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Sample records for juniper juniperus osteosperma

  1. Dendrochronology of Utah Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little)

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    R. Justin Derose; Matthew F. Bekker; Roger Kjelgren; Brendan M. Buckley; James H. Speer; Eric B. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Utah juniper was a foundational species for the discipline of dendrochronology, having been used in the early 20th Century investigations of Mesa Verde, but has been largely ignored by dendrochronologists since. Here we present dendrochronological investigations of Utah juniper core and cross-sectional samples from four sites in northern Utah. We demonstrate that,...

  2. Environmental, genetic, and ecophysiological variation of western and Utah juniper and their hybrids: A model system for vegetation response to climate change. Final report

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    Nowak, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Resource Sciences; Tausch, R.J. [Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    1998-11-01

    This report focuses on the following two research projects relating to the biological effects of climate change: Hybridization and genetic diversity populations of Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western (Juniperus occidentalis) juniper: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA; and Ecophysiological patterns of pinyon and juniper.

  3. First year soil and runoff response to compaction after mechanical mastication of juniper woodland

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    Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) expansion in the west has resulted in increased wildfires and has led land managers to search for effective fuel control methods. Mechanical mastication using a large, rotating drum with carbide teeth mounted on a tractor allows managers to selectively control tr...

  4. Use of saltcedar and Utah juniper as fillers in wood–plastic composites

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    Craig Clemons; Nicole Stark

    2007-01-01

    Invasive and small-diameter species have become more prevalent, creating numerous environmental and ecological problems. One potential method to control and eliminate invasive species and thereby promote natural rangeland restoration is developing new, value-added uses for them. Saltcedar (Tamarisk ramosissima) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) were investigated...

  5. Effects of a spring prescribed burn on the soil seed bank in sagebrush steppe exhibiting pinyon-juniper expansion

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    Elizabeth A. Allen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert S. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands are expanding into shrubsteppe ecosystems in western portions of the Great Basin. Often, highly competitive trees displace the understory, and prescribed fire is increasingly used as a restoration tool. To inform management decisions about post-fire recovery, we...

  6. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

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    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  7. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

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    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  8. Cone and seed traits of two Juniperus species influence roles of frugivores and scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersal agents

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    Dimitri, Lindsay A.; Longland, William S.; Vander Wall, Stephen B.

    2017-11-01

    Seed dispersal in Juniperus is generally attributed to frugivores that consume the berry-like female cones. Some juniper cones are fleshy and resinous such as those of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), while others are dry and leathery such as those of Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Rodents have been recorded harvesting Juniperus seeds and cones but are mostly considered seed predators. Our study sought to determine if rodents play a role in dispersal of western and Utah juniper seeds. We documented rodent harvest of cones and seeds of the locally-occurring juniper species and the alternate (non-local) juniper species in removal experiments at a western juniper site in northeastern California and a Utah juniper site in western Nevada. Characteristics of western and Utah juniper cones appeared to influence removal, as cones from the local juniper species were preferred at both sites. Conversely, removal of local and non-local seeds was similar. Piñon mice (Peromyscus truei) were responsible for most removal of cones and seeds at both sites. We used radioactively labeled seeds to follow seed fate and found many of these seeds in scattered caches (western juniper: 415 seeds in 82 caches, 63.0% of seeds found; Utah juniper: 458 seeds in 127 caches, 39.5% of seeds found) most of which were attributed to piñon mice. We found little evidence of frugivores dispersing Utah juniper seeds, thus scatter-hoarding rodents appear to be the main dispersal agents. Western juniper cones were eaten by frugivores, and scatter-hoarding is a complimentary or secondary form of seed dispersal. Our results support the notion that Utah juniper has adapted to xeric environments by conserving water through the loss of fleshy fruits that attract frugivores and instead relies on scatter-hoarding rodents as effective dispersal agents.

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

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    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  10. Chapter 2: Genetic Variability in Nuclear Ribosomal and Chloroplast DNA in Utah (Juniperus Osteosperma) and Western (J. Occidentalis) Juniper (Cupressaceae): Evidence for Interspecific Gene Flow1

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    Terry, Randall G.; Tausch, Robin J.; Nowak, Robert S.

    1998-02-14

    Early studies of evolutionary change in chloroplast DNA indicated limited variability within species. This finding has been attributed to relatively low rates of sequence evolution and has been maintained as justification for the lack of intraspecific sampling in studies examining, relationships at the species level and above. However, documentation of intraspecific variation in cpDNA has become increasingly common and has been attributed in many cases to ''chloroplast capture'' following genetic exchange across species boundaries. Rleseberg and Wendel (1993) list 37 cases of proposed hybridization in plants that include intraspecific variation in cpDNA, 24 (65%) of which they considered to be probable instances of introgression. Rieseberg (1995) suspected that a review of the literature at that time would reveal over 100 cases of intraspecific variation in CPDNA that could be attributed to hybridization and introgression. That intraspecific variation in cpDNA is potentially indicative of hybridization is founded on the expectation that slowly evolving loci or genomes will produce greater molecular variation between than within species. In cases where a species is polymorphic for CPDNA and at least one of the molecular variants is diagnostic for a second species, interspecific hybridization is a plausible explanation. Incongruence between relationships suggested by cpDNA variation and those supported by other types of data (e.g., morphology or molecular data from an additional locus) provides additional support for introgression. One aspect of hybridization in both animals and plants that has become increasingly evident is incongruence in the phylogenetic and geographic distribution of cytoplasmic and nuclear markers. In most cases cytoplasmic introgression appears to be more pervasive than nuclear exchange. This discordance appears attributable to several factors including differences in the mutation rate, number of effective alleles, and modes of inheritance of cytoplasmic and nuclear loci. In addition, unidirectional introgression following an initial hybridization event can result in populations that have the cytoplasmic genome of one parental species and the nuclear genome of the other. In such cases, discordance in the phylogenetic, taxonomic, and geographic distribution of cytoplasmic and nuclear markers can provide insight into the biogeographic and population genetic forces affecting parental and hybrid populations.

  11. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. using non-linear regression

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    Radosavljević Dragana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents kinetics modeling of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. by using a non-linear regression methodology. The proposed model has the polynomial-logarithmic form. The initial equation of the proposed non-linear model is q = q∞•(a•(logt2 + b•logt + c and by substituting a1=q∞•a, b1 = q∞•b and c1 = q∞•c, the final equation is obtained as q = a1•(logt2 + b1•logt + c1. In this equation q is the quantity of the obtained oil at time t, while a1, b1 and c1 are parameters to be determined for each sample. From the final equation it can be seen that the key parameter q∞, which presents the maximal oil quantity obtained after infinite time, is already included in parameters a1, b1 and c1. In this way, experimental determination of this parameter is avoided. Using the proposed model with parameters obtained by regression, the values of oil hydrodistillation in time are calculated for each sample and compared to the experimental values. In addition, two kinetic models previously proposed in literature were applied to the same experimental results. The developed model provided better agreements with the experimental values than the two, generally accepted kinetic models of this process. The average values of error measures (RSS, RSE, AIC and MRPD obtained for our model (0.005; 0.017; –84.33; 1.65 were generally lower than the corresponding values of the other two models (0.025; 0.041; –53.20; 3.89 and (0.0035; 0.015; –86.83; 1.59. Also, parameter estimation for the proposed model was significantly simpler (maximum 2 iterations per sample using the non-linear regression than that for the existing models (maximum 9 iterations per sample. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-35026

  12. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

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    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  13. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

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    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  14. Mechanical mastication of Utah juniper encroaching sagebrush steppe increases inorganic soil N

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    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) has encroached millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species, but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication ...

  15. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  16. Tree regeneration following drought- and insect-induced mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands.

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    Redmond, Miranda D; Barger, Nichole N

    2013-10-01

    Widespread piñon (Pinus edulis) mortality occurred across the southwestern USA during 2002-2003 in response to drought and bark beetle infestations. Given the recent mortality and changes in regional climate over the past several decades, there is a keen interest in post-mortality regeneration dynamics in piñon-juniper woodlands. Here, we examined piñon and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) recruitment at 30 sites across southwestern Colorado, USA that spanned a gradient of adult piñon mortality levels (10-100%) to understand current regeneration dynamics. Piñon and juniper recruitment was greater at sites with more tree and shrub cover. Piñon recruitment was more strongly facilitated than juniper recruitment by trees and shrubs. New (post-mortality) piñon recruitment was negatively affected by recent mortality. However, mortality had no effect on piñon advanced regeneration (juveniles established pre-mortality) and did not shift juvenile piñon dominance. Our results highlight the importance of shrubs and juniper trees for the facilitation of piñon establishment and survival. Regardless of adult piñon mortality levels, areas with low tree and shrub cover may become increasingly juniper dominated as a result of the few suitable microsites for piñon establishment and survival. In areas with high piñon mortality and high tree and shrub cover, our results suggest that piñon is regenerating via advanced regeneration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin

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    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  18. Effects of feeding ground redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to gestating ewes on pre- and postpartum performance, serum metabolites and hormones, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance.

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    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Hallford, D M; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Naumann, H D

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum. Treatment DM diet intake overall (g/kg BW) in ewes receiving no juniper was similar ( ≥ 0.38) to that of those receiving increasing concentrations of juniper. Changes in ewe BW and BCS were similar ( ≥ 0.24) in ewes throughout gestation. All serum metabolites and hormones were within normal clinical ranges; however, serum IGF-1 decreased linearly ( = 0.003), alanine increased (linear; = 0.003), and serum Na decreased (linear; = 0.049) as the percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Ewe milk fatty acid composition was similar ( > 0.05) for the majority of fatty acids across treatment groups, with the exception of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) being greater ( hormones measured pre- and postpartum. Lamb birth weight and preweaning performance appeared unaffected by maternal consumption of ground juniper containing supplements. Results also provide novel information regarding the effects of plant secondary compound consumption throughout pregnancy on ewe and progeny performance and health.

  19. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

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    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  20. Pinyon/juniper woodlands [Chapter 4

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    Robin J. Tausch; Sharon Hood

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in 10 states and cover large areas in many of them. These woodlands can be dominated by several species of pinyon pine (Pinus spp. L.) and juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) (Lanner 1975; Mitchell and Roberts 1999; West 1999a). A considerable amount of information is available on the expansion of the woodlands that has occurred over large parts...

  1. Off-road transport of pinyon/juniper

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    J. Klepac; B. Rummer

    2012-01-01

    A 8-wheel forwarder was observed while transporting pinyon pine (P. edulis) and Utah juniper (J. osteosperma) from woods to landing in southern Utah. The forwarder was part of a 2-machine system used to treat pinyon-juniper stands. Trees were felled using a rubber tracked skid steer with a shear head, then transported to a collection point with a Ponsse Buffalo King 20...

  2. Do bark beetle sprays prevent Phloeosinus species from attacking cypress and juniper?

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    Chris Hayes; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; Joel McMillin; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Phloeosinus-caused mortality of Arizona cypress, (Cupressus arizonica), oneseed juniper, (Juniperus monosperma) and alligator juniper, (J. deppeana) has been observed at high levels in Arizona during the past 3 years. Currently, there are limited preventative measures to protect high-value cypress and juniper trees against...

  3. Plant establishment and soil microenvironments in Utah juniper masticated woodlands

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    Kert R. Young

    2012-01-01

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and bunchgrass communities has reduced understory plant cover and allowed juniper trees to dominate millions of hectares of semiarid rangelands. Trees are mechanically masticated or shredded to decrease wildfire potential and increase desirable understory plant cover. When trees are masticated after...

  4. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

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    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997-1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  5. Distribution of western juniper seeds across an ecotone and implications for seed dispersal processes

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    Western juniper forests have been the focus of extensive research and management due to range expansion and infilling that began over a century ago. Understanding juniper seed dispersal is vital to identifying processes behind increases in density and range. Dispersal of Juniperus seeds has generall...

  6. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

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    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  7. Historical fire and multidecadal drought as context for piñon - Juniper woodland restoration in western Colorado

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    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is known to structure tree populations, but the role of broad-scale climate variability is less clear. For example, the influence of climatic “teleconnections” (the relationship between oceanic–atmospheric fluctuations and anomalous weather patterns across broad scales) on forest age structure is relatively unexplored. We sampled semiarid piñon–juniper (Pinus edulis–Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands in western Colorado, USA, to test the hypothesis that woodland age structures are shaped by climate, including links to oceanic–atmospheric fluctuations, and by past fires and livestock grazing. Low-severity surface fire was lacking, as fire scars were absent, and did not influence woodland densities, but stand-replacing fires served as long-rotation (>400–600 years), stand-initiating events. Old-growth stands (>300 years old) were found in 75% of plots, consistent with a long fire rotation. Juniper and piñon age structures suggest contrasting responses during the past several centuries to dry and wet episodes linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Juniper density increased slightly during periods of drought, positive (warm) AMO (after ∼10-year lag), and negative (cool) PDO. In contrast, piñon populations may still be recovering from a long, drought-filled period (AD 1620–1820), with pulses of recovery favored during cool AMO, warm PDO, and above-average moisture periods. Analysis of 20th-century tree establishment and instrumental climate data corroborate the long-term relationships between age structure and climate. After Euro–American settlement (AD 1881), livestock grazing reduced understory grasses and forbs, reducing competition with tree seedlings and facilitating climate-induced increases in piñons. Thus tree populations in these woodlands are in flux, affected by drought and wet periods linked to oceanic–atmospheric variability, Euro–American livestock grazing, and long

  8. Hydrologic response of mechanical mastication in juniper woodland in Utah

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    Various vegetation control methods have been used to reduce juniper (Juniperus ssp.) woodland encroachment. Mechanical mastication (reducing trees to a mulch residue) has recently been used in some western states. We investigated the hydrologic impacts of rubber tire tracks from the masticating vehi...

  9. Proceedings of the western juniper ecology and management workshop.

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    Robert E. Martin; J. Edward Dealy; David L. Caraher

    1977-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) is an important invader of range lands in central and eastern Oregon. Many people have asked questions about its control, effect on range productivity, and its benefits. The papers in this proceedings resulted from a conference held in Bend, Oregon, January 1977, to...

  10. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands

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    Needles from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees are known to cause late term abortions in cattle. Recently, there have been several reports of abortion rates of 10-15% within cattle herds in Oregon after cattle were pastured in areas with abundant western juniper trees (Juniperus occidentalis)....

  11. Understory cover responses to pinon-juniper treatments across tree dominance gradients in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees are reduced to restore native vegetation and avoid high severity fires where they have invaded sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) communities. To recommend treatment implementation which avoids threshold-crossing to invasive plant dominance w...

