6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.) within the Island of Montreal, Canada. Different data sets, including the 2008 Origin-Destination (OD) survey of the Greater Montreal Area, the 2006 Census of Canada, GTFS network data, along with the geographical data of the study area, are used. EIOM is a nonlinear model composed of socio-demographics, PT supply data and work location attributes. An enhanced destination ranking procedure is used to calculate the number of spatially cumulative opportunities, the basic variable of EIOM. For comparison, a Basic Intervening Opportunities Model (BIOM) is developed by using the basic destination ranking procedure. The main difference between EIOM and BIOM is in the destination ranking procedure: EIOM considers the maximization of a utility function composed of PT Level Of Service and number of opportunities at the destination, along with the OD trip duration, whereas BIOM is based on a destination ranking derived only from OD trip durations. Analysis confirmed that EIOM is more accurate than BIOM. This study presents a new tool for PT analysts, planners and policy makers to study the potential changes in PT trip patterns due to changes in socio-demographic characteristics, PT supply, and other factors. Also it opens new opportunities for the development of more accurate PT demand models with new emergent data such as smart card validations.

  5. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  6. Hume's Theory of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Spector

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hume developed an original and revolutionary theoretical paradigm for explaining the spontaneous emergence of the classic conventions of justice - stable possession, transference of property by consent, and the obligation to fulfill promises. In a scenario of scarce external resources, Hume's central idea is that the development of the rules of justice responds to a sense of common interest that progressively tames the destructiveness of natural self-love and expands the action of natural moral sentiments. By handling conceptual tools that anticipated game theory for centuries, Hume was able to break with rationalism, the natural law school, and Hobbes's contractarianism. Unlike natural moral sentiments, the sense of justice is valuable and reaches full strength within a general plan or system of actions. However, unlike game theory, Hume does not assume that people have transparent access to the their own motivations and the inner structure of the social world. In contrast, he blends ideas such as cognitive delusion, learning by experience and coordination to construct a theory that still deserves careful discussion, even though it resists classification under contemporary headings.

  7. 28 CFR 55.24 - Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Comment on This Part § 55.24 Procedure. These guidelines may be modified... General, Civil Rights Division, Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530....

  8. Flew on Entitlements and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Lorenzo

    1989-01-01

    In «Equality, yes, surely; but Justice?», Antony Flew argues that egalitarianism and collectivism are incompatible with the concept of justice, since the usual concept of justice is that of giving everyone his due (or his own). That concept is intrinsically backward-looking; you cannot assign everyone his own by gratuitously presupposing that nothing is his own and that a fresh start is to be made. As against such a view, I maintain that, in a fairly obvio...

  9. Computerized procedure for protection coordination in distribution primary circuits; Procedimiento computarizado para coordinacion de protecciones en circuitos primarios de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, Victor M.; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    Nowadays, the method employed to study the protection coordination are based in the hand outlining of curves time- current and in the visual comparison in log sheets. Due to the large amount of distribution circuits, the engineer makes a considerable effort to perform this type of studies, which besides are routinist and time consuming. In this article a program for the computer aided design for the protection coordination in primary distribution circuits is presented. Such a program -carried out in the Transmission and Distribution Department of the Power Systems Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)- substitutes in an efficient manner, the manual procedures that are performed in the protection coordination studies. The coordination principles, suggested by the equipment manufacturers, were respected, trying, at the same time, to keep the procedures of the Comision Federal de Electricidad personnel (CFE) emerged from the field experience. The algorithm basically consists of an iterative process in the selection of the adjustments taking as a reference the of three-phase short- circuit and of phase to ground, values, as well as the operating times. [Espanol] Actualmente, los metodos que se emplean para estudiar la coordinacion de protecciones se basan en el trazado manual de curvas de tiempo-corriente y en la comparacion visual sobre hojas logaritmicas. Debido a la gran cantidad de circuitos de distribucion, el ingeniero hace un esfuerzo considerable para realizar este tipo de estudios, los que ademas, son rutinarios y tardados. En este articulo, se presenta un programa para el diseno asistido por computadora del proceso de coordinacion de protecciones en circuitos primarios de distribucion. Dicho programa -realizado en el Departamento de Transmision y Distribucion, de la Division de Sistemas de Potencia, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)- sustituye de manera eficaz los procedimientos manuales que se efectuan en los estudios

  10. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  11. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  12. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past and p

  13. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  14. A Study of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Justice on Employee\\\\\\'s Social Capital (Case Study: Health Network of Noshahr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasr Esfahani

    2013-07-01

    words, no person or organization could succeed without social capital. Because it is related to perceived sense of injustice, this study attempts to discuss the establishment of justice in organization and employees' opinion on this issue as an effective factor regarding the amount of employees' social capital in the organization. The results, if proven, could help managers employ people with more social capital and hence achieve more success by establishing organizational justice. Material and Method The present study is an applied and descriptive research attempting to offer a clear definition for the correlation of perceived organizational justice and the amount of personnel's social capital. This is a cross sectional field research. For testing empirical data, a conceptual model was designed by the authors. This model has two main parts, including organizational justice and social capital. In order to reach to research objectives, four hypotheses have been tested, investigating the relationship between perceived organizational justice and its dimensions (distributive, procedural and interactional justice with the amount of employees' social capital. Research population is composed of the personnel of the health network in Noshahr city, of whom 136 individuals were sampled randomly. For data collection, a questionnaire was made by the researchers containing 31 questions based on Likert's five-degree scale. 15 of the questions include aspects of organizational justice and the other 16 questions are relate to aspects of social capital. The questionnaire has a high reliability (0.91 which was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Also, the content validity of the questionnaire has been assured by using advice from experts. SPSS software was used for data analysis. The statistical methods used in this research include descriptive statistical methods (such as mean and single sample tables and inferential statistics, including Pearson's correlation coefficient. Discussion of

  15. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  16. What is Graphic Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Giddens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reproduces a poster presented at the Socio-Legal Studies ­Association annual conference, 5–7 April 2016 at Lancaster University, UK. The poster outlines the emerging study of the legal and jurisprudential dimensions of comics. Seeking to answer the question ‘what is graphic justice?’, the poster highlights the variety of potential topics, questions, concerns, issues, and intersections that the crossover between law and comics might encounter. A transcript of the poster’s text is provided for easier reuse, as well as a list of references and suggested readings.