  12. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  13. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  14. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  15. Use of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Crown Dimensions to Predict One Seed Juniper Woody Biomass Yield for Alternative Energy Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the western United States there is increased interest in utilizing woodland biomass as an alternative energy source. We conducted a pilot study to predict one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) chip yield from tree-crown dimensions measured on the ground or derived from Very Large Scale ...

  16. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  17. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  18. Pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L.; Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have been altered by changes in climatic patterns and human use and, often, abuse. Management of these lands since European settlement has varied from light exploitation and benign neglect, to attempts to remove the trees in favor of forage for livestock, and then to a realization that these lands contain useful resources and should be managed accordingly. Land management agencies are committed to ecosystem management. While there are several definitions of ecosystem management, the goal is to use ecological approaches to create and maintain diverse, productive, and healthy ecosystems (Kaufmann et al. 1994). Ecosystem management recognizes that people are an integral part of the system and that their needs must be considered. Ecological approaches are central to the concept, but our understanding of basic woodland ecology is incomplete, and there are different opinions and interpretations of existing information (Gottfried and Severson 1993). There are many questions concerning proper ecosystem management of the pinyon-juniper woodlands and how managers can achieve these goals (Gottfried and Severson 1993). While the broad concept of ecosystem management generally is accepted, the USDA Forest Service, other public land management agencies, American Indian tribes, and private landowners may have differing definitions of what constitutes desired conditions. Key questions about the pinyon-juniper ecosystems remain unanswered. Some concern the basic dynamics of biological and physical components of the pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Others concern the distribution of woodlands prior to European settlement and changes

  19. Genetic sampling of Palmer's chipmunks in the Spring Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Jennifer E. Ramirez; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Palmer's chipmunk (Neotamias palmeri) is a medium-sized chipmunk whose range is limited to the higher-elevation areas of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. A second chipmunk species, the Panamint chipmunk (Neotamias panamintinus), is more broadly distributed and lives in lower-elevation, primarily pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) habitat...

  20. A comparison of change detection measurements using object-based and pixel-based classification methods on western juniper dominated woodlands in eastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Howell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp and juniper (Juniperus spp. woodlands in western North America is considered detrimental due to its effects on ecohydrology, plant community structure, and soil stability. Management plans at the federal, state, and private level often include juniper removal for improving habitat of sensitive species and maintaining sustainable ecosystem processes. Remote sensing has become a useful tool in determining changes in juniper woodland structure because of its uses in comparing archived historic imagery with newly available multispectral images to provide information on changes that are no longer detectable by field measurements. Change in western juniper (J. occidentalis cover was detected following juniper removal treatments between 1995 and 2011 using panchromatic 1-meter NAIP and 4-band 1-meter NAIP imagery, respectively. Image classification was conducted using remotely sensed images taken at the Roaring Springs Ranch in southeastern Oregon. Feature Analyst for ArcGIS (object-based extraction and a supervised classification with ENVI 5.2 (pixel-based extraction were used to delineate juniper canopy cover. Image classification accuracy was calculated using an Accuracy Assessment and Kappa Statistic. Both methods showed approximately a 76% decrease in western juniper cover, although differing in total canopy cover area, with object-based classification being more accurate. Classification results for the 2011 imagery were much more accurate (0.99 Kappa statistic because of its low juniper density and the presence of an infrared band. The development of methods for detecting change in juniper cover can lead to more accurate and efficient data acquisition and subsequently improved land management and monitoring practices. These data can subsequently be used to assess and quantify juniper invasion and succession, potential ecological impacts, and plant community resilience.

  1. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Federal land managers are increasingly implementing fuels-reduction treatments throughout the western United States with objectives of ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction in pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands. The pinyon-juniper woodland ecosystem complex is highly variable across the western landscape, as is bird community composition. We investigated relations between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in modified pinyon-juniper woodlands at three sites (BLM, USFS, NPS) on the Colorado Plateau. During the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006, we surveyed birds and measured vegetation in 74 study plots. These plots were each 3.1 hectares (ha; 7.6 acres), located across the range of natural variation, with 41 control sites and 33 plots in areas previously thinned by hand-cutting or chaining. We found that relations of avian pinyon-juniper specialists and priority species to vegetation characteristics were generally in agreement with the findings of previous studies and known nesting and feeding habits of those birds. Relatively high density of pinyon pines was important to species richness and abundance in 6 of 14 species. Abundance of all species was related to treatment method, and we found no difference in bird communities at chaining and hand-cut sites.

  2. Impact of grazing abandonment on floristic diversity in the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrahnakis, Michael; Kazoglou, Yannis; Fotiadis, George; Kakouros, Petros; Nasiakou, Stamatia; Soutsas, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    The habitat type *9562 Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) includes Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) forests and they are found mainly in the western sector of the Prespa National Park, NW Greece. Greek juniper forests are considered extremely rare for EU-28, recommending a priority habitat type in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC. In addition, their ecological importance is great given its high plant taxa richness; they harbor most of the 900 plant taxa found in the western sector of the Park, many of them being important for EU or global scale. The accelerated invasion of deciduous hardwoods is the most significant risk for the habitat, since its rich flora is well-adapted to open light conditions produced by the open spaced Greek junipers. Also, the dense vegetated conditions deprive the regeneration of the photophilous Greek juniper. The invasion results from the lack of its natural controller, i.e. the grazing livestock. It is estimated that the total area of juniper forests for the Devas area decreased to 89% of the area of 1945 in favor of invasive hardwoods. The paper presents the analysis of the floristic diversity of the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods (Juniperetum excelsae) (GJWs). Four (4) types of juniper forest ranges (GJWs) were distinguished in terms of canopy cover: (a) pure GJWs, (b) mixed open GJWs, (c) open GJWs, and (d) mixed dense GJWs. A total of 171 plant taxa were recorded, and distributed within 43 botanical families; the largest one being Leguminosae (26 taxa). The statistically estimated plant taxa richness for pure GJWs was 116.4, for mixed open 152.6, for open 57.9, and for mixed dense 90.2 taxa. The analysis of α-diversity indices did not reveal any specific trend of diversity for the four GJWs. The behavior of the variability of diversity among the four range types of GJWs was depending on the emphasis the used indices place on properties such as taxa richness or abundance. This fact was

  3. Restoration of mountain big sagebrush steppe following prescribed burning to control western juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Bates, J D; Madsen, M D; Nafus, A M

    2014-05-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. Western juniper has been successfully controlled with partial cutting followed by prescribed burning the next fall, but the herbaceous understory and sagebrush may be slow to recover. We evaluated the effectiveness of seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlled by partially cutting and prescribed burning. Treatments tested at each site included an unseeded control, herbaceous seed mix (aerially seeded), and the herbaceous seed mix plus sagebrush seed. In the third year post-treatment, perennial grass cover and density were twice as high in plots receiving the herbaceous seed mix compared to the control plots. Sagebrush cover and density in the sagebrush seeded plots were between 74- and 290-fold and 62- and 155-fold greater than the other treatments. By the third year after treatment, sagebrush cover was as high as 12 % in the sagebrush seeded plots and between 0 % and 0.4 % where it was not seeded. These results indicate that aerial seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation can accelerate the recovery of perennial grasses which likely stabilize the site. Our results also suggest that seeding mountain big sagebrush after prescribed burning encroaching juniper can rapidly recover sagebrush cover and density. In areas where sagebrush habitat is limited, seeding sagebrush after juniper control may increase sagebrush habitat and decrease the risks to sagebrush-associated species.

  4. Hydraulic limits preceding mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland under experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hill, Judson; Pangle, Robert; Sperry, John S; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2012-09-01

    Drought-related tree mortality occurs globally and may increase in the future, but we lack sufficient mechanistic understanding to accurately predict it. Here we present the first field assessment of the physiological mechanisms leading to mortality in an ecosystem-scale rainfall manipulation of a piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We measured transpiration (E) and modelled the transpiration rate initiating hydraulic failure (E(crit) ). We predicted that isohydric piñon would experience mortality after prolonged periods of severely limited gas exchange as required to avoid hydraulic failure; anisohydric juniper would also avoid hydraulic failure, but sustain gas exchange due to its greater cavitation resistance. After 1 year of treatment, 67% of droughted mature piñon died with concomitant infestation by bark beetles (Ips confusus) and bluestain fungus (Ophiostoma spp.); no mortality occurred in juniper or in control piñon. As predicted, both species avoided hydraulic failure, but safety margins from E(crit) were much smaller in piñon, especially droughted piñon, which also experienced chronically low hydraulic conductance. The defining characteristic of trees that died was a 7 month period of near-zero gas exchange, versus 2 months for surviving piñon. Hydraulic limits to gas exchange, not hydraulic failure per se, promoted drought-related mortality in piñon pine. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Drought predisposes piñon-juniper woodlands to insect attacks and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Monica L; Kolb, Thomas E; Pockman, William T; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Macalady, Alison K; Pangle, Robert E; McDowell, Nate G

    2013-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that drought predisposes trees to insect attacks, we quantified the effects of water availability on insect attacks, tree resistance mechanisms, and mortality of mature piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) using an experimental drought study in New Mexico, USA. The study had four replicated treatments (40 × 40 m plot/replicate): removal of 45% of ambient annual precipitation (H2 O-); irrigation to produce 125% of ambient annual precipitation (H2 O+); a drought control (C) to quantify the impact of the drought infrastructure; and ambient precipitation (A). Piñon began dying 1 yr after drought initiation, with higher mortality in the H2 O- treatment relative to other treatments. Beetles (bark/twig) were present in 92% of dead trees. Resin duct density and area were more strongly affected by treatments and more strongly associated with piñon mortality than direct measurements of resin flow. For juniper, treatments had no effect on insect resistance or attacks, but needle browning was highest in the H2 O- treatment. Our results provide strong evidence that ≥ 1 yr of severe drought predisposes piñon to insect attacks and increases mortality, whereas 3 yr of the same drought causes partial canopy loss in juniper. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  7. Determine the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio in arid and semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Hadi; Suzuki, Rikie

    2012-11-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera. L (pistachio) and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper). Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. In this study, we estimated the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. In this research spectral reflectance are able to specify of multispectral from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) that provided by JAXA. These data included PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, has one band with a wavelength of 0.52-0.77 μm and AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42-0.50 μm), green (0.52-0.60 μm), red (0.61-0.69 μm), and near infrared (0.76-0.89 μm). Total ratio vegetation index (TRVI) of optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio have been evaluated. The result of TRVI for Pistachio and juniper were (R2= 0.71 and 0.55). I hope this research can provide decision of managers to helping sustainable management for arid and semi-arid regions in Iran.

  8. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Foliar carbon dynamics of piñon and juniper in response to experimental drought and heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.; Ryan, M. G.; Adams, H. D.; Dickman, L. T.; Garcia-Forner, N.; Grossiord, C.; Powers, H. H.; Sevanto, S.; McDowell, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant respiration (R) is generally well-coupled with temperature and in the absence of thermal acclimation, respiration is expected to increase as climate change brings higher temperatures. Increased drought is also predicted for future climate, which could drive respiration higher if the carbon (C) cost to maintain tissues (Rm) or grow increases, or lower if substrate or other factors become limiting. We examined the effects of temperature and drought on R as well as photosynthesis, growth, and carbohydrate storage of mature individuals of two co-dominant tree species. Three mature, in-situ piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees were assigned to each of the following treatments: +4.8 °C; 45% reduced precipitation; a combination of both (heat + drought); along with ambient control and treatment controls. Rm measured prior to foliar and twig growth was far more sensitive to drought in piñon, and heat in juniper. Total respiration (Rt, R not partitioned) acclimated to temperature in piñon such that elevated temperature had minimal impacts on Rt; however, juniper exhibited higher Rt with elevated temperature, thus juniper did not display any thermal acclimation. Rt in both species was weakly associated with temperature, but strongly correlated with pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic assimilation (A) rates, and in piñon, foliar carbohydrates. For both species, heat caused far more days where A-R was negative than did drought. The consequences of drought alone and heat alone in piñon included higher Rt per unit growth, indicating that each abiotic stress forces a greater allocation of Rt to maintenance costs, and both drought + heat in combination results in far fewer days that foliar carbohydrates could sustain R in both species. Notably, the much higher A and R of juniper than piñon is consistent with predicted superior carbon budget regulation of juniper than piñon during drought; however, juniper's lack of temperature acclimation

  10. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  11. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  12. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  13. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  14. Impacts of long-term precipitation manipulation on hydraulic architecture and xylem anatomy of piñon and juniper in Southwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P J; Limousin, J M; Krofcheck, D J; Boutz, A L; Pangle, R E; Gehres, N; McDowell, N G; Pockman, W T

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic architecture imposes a fundamental control on water transport, underpinning plant productivity, and survival. The extent to which hydraulic architecture of mature trees acclimates to chronic drought is poorly understood, limiting accuracy in predictions of forest responses to future droughts. We measured seasonal shoot hydraulic performance for multiple years to assess xylem acclimation in mature piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) after 3+ years of precipitation manipulation. Our treatments consisted of water addition (+20% ambient precipitation), partial precipitation-exclusion (-45% ambient precipitation), and exclusion-structure control. Supplemental watering elevated leaf water potential, sapwood-area specific hydraulic conductivity, and leaf-area specific hydraulic conductivity relative to precipitation exclusion. Shifts in allocation of leaf area to sapwood area enhanced differences between irrigated and droughted K L in piñon but not juniper. Piñon and juniper achieved similar K L under ambient conditions, but juniper matched or outperformed piñon in all physiological measurements under both increased and decreased precipitation treatments. Embolism vulnerability and xylem anatomy were unaffected by treatments in either species. Absence of significant acclimation combined with inferior performance for both hydraulic transport and safety suggests piñon has greater risk of local extirpation if aridity increases as predicted in the southwestern USA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  16. Annual increments of juniper dwarf shrubs above the tree line on the central Tibetan Plateau: a useful climatic proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Lu, Xiaoming; Ren, Ping; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Liping; Eckstein, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth. Methods Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away. Key Results Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May–June. Conclusions Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world. PMID:22210848

  17. Annual increments of juniper dwarf shrubs above the tree line on the central Tibetan Plateau: a useful climatic proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Lu, Xiaoming; Ren, Ping; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Liping; Eckstein, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth. Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away. Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May-June. Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world.

  18. Prescribed burning in mid and late successional juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper woodlands of the western United States have expanded rapidly since settlement in the late 1800’s. To recover shrub steppe and other plant communities requires that invasive junipers be controlled. We have evaluated recovery of several plant associations after combinations of junipe...