  17. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  18. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    As has been stated, the juvenile justice administration in South East Nigeria, like in other .... (3) of the Criminal Procedure Act, if the evidence on record shows that at the time .... introduction of Islamic or Shariah law in parts of Northern Nigeria.

  19. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  20. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  1. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  2. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  3. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  4. Social Justice Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice language teacher education conceptualizes language teacher education as responding to social and societal inequities that result in unequal access to educational and life opportunities. In this volume authors articulate a global view of Social Justice Language Teacher Education, with authors from 7 countries offering a theorized…

  5. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  6. Social Justice in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Education is a moral enterprise and a right rather than a privilege. Teacher education should develop teachers' awareness of and concern for social justice and their capacity to teach democracy and teach democratically. The concept of social justice should guide curriculum development and implementation. (SK)

  7. An Empirical Study of the Impacts and Mediating Mechanism of Organizational Justice on the Counterproductive Work Behaviors%组织公正对员工反生产行为的影响及其中介机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤方华; 陈志霞

    2014-01-01

    采用结构方程模型和多元德尔塔法,对工作态度变量在组织公正与反生产行为关系中的中介机制进行实证研究。研究结果发现,分配公正、程序公正及领导公正均通过工作态度链式中介间接影响员工反生产行为,同时领导公正还对员工反生产行为产生直接抑制效应,但信息公正和反生产行为关系中的中介效应受到其他三类组织公正维度尤其是领导公正的影响。对未来研究方向进行探讨,并提出相关建议。%Based on the review on the theoretical and empirical findings about the relationship between organizational jus-tice (OJ)and counterproductive work behavior (CWB),a chain mediator model is constructed to explain the mechanisms and effect size of work attitudes that possibly mediate OJ on CWB. The results reveal that distributive justice,procedural justice and supervisor justice have indirect impacts on CWB through the mediator chain of work attitudes,however,supervi-sor justice uniquely has a direct and negative impact on CWB. With respect to difference of the indirect effect size,a rela-tive stronger indirect relationship is found between distributive justice and CWB compared with that of procedural justice, supervisor justice and CWB. Another important finding is that the impact of informational justice on CWB through work atti-tudes is influenced by other three types of organizational justice especially by supervisor justice. The implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Determination of the temperature distribution in a minichannel using ANSYS CFX and a procedure based on the Trefftz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the mathematical model for laminar-flow heat transfer in a minichannel. The boundary conditions in the form of temperature distributions on the outer sides of the channel walls were determined from experimental data. The data were collected from the experimental stand the essential part of which is a vertical minichannel 1.7 mm deep, 16 mm wide and 180 mm long, asymmetrically heated by a Haynes-230 alloy plate. Infrared thermography allowed determining temperature changes on the outer side of the minichannel walls. The problem was analysed numerically through either ANSYS CFX software or special calculation procedures based on the Finite Element Method and Trefftz functions in the thermal boundary layer. The Trefftz functions were used to construct the basis functions. Solutions to the governing differential equations were approximated with a linear combination of Trefftz-type basis functions. Unknown coefficients of the linear combination were calculated by minimising the functional. The results of the comparative analysis were represented in a graphical form and discussed.

  9. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  10. Chiropractic and social justice: a view from the perspective of Beauchamp's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Social justice in public health involves the process and product of a community acting to fairly distribute advantages and burdens to improve the health of its population and to reasonably take care of the disadvantaged. Although publications are available about chiropractic public health history, programs, and policy, the potential role of chiropractic in social justice has received little attention. This article discusses Beauchamp's 4 principles of social justice and suggests actions that the chiropractic profession may consider to participate in the practice of social justice in the field of public health.

  11. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  12. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  13. Toward a critical theoretical interpretation of social justice discourses in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Sheryl Reimer; Browne, Annette J

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread appeals to social justice, nursing conceptions of this ideal have been critiqued as incomplete and inconsistent. With the aim of contributing to a critical dialogue on discourses of social justice in nursing, we explore contemporary theories of social justice and their move beyond a distributive paradigm, employing techniques of replication and critique of social justice discourses in nursing. We consider how postcolonial feminist theory can help us understand the relevance of more recent critical interpretations of social justice, particularly in reinterpreting and broadening nursing's individualistic focus on social justice so that due consideration and actions are directed toward the intersecting impact of historically and socially mediated conditions on health and human suffering.

  14. Social inclusion/exclusion as matters of social (in)justice: a call for nursing action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanicki, Sharon M; Kushner, Kaysi E; Reutter, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Social inclusion/exclusion involves just/unjust social relations and social structures enabling or constraining opportunities for participation and health. In this paper, social inclusion/exclusion is explored as a dialectic. Three discourses--discourses on recognition, capabilities, and equality and citizenship--are identified within Canadian literature. Each discourse highlights a different view of the injustices leading to social exclusion and the conditions supporting inclusion and social justice. An Integrated Framework for Social Justice that incorporates the three discourses is developed and used to critique the dominant focus on distributive justice within foundational Canadian nursing documents. We propose a broader conceptualization of social (in)justice that includes both relational and structural dimensions. Opportunities for multilevel interventions to promote social justice are identified. This framework is congruent with nursing's moral imperative to promote health equity and with the multiple roles played by nurses to promote social justice in everyday practice.