  19. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  20. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    over large regions. Hence the use of satellite data is critical to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was used to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product(MOD09) provided information on the Juniper spp. cone formation and cone density (Fig 1). Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Techniques developed using MOD09 surface reflectance products will be directly applicable to the next generation sensors such as VIIRS.

  1. Winter precipitation effect in a mid-latitude temperature-limited environment: the case of common juniper at high elevation in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzari, Elena; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is by far the most widespread conifer in the world. However, tree-ring research dealing with this species is still scarce, mainly due to the difficulty in crossdating associated with the irregular stem shape with strip-bark growth form in older individuals and the high number of missing and wedging rings. Given that many different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations and proved to be reliable climate proxies, this study aims to (i) test the possibility to successfully apply dendrochronological techniques on common juniper growing above the treeline and (ii) verify the climate sensitivity of the species with special regard to winter precipitation, a climatic factor that generally does not affect tree-ring growth in all Alpine high-elevation tree species. Almost 90 samples have been collected in three sites in the central and eastern Alps, all between 2100 and 2400 m in elevation. Despite cross-dating difficulties, we were able to build a reliable chronology for each site, each spanning over 200 years. Climate-growth relationships computed over the last century highlight that juniper growth is mainly controlled by the amount of winter precipitation. The high variability of the climate-growth associations among sites, corresponds well to the low spatial dependence of this meteorological factor. Fairly long chronologies and the presence of a significant precipitation signal open up the possibility to reconstruct past winter precipitation. (letter)

  2. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores.

  3. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  4. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  5. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  6. The western juniper resource of eastern Oregon, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote; Paul A. Dunham

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes resource statistics for eastern Oregon's juniper forests, which are in Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. We sampled all ownerships outside of the National Forest System; we report the statistics on juniper forest on...

  7. Ecohydrological Linkages, Multi-scale Processes, Temporal Variability, and Drivers of Change in a Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Watershed: Implications for Erosion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    In 1993 long-term research began on the runoff and erosion dynamics of a pinyon-juniper woodland hillslope at Bandelier National Monument in northern New Mexico (USA). In the 1.09 ha Frijolito watershed, erosion has been continuously studied at 3 spatial scales: 1 square meter, about 1000 square meters, and the entire watershed. This site is currently representative of degraded woodlands of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in this region, exhibiting marked connectivity of exposed bare soil interspaces between tree canopy patches and obvious geomorphic signs of accelerated soil erosion (e.g., pedestalling, actively expanding rill networks). Ecological and land use histories show that this site has undergone a number of dramatic ecohydrological shifts since ca. C.E. 1850, transitioning from: 1) open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) overstory with limited pinyon-juniper component and substantial herbaceous understory that supported surface fires and constrained soil erosion, to; 2) ponderosa pine with reduced herbaceous cover due to livestock grazing after ca.1870, resulting in collapse of the surface fire regime and increased establishment of young pinyon and juniper trees, to; 3) mortality of all of the ponderosa pine during the extreme drought of the 1950s, leaving eroding pinyon-juniper woodland, to; 4) mortality of all mature pinyon at or above sapling size during the 2002-2003 drought, with juniper now the only dominant woody species. Detailed measurements since 1993 document high rates of soil erosion (> 2.75 Mg/ha/year on average at the watershed scale) that are rapidly stripping the local soils. Long-term observations are needed to distinguish short-term variability from longer term trends, as measurements of runoff and erosion show extreme variability at multiple time scales since 1993. The multi-scale erosion data from the Frijolito watershed reveal little dropoff in erosion rate (g/meter-squared) between the one meter

  8. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  9. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  10. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  11. Comparative analysis of essential oil contents of Juniperus excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cones/berries of Juniperus excelsa from three provenances in Balochistan, Pakistan were collected and essential oil was extracted by solvent method. Oil contents were analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Identification and quantification was made by using Wiley and NIST spectral library and HP ...

  12. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  13. Regulation and acclimation of leaf gas exchange in a piñon-juniper woodland exposed to three different precipitation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Bickford, Christopher P; Dickman, Lee T; Pangle, Robert E; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Osuna, Jessica L; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2013-10-01

    Leaf gas-exchange regulation plays a central role in the ability of trees to survive drought, but forecasting the future response of gas exchange to prolonged drought is hampered by our lack of knowledge regarding potential acclimation. To investigate whether leaf gas-exchange rates and sensitivity to drought acclimate to precipitation regimes, we measured the seasonal variations of leaf gas exchange in a mature piñon-juniper Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma woodland after 3 years of precipitation manipulation. We compared trees receiving ambient precipitation with those in an irrigated treatment (+30% of ambient precipitation) and a partial rainfall exclusion (-45%). Treatments significantly affected leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis for both isohydric piñon and anisohydric juniper. Leaf gas exchange acclimated to the precipitation regimes in both species. Maximum gas-exchange rates under well-watered conditions, leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf water potential at zero photosynthetic assimilation all decreased with decreasing precipitation. Despite their distinct drought resistance and stomatal regulation strategies, both species experienced hydraulic limitation on leaf gas exchange when precipitation decreased, leading to an intraspecific trade-off between maximum photosynthetic assimilation and resistance of photosynthesis to drought. This response will be most detrimental to the carbon balance of piñon under predicted increases in aridity in the southwestern USA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  15. Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Ávila, Gema; Pías, Beatriz; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Seed dispersal is typically performed by a diverse array of species assemblages with different behavioral and morphological traits which determine dispersal quality (DQ, defined as the probability of recruitment of a dispersed seed). Fate of ecosystems to ongoing environmental changes is critically dependent on dispersal and mainly on DQ in novel scenarios. We assess here the DQ, thus the multiplicative effect of germination and survival probability to the first 3 years of life, for seeds dispersed by several bird species (Turdus spp.) and carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina) in mature woodland remnants of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) and old fields which are being colonized by this species. Results showed that DQ was similar in mature woodlands and old fields. Germination rate for seeds dispersed by carnivores (11.5%) and thrushes (9.12%) was similar, however, interacted with microhabitat suitability. Seeds dispersed by carnivores reach the maximum germination rate on shrubs (16%), whereas seeds dispersed by thrushes did on female juniper canopies (15.5) indicating that each group of dispersers performed a directed dispersal. This directional effect was diluted when survival probability was considered: thrushes selected smaller seeds which had higher mortality in the seedling stage (70%) in relation to seedlings dispersed by carnivores (40%). Overall, thrushes resulted low-quality dispersers which provided a probability or recruitment of 2.5%, while a seed dispersed by carnivores had a probability of recruitment of 6.5%. Our findings show that generalist dispersers (i.e., carnivores) can provide a higher probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (i.e., Turdus spp.). However, generalist species are usually opportunistic dispersers as their role as seed dispersers is dependent on the availability of trophic resources and species feeding preferences. As a result, J. thurifera dispersal community is composed by two functional groups of

  16. Physico-mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood considering the effect of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de la Fuente-Leon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Determining the main physical and mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood from Soria (Spain considering the effects of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections; and comparing the resulting characteristics with similar existing data for other regional softwood species of commercial interest. Area of study: Berlanga de Duero (Soria, Castilla y León, Spain.Material and Methods: Wood physico-mechanical performance was determined by Spanish UNE standards in order to provide proper comparisons to other regional softwood species. An individual tree representing average plot characteristics was selected in all eight 10 m radius circular plots that were established well-representing the heterogeneity of this woodland. The age of every tree was determined reading the number of growth rings at the base of each sampled tree. Every physico-mechanical property was assessed at least 4 times for every wood sample type (sapwood and heartwood, whether clear or with the presence of defects of each tree. Two-way ANOVA was run to assess significant differences in the results. Post hoc all pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test (p < 0.05.Research highlights: Spanish juniper wood resulted harder than other regional commercial conifers, and showed semi-heavyweight heartwood and lightweight sapwood; whereas shrinkage figures remarked its great dimensional stability. The high presence of knots within heartwood made it even heavier, harder, and more resistant to compression parallel to grain. A commercial use of this rare precious wood may contribute to juniper forests preservation in the frame of forest sustainable management plans. Key words: heartwood effect; Juniperus thurifera L.; physico-mechanical wood properties; wood classification; wood defects.

  17. Commercialization of fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzes and defines energy applications and markets that could stimulate the commercial use of Eastern Nevada's Pinyon-Juniper resources. The commercialization potential for producing energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass is analyzed by examining the resource base and resource availability for a commercial harvesting and processing operation. The study considered the spectrum of available equipment and technology for carrying out harvesting and processing operations, investigated the markets that might be able to use energy products derived from Pinyon-Juniper biomass, analyzed the costs of harvesting, processing, and transporting Pinyon-Juniper fuels, and set forth a plan for developing the commercial potential of these resources. The emerging residential pellet-fuels market is a promising entry market for the commercialization of an energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass industry in Eastern Nevada, although there are serious technical issues that may render Pinyon-Juniper biomass an unsuitable feedstock for the manufacture of pellet fuels. These issues could be investigated at a moderate cost in order to determine whether to proceed with development efforts in this direction. In the longer term, one or two biomass-fired power plants in the size range of 5-10 MW could provide a stable and predictable market for the production and utilization of fuels derived from local Pinyon-Juniper biomass resources, and would provide valuable economic and environmental benefits to the region. Municipal utility ownership of such facilities could help to enhance the economic benefits of the investments by qualifying them for federal energy credits and tax-free financing

  18. Reduced transpiration response to precipitation pulses precedes mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland subject to prolonged drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Jennifer A; Wadsworth, W Duncan; Pangle, Robert; Yepez, Enrico A; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change is predicted to alter the intensity and duration of droughts, but the effects of changing precipitation patterns on vegetation mortality are difficult to predict. Our objective was to determine whether prolonged drought or above-average precipitation altered the capacity to respond to the individual precipitation pulses that drive productivity and survival. We analyzed 5 yr of data from a rainfall manipulation experiment in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodland using mixed effects models of transpiration response to event size, antecedent soil moisture, and post-event vapor pressure deficit. Replicated treatments included irrigation, drought, ambient control and infrastructure control. Mortality was highest under drought, and the reduced post-pulse transpiration in the droughted trees that died was attributable to treatment effects beyond drier antecedent conditions and reduced event size. In particular, trees that died were nearly unresponsive to antecedent shallow soil moisture, suggesting reduced shallow absorbing root area. Irrigated trees showed an enhanced response to precipitation pulses. Prolonged drought initiates a downward spiral whereby trees are increasingly unable to utilize pulsed soil moisture. Thus, the additive effects of future, more frequent droughts may increase drought-related mortality. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  20. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  1. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium. We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Results Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10. In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. Conclusions In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  2. What makes a good neighborhood? Interaction of spatial scale and fruit density in the predator satiation dynamics of a masting juniper tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Eduardo T; Olano, José Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in fruit production (masting) has been regarded as a key mechanism to increase plant fitness by reducing seed predation. However, considerably more effort has been devoted into understanding the consequences of temporal rather than spatial variations in fruit crop for plant fitness. In order to simultaneously evaluate both components, we quantify fruit production and pre-dispersal damage by three arthropod species (mites, chalcid wasps and moths) in the Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) during 3 years in a spatially explicit context. Our aims were to assess (1) the interaction between fruit production and pre-dispersal fruit damage by arthropods, (2) the potential interference or competition between arthropods, and (3) the form of the phenotypic selection exerted by arthropods on fruit traits considering the spatial context. Arthropods damaged a substantial fraction of fruits produced by Spanish juniper with levels of damage showing sharp inter-annual variations. Fruit damage by mites was negatively related to yearly fruit crop and positively correlated at individual trees fruiting in consecutive years. Increased interspecific interference was an additional consequence of reduced fruit availability during small crop years. During a masting year, fruit damage by less mobile species such as mites was negatively affected by tree crop size, and no spatial structure was observed for mite damage. The incidence of chalcid wasps was low, so the spatial pattern of seed predation was unclear, and no preferences for fruit or seed traits were detected. Conversely, moths selected larger fruits and their incidence on trees was spatially aggregated up to 20 m, with predation levels being negatively affected by fruit abundance at the patch level, suggesting a positive density-dependent effect of neighbors on fruit output. These results highlight the importance of including the spatial component to understand complex species interactions at local

  3. The effects of drought-induced mortality on the response of surviving trees in piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. W.; Pockman, W.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    lthough it is well-established that land cover change influences water and carbon cycles across different spatiotemporal scales, the impact of climate-driven mortality events on site energy and water balance and subsequently on vegetation dynamics is more variable among studies. In semi-arid ecosystems globally, mortality events following severe drought are increasingly common. We used long-term observations (i.e., from 2009 to present) in two piñon-juniper (i.e., Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma) woodlands located at central New Mexico USA to explore the consequence of mortality events in such water-stressed environments. We compared a pinon-juniper woodland site where girdling was used to mimic mortality of adult pinon (PJG) with a nearby untreated woodland site (PJC). Our primary goal is to disentangle the reduction in water loss via biological pathway (i.e., leaf and sapwood area) introduced by girdling manipulation from other effects contributing to the response of surviving trees such as modifications in surface reflectivity (i.e., albedo and emissivity) and surface roughness impacting the partitioning between components in both energy and water balance at canopy level. To achieve this goal, we directly measured sap flux, environmental factors and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon, water and energy fluxes using eddy-covariance systems at both sites. We found that 1) for each component of the energy balance the difference between PJC and PJG was surprisingly negligible such that the canopy-level surface temperature (i.e., both radiometric and aerodynamic temperature) remains nearly identical for the two sites; 2) the surface reflectivity and roughness are mainly dominated by the soil surface especially when the foliage coverage in semi-arid regions is small; 3) the increase in soil evaporation after girdling manipulation outcompetes the surviving trees for the use of water in the soil. These results suggest that the so-called `water release

  4. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  5. Response of Spectral Reflectances and Vegetation Indices on Varying Juniper Cone Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Juniper trees are widely distributed throughout the world and are common sources of allergies when microscopic pollen grains are transported by wind and inhaled. In this study, we investigated the spectral influences of pollen-discharging male juniper cones within a juniper canopy. This was done through a controlled outdoor experiment involving ASD FieldSpec Pro Spectroradiometer measurements over juniper canopies of varying cone densities. Broadband and narrowband spectral reflectance and vegetation index (VI patterns were evaluated as to their sensitivity and their ability to discriminate the presence of cones. The overall aim of this research was to assess remotely sensed phenological capabilities to detect pollen-bearing juniper trees for public health applications. A general decrease in reflectance values with increasing juniper cone density was found, particularly in the Green (545–565 nm and NIR (750–1,350 nm regions. In contrast, reflectances in the shortwave-infrared (SWIR, 2,000 nm to 2,350 nm region decreased from no cone presence to intermediate amounts (90 g/m2 and then increased from intermediate levels to the highest cone densities (200 g/m2. Reflectance patterns in the Red (620–700 nm were more complex due to shifting contrast patterns in absorptance between cones and juniper foliage, where juniper foliage is more absorbing than cones only within the intense narrowband region of maximum chlorophyll absorption near 680 nm. Overall, narrowband reflectances were more sensitive to cone density changes than the equivalent MODIS broadbands. In all VIs analyzed, there were significant relationships with cone density levels, particularly with the narrowband versions and the two-band vegetation index (TBVI based on Green and Red bands, a promising outcome for the use of phenocams in juniper phenology trait studies. These results indicate that spectral indices are sensitive to certain juniper phenologic traits that can potentially be

  6. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION... would be generated from their proposed Juniper Canyon I Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Klickitat...