  15. Shared perceptions of perceived justice as a predictor of externally rated departmental level academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipponen, Jukka; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if shared perceptions of organizational justice affect externally rated group-level performance. Previous studies did not consider distributive justice, nor did they control for the possible confounding effects of baseline performance. The present study r

  16. Do We Have a Negative Duty Towards the Global Poor? Thomas Pogge on Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Merle, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Who has the duty to guarantee that basic human rights are fulfilled globally? This is one of the central questions in the current global justice debate. The answer to this question must be based on some principle of justice that distributes rights and duties in the global sphere. This paper analyses

  17. Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees.

  19. Geography, Uneven Development and Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    the contradictions associated with the industry, question the crude optimism surrounding the IT sector's transformative capabilities, and by extension, assess the ‘model’ of development implicit with its growth trajectory. As there is class bias in the workings of the sector, which excludes large swathes...... of the population and reproduces educational inequality, policy implications are briefly discussed....

  20. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  1. Stress distribution on the thorax after the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum results in different patterns between adult and child patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Miyamoto, Junpei; Tamaki, Tamotsu; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Jiang, Hua; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Yozu, Ryohei; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    2007-12-01

    In the Nuss procedure, in which the deformed thorax is forcibly corrected by insertion of correction bars, considerable stresses occur on the patient's thorax. We performed the present study to elucidate how stress patterns on the thorax after this procedure differ between child and adult patients. Eighteen patients with pectus excavatum, constituting a child group (n = 10) and an adult group (n = 8), were included in the study. After a 3-dimensional computer-assisted design model was produced with computed tomographic data from each patient, simulation of the Nuss procedure was performed on the model. Then the stresses occurring on each thorax were calculated using the finite element method. The stresses were compared between the child and adult groups in terms of intensity on each rib and the distribution patterns over the whole thorax. With all 12 ribs, significantly greater stress occurred in the adult group than stress in the child group. Although the stresses occurring on the thorax demonstrated concentrated patterns in the child group, widely distributed patterns were observed in the adult group. The stresses that occur on the thorax after the Nuss procedure take different patterns between children and adults in terms of intensity and distribution. The differences should be taken into consideration in managing postoperative pain after the Nuss procedure.

  2. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  3. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities......, Andrew Williams points to a gap in Cohen's argument, alleging that Cohen's interpretation of the difference principle is unlikely to be compatible with the Rawlsian endorsement of publicity. Having explored a possible extrapolation of Cohen's critique to aggregate consumer choices and a resulting...... extension of Williams's charge that the difference principle, on Cohen's reading, fails to meet the publicity constraint because of its informational demandingness, I defend three claims: (a) it is doubtful that Rawls endorses a publicity constraint of the sort that would rule out Cohen's interpretation...

  4. JUSTICE AND LIBERTY IN HEGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Weber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make explicit the concept of justice in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. It bounds it to the idea of liberty in its different ways of determination. It starts from the notion of person of right and indicates the fundamental rights that derive from the expression of this legal capacity. It highlights the right of necessity as a right to make an exception in favor of itself aiming the actualization of justice. It shows how, through the Law, in civil society, it happens the administration of justice.

  5. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  6. 公正立法与立法公开%Justice of Legislation and Openness to the Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李店标

    2011-01-01

    公正立法在本质上是一种现代立法理念,在追求立法价值公正的同时,也追求立法程序的公正和立法结果的公正。公正的立法是在公正价值的指导下通过公正的程序而实现的。立法公开不仅是程序公正的组成部分,也是走向公正立法的重要途径。%Justice of legislation in essential is a modern legislative idea,which pursuits of value justice of legislation,procedural justice of legislation and the substantive justice of legislation.Justice of legislation is obtained through value justice and procedural justice.Openness to the legislation is not only part of procedural justice,but also an important way to achieve justice of legislation.

  7. Estágio de docência, prática jurídica e distribuição da justiça Teaching internship, legal practice and distribution of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pires Fincato

    2010-06-01

    understanding and the distribution of justice has its test place in the socio-legal reality and we therefore need the post-graduate programs attention to internship teaching in the disciplines of legal practice.

  8. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  9. "All in a day's work": how follower individual differences and justice perceptions predict OCB role definitions and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; McAllister, Daniel J; Turban, Daniel B

    2006-07-01

    The authors draw on theories of social exchange and prosocial behavior to explain how employee perceptions of procedural justice and individual differences in reciprocation wariness, empathic concern, and perspective taking function jointly as determinants of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) role definitions and behavior. As hypothesized, empirical findings from a field study show both direct and interactive effects of procedural justice perceptions and individual differences on OCB role definition. In turn, OCB role definitions not only predict OCB directly but also moderate the effects of procedural justice perceptions on OCB. The authors explore the implications of these findings for practice as well as research. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Parks, Trees, and Environmental Justice: Field Notes from Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Whitmer, Ali; Grove, J. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in a graduate seminar benefited in multiple ways from an intensive 3-day field trip to Washington, DC. Constructed around the theme of environmental justice, the trip gave students a chance to learn about street tree distribution, park quality, and racial segregation "up close." Working with personnel from the United…

  11. Educational Inequality and Social Justice: Challenges for Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The article provides a multiperspective approach to educational careers. It first discusses social justice issues in the distribution of the crucial individual and social good of education. It then summarizes core findings of recent international research on processes and factors generating social disparities in the acquisition of education. Based…

  12. The Control about the Legalization of the Procedure for the Judicial Justice-Focusing on the Design of the Regulations about the Normalization of the Open Trial%司法公开的程序合法化控制--以庭审公开规范化运行规则设计为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东洋; 刘万里; 李彬

    2015-01-01

    The judicial openness is the core of the trial openness,but the present practice of the trial openness does not show its values and some defaults are found for its real practice such as regulations and ideological concepts.There is close relationship between the trial openness and the control of unscientific procedure and therefore,the certainty of the range for the open trial of the cases and the estab-lishments of the relative technological specifications are based on the principle of the open trial according to the solutions and improve-ment of the regulations about open trial.Then justified procedure is developed to realize the judicial justice with the control of the proce-dure beyond the trial openness.%庭审公开是司法公开的核心内容,但当前的庭审公开实践并未达到其应有价值,在制度规则、意识理念等具体操作层面还存在诸多不足。庭审公开的问题与其缺乏科学的程序控制关系重大,需要我们从解决并完善庭审公开现有机制的诸多问题出发,在庭审公开原则的基础上,明确案件公开审理的范围,制定相关技术规范,将庭审公开置于程序控制之下,构建一种具有正当性的程序规则,以实现司法正义。

  13. Tableau-based decision procedure for the multi-agent epistemic logic with all coalitional operators for common and distributed knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Ajspur, Mai; Shkatov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We develop a conceptually clear, intuitive, and feasible decision procedure for testing satisfi?ability in the full multi-agent epistemic logic CMAEL(CD) with operators for common and distributed knowledge for all coalitions of agents mentioned in the language. To that end, we introduce Hintikka structures for CMAEL(CD) and prove that satisfiability in such structures is equivalent to satis?fiability in standard models. Using that result, we design an incremental tableau-building procedure that eventually constructs a satisfying Hintikka structure for every satisfi?able input set of formulae of CMAEL(CD) and closes for every unsatisfi?able input set of formulae.

  14. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 157 - Procedure for Determining Distribution of Segregated Ballast Tanks To Provide Protection Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Ramming, or Collision C Appendix C to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. C Appendix C to Part 157—Procedure for Determining...

  15. Focus on environmental justice: new directions in international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2017-03-01

    More than three decades since the emergence of the environmental justice (EJ) movement in the U.S., environmental injustices continue to unfold across the world to include new narratives of air and water pollution, as well as new forms of injustices associated with climate change, energy use, natural disasters, urban greenspaces, and public policies that adversely affect socially disadvantaged communities and future generations. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters provides an interdisciplinary forum for conceptual, methodological, and empirical scholarship on EJ activism, research, and policy that highlights the continuing salience of an EJ perspective to understanding nature-society linkages. The 16 letters published in this focus issue address a variety of environmental issues and social injustices in multiple countries across the world, and advance EJ research by: (1) demonstrating how environmental injustice emerges through particular policies and political processes; (2) exploring environmental injustices associated with industrialization and industrial pollution; and (3) documenting unjust exposure to various environmental hazards in specific urban landscapes. As the discourse of EJ continues to evolve both topically and geographically, we hope that this focus issue will help establish research agendas for the next generation of EJ scholarship on distributive, procedural, participatory, and other forms of injustices, as well as their interrelationships.

  16. First steps toward a nonideal theory of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Arvan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Theorists have long debated whether John Rawls’ conception of justice as fairness can be extended to nonideal (i.e. unjust social and political conditions, and if so, what the proper way of extending it is. This paper argues that in order to properly extend justice as fairness to nonideal conditions, Rawls’ most famous innovation—the original position—must be reconceived in the form of a ‘nonideal original position’. I begin by providing a new analysis of the ideal/nonideal theory distinction within Rawls’ theoretical framework. I then systematically construct a nonideal original position, showing that although its parties must have Rawls’ principles of ideal justice and priority relations as background aims, the parties should be entirely free to weigh those aims against whatever burdens and benefits they might face under nonideal conditions. Next, I show that the parties ought to aim to secure for themselves a special class of nonideal primary goods: all-purpose goods similar to Rawls’ original primary goods, but which in this case are all-purpose goods individuals might use to (a promote Rawlsian ideals under nonideal conditions, (b weigh Rawls’ principles of ideal justice and priority relations against whatever burdens and benefits they might face under nonideal conditions, and (c effectively pursue their most favored weighting thereof. Finally, I defend a provisional list of nonideal primary goods, and briefly speculate on how the parties to the nonideal original position might deliberate to principles of nonideal justice for distributing them.

  17. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical. © 2013...

  18. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  19. Relationship between organizational justice and cyberloafing in the workplace: has "anomia" a say in the matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Pablo Zoghbi Manrique

    2007-06-01

    Anomia describes the individual's lack of integration in social life. This study examines the moderating role of work anomia (WA) in the relationship between employees' perceptions of organizational justice (OJ) and workplace Internet misuse (or cyberloafing). The model suggests that WA interacts with that link by tightening their theoretic negative association. Data were collected from 270 (17.46%) of the 1,547 teachers of a Spanish university by Internet e-mail. Multiple hierarchical regression results support that WA acts as a moderator of the OJ-cyberloafing link because the perceptions of three types of OJ (distributive, procedural, and interactional) among employees with low, as compared to high anomia, have a stronger negative relationship with cyberloafing. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the OJ-cyberloafing link, and favor the control of cyberloafing through WA.

  20. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  1. 公立医院变革型领导、组织公平感对护理人员组织公民行为的影响研究%Influences of Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Nursing Staff in Public Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂广孟; 潘习龙; 李昂; 王乔; 张桂林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the action mechanism of the influences of transformational leadership behaviors on organizational citizenship behaviors of nursing staff, and the intermediary role of distributive justice and procedural justice between them. Methods: The influences of different dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors and organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviors of nursing staff were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. Results: Transformational leadership behaviors and organizational justice both could significantly influence organizational citizenship behaviors of nursing staff. Distributive justice and procedural justice played the intermediary role of between them. Conclusion: As for the explanative effects of organizational citizenship behaviors variation of nursing staff, the explanative effects of distributive justice were higher than those of procedural justice. Different dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors had different ways to influence organizational citizenship behaviors of nursing staff.%目的:研究变革型领导对护理人员的组织公民行为影响的作用机制,以及分配公平和程序公平在其中的中介作用.方法:采用层次回归分析和结构方程模型分析了变革型领导行为、组织公平感的不同维度对护理人员组织公民行为的影响.结果:变革型领导行为和组织公平感都可以显著影响护理人员的组织公民行为,分配公平和程序公平在二者间起中介作用.结论:在对护理人员组织公民行为变异解释效应大小方面,分配公平的解释效用大于程序公平;变革型领导行为的不同维度对护理人员组织公民行为产生影响作用的路径不同.因此,需要采用不同的激励方式来加强护理人员的组织公民行为.