  7. Rainfall, soil moisture, and runoff dynamics in New Mexico pinon-juniper woodland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Ochoa; Alexander Fernald; Vincent Tidwell

    2008-01-01

    Clearing trees in pinon-juniper woodlands may increase grass cover and infiltration, leading to reduced surface runoff and erosion. This study was conducted to evaluate pinon-juniper hydrology conditions during baseline data collection in a paired watershed study. We instrumented six 1.0 to 1.3 ha experimental watersheds near Santa Fe, NM to collect rainfall, soil...

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Juniperus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Juniperus 名詞 一般 * * * * ビャクシン属 ビャクシンゾク ビャクシンゾク Thesaurus2015 200906015282514781 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Juniperus

  9. Pharmacognostic standardization of Homoeopathic drug: Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padma Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juniperus virginiana L., commonly known as ′red cedar′ in English is a well-known evergreen tree belonging to the family Cupressaceae. The leaves and young aerial shoots are used for preparation of medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: Standardization is the quintessential aspect which ensures purity and quality of drugs. Hence, the pharmacognostic and physico-chemical studies are carried out to facilitate the use of authentic and correct species of raw drug plant material with established parametric standards for manufacturing the drug. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on leaves and young aerial parts of authentic samples of J. virginiana L. have been carried out; physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz., extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per mL, total solids, alcohol content along with High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet visible studies have been worked out for mother tincture. Results: The leaves are needles, narrow and sharp at tips; stems are round with greyish white to brown bark possessing small lenticels and covered by imbricate leaves. Epidermal cells in the surface have polygonal linear sides with pitted walls containing crystals and starch. Stomata exclusively occur on the adaxial surface in linear rows. Hypodermis of leaf in T.S. is marked with 1-2 layered lignified sclerenchyma. 2-4 secretory canals are present with one conspicuously beneath midvein bundle. The young terminal axis is sheathed by two closely surrounding leaves while the mature stem possess four leaf bases attached. Vascular tissue of stem possesses predominant xylem surrounded by phloem containing sphaeraphides, prismatic crystals and starch grains. Uniseriate rays occur in the xylem. Mature stem possess shrivelled cork, followed by the cortex. Physicochemical properties and HPTLC values of the drug are standardized and presented. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and

  10. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  11. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a “trash or nuisance” tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  12. Combining dendrochronology and matrix modelling in demographic studies: An evaluation for Juniperus procera in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couralet, C.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tree demography was analysed by applying dendrochronological techniques and matrix modelling on a static data set of Juniperus procera populations of Ethiopian dry highland forests. Six permanent sample plots were established for an inventory of diameters and 11 stem discs were collected for

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  14. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  15. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drumonde Melo, C.; Luna, S.; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, C.; Mendonça, D.; Fonseca, H. M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, M.; da Camara Machado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 48-61 ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Juniperus bravifolia * native forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  17. Antimycobacterial potential of the juniper berry essential oil in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruč, Dolores; Gobin, Ivana; Abram, Maja; Broznić, Dalibor; Svalina, Tomislav; Štifter, Sanja; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Tićac, Brigita

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-related diseases are often associated with poorly maintained hot water systems. This calls for the development of new control strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of essential oils (EOs) from the Mediterranean plants, common juniper, immortelle, sage, lavandin, laurel, and white cedar against Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium gordonae in culturing broth and freshwater as their most common habitat. To do that, we developed a new method of water microdilution to determine their minimal effective concentrations (MEC). The most active EO was the one from the common juniper with the MEC of 1.6 mg mL-1. Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry the juniper EO identified monoterpenes (70.54 %) and sesquiterpenes (25.9 %) as dominant component groups. The main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene, sabinene, and β-pinene. The juniper EO significantly reduced the cell viability of M. intracellulare and M. gordonae at MEC, and of M. avium at 2xMEC. Microscopic analysis confirmed its inhibitory effect by revealing significant morphological changes in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of all three bacteria. The mode of action of the juniper EO on the cell membrane was confirmed by a marked leakage of intracellular material. Juniper EO has a great practical potential as a complementary or alternative water disinfectant in hot water systems such as baths, swimming pools, spa pools, hot tubs, or even foot baths/whirlpools.

  18. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  19. The roles of precipitation regimes on juniper forest encroachment on grasslands in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been dominantly explained by fire suppression, grazing and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. As different root depths of grasses and trees in soils, increased precipitation intensity was expected to facilitate the woody plant abundance, which was demonstrated by the field precipitation test in a sub-tropical savanna ecosystem. However, it is lacking to compressively examine the roles of precipitation regimes on woody plant encroachment at regional scales based on long-term observation data. This study examined the relationships between changes of precipitation regimes (amounts, frequency and intensity) and dynamics of juniper forest coverage using site-based rainfall data and remote sensing-based juniper forest maps in 1994-2010 over Oklahoma State. Our results showed that precipitation amount and intensity played larger roles than frequency on the juniper forest encroachment into the grassland in Oklahoma, and increased precipitation amount and intensity could facilitate the juniper woody encroachment. This practice based on observation data at the regional scale could be used to support precipitation experiments and model simulations and predicting the juniper forest encroachment.

  20. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  1. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-975-000] Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman R. Linn; Carolyn H. Sieg; Chad M. Hoffman; Judith L. Winterkamp; Joel D. McMillin

    2013-01-01

    We used a physics-based model, HIGRAD/FIRETEC, to explore changes in within-stand wind behavior and fire propagation associated with three time periods in pinyon-juniper woodlands following a drought-induced bark beetle outbreak and subsequent tree mortality. Pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes are highly heterogeneous. Trees often are clumped, with sparse patches...

  3. Commercialization analysis for fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper (P-J) is a predominant forest type in the Southwestern US, and in many areas it is considered a hinderance to optimal land use management. There is only limited commercial demand for the traditional products that are produced from PJ biomass, like Christmas trees, fence poles, and firewood, and their production does not always promote overall land-management goals. This research effort, which is supported by the DOE through the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, identifies commercially feasible energy markets to promote sustainable land clearing operations for alternative land uses of P-J woodlands in Eastern Nevada. All of the woodlands under consideration are federal lands managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, which is supportive of our concept. Three possible markets are available or could reasonably be developed to use fuels derived from PJ biomass in Nevada: (1) The existing market for biomass power-plant fuels in California. (2) The emerging market for fuels for residential pellet-burning stoves. (3) The development of a biomass-fired power plant in the Eastern Nevada Area. The study analyzes the cost of harvesting, processing, transporting, and delivering fuels derived from P-J biomass, and identifies commercialization strategies for bringing these fuels to market. The best opportunity for near term commercial conversion of P-J biomass to fuel lies in the area of entering the pellet-stove fuel market, establishing a 10,000 ton per year pelletizing facility in Lincoln County. Such a facility would have excellent access to markets in Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and Salt Lake City

  4. Reconsidering the process for bow-stave removal from juniper trees in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kevin T. Smith

    2017-01-01

    We question the growth arrestment hypothesis for bow stave removal used by indigenous people in the western Great Basin. Using modern understanding of tree growth and wound response, we suggest that growth would not be arrested by one or two transverse notches along a juniper stem. Rather these would trigger compartmentalization, which limits cambial death to within 10...

  5. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected pinon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Berryman; John D. Marshall; Thom Rahn; Marcie Litvak; John Butnor

    2013-01-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting pinon-juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of...

  6. Western Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid expansion of western juniper into neighboring plant communities during the past 130 years has been linked to increased soil erosion; reduced forage production; altered wildlife habitat; changes in plant community composition, structure, and biodiversity. Impacts of post-settlement woodland...

  7. Pinon and juniper field guide: Asking the right questions to select appropriate management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tausch; R. F. Miller; B. A. Roundy; J. C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding...

  8. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  9. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  10. Runoff, erosion, and restoration studies in piñon-juniper woodlands of the Pajarito Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Johnson, Peggy S.

    2001-01-01

    Piñon-juniper woodlands are one of the most extensive vegetation types in New Mexico, including large portions of the Pajarito Plateau. The woodland soils on local mesas largely formed under different vegetation during cooler, moister conditions of the late Pleistocene; in other words, they are over 10,000 years old, and many are over 100,000 years old (McFadden et al., 1996). Changes in climate and vegetation in the early Holocene (8,500– 6,000 years ago) led to at least localized episodes of soil erosion on adjoining uplands (Reneau and McDonald, 1996; Reneau et al., 1996). During this time, the dominant climatic and associated vegetation patterns of the modern southwestern United States developed, including grasslands, piñon-juniper woodlands, and ponderosa pine savannas (Allen et al., 1998). On the basis of local fire history, the young ages of most piñon-juniper trees here, and soils data, we believe that many upland mesa areas now occupied by dense piñon-juniper woodlands were formerly more open, with fewer trees and well-developed herbaceous understories that: (1) protected the soil from excessive erosion during intense summer thunderstorm events, and (2) provided a largely continuous fuel matrix, which allowed surface fires to spread and maintain these vegetation types (Fig. 1). In contrast, rocky canyon walls have probably changed relatively little through the centuries, as grazing and fire suppression had fewer effects on such sites.

  11. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  12. Growth and yield of southwest pinyon-juniper woodlands: Modeling growth and drought effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    A complex of drought, insects, and disease caused widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest types of the American Southwest in recent years. Most public and scientific attention has been given to the extent of drought-related mortality and causal factors. At the same time, there has been relatively little attention given to non-lethal drought effects. As part...

  13. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs Part 2: Ewe lamb rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, S L; Yeoman, C J; Whitney, T R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper () and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM ( > 0.05), AMOVA ( > 0.10), and PERMANOVA ( > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments ( < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with and , low concentrations of urea were associated with , and high concentrations of urea were associated with and . were decreased by juniper and urea. , , and increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman's, < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia ( 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased ( < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased ( = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with (Spearman's, < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among

  14. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  17. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  18. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  19. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  20. Viewpoint: Sustainability of piñon-juniper ecosystems - A unifying perspective of soil erosion thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, David W.; Breshears, D.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Allen, Craig D.

    1998-01-01

    Many pinon-juniper ecosystem in the western U.S. are subject to accelerated erosion while others are undergoing little or no erosion. Controversy has developed over whether invading or encroaching pinon and juniper species are inherently harmful to rangeland ecosystems. We developed a conceptual model of soil erosion in pinon-jumper ecosystems that is consistent with both sides of the controversy and suggests that the diverse perspectives on this issue arise from threshold effects operating under very different site conditions. Soil erosion rate can be viewed as a function of (1) site erosion potential (SEP), determined by climate, geomorphology and soil erodibility; and (2) ground cover. Site erosion potential and cove act synergistically to determine soil erosion rates, as evident even from simple USLE predictions of erosion. In pinon-juniper ecosystem with high SEP, the erosion rate is highly sensitive to ground cover and can cross a threshold so that erosion increases dramatically in response to a small decrease in cover. The sensitivity of erosion rate to SEP and cover can be visualized as a cusp catastrophe surface on which changes may occur rapidly and irreversibly. The mechanisms associated with a rapid shift from low to high erosion rate can be illustrated using percolation theory to incorporate spatial, temporal, and scale-dependent patterns of water storage capacity on a hillslope. Percolation theory demonstrates how hillslope runoff can undergo a threshold response to a minor change in storage capacity. Our conceptual model suggests that pinion and juniper contribute to accelerated erosion only under a limited range of site conditions which, however, may exist over large areas.

  1. Resent state and multivariate analysis of a few juniper forests of baluchistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative multivariate investigations were carried out to explore various forms of Juniper trees resulting human disturbances and natural phenomenon. Thirty stands were sampled by point centered quarter method and data were analysed using Wards cluster analysis and Bray-Curtis ordination. On the basis of multivariate analysis eight various forms i.e. healthy, unhealthy, over mature, disturbed, dieback, standing dead, logs and cut stem were recognized. Structural attributes were computed. Highest numbers (130-133 stem ha-1) of logs were recorded from Cautair and Khunk forests. Highest density ha-1 (229 ha-1) of healthy plants was estimated from Tangi Top area while lowest number (24 ha-1) of healthy plants was found from Saraghara area. Multivariate analysis showed five groups in cluster and ordination diagrams. These groups are characterized on the basis of healthy, over mature, disturbed and logged trees of Juniper. Higher number (115, 96, 84, 80 ha-1) of disturbed trees were distributed at Speena Sukher, Srag Kazi, Prang Shella and Tangi Top respectively. Overall density does not show any significant relation with basal area m2 ha-1, degree of slopes and the elevation of the sampling stands. Present study show that each and every Juniper stands are highly disturbed mostly due to human influence, therefore prompt conservational steps should be taken to safe these forests. (author)

  2. Defining modeling parameters for juniper trees assuming pleistocene-like conditions at the NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbox, S.R.; Cochran, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses part of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) efforts to assess the long-term performance of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Of issue is whether the GCD site complies with 40 CFR 191 standards set for transuranic (TRU) waste burial. SNL has developed a radionuclide transport model which can be used to assess TRU radionuclide movement away from the GCD facility. An earlier iteration of the model found that radionuclide uptake and release by plants is an important aspect of the system to consider. Currently, the shallow-rooted plants at the NTS do not pose a threat to the integrity of the GCD facility. However, the threat increases substantially it deeper-rooted woodland species migrate to the GCD facility, given a shift to a wetter climate. The model parameters discussed here will be included in the next model iteration which assumes a climate shift will provide for the growth of juniper trees at the GCD facility. Model parameters were developed using published data and wherever possible, data were taken from juniper and pinon-juniper studies that mirrored as many aspects of the GCD facility as possible

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  4. Isolation of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus sabina by high speed counter current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Kasimu, R.; Aisa, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin are known for their excellent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, therefore large amount of pure compounds is urgently needed as authentic standards for various in vivo and in vitro studies. In this paper, an effective, rapid separation and purification method of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from the crude extract of Juniperus sabina was established using high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). HSCCC was performed with atwo phase solvent system comprising of n-hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) at the flow rate of 2mL/min at the speed of 850 rpm. 34.8 mg of deoxypodophyllotoxin and 7.9 mg of podophyllotoxin were obtained from 200 mg crude sample with a purity of 96.5% and 94.4%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (Author)

  5. Big sagebrush in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Using forest inventory and analysis data as a management tool for quantifying and monitoring mule deer habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Witt; Paul L. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    We used Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) data to identify conditions where pinyon-juniper woodlands provide security cover, thermal cover, and suitable amounts of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.) forage to mule deer in Utah. Roughly one quarter of Utah's pinyon-juniper woodlands had a big sagebrush component in their understory....