  2. An Evaluation of Social Justice Performance in the Distribution of Metro Networks in the Central City of Shanghai%上海市中心城区轨道交通网络分布的社会正义绩效评价*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐子来; 陈颂

    2016-01-01

    以上海市中心城区轨道交通网络分布为例,提出了城市公共服务设施分布的社会正义绩效评价的份额指数方法。研究显示,低收入社会群体享有轨交网络资源的份额指数略低于社会平均份额,但轨道交通网络分布的社会正义绩效仍处于基本合理区间。社会正义绩效的空间格局表明,低收入社会群体人均享有轨交网络资源在圈层之间和扇面之间存在显著差异,但浦西地区和浦东地区之间差异并不显著。城市社会空间极化的不断加剧趋势对于城市规划中基本公共服务设施分布兼顾社会公平绩效和社会正义绩效提出了挑战。本文提出的社会正义绩效评价方法为同一城市的历时性比较和不同城市的共时性比较提供了研究基础,但缓解城市社会空间的极化趋势则是包容性发展中更为需要关注的公共政策。%Taking the distribution of metro networks in the central city of Shanghai as a case, the paper conducts the application of share index to evaluate social justice performance in the distribution of urban public services. According to the research ifndings, although the share index of metro network resource by low-income residents is slightly lower than the social share of total residents, the reasonable situation of social justice performance in the distribution of metro networks can be justiifed. As shown by the spatial conifguration of social justice performance, there is signiifcant discrepancy in the share index of metro network resource by low-income residents among concentric-circles and sectoral areas rather than the dimension between Puxi and Pudong areas. The increasing process of urban social-spatial polarization is generating a great challenge to the distribution of urban public services with its social performance evaluated in both equity and justice dimensions. While the paper provides a framework of evaluating social justice performance in

  3. justice and the voice of learners?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bodies, learners' involvement in decision making and in curriculum issues, and .... participation is encouraged, freedom of expression and a sense of justice and ... Democratic theory and theories of social justice cannot be divorced from.

  4. Occupational justice-bridging theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  5. Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Ketelaars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, edited by Clara Ramírez-Barat, International Center for Transitional Justice, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2014 ISBN 978-0-911400-02-1

  6. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  7. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia....... Such research enables us to engage with the subjects of post-conflict peacebuilding and transitional justice processes directly and in their own spaces. This article thus renders women’s agency visible and attempts to grasp its contributions and consequences for transformations from war to peace....

  8. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice....

  9. A Numerical Procedure for Flow Distribution and Pressure Drops for U and Z Type Configurations Plate Heat Exchangers with Variable Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Vereda, C.

    2012-11-01

    In Plate Heat Exchangers it is important to determine the flow distribution and pressure drops, because they affect directly the performance of a heat exchanger [1]. This work proposes an incompressible, one-dimensional, steady state, discrete model allowing for variable overall momentum coefficients to determine these magnitudes. The model consists on a modified version of the Bajura and Jones [2] model for dividing and combining flow manifolds. The numerical procedure is based on the finite differences approximation approach proposed by Datta and Majumdar [3]. A linear overall momentum coefficient distribution is used in the dividing manifold, but the model is not limited to linear distributions. Comparisons are made with experimental, numerical and analytical data, yielding good results.

  10. Teaching for social justice and social action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R; Meyers, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Social justice education involves promoting critical awareness of social inequalities and developing skills that work against these inequalities. This article describes a general theoretical framework for social justice education, describes general strategies for facilitating students' social justice awareness and engagement, identifies challenges to social education, and highlights articles in the special issue that address these themes.

  11. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  12. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  13. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  14. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy

  15. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  16. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  17. Fairness at the collective level: a meta-analytic examination of the consequences and boundary conditions of organizational justice climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Daniel S; Caleo, Suzette; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Horner, Margaret T; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2012-07-01

    This article uses meta-analytic methods (k = 38) to examine the relationship between organizational justice climate and unit-level effectiveness. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between justice and effectiveness is significant (ρ = .40) when both constructs are construed at the collective level. Our results also indicate that distributive justice climate was most strongly linked with unit-level performance (e.g., productivity, customer satisfaction), whereas interactional justice was most strongly related to unit-level processes (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, cohesion). We also show that a number of factors moderate this relationship, including justice climate strength, the level of referent in the justice measure, the hierarchical level of the unit, and how criteria are classified. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a clearer direction for future research in this area.

  18. Social justice, climate change, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C

    2014-06-14

    Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations.

  19. Social Justice and Adaptation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benzie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation strategies and policies are normally based on climate impact assessments that fail to take account of the social nature and distribution of vulnerability to climate change. This is largely a product of the dominant assessment techniques that are used to inform such strategies and the limits of existing evidence. In this paper I contribute to filling gaps in the current adaptation literature by exploring the social nature of vulnerability and the potential for socially just adaptation. It does so by reviewing studies from the UK, in particular those under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Climate Change and Social Justice programme. It finds that vulnerability to high temperatures and fluvial and coastal flooding, in terms of sensitivity, exposure, and the capacity to anticipate, respond, and recover, is concentrated in certain disadvantaged and socially marginalized groups, including those on low incomes. It also finds that both autonomous and planned adaptation may fail to protect the most vulnerable individuals and groups, and may even reinforce existing patterns of vulnerability in some cases, i.e., mal-adaptation, especially where they rely on unmediated market forces or where they fail to explicitly recognize aspects of social vulnerability in their design and implementation. I argue that social justice should be an explicit objective of adaptation strategy.