  6. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in pinyon-juniper vegetation of the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Romme; Craig D. Allen; John D. Bailey; William L. Baker; Brandon T. Bestelmeyer; Peter M. Brown; Karen S. Eisenhart; M. Lisa Floyd; David W. Huffman; Brian F. Jacobs; Richard F. Miller; Esteban H. Muldavin; Thomas W. Swetnam; Robin J. Tausch; Peter J. Weisberg

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of Pinons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic...

  7. Tracking juniper berry content in oils and distillates by spectral deconvolution of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbat, Albert; Kowalsick, Amanda; Howell, Jessalin

    2011-08-12

    The complex nature of botanicals and essential oils makes it difficult to identify all of the constituents by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) alone. In this paper, automated sequential, multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-GC/MS) was used to obtain a matrix-specific, retention time/mass spectrometry library of 190 juniper berry oil compounds. GC/MS analysis on stationary phases with different polarities confirmed the identities of each compound when spectral deconvolution software was used to analyze the oil. Also analyzed were distillates of juniper berry and its oil as well as gin from four different manufacturers. Findings showed the chemical content of juniper berry can be traced from starting material to final product and can be used to authenticate and differentiate brands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  9. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modeling dynamics of western juniper under climate change in a semiarid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Flores, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling future vegetation dynamics in response to climate change and disturbances such as fire relies heavily on model parameterization. Fine-scale field-based measurements can provide the necessary parameters for constraining models at a larger scale. But the time- and labor-intensive nature of field-based data collection leads to sparse sampling and significant spatial uncertainties in retrieved parameters. In this study we quantify the fine-scale carbon dynamics and uncertainty of juniper woodland in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southern Idaho, which is a proposed critical zone observatory (CZO) site for soil carbon processes. We leverage field-measured vegetation data along with airborne lidar and timeseries Landsat imagery to initialize a state-and-transition model (VDDT) and a process-based fire-model (FlamMap) to examine the vegetation dynamics in response to stochastic fire events and climate change. We utilize recently developed and novel techniques to measure biomass and canopy characteristics of western juniper at the individual tree scale using terrestrial and airborne laser scanning techniques in RCEW. These fine-scale data are upscaled across the watershed for the VDDT and FlamMap models. The results will immediately improve our understanding of fine-scale dynamics and carbon stocks and fluxes of woody vegetation in a semi-arid ecosystem. Moreover, quantification of uncertainty will also provide a basis for generating ensembles of spatially-explicit alternative scenarios to guide future land management decisions in the region.

  11. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  12. Frijolito Watershed: Integrated investigations of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Pitlick, J.

    1995-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been widely recognized, but few process-based studies of this phenomenon have been undertaken. In an attempt to identify the underlying causes, and the factors that affect erosion processes, we have initiated an interdisciplinary study of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Since July 1993, we have collected data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions from a 1-ha catchment study area and have conducted surveys of topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that although runoff makes up less than 10% of the annual water budget, runoff events - which are frequent in the summer - are capable of moving large amounts of sediment. We estimate that between July 1993 and October 1994, between 25,000 and 50,000 kg of sediment has eroded and been transported from the catchment. The information gained from such studies is essential to our ability to formulate effective strategies for managing these rapidly eroding woodlands

  13. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  14. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  15. Assessing mechanical mastication and thinning-piling-burning treatments on the pinyon-juniper woodlands of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Gottfried; Steve Overby

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge of fire regimes in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the interior western United States has altered management views. Once known as being at low wildfire risk, these woodlands are now at a higher risk for severe wildfires because of high tree densities exacerbated by ongoing drought and region-wide bark beetle (Ips confusus) infestation. To help reduce...

  16. Variation in ant populations with elevation, tree cover, and fire in a pinyon-juniper-dominated watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenie M. MontBlanc; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter E. Brussard

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and fire suppression have facilitated expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands into sagebrush- steppe ecosystems of the Great Basin, USA, resulting in a loss of biological diversity. To assess the effects of using prescribed fire in restoration efforts, ant abundance, species richness, and composition were examined pre- and post-burn along the elevation and...

  17. Drought-Related Mortality in Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: A Test Case for the FIA Annual Inventory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Several years of drought in the Southwest United States are associated with widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest type. A complex of drought, insects, and disease is responsible for pinyon mortality rates approaching 100 percent in some areas, while other areas have experienced little or no mortality. Implementation of the Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  18. Genetic structure and diversity in Juniperus communis populations in Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reim Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, land use changes led to a rapid decline and fragmentation of J. communis populations in Germany. Population isolation may lead to a restricted gene flow and, further, to negative effects on genetic variation. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure in seven fragmented J. communis populations in Saxony, Germany, were investigated using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR and chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (cpSNP. In all Saxony J. communis populations, a high genetic diversity was determined but no population differentiation could be detected whatever method was applied (Bayesian cluster analysis, F-statistics, AMOVA. The same was true for three J. communis out-group samples originating from Italy, Slovakia and Norway, which also showed high genetic diversity and low genetic differences regarding other J. communis populations. Low genetic differentiation among the J. communis populations ascertained with nuclear and chloroplast markers indicated high levels of gene flow by pollen and also by seeds between the sampled locations. Low genetic differentiation may also provide an indicator of Juniper survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM in Europe. The results of this study serve as a basis for the implementation of appropriate conservation measures in Saxony.

  19. The anxiolytic effect of Juniperus virginiana L. essential oil and determination of its active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-15

    Essential oil from Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedarwood essential oil, CWO) has been used to relax mind and enhance comfort for medical purposes. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors in animal models. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect of CWO using two anxiety tests in mice, then determined the major active constituents, examined the change of neurotransmitters after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Analysis using GC/MS revealed that the CWO contained (-)-α-cedrene (28.11%), (+)-β-cedrene (7.81%), (-)-thujopsene (17.71%) and (+)-cedrol (24.58%). CWO at 400-800mg/kg increased the percentage of open arm entries and the percentage of the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), suggesting that the oil has anxiolytic effect. However, it didn't show anxiolytic effect in the light-dark box (LDB) test. Tests of the cedrene did not show anxiolytic effect in either test, but rather induced anxiety-related behaviors and inhibited the locomotor activity in EPM and LDB. Cedrol produced significant anxiolytic effect in both EPM and LDB tests at 400-1600mg/kg and 800-1600mg/kg, respectively. A more significant increase in locomotor activity was observed in cedrol at 200-1600mg/kg administration than CWO. CWO increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration at 800mg/kg, whereas it didn't affect the dopamine (DA) concentration. Cedrol significantly reduced the DA level at 100-200mg/kg and elevated the 5-HT level at 1200-1600mg/kg. Moreover, it changed the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-HT and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid/DA at 1200-1600mg/kg. CWO and cedrol, in particular might act in an anxiolytic effect through the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

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    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  1. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  2. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  3. Pinon and Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, R.J.; Miller, R.F.; Roundy, B.A.; Chambers, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding landscapes once dominated by shrubs and herbaceous vegetation. Both infilling and expansion affects soil resources, plant community structure and composition, water and nutrient cycles, forage production, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and fire patterns across the landscape. Another impact is the shift from historic fire regimes to larger and more intense wildfires that are increasingly determining the future of this landscape. This publication helps biologists and land managers consider how to look at expansion of woodlands and determine what questions to ask to develop a management strategy, including prescribed fire or other practices.

  4. Enantiomeric distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in juniper-flavored distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pažitná, Alexandra; Spánik, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomeric ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in juniper-flavored spirits produced by various processing technologies in different EU countries were determined by multidimensional GC using solid-phase microextraction and liquid-liquid extraction as a sample pretreatment procedure. In total, more than 260 compounds were detected in studied spirits from which linalool, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, linalool oxides, α-pinene, and verbenone were selected for enantiomeric separation. The significant differences in enantiomeric ratio of linalool and cis-linalool oxide allowed us to distinguish between samples produced in Slovakia and the United Kingdom from those produced in Germany, Czech Republic, and Belgium. The pure enantiomer of trans-linalool oxide was found only in samples from Germany. It was shown that the enantiomeric ratio is independent of the sample treatment procedure, and only small differences up to 1% were observed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Status and trends of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the central United States: Analyses and observations based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) (ERC) is a conifer native to North America that has been used for a variety of wood products, and its planting has been encouraged to help stabilize soil, reforest abandoned farmland, and provide cover for wildlife. However, ERC tends to expand rapidly and take over certain areas primarily because it can grow...

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Juniperus thurifera L. leaf extracts growing in East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merradi Manel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to evaluate the biological activity of the leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera L., which is an Algerian endemic tree that belongs to the family of Cupressaceae. Materials and Methods: The plant leaves were extracted in solvents of increasing polarity to obtain different extracts such as methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts (MeE, PEE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE. The antioxidant activity of four extracts (MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE was assessed by trapping test of 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. The evaluation of antibacterial activity of MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and PEE was done using the disk diffusion method on solid agar. Results: The three extracts of EtAE, AqE, and MeE showed high antiradical activity toward the DPPH radical (IC50=29.348 μg/mL, 37.538 μg/mL, and 52.573 μg/mL, respectively, while the lowest radical scavenging activity was expressed by the ChlE (IC50=70.096 μg/mL. These extracts were active only toward the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at different concentrations, and the highest activity was obtained with the ChlE with an inhibition diameter of 14 mm at the concentration of 1 g/mL. No inhibition was detected for all of these extracts against the Gram-negative tested strains (Escherichia coli ATCC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC, and Enterobacter cloacae (extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusion: From this study, on the one hand, it was concluded that J. thurifera L. leaves extracts exhibited a very intense antioxidant potential toward the DPPH radical, and on the other hand, the antibacterial activity showed an action spectrum exclusively toward the Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Determination of collected quantities of wild strawbery, bluberry and juniper in Serbia in relation to different scenarios of climate change

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    Ranković Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of some climate elements on the collected quantities of blueberry, wild strawberry and juniper in Serbia. The main objective of the research is to predict the quantity of selected forest fruits depending on the different climate change scenarios (A1Bmin, A1Bmax, A2min and A2max. The general (modeling method, basic (dialectical and specific scientific methods (induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization were used. Regression models were used in data processing, where the focus was on the statistical significance of the correlation coefficient in relation to the statistical significance of the parameters. The research found that, in the coming period, with the increase in temperature and precipitation, an increase in the collected amount of wild strawberries and blueberries could be expected, and the decline of juniper. Longer-term forecasts indicate expected growth with wild strawberries and blueberries with a tendency to slow down after 2040, and expected decline with juniper, with the same slow down tendency after 2040. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 43007Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment - monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, sub-project No. 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  8. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, J R

    1975-11-01

    (1) Shavings from the Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) were examined for three diverse biological properties, i.e. enzyme induction, procarcinogenicity and insecticidal activity. (2) The ability of a cedar environment to stimulate liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice was confirmed by lowered values for barbiturate sleeping time. (3) In susceptible strains of mice (C3H-Avy, C3H-AvyfB and CBA/J) the use of cedar shavings as bedding increased significantly the incidence of spontaneous tumors of the liver and mammary gland, and also reduced the average time at which tumors appeared. (4) Cedar and some of its derivatives (Oil of Cedarwood, cedrene, cedrol) disrupted the reproductive and developmental cycle of a number of insects, including the Peanut Trash Bug (Elasmolomus sordidus), the Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) and the Forage Mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae).

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  10. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  11. Developing a Carbon Monitoring System For Pinyon-juniper Forests and Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, M. J.; Hudak, A. T.; Fekety, P.; Filippelli, S.

    2017-12-01

    Pinyon-juniper (PJ) forests and woodlands are the third largest vegetation type in the United States. They cover over 40 million hectares across the western US, representing 40% of the total forest and woodland area in the Intermountain West. Although the density of carbon stored in these ecosystems is relatively low compared to other forest types, the vast area of short stature forests and woodlands (both nationally and globally) make them critical components of regional, national, and global carbon budgets. The overarching goal of this research is to prototype a carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system for characterizing total aboveground biomass stocks and flux across the PJ vegetation gradient in the western United States. We achieve this by combining in situ forest measurements and novel allometric equations with tree measurements derived from high resolution airborne imagery to map aboveground biomass across 500,000 km2 in the Western US. These high-resolution maps of aboveground biomass are then leveraged as training data to predict biomass flux through time from Landsat time-series data. The results from this research highlight the potential in mapping biomass stocks and flux in open forests and woodlands, and could be easily adopted into an MRV framework.

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Juniper, one-seed Juniperus monosperma Juniper, rocky mountain Juniperus scopulorum Oak, Gambel Querqus gambeli Oak, gray Quercus grisea Oak, silverleaf... Quercus hypoleucoides Pine, Chihuahua (localized) Pinus leiophylla Pine, pinyon Pinus edulis Pine, ponderosa Pinus ponderosa Pine, southwestern white...stansburiana Currant, Golden Ribes aureum Grape, Canyon Vitis Arizonica Groundsel, Ragwort Senecio multicapitatus Morning Glory, Red Starflower Ipomea

  13. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  14. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  15. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  16. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  17. Proposal to endorse the award of a contract for the supply of a juniper T320 network router

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of a JUNIPER T320 Network Router. The Finance Committee is invited to endorse the CERN Management's decision to negotiate a contract with QWEST COMMUNICATION (USA) for the supply of a JUNIPER T320 Network Router for a total amount not exceeding 265 000 US dollars (350 000 Swiss francs). The Finance Committee is also requested to approve the negotiation of a maintenance contract for a value not exceeding 50 000 US dollars (66 000 Swiss francs) for three years and the option to purchase additional network interfaces for a value not exceeding 100 000 US dollars (132 000 Swiss francs) bringing the total amount to 415 000 US dollars (548 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. CERN's contribution will not exceed 90 000 Swiss francs. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CA - 100%.