  20. ‘… restoring the dignity of the victims’. Is global rectificatory justice feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Collste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The discussion of global justice has mainly focused on global distributive justice. This article argues for global rectificatory justice, mainly by former colonial states in favor of former colonized peoples. The argument depends on the following premises: (1 there is a moral obligation to rectify the consequences of wrongful acts; (2 colonialism was on the whole harmful for the colonies; (3 the present unjust global structure was constituted by colonialism; and (4 the obligation of rectificatory justice is trans-generational so long as there are at present identifiable beneficiaries and victims of past injustice. Although it is too demanding to ask for full compensation for 450 years of colonialism, the former colonial powers can in different ways and to the best of their efforts contribute to change the present inequalities that are the legacy of history. A theory of global rectificatory justice is complementary to a theory of global distributive justice and enables us to develop a fuller understanding of the meaning of global justice.

  1. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  2. AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF COLLAGEN IN PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIFFERENT SPECIES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ISLET ISOLATION PROCEDURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSUYLICHEM, PTR; VANDEIJNEN, JEHM; WOLTERS, GHJ; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    Because collagen is the major target in the enzymatic dissociation of the pancreas for islet isolation, we determined the amount of collagen and its distribution in a comparative study comprising normal pancreata of rat, dog, man, young pig, and adult pig. Collagen content was determined using a

  3. Used-habitat calibration plots: A new procedure for validating species distribution, resource selection, and step-selection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, John R.; Forester, James D.; Street, Garrett M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; ArchMiller, Althea A.; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2017-01-01

    “Species distribution modeling” was recently ranked as one of the top five “research fronts” in ecology and the environmental sciences by ISI's Essential Science Indicators (Renner and Warton 2013), reflecting the importance of predicting how species distributions will respond to anthropogenic change. Unfortunately, species distribution models (SDMs) often perform poorly when applied to novel environments. Compounding on this problem is the shortage of methods for evaluating SDMs (hence, we may be getting our predictions wrong and not even know it). Traditional methods for validating SDMs quantify a model's ability to classify locations as used or unused. Instead, we propose to focus on how well SDMs can predict the characteristics of used locations. This subtle shift in viewpoint leads to a more natural and informative evaluation and validation of models across the entire spectrum of SDMs. Through a series of examples, we show how simple graphical methods can help with three fundamental challenges of habitat modeling: identifying missing covariates, non-linearity, and multicollinearity. Identifying habitat characteristics that are not well-predicted by the model can provide insights into variables affecting the distribution of species, suggest appropriate model modifications, and ultimately improve the reliability and generality of conservation and management recommendations.

  4. AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF COLLAGEN IN PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIFFERENT SPECIES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ISLET ISOLATION PROCEDURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSUYLICHEM, PTR; VANDEIJNEN, JEHM; WOLTERS, GHJ; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    Because collagen is the major target in the enzymatic dissociation of the pancreas for islet isolation, we determined the amount of collagen and its distribution in a comparative study comprising normal pancreata of rat, dog, man, young pig, and adult pig. Collagen content was determined using a col

  5. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  6. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  7. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  8. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  9. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  10. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  11. Social Justice and Political Orthodoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianoff, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003, the Teachers College of Columbia University has maintained a policy of evaluating students based on their "commitment to social justice." Before last summer, Columbia could blame the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the main accrediting body for schools of education, for those evaluation criteria. The…

  12. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  13. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  14. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  15. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  16. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  17. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  18. Social justice and the global economy: new challenges for social work in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on the vulnerability, disempowered status, and exploitation of poor people of the Global South. Connections with global inequities in wealth, income, and the distribution of resources are made explicit. The article explores domestic social justice problems as possible points of connection with these issues. Finally, the authors give recommendations for social work education, advocacy, and activism.

  19. 当代中国大城市居民的分配公平感:一项基于上海的实证研究%Perceptions of Distributive Justice of the Residents in Contemporary China's Large Cities:An Empirical Study Based on the Survey in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王甫勤

    2011-01-01

    Based on the self-interest theory and attribution theory, this study analyzed the data from the "Survey of Social Class and Social Awareness of Shanghai Residents" conducted by the Department of Sociology at Shanghai University in downtown areas of Shanghai between August 2006 and January 2007 to examine the perceptions of distributive justice of the residents in contemporary China's large cities and the mechanisms for the formation of such perceptions. The study discovered that the residents in large cities clearly perceived the income distribution across major social groups as unfair. Whether or not a social class possessed a dominant status did not correlate with people's perceptions of distributive justice but people's socioeconomic status and their attribution for social inequality did. Those with an advantageous economic status not only directly affected people's perceptions of distributive justice but such an effect could also be indirect through people's preferred mode of attribution of social inequality. Furthermore, the effect of attribution mode was larger than that of socioeconomic status: The more likely a person was to attribute social inequality to individual performance (internal causes),the more likely that person tended to have a strong sense of distributive justice. On the other hand, the more likely a person was to attribute social inequality to power or policies (external causes),the more likely that person tended to have a strong sense of distributive injustice.%本文从自利理论和归因理论出发,以2006年8月-2007年1月上海大学社会学系"上海市居民的阶层地位与社会意识"调查数据为基础,分析当前中国大城市居民的分配公平感及其形成机制.研究发现,大城市居民对主要社会群体的收入分配感到明显不公平.阶层地位是否具有优势对居民分配公平感的形成没有显著影响,但社会经济地位及其对导致社会不平等的归因则与分

  20. Principles of justice as a basis for conceptualizing a health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J H

    1977-01-01

    This paper opens with a concern for the causes of the maldistribution of health care throughout most of the world. It then explores briefly the question of entitlement to health care, focusing on the appropriateness of expressing that entitlement in terms of social justice. Some principles of justice as related to health care are formulated, drawing on the thinking of John Rawls and his Theory of Justice, and the ideas of distributive justice that have been set forth by Nicholas Rescher. These principles are then used as a basis for planning a theoretical health care system in the setting of a less-developed country. This theoretical health care system is intended to reflect a just distribution of health care under conditions of varying limitations of resources, including those in which resources are not adequate to provide care for all of the people. Some of the technical, social, and political implications of such a system are discussed.