  18. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected piñon–juniper woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berryman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting piñon–juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of root exudation. To determine piñon mortality effects on C and water limitation of microbial respiration, we applied field amendments (sucrose and water to two piñon–juniper sites in central New Mexico, USA: one with a recent (2 flux on the girdled site and a non-significant increase on the control. We speculate that the reduction may have been driven by water-induced carbonate dissolution, which serves as a sink for CO2 and would reduce the net flux. Widespread piñon mortality may decrease labile C limitation of litter respiration, at least during the first growing season following mortality.

  19. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  20. Effects of thinning, burning, seeding, and slash arrangements on understory communities in pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Irwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a dominant ecosystem in the American Southwest that have been increasing in density over the last century, generating concerns about the effects on wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and wildfire risk. We tested 16 treatment combinations designed to restore stands to historic conditions by examining the impact on understory plant richness and abundance. We thinned three sites comprised of different parent soil materials: limestone, sandstone, and basalt. Each site had one of four slash arrangements: piled, broadcast, clustered, or no thinning. Each of these arrangements received a different burning/seeding treatment: prescribed fire, seeding, prescribed fire and seeding, or none. This study corresponded with the driest period in the last 55 years, and plant species richness decreased by an average of 40% from the previous year in the control plots. Richness was significantly different due to slash arrangement at the basalt site only. Burning or seeding did not affect richness at any of the sites. Plant species abundance was generally low and not influenced by treatment or site. This study demonstrates that extensive ecosystem manipulation in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of northern Arizona did not affect understory richness or abundance the first year after treatment during a drought.

  1. Detecting mortality induced structural and functional changes in a pinon-juniper woodland using Landsat and RapidEye time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan J. Krofcheck; Jan U. H. Eitel; Lee A. Vierling; Urs Schulthess; Timothy M. Hilton; Eva Dettweiler-Robinson; Rosemary Pendleton; Marcy E. Litvak

    2014-01-01

    Pinon-juniper (PJ) woodlands have recently undergone dramatic drought-induced mortality, triggering broad scale structural changes in this extensive Southwestern US biome. Given that climate projections for the region suggest widespread conifer mortality is likely to continue into the next century, it is critical to better understand how this climate-induced change in...

  2. Analisis Elemen Visual Pada Promosi Busana Muslimah di Instagram (Studi Kasus Merek Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, dan Zysku Xena di Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadita Fetrianggi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Visual Elements on Muslimah Clothing Promotion in Instagram (Case Study on Brands of Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Muslim clothing in the form of hijab has become popular as a religious lifestyle and identity. The popularity of hijab is due to the promotion of marketing through instagram displaying muslim fashion clothing that is designed very interesting, so that consumers become interested and marketing becomes increasing. This study aims to examine muslim clothing photos on instagram hijab with brands of Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung seen from the visual elements of photography. The research method used case study with descriptive approach through visual analysis. The research subjects are instagram photos on Juniper Lane hijab brand, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Data collection techniques were collected by observation, instagram photo documentation study, and interviews with local brand owners of hijab and consumers. Data were analyzed by visual analysis, content analysis, and qualitative analysis. The results show that muslim clothing photos on instagram with brands of hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung have fulfilled the visual elements of photography, so the photo design becomes attractive, the consumers become interested in them, and the marketing becomes increasing.

  3. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  7. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  8. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry of Essential Oil from Needles and Berries of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study provides a comparison on the essential oil composition of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Essential oil extracted separately from berries (yield 0.11%) and needles (yield 0.13%) were subjected to GC-MS and GC-FID techniques for the identification and quantification of the constituents. A total of 26 compounds; 21 from berries and 20 from needles were identified. Of these major constituents in berries were beta-pinene (43.4%), beta-pinene (32.3%), limonene (9.6%), and sabinene (2.7%) while in needles were beta-pinene (36.0%), beta-pinene (30.2%), limonene (12.6%), and beta-phellandrene (3.9%). 3 identified compounds (guaiol, beta-elemene and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) were not reported yet from any essential oil of J. excelsa, beta-guaiene is also reported for the first time from needles. A comparative discussion on the chemical composition of the essential oil from two different parts of plants in the current study with those available in literature is also included. The findings confirmed that the Pakistan origin plant belongs to alpha-pinene chemotype, alpha-pinene rich oils are used as local antiseptic. (author)

  9. Final report: Hydraulic mechanisms of survival and mortality during drought in pinon-juniper woodlands of southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pockman, William [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-23

    The goal of this project was to use rainfall manipulation of an intact pinon-juniper woodland in central New Mexico to understand the mechanisms that control the response of these species to extremes of rainfall. Experimental plots were installed in a pinon-juniper woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and treatments were imposed in August 2007. Treatments consisted of 1) a Drought treatment imposed by diverting approximately 45% of precipitation away from the plot, 2) and Irrigation treatment imposed by applying six 19 mm simulated rainfall events at regular intervals during the growing season, 3) a Cover Control treatment designed to assess the impact of the plastic troughs constructed on Drought plots without imposing the rainfall diversion, and 4) an untreated control that received no modification. Extensive pinon mortality was observed beginning one year after the start of drought treatment on hillslope plots, while a third drought plot on deeper soils did not exhibit pinon mortality until the fifth year of drought treatment. Pinon mortality occurred in the context of high levels of bark beetle activity, motivating the installation of two additional plots in 2010: a control plot and a drought plot built to the same standards as the original treatments but with bark beetle control maintained by pesticide application to the bole of target trees from 2010 - 2016. Although the drought treatment created similar conditions to those experienced on hillslope drought plots, the drought plot with bark beetle control exhibited no pinon mortality for 5 years even in the presence of high regional bark beetle activity in 2012/13. One of the goals of the research was to identify the mechanism of drought-induced mortality in pinon and juniper: 1) mortality due to catastrophic failure of water transport through plant tissues (hydraulic failure), 2) mortality due to limitations in carbon uptake (carbon starvation) and 3) either of the first two mechanisms with the

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecologically important and endangered forest species in Ethiopia. The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium ... culture. But as other conifer species it was difficult to stop proliferation of ...

  11. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic ... Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos.

  12. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus spp. pollen is a significant aeroallergen that can be transported 200-600 km from the source. Local observations of Juniperus spp. phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Methods: The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM)is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We successfully modified the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport (PREAM) and used MODIS satellite images to develop Juniperus ashei pollen input source masks. The Pollen Release Potential Source Map, also referred to as a source mask in model applications, may use different satellite platforms and sensors and a variety of data sets other than the USGS GAP data we used to map J. ashei cover type. MODIS derived percent tree cover is obtained from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product (collection 3 and 4, MOD44B, 500 and 250 m grid resolution). We use updated 2010 values to calculate pollen concentration at source (J. ashei ). The original MODIS derived values are converted from native approx. 250 m to 990m (approx. 1 km) for the calculation of a mask to fit the model (PREAM) resolution. Results: The simulation period is chosen following the information that in the last 2 weeks of December 2010. The PREAM modeled near-surface concentrations (Nm-3) shows the transport patterns of J. ashei pollen over a 5 day period (Fig. 2). Typical scales of the simulated transport process are regional.

  13. Limits to understory plant restoration following fuel-reduction treatments in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Zelikova, Tamara J; Barger, Nichole N

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments.

  14. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  15. Enhanced growth of Juniperus thurifera under a warmer climate is explained by a positive carbon gain under cold and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Camarero, J Julio; Granda, Elena; Pías, Beatriz; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an endemic conifer of the western Mediterranean Basin where it is subjected to a severe climatic stress characterized by low winter temperatures and summer drought. Given the trend of increased warming-induced drought stress in this area and the climatic sensitivity of this species, we expect a negative impact of climate change on growth and ecophysiological performance of J. thurifera in the harsh environments where it dominates. To evaluate this, we measured long- and short-term radial growth using dendrochronology, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in males, females and juveniles in three sites in Central Spain. Climate was monitored and completed with historical records. Mean annual temperature has increased +0.2 °C per decade in the study area, and the main warming trends corresponded to spring (+0.2 °C per decade) and summer (+0.3 °C per decade). Radial growth and maximum photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn. Positive photosynthetic rates were maintained all year long, albeit at reduced rates in winter and summer. Radial growth was enhanced by wet conditions in the previous autumn and by warm springs and high precipitation in summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Cloud cover during the summer increased growth, while cloudy winters led to impaired carbon gain and reduced growth in the long term. We argue that maintenance of carbon gain under harsh conditions (low winter temperatures and dry summer months) and plastic xylogenesis underlie J. thurifera's ability to profit from changing climatic conditions such as earlier spring onset and erratic summer rainfall. Our results highlight that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the impact of climate change on growth and persistence of Mediterranean trees is species specific.

  16. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  17. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  18. Chemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of leaves of Juniperus foetidisima, J. excelsa and J. communis from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characterization of three Juniperus species: J. foetidisima (JF, J. excelsa (JE and J. communis (JC from Macedonian flora enclosed determination of yield and essential oil composition of the oils obtained by hydro-distillation of dried leaves and determination of the content of total phenols and total flavonoids in dried plant material. GC/FID/MS analysis showed mainly monoterpene profile of the JC oil and combined monoterpene/sesquiterpene profile of JF and JE oils. Sesquiterpene cedrol was found as an important constituent of the JF and JE, thus the JF oil was characterized by three main components (a-pinene, limonene and cedrol, in amount up to 67.63%, 27.11% and 33.91%, respectively and JE oil by four components (a-pinene, sabinene, cis-thujone and cedrol, in amount up to 33.83%, 29.49%, 26.20% and 24.44%, respectively. The JC oil was free of cedrol, but contained relatively large sesquiterpene fraction (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygen containing sesquiterpenes in amounts up to 28.64% and 13.57%, respectively. The JC oil was characterized by three monoterpene components (a-pinene, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol, presented up to 28.68%, 16.27% and 12.16%, respectively. The content of total phenols determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method ranged from 96.18-122.91 mg GAE/g dw (water extraction while the content of total flavonoids ranged from 2.05-11.91 mg CE/g dw (ethanol extraction. Both water and ethanol extracts possessed radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Water extracts were more powerful with % of inhibition of DPPH ranging up to 64.52%, 67.40% and 78.23% for water extract (10 mg/ml of JF, JE and JC, respectively. Obtained results showed correlation with the content of total phenols.

  19. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  20. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasoni, Richard L [DRI; Larsen, Jessica D [DRI; Lyles, Brad F. [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Lefebre, Karen J [DRI

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  1. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    The distribution and abundance of pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma, J. occidentalis) trees (hereinafter, "pinyon-juniper") in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems of the Great Basin in the Western United States has increased substantially since the late 1800s. Distributional expansion and infill of pinyon-juniper into sagebrush ecosystems threatens the ecological function and economic viability of these ecosystems within the Great Basin, and is now a major contemporary challenge facing land and wildlife managers. Particularly, pinyon-juniper encroachment into intact sagebrush ecosystems has been identified as a primary threat facing populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse"), which is a sagebrush obligate species. Even seemingly innocuous scatterings of isolated pinyon-juniper in an otherwise intact sagebrush landscape can negatively affect survival and reproduction of sage-grouse. Therefore, accurate and high-resolution maps of pinyon-juniper distribution and abundance (indexed by canopy cover) across broad geographic extents would help guide land management decisions that better target areas for pinyon-juniper removal projects (for example, fuel reduction, habitat improvement for sage-grouse, and other sagebrush species) and facilitate science that further quantifies ecological effects of pinyon-juniper encroachment on sage-grouse populations and sagebrush ecosystem processes. Hence, we mapped pinyon-juniper (referred to as conifers for actual mapping) at a 1 × 1-meter (m) high resolution across the entire range of previously mapped sage-grouse habitat in Nevada and northeastern California.We used digital orthophoto quad tiles from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2010, 2013) as base imagery, and then classified conifers using automated feature extraction methodology with the program Feature Analyst™. This method relies on machine learning algorithms that extract features from

  2. Difference in tree growth responses to climate at the upper treeline: Qilian Juniper in the Anyemaqen Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Li, Jinbao; Liu, Puxing; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Keyan

    2008-08-01

    Three ring-width chronologies were developed from Qilian Juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) at the upper treeline along a west-east gradient in the Anyemaqen Mountains. Most chronological statistics, except for mean sensitivity (MS), decreased from west to east. The first principal component (PC1) loadings indicated that stands in a similar climate condition were most important to the variability of radial growth. PC2 loadings decreased from west to east, suggesting the difference of tree-growth between eastern and western Anyemaqen Mountains. Correlations between standard chronologies and climatic factors revealed different climatic influences on radial growth along a west-east gradient in the study area. Temperature of warm season (July-August) was important to the radial growth at the upper treeline in the whole study area. Precipitation of current May was an important limiting factor of tree growth only in the western (drier) upper treeline, whereas precipitation of current September limited tree growth in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline. Response function analysis results showed that there were regional differences between tree growth and climatic factors in various sampling sites of the whole study area. Temperature and precipitation were the important factors influencing tree growth in western (drier) upper treeline. However, tree growth was greatly limited by temperature at the upper treeline in the middle area, and was more limited by precipitation than temperature in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline.

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA DE LA MADERA DE Juniperus flaccida VAR. POBLANA MARTÍNEZ

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    A. Borja de la Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de conocer las características y propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Juniperus flaccida var. poblana Martínez, para lo cual se utilizó la metodología del Laboratorio de Anatomía y Tecnología de la Madera de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Las propiedades físicas se determinaron según la norma NOM-EE-167-83 y las mecánicas de acuerdo a las normas ASTM 143-83 en el Campo Experimental San Martinito, del Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP. Los resultados con relación a las características anatómicas fueron los siguientes: la madera presenta un color castaño claro en el duramen y amarillo pálido en la albura, brillo medio, veteado suave, textura fina, hilo recto, sabor característico y olor aromático. Las traqueidas son largas, de diámetro tangencial mediano y paredes delgadas; presentan una hilera de puntuaciones areoladas seriadas, las puntuaciones de los campos de cruzamiento son tipo cupresoide y el parénquima axial es escaso. Los rayos de tipo uniseriados numerosos, muy bajos y muy angostos; los rayos y las células parenquimatosas axiales presentan aceites. La proporción de elementos fue 92 % de traqueidas, 7.72 de parénquima de rayo y 0.18 % de parénquima axial. La densidad básica fue de 0.50 g·cm-3, las contracciones totales fueron: volumétrica de 8.42 %, tangencial de 4.26 % y radial de 3.02 %; y los hinchamientos totales: volumétrico de 9.17 %, tangencial de 4.45 % y radial de 3.12 %. El punto de saturación de la fibra fue de 33 %; el coeficiente de hinchamiento 0.278 %, y la relación de anisotropía de 1.41. Los valores promedio de las propiedades mecánicas al 12 % de contenido de humedad (CH y en condición verde, se clasificaron de medios a bajos en ambas condiciones de contenido de humedad. Considerando las características anatómicas y los valores de las propiedades f

  4. El patrimonio vegetal en los Arribes del Duero zamoranos: las formaciones de enebral Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux

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    José Luis Marino Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el patrimonio vegetal de los Arribes del Duero zamoranos, en concreto, las diferentes formaciones que componen el tapiz vegetal, empleando una metodología que combina el trabajo de campo (inventarios de vegetación, encuestas, localización y delimitación vía GPS y cartografía in situ , la fotointerpretación y la implementación de un Sistema de Información Geográfica. De todas las comunidades del paisaje vegetal sobresalen, por su singularidad, los enebrales de Juni - perus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux, por cuanto que configuran inusuales masas muy densas y de porte arbóreo. Se trata, en efecto, de verdaderas manchas boscosas situadas en Cozcurrita y Mámoles (municipio de Fariza, que ocupan una superficie de 42,9 ha acompañadas de masas arborescentes en clara expansión colonizadora (252 ha, merced a la tendencia xerotér - mica del clima y el abandono de las actividades agrosilvopastoriles tradicionales. En definitiva, los Arribes del Duero zamoranos disponen de un rico patrimonio vegetal que se concreta en 4 hábitats forestales de interés comunitario que abarcan una extensión de 1.795 ha, la cual repre- senta el 30,1% del territorio. De esta categoría quedan fuera los enebrales de Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia , incluidos, sin embargo, en el tipo 5210 de matorrales arborescentes de Juniperus spp., pese a tratarse de bosques de alto valor natural y cultural.

  5. Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Biricik, H; Cetin, I; Kara, C; Meral, Y; Cengiz, S S; Orman, A; Udum, D

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0.4 ml/kg (G2), 0.8 ml/kg (G3) or 2 ml/kg (G4). There were no differences (p > 0.05) in live weight, live weight gain or feed consumption between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant improvement (p rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile or faecal pH of the control and experimental groups. The rumen NH 3 N values were similar at the middle and end of the experiment, but at the start of the experiment, the rumen NH 3 N values differed between the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The faecal score value was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the experimental groups. The addition of juniper essential oil supplementation to the rations caused significant effects on the kids' antioxidant blood parameters. Although the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the experimental groups (G2, G3 and G4), especially group G4, the blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) value significantly decreased in the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that supplementation of juniper oil is more effective on antioxidant parameters than on performance parameters and may be used as a natural antioxidant product. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Predicted fire behavior and societal benefits in three eastern Sierra Nevada vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Dicus; K. Delfino; D.R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    We investigated potential fire behavior and various societal benefits (air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, and carbon storage) provided by woodlands of pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus californica), shrublands of Great Basin sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and rabbitbrush (Ericameria nauseosa...

  7. Environmental Monitoring Supported by Aerial Photography – a Case Study of the Burnt Down Bugac Juniper Forest, Hungary

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    Szatmári József

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire poses a serious risk in several regions of the world threatening urban, agricultural areas and natural ecosystems as well. Nature conservation has important role to be prepared for the management of postfire environmental degradation and restoration for protected areas preserving valuable ecosystems. The improving temporal and spatial resolution of remote sensing and GIS methods significantly contributes to map the changes for accelerating management steps of restoration. In this study a severe wildfire and its impacts were assessed in case of a protected area of the Kiskunság National Park in Hungary, which was partly burnt down in 2012. The aim of this research was to efficiently and accurately assess the damages and to plan and execute the restoration works using remote sensing tools. Aerial data collection was performed one month, and one year after the fire. In 2014 the regenerated vegetation was surveyed and mapped in the field. Using the aerial photographs and the field data, the degree and extent of the fire damages, the types and the state of the vegetation and the presence and proportion of the invasive species were determined. Semi-automatic methods were used for the classification of completely, partially damaged and undamaged areas. Based on the results, the reforestation of the burnt area is suggested to prevent the overspreading of white poplar against common junipers and to clean the area from the most frequent invasive species. To monitor the regeneration of the vegetation and the spreading of the invasive species, further aerial photography and field campaigns are planned.

  8. Ground Juniperus pinchotii and urea in supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs: I. Feedlot growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R

    2017-08-01

    Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected ( 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend ( urea N quadratically increased ( urea N resulted from a greater decline from 3 to 6 h after feeding in lambs supplemented with UR1 vs. UR3. Increasing JN concentration tended to quadratically increase ( = 0.09) fecal DM and linearly decrease ( = 0.002) fecal N, but an effect due to dietary UR was not detected ( > 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe.

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, S; Lamshöft, M; Spiteller, M

    2009-09-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann, as a novel producer of deoxypodophyllotoxin and its in vitro antimicrobial assay. The methodology for the isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the twigs of the J. communis L. Horstmann plant, which specifically and consistently produces deoxypodophyllotoxin, was unequivocally established. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius by molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was identified and quantified by high-resolution LC-MS, LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3). The antimicrobial efficacy of the fungal deoxypodophyllotoxin against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was established. The production of deoxypodophyllotoxin (found in the host) by the cultured endophyte is an enigmatic observation. It demonstrates the transfer of gene(s) for such accumulation by horizontal means from the host plant to its endophytic counterpart. It would be interesting to further study the deoxypodophyllotoxin production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in J. communis and in axenic cultures. This endophyte is a potential handle for scientific and commercial exploitation. Although the current accumulation of deoxypodophyllotoxin by the endophyte is not very high, it could be scaled-up to provide adequate production to satisfy new drug development and clinical needs. However, further refined precursor-feeding and mass-balance studies are required to result in the consistent and dependable production.

  10. Detection of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera in the dry Afromontane forest of northern Ethiopia using subpixel analysis of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishe, Hadgu; Giday, Kidane; Neka, Mulugeta; Soromessa, Teshome; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and less costly forest inventory approaches are required to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of key species in forest ecosystems. Subpixel analysis using the earth resources data analysis system imagine subpixel classification procedure was tested to extract Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera canopies from Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus imagery. Control points with various canopy area fractions of the target species were collected to develop signatures for each of the species. With these signatures, the imagine subpixel classification procedure was run for each species independently. The subpixel process enabled the detection of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and J. procera trees in pure and mixed pixels. Total of 100 pixels each were field verified for both species. An overall accuracy of 85% was achieved for O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and 89% for J. procera. A high overall accuracy level of detecting species at a natural forest was achieved, which encourages using the algorithm for future species monitoring activities. We recommend that the algorithm has to be validated in similar environment to enrich the knowledge on its capability to ensure its wider usage.

  11. A numerical simulation on the flow of watershed filtration reactors using lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Hur; B. Choi; J.S. Han; E.W. Shin; S. Min; R.M. Rowell

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material, was harvested in New Mexico, identified as Juniperus monosperma at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, chipped, fiberized and chemically modified to remove pollutants from wastewater. This juniper species was selected as a raw material through screening test for removal of pollutants...

  12. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

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    Eric J Bergman

    Full Text Available The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF, assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus. All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  13. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  14. The Standardized Extract of Juniperus communis Alleviates Hyperpigmentation in Vivo HRM-2 Hairless Mice and in Vitro Murine B16 Melanoma Cells.

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    Jegal, Jonghwan; Chung, Ki Wung; Chung, Hae Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Yang, Min Hye

    2017-01-01

    In European folk medicine, the fruits of Juniperus communis are used in the treatment of skin-related disorders such as skin infection, itching, and psoriasis. Previously, we reported that the EtOAc fraction of J. communis (EAJC) contained tyrosinase inhibition properties in vitro non-cellular experiment. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-melanogenic effect of standardized EAJC on a hyperpigmentation animal model. Therapeutic effects of EAJC toward skin hyperpigmentation were confirmed by both in vivo experiment and in vitro cell-based assay. Skin depigmenting effect was detected by topical treatment of EAJC for 11 d to HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice. Histologic findings including significantly decreased melanin depositions could be observed in dorsal skin samples of EAJC-treated group. In addition, the EAJC (50 µg/mL) attenuated melanin production through down-regulation of tyrosinase activity and protein expression in B16 murine melanoma cells. According to the phytochemical analysis, EAJC was found to contain hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside and isoscutellarein-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside as main components. Hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside was responsible for the skin-lightening effect of EAJC by reducing the number of melanocytes in dorsal skins of HRM-2 mice. The present study provided direct experimental evidence for skin-lightening effect of EAJC in UV-irradiated hairless mouse model. Therapeutic attempts with the J. communis might be useful in the management of skin pigmentation-related diseases.

  15. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-11-01

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  17. The Review of Certain In Vivo Antioxidant Effects on Essential Oils of Origanum Minutiflorum O Schwarz-Ph Davis, Juniperus Excelsa Bieb.subsp. Excelsa and Histopathologic Changes

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    I Göze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Essential oil of plants called Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (JE, Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis (OM were used in this study. In order to determine experimental doses, LD50 values of essential oils were determined on mice. Taking into consideration the LD30 range, the experimental toxic doses were calculated for each rat (rat/kg. The toxic dosages thus determined were adapted to rats for active substances (rat/kg. Using commercially available pure virgin olive oil (VOO as the solvent and diluting agent, OM oil (n=10, JE fruitoil (n=10, carvacrol (CRV (n=10, VOO (n=10 and normal saline SF (n=8 were administered on the basis of 12 days into intraperitoneal (IP. Enzyme activities of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Adenosine-deaminase (ADA and Catalase were studied in isolates of kidney, brain and liver tissues. The data was statistically analyzed through Kruskal Wallis variance analysis. Elevated levels of GST and catalase have been found statistically important, as have both essential oil activities of OM and JE in the kidney tissue (p<0.005. All of the enzymes except the levels of ADA and SOD led to a statistically significant change in the brain and liver. There was sinusoidal hyperemia and capsular adhesion in the liver as histopathological were found to be statistically significant (p<0.005. It did not observe any important changes in the other organs. Findings were scored and analyzed by using x2(chi-square test and Fisher’s definite variance analysis.

  18. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaxia; Li, Dengwu; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Qiaoxiao; Fan, Sufang

    2016-12-24

    Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of J. rigida by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 10 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane, the SDS-PAGE of protein patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and α-Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.00±0.25mm) and the lowest MIC and MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of cell wall and membrane. The essential oil of J. rigida has potential antibacterial activities against K

  19. Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemeyer, Kathleen D; Awada, Tala; Harvey, F Edwin; Wedin, David A; Zhou, Xinhua; Zanner, C William

    2009-02-01

    We used the natural abundance of stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil (0.05-3 m depth), plant xylem and precipitation to determine the seasonal changes in sources of soil water uptake by two native encroaching woody species (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson, Juniperus virginiana L.), and two C(4) grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Panicum virgatum L.), in the semiarid Sandhills grasslands of Nebraska. Grass species extracted most of their water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m). Soil water uptake from below 0.5 m depth increased under drought, but appeared to be minimal in relation to the total water use of these species. The grasses senesced in late August in response to drought conditions. In contrast to grasses, P. ponderosa and J. virginiana trees exhibited significant plasticity in sources of water uptake. In winter, tree species extracted a large fraction of their soil water from below 0.9 m depth. In spring when shallow soil water was available, tree species used water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m) and relied little on water from below 0.5 m depth. During the growing season (May-August) significant differences between the patterns of tree species water uptake emerged. Pinus ponderosa acquired a large fraction of its water from the 0.05-0.5 and 0.5-0.9 m soil profiles. Compared with P. ponderosa, J. virginiana acquired water from the 0.05-0.5 m profile during the early growing season but the amount extracted from this profile progressively declined between May and August and was mirrored by a progressive increase in the fraction taken up from 0.5-0.9 m depth, showing plasticity in tracking the general increase in soil water content within the 0.5-0.9 m profile, and being less responsive to growing season precipitation events. In September, soil water content declined to its minimum, and both tree species shifted soil water uptake to below 0.9 m. Tree transpiration rates (E) and water potentials (Psi) indicated

  20. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tree mortality from a short-duration freezing event and global-change-type drought in a Southwestern piñon-juniper woodland, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Poulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study documents tree mortality in Big Bend National Park in Texas in response to the most acute one-year drought on record, which occurred following a five-day winter freeze. I estimated changes in forest stand structure and species composition due to freezing and drought in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park using permanent monitoring plot data. The drought killed over half (63% of the sampled trees over the entire elevation gradient. Significant mortality occurred in trees up to 20 cm diameter (P < 0.05. Pinus cembroides Zucc. experienced the highest seedling and tree mortality (P < 0.0001 (55% of piñon pines died, and over five times as many standing dead pines were observed in 2012 than in 2009. Juniperus deppeana vonSteudal and Quercus emoryi Leibmann also experienced significant declines in tree density (P < 0.02 (30.9% and 20.7%, respectively. Subsequent droughts under climate change will likely cause even greater damage to trees that survived this record drought, especially if such events follow freezes. The results from this study highlight the vulnerability of trees in the Southwest to climatic change and that future shifts in forest structure can have large-scale community consequences.

  2. Impacts of an Extreme Early-Season Freeze Event in the Interior Pacific Northwest (30 October-3 November 2002) on Western Juniper Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.

    2005-07-01

    In mid-autumn 2002, an exceptional 5-day cold spell affected much of the interior Pacific Northwest, with minimum temperatures averaging 13°C below long-term means (1953-2002). On 31 October, minimum temperature records occurred at 98 of the 106 recording stations, with records lowered in some locations by 9°C. Calculation of recurrence intervals of minimum temperatures shows that 50% of the stations experienced a >500-yr event. The synoptic conditions responsible were the development of a pronounced high pressure ridge over western Canada and an intense low pressure area centered in the Intermountain West that promoted strong northeasterly winds. The cold spell occurred near the end of the growing season for an ecologically critical and dominant tree species of the interior Pacific Northwest—western juniper—and followed an extended period of severe drought. In spring 2003, it became apparent that the cold had caused high rates of tree mortality and canopy dieback in a species that is remarkable for its longevity and resistance to climatic stress. The cold event altered western juniper dominance in some areas, and this alteration may have long-term impacts on water budgets, fire intensities and frequencies, animal species interrelationships, and interspecific competition among plant species.

  3. Soils mediate the impact of fine woody debris on invasive and native grasses as whole trees are mechanically shredded into firebreaks in piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanderud, Zachary T.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Rigby, Deborah; Bybee, Jordon; Campbell, Tayte; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    To stem wildfires, trees are being mechanically shredded into firebreaks with the resulting fine woody debris (FWD) potentially exerting immense control over soil and plants. We linked FWD-induced changes in microbial activity and nutrient availability to the frequency of Bromus tectorum and three native, perennial grasses across 31 piñon-juniper woodlands, UT, USA. Using a series of mixed models, we found that FWD increased the frequency of three of the four grasses by at least 12%. Deep, as opposed to shallow, soils mediated frequencies following FWD additions but only partially explained the variation in Bromus and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Although fertile areas associated with tree-islands elicited no response, FWD-induced increases in nitrogen mineralization in deep soils (15–17 cm) caused the frequency of the exotic and Pseudoroegneria to rise. Higher phosphorus availability in FWD-covered surface soils (0–2 cm) had no impact on grasses. FWD altered deep soil respiration, and deep and shallow microbial biomass structuring Pseudoroegneria frequencies, suggesting that microorganism themselves regulated Pseudoroegneria. The positive effects of FWD on grass frequencies intensified over time for natives but diminished for Bromus. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms in deeper soils helped mediate species-specific responses to disturbance both facilitating exotic invasion and promoting native establishment.

  4. Soil Seed Bank Responses to Postfire Herbicide and Native Seeding Treatments Designed to Control Bromus tectorum in a Pinyon–Juniper Woodland at Zion National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Hondo Brisbin, graduate student; Andrea Thode, Associate Professor; Karen Weber, graduate student

    2013-01-01

    The continued threat of an invasive, annual brome (Bromus) species in the western United States has created the need for integrated approaches to postfire restoration. Additionally, the high germination rate, high seed production, and seed bank carryover of annual bromes points to the need to assay soil seed banks as part of monitoring programs. We sampled the soil seed bank to help assess the effectiveness of treatments utilizing the herbicide Plateau® (imazapic) and a perennial native seed mix to control annual Bromus species and enhance perennial native plant establishment following a wildfire in Zion National Park, Utah. This study is one of few that have monitored the effects of imazapic and native seeding on a soil seed bank community and the only one that we know of that has done so in a pinyon–juniper woodland. The study made use of untreated, replicated controls, which is not common for seed bank studies. One year posttreatment, Bromus was significantly reduced in plots sprayed with herbicide. By the second year posttreatment, the effects of imazapic were less evident and convergence with the controls was evident. Emergence of seeded species was low for the duration of the study. Dry conditions and possible interactions with imazapic probably contributed to the lack of emergence of seeded native species. The perennial grass sand dropseed outperformed the other species included in the seed mix. We also examined how the treatments affected the soil seed bank community as a whole. We found evidence that the herbicide was reducing several native annual forbs and one nonnative annual forb. However, overall effects on the community were not significant. The results of our study were similar to what others have found in that imazapic is effective in providing a short-term reduction in Bromus density, although it can impact emergence of nontarget species.

  5. Tree Mortality Decreases Water Availability and Ecosystem Resilience to Drought in Piñon-Juniper Woodlands in the Southwestern U.S.: Tree Mortality in Semiarid Biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillas, L. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Now at Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Pangle, R. E. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Maurer, G. E. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Now at Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Pockman, W. T. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; McDowell, N. [Earth Systems Analysis and Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Huang, C. -W. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Krofcheck, D. J. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Fox, A. M. [School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ USA; Sinsabaugh, R. L. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA; Rahn, T. A. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM USA; Litvak, M. E. [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM USA

    2017-12-01

    Climate-driven tree mortality has increased globally in response to warmer temperature and more severe drought. To examine how tree mortality in semi-arid biomes impacts surface water balance, we experimentally manipulated a piñon-juniper (PJ) woodland by girdling all adult piñon trees in a 4 ha area, decreasing piñon basal area by ~65%. Over 3.5 years (2009-2013), we compared water flux measurements from this girdled site with those from a nearby intact PJ woodland. Before and after girdling, the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to incoming precipitation was similar between the two sites. Girdling altered the partitioning of ET such that the contribution of canopy transpiration to ET decreased 9-14% over the study period, relative to the intact control, while non-canopy ET increased. We attributed the elevated non-canopy ET in the girdled site each year to winter increases in sublimation, and summer increases in both soil evaporation and below-canopy transpiration. Although we expected that mortality of a canopy dominant would increase the availability of water and other resources to surviving vegetation, we observed a decrease in both soil volumetric water content and sap flow rates in the remaining trees at the girdled site, relative to the control. This post-girdling decrease in the performance of the remaining trees occurred during the severe 2011-2012 drought, suggesting that piñon mortality may trigger feedback mechanisms that leave PJ woodlands drier relative to undisturbed sites, and potentially more vulnerable to drought.

  6. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  7. Comment on: Shukla, M.K. et al., 2006: Physical and chemical properties of soils under some pinon-juniper-oak canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem in New Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Mikkel; Jensen, Jens Raunsø

    2008-01-01

    The paper by Shukla et al. [2006. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some pinon-juniper-oak canopies in an semi-arid ecosystem in New Mexico. Journal of Arid Environment 66, 673-685] treats interesting topics of sustainability of different ecosystems and their water availability....... However, the physical-based infiltration theories by Green and Ampt [1911. Studies on soil physics, I, flow of air and water through soils. Journal of Agricultural Science 4, 1-24] and Philip [1957. The theory of infiltration: 1. The infiltration equation and its solution. Soil Science 83, 345-357] seems...... to be applied without necessary reflections. The actual analysis can have resulted in coefficients without their original physical significance...

  8. Distribution of Clokey's Eggvetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Anderson

    1998-12-01

    -leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Overall, the populations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appear to be vigorous and do not appear threatened. It is estimated that there are approximately 2300 plants on the NTS. It should be considered as a species of concern because of its localized distribution, but it does not appear to warrant protection under the ESA.

  9. α-Methyl artoflavanocoumarin from Juniperus chinensis exerts anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting PTP1B and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Seong, Su Hui; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MAFC was found to potently inhibit PTP1B with an IC 50 of 25.27 ± 0.14 µM, and a kinetics study revealed MAFC is a mixed type PTP1B inhibitor with a K i value of 13.84 µM. Molecular docking simulations demonstrated MAFC can bind to catalytic and allosteric sites of PTP1B. Furthermore, MAFC significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, down-regulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307), and dose-dependently enhanced the protein levels of IRS-1, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and ERK1. These results suggest that MAFC from J. chinensis has therapeutic potential in T2DM by inhibiting PTP1B and activating insulin signaling pathways.

  10. Efficacy of cryotherapy plus topical Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb cream versus cryotherapy plus placebo in the treatment of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Handjani, Farhad; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Nimrouzi, Majid; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Khorrami, Hamid Reza; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the highly prevalent endemic diseases in the Middle East and North Africa. Many treatment modalities have been recommended for this condition but success rates remain limited. Herbal remedies have also been used for treatment but evidence-based clinical trials with these products are sparse. In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown the anti-leishmanial and curative effects of extract of fruits and leaves of Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical J. excelsa M. Bieb extract as an adjuvant to cryotherapy for the treatment of human CL. This study was designed as a two-arm triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using a parallel design. Seventy-two patients with clinical diagnosis of CL confirmed by leishmania smears were allocated to receive either a topical formulation of leaf of J. excelsa extract (group A) or placebo (group B) for 3 months. Both groups received cryotherapy as baseline standard treatment. Patients were evaluated before and weekly after the intervention was initiated until complete cure. Overall, 82% of patients in group A, experienced complete cure and 9% of them had partial cure. On the other hand, 34% in group B reported complete cure, while 14% of them had partial cure at the end of treatment protocol with a significant difference between the two groups (Pcryotherapy for accelerating the time to cure in addition to increasing the complete cure rate in CL. ClinicalTrials.gov IRCT2015082523753N1.

  11. Evaluating theories of drought-induced vegetation mortality using a multimodel-experiment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nate G. McDowell; Rosie A. Fisher; Chonggang Xu; J. C. Domec; Teemu Holtta; D. Scott Mackay; John S. Sperry; Amanda Boutz; Lee Dickman; Nathan Gehres; Jean Marc Limousin; Alison Macalady; Jordi Martinez-Vilalta; Maurizio Mencuccini; Jennifer A. Plaut; Jerome Ogee; Robert E. Pangle; Daniel P. Rasse; Michael G. Ryan; Sanna Sevanto; Richard H. Waring; A. Park Williams; Enrico A. Yepez; William T. Pockman

    2013-01-01

    Model-data comparisons of plant physiological processes provide an understanding of mechanisms underlying vegetation responses to climate. We simulated the physiology of a pinon pine-juniper woodland (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) that experienced mortality during a 5 yr precipitation-reduction experiment, allowing a framework with which to examine our knowledge...

  12. The effects of different pot length and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine appropriate pot length and growing medium for Crimean Juniper seedlings (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.), which will be used for afforestation of extreme areas. For this purpose, polyethylene pots of 11 cm width and 20, 25 and 30 cm lengths were used. As growing medium, 13 different ...

  13. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  14. Realistic Bomber Training Initiative. Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    arizonica Bitterweed Hymenoxys odorata Black grama Bouteloua eriopoda Broadleaf milkweed Ascelpias latifolia Broomweed Amphiachyris spp. and...Larrea tridentata Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Fragrant ash Fraxinus cuspidata Galleta grass Hilaria jamesii Gambel (=shin) oak Quercus gambelii...Guajillo Acacia berlandieri Juniper Juniperus spp. Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium Live oak Quercus turbinella Mesquite Prosopis spp. Mexican

  15. Environmental Assessment of Short-Term Construction Projects at the 150th Fighter Wing, New Mexico Air National Guard, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    smaller tree species include one-seeded juniper (Juniperus monosperma) and occasionally low oaks, such as gray oak ( Quercus grisea). Wildlife in...Cercocarpus montanus), yucca, gambel oak ( Quercus gambelii), prickley pear (Opuntia phaeacantha), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), sideoats grama (B...Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) (in the north), and corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica ) (in the south) are

  16. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  17. Quantifying phenology metrics from Great Basin plant communities and their relationship to seasonal water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush steppe is critical habitat in the Great Basin for wildlife and provides important ecosystem goods and services. Expansion of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) in the Great Basin has reduced the extent of sagebrush steppe causing habitat, fire, and...

  18. {delta}{sup 13}C in Tibetan juniper trees - climate trends through the past 1600 years; {delta}{sup 13}C in tibetischen Wacholdern - Klimaentwicklung der letzten 1600 Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, B.

    1998-09-01

    A {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-chronology of juniper tree cellulose from the upper treeline covering the last 1600 years was set up. The tree site is situated close to Qamdo in southeast Tibet at an altitude of 4350 m a.s.l. The southwest slope gets rain during the Indian summer monsoon. Ten trees have been sampled either by coring or by cutting of trunc-sections in pentad sampling interval. Three trees were analysed in two different radial directions. The very positive {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-data generally varying around -18,75 permille show the typical low fractionation of high mountain plants. Different interpretations are suggested for data before and after 1800 A.D. (orig.) [Deutsch] An Zellulose von Wacholdern der oberen Waldgrenze in Suedost-Tibet wurde eine 1600-jaehrige {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Chronologie aufgestellt. Der Standort liegt in 4350 m ue.M. in der Naehe von Qamdo, ist nach Suedwest geneigt und erhaelt Niederschlaege in den Sommermonaten durch den Indischen-Suedwest-Monsun. Zehn Baeume wurden anhand von Kernen und Stammscheiben in Abschnitten von fuenf Jahren beprobt. An drei Baeumen konnten zwei Segmente desselben Baumes untersucht werden. Die im Mittel sehr positiven {delta}{sup 13}C{sub Zell}-Daten um -18,75 permille deuten auf eine fuer Hochgebirgspflanzen typische geringere Fraktionierung hin. Unterschiedliche Interpretationswege werden fuer die Daten vor und nach 1800 verfolgt. (orig.)

  19. Eğirdir orman fidanlığı’nda diken ardıcı (Juniperus oxycedrus fidan yetiştirme sıklığının fidan morfolojisine etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ALIM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, farklı yetiştirme sıklıklarının diken ardıcı (Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus’nın (1+0 çıplak köklü fidanlarının morfolojik özellikleri üzerindeki etkilerini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma Eğirdir Orman Fidanlığında kurulan deneme alanlarında yürütülmüştür. Denemede; 1.5 cm, 3 cm, 6 cm ve 9 cm mesafe olacak şekilde kontrol dâhil 5 farklı yetiştirme sıklığı uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre diken ardıcı fidanlarının morfolojik özellikleri (kök boğazı çapı, yan kök sayısı, gürbüzlük indisi, kalite indisi, fidan, gövde ve kök taze ağırlıkları ile fidan, gövde ve kök kuru ağırlıkları üzerine yetiştirme sıklığının önemli etkilerinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ekim yastıklarında yetiştirme sıklığı azaldıkça daha kalın çaplı, gövde taze ve kuru ağırlığı daha fazla ve daha çok yan kök sayısına sahip olan fidanlar elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada, elde edilen fidanlar arasında en yüksek kök boğazı çapı ve yan kök sayısı kontrol dışındaki ekim sıklıklarından elde edilen fidanlarda olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Fidan ağırlıkları bakımından ise en iyi sonucu 3 cm ekim sıklığı verirken, en düşük sonuç kontrol fidanlarında meydana gelmiştir. Eğirdir Orman Fidanlığı koşullarında 3 cm ekim sıklığının uygulanmasının kaliteli diken ardıcı fidan üretimi için yeterli olacağı düşünülmektedir.

  20. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  1. Skin tests of pollen grains of taxodiaceae and cupressaceae in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro-Horiuti, T; Nouno, S; Seino, Y

    1992-10-01

    Atmospheric cedar pollen in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture (situated in south-western Japan) has been counted since 1988. Pollen of different species of the Taxodiaceae family (Cryptomeria japonica, Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and Japanese juniper (Juniperus rigida) in the Cupressaceae family, which are propagated mainly in the southern region of Okayama Prefecture, were found among the atmospheric pollen. Scratch tests