  1. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-04-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that

  2. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  3. Estimating Leaf Bulk Density Distribution in a Tree Canopy Using Terrestrial LiDAR and a Straightforward Calibration Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pimont

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf biomass distribution is a key factor for modeling energy and carbon fluxes in forest canopies and for assessing fire behavior. We propose a new method to estimate 3D leaf bulk density distribution, based on a calibration of indices derived from T-LiDAR. We applied the method to four contrasted plots in a mature Quercus pubescens forest. Leaf bulk densities were measured inside 0.7 m-diameter spheres, referred to as Calibration Volumes. Indices were derived from LiDAR point clouds and calibrated over the Calibration Volume bulk densities. Several indices were proposed and tested to account for noise resulting from mixed pixels and other theoretical considerations. The best index and its calibration parameter were then used to estimate leaf bulk densities at the grid nodes of each plot. These LiDAR-derived bulk density distributions were used to estimate bulk density vertical profiles and loads and above four meters compared well with those assessed by the classical inventory-based approach. Below four meters, the LiDAR-based approach overestimated bulk densities since no distinction was made between wood and leaf returns. The results of our method are promising since they demonstrate the possibility to assess bulk density on small plots at a reasonable operational cost.

  4. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  5. 27 CFR 479.64 - Procedure for approval of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.64 Procedure...

  6. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  7. Globalization and sustainable development: a political ecology strategy to realize ecological justice

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2006-01-01

    Organic agriculture is, like mainstream agriculture, faced with the challenges of globalization and sustainable development. Ecological justice, the fair distribution of livelihoods and environments, has emerged as a key concept in efforts, on the one hand, to resist negative consequences of globalization and ecological modernization and, on the other to propose new agenda and institutional arrangements. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice as a political ecology strateg...

  8. Collecting informed consent with juvenile justice populations: issues and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbransky, Melinda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Giallella, Christy; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Researchers must provide participants with opportunities to make informed decisions about whether to participate in research studies. Investigators conducting research with youth in the juvenile justice system face unique ethical, legal, and practical challenges to obtaining informed consent. Juvenile justice researchers must navigate multiple legal and ethical standards for collecting informed consent, take into account youths' dual vulnerabilities as children and prisoners, and overcome practical limitations to obtaining parental/guardian permission. Given the challenges and complexity of obtaining standard informed consent of youth in juvenile justice facilities, this paper provides suggestions for overcoming obstacles to recruiting these youth for research participation. It offers guidance for fostering the enrollment of juvenile justice youth in research studies using procedures that comply with ethical and legal standards for research with this dually vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Why managers should care about fairness: the effects of aggregate justice perceptions on organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Tony; Roberson, Quinetta

    2003-06-01

    This work examines the aggregation of justice perceptions to the departmental level and the business-unit level, the impact of these aggregate perceptions on business-unit-level outcomes, and the usefulness of the distinction between procedural and interpersonal justice at different levels of analysis. Latent variables analyses of individual-level and department-level data from 4,539 employees in 783 departments at 97 hotel properties showed that the 2 justice types exercise unique paths of impact on employees' organizational commitment and thus on turnover intentions and discretionary service behavior. Business-unit-level analyses further demonstrate paths of association between aggregate justice perceptions, aggregate commitment levels, and the business-unit-level outcomes of employee turnover rates and customer satisfaction ratings.

  10. 国际私法的形式正义与实质正义探讨%On the Formal Justice and Substantive Justice of Private International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍

    2016-01-01

    传统国际私法主要关注形式正义的内容,即在司法程序的执行过程中,有着一系列公平公正的运行程序与规则。而现代国际私法追求的价值取向为实质正义,即在司法制度与政策的执行过程中,必须实现终极状态的正义,必须完成内容与目的的正义追求。本文主要探讨国际私法的形式正义与实质正义,通过分析国际私法的价值取向、正义观,指出未来国际私法将会从形式正义转变为实质正义的发展方向。%Traditional private international law mainly focus on the content of the form justice,that is,in the process of the im-plementation of the judicial process,there are a series of fair and impartial operation procedures and rules.And the value ori-entation of modern private international law is real justice,that is,in the process of the implementation of the judicial system and policy,we must realize the justice of the final state.This paper mainly discusses the private international law of formal jus-tice and substantive justice,through the analysis of the value orientation of private international law,justice view,pointed out that the future private international law will be from the form justice change the direction for the development of substantive jus-tice.

  11. An investigation of relation between organizational justice and professional commitment of staff: A case study of public organization in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and professional commitment in Kermanshah official organizations. The study uses 20 questions to measure professional commitment from a questionnaire originally developed by Spell et al. (2007 [Spell, C. S., & Arnold, T. J. (2007. A multi-level analysis of organizational justice climate, structure, and employee mental health. Journal of Management, 33(5, 724-751.]. In addition, the study adopts 12 questions from another questionnaire developed by Vallas (1999 [Vallas, S. P. (1999. Rethinking post‐Fordism: The meaning of workplace flexibility. Sociological theory, 17(1, 68-101.] to measure organizational justice. Cronbach alpha for organizational justice questionnaire and professional commitment are 0.81 and 0.89, respectively, which are well above the minimum acceptable level. Based on the results of this survey, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational justice and professional commitment. The implementation of the linear regression analysis also reveals that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between inter-organizational justice and professional commitment. The study performs Freedman test to rank three components of organizational justice and the results indicate that interactional justice maintains the highest level of importance while distributive justice comes last in terms of priority.

  12. Genetics, Identity, and Justice- DNA and Indigeneity Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Daryl Pullman

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on some recent cases from Newfoundland and Labrador (e.g. repatriation of Beothuk remains; membership in the Qalipu Mi’kmaq ‘landless’ tribe), this presentation explores differing notions of identity (e.g. genetic, cultural, and otherwise) as well as various conceptions of justice (distributive, compensatory, retributive, restorative) relating them to issues of repatriation, tribal identity, and land claims. Dr. Daryl Pullman is Professor of Medical Ethics at Memorial University ...

  13. The level of organizational justice in schools according to school types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Titrek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Justice is a concept that began to be dealed related with the distribution of the resources of payment, reward, encouragement etc. The organizational justice concept began to be searched especially according to school type recently, and it began to be claimed that there are significant differences. The aim of this research is to put forward the situation of the organizational justice level from the point of school type and province variables. This research conducted with survey method. The sample of this research is composed of 1016 school empleyees. “Perceptions of Fair Interpersonal Treatment Scale”, which was translated and adapted to Turkish by Wasti (2001, was used in this research. The sub-aims of the research were analysed with arithmetic mean, standard deviation and MANOVA.It has been determined that organizational justice level is perceived positively upto a point from the dimensions of relationships both with managers and employees, school type is an efficient variable and primary schools have more positive organizational justice perception than general high schools and general high schools have more positive organizational justice perception than vocational high schools. Additionally, it has been determined that the organizational justice perception of schools in high populated cities and west regions, where the city variable is efficient, is more positive than that of schools in east regions.

  14. Towards an Explicit Justice Framing of the Social Impacts of Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that biodiversity conservation practice will benefit from assessment of environmental justice outcomes, especially in contexts of poverty and social marginalisation. Whilst there is an existing body of work that implicitly considers the justices and injustices arising from biodiversity conservation interventions, we suggest that a more explicit justice assessment might complement this work. We develop some general guidelines for such assessment, drawing on traditions of social and environmental justice, highlighting the importance of considering two types of justice outcome: distribution and recognition. We note the non-equivalence of these different justice values, implying that they cannot be traded-off against each other. We try out these guidelines through a case study of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. We find that the assessment helps us to identify intolerable social impacts of conservation, notably failures to adequately address the long-term impoverishment and domination of the indigenous Batwa people, and offers constructive insight for how conservation can better align with the need for environmental justice.

  15. Reconciling justice and attribution research to advance climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Wallimann-Helmer, Ivo; Stone, Dáithí; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement is an important step for international climate policy, but the compensation for negative effects of climate change based on clear assignment of responsibilities remains highly debated. From both a policy and a science perspective, it is unclear how responsibilities should be defined and on what evidence base. We explore different normative principles of justice relevant to climate change impacts, and ask how different forms of causal evidence of impacts drawn from detection and attribution research could inform policy approaches in accordance with justice considerations. We reveal a procedural injustice based on the imbalance of observations and knowledge of impacts between developed and developing countries. This type of injustice needs to be considered in policy negotiations and decisions, and efforts strengthened to reduce it.

  16. Intergenerational Justice in Aging Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked......) the ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...... primarily to government activity rather than private behavior. Sustainability is the moral starting point: ‘enough and as good’ ought to be left by each generation to the next. Three of the IJI dimensions measure policy outcomes that leave legacy burdens towards younger and future generations: (1...

  17. Beneficence, justice, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J Paul

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that societal duties of health promotion are underwritten (at least in large part) by a principle of beneficence. Further, this principle generates duties of justice that correlate with rights, not merely "imperfect" duties of charity or generosity. To support this argument, I draw on a useful distinction from bioethics and on a somewhat neglected approach to social obligation from political philosophy. The distinction is that between general and specific beneficence; and the approach from political philosophy has at times been called equality of concern. After clarifying the distinction and setting out the basis of the equality of concern view, I argue that the result is a justice-based principle of "specific" beneficence that should be reflected in a society's health policy. I then draw on this account to criticize, refine, and extend some prominent health care policy proposals from the bioethics literature.

  18. Levinas, justice and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the metaphysical ethics of Emmanuel Levinas captures some essential moral intuitions that are central to health care. However, there is an ongoing discussion about the relevance of ethical metaphysics for normative ethics and in particular on the question of the relationship between justice and individualized care. In this paper I take part in this debate and I argue that Levinas' idea of an ethics of the Other that guides politics and justice can shed important light on issues that are central to priorities in health care. In fact, the ethics of Levinas in seeking the foundation of normativity itself, captures the ethical core and central values of health care.

  19. Combined effects of uncertainty and organizational justice on employee health : Testing the uncertainty management model of fairness judgments among Finnish public sector employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elovainio, M.; Bos, K. van den; Linna, A.; Kivimäki, M.; Ala-Mursula, L.; Pentti, J.; Vahtera, J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of uncertainty (lack of work-time control, and negative changes at work) and organizational justice (i.e., justice of decision-making procedures and interpersonal treatment at work) contributes to sickness absence. A total of 7083 male and 24,317 female Finnish pu

  20. Managing online service recovery: procedures, justice and customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Crisafulli, Benedetta; Singh, Jaywant

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Internet has changed the way services are delivered and has created new forms of customer-firm interactions. Whilst online service failures remain inevitable, the Internet offers opportunities for delivering efficient service recovery through the online channel. Notwithstanding, research evidence on how firms can deliver online service recovery remains scarce. This study investigates the impact of two online service recovery strategies - online information and te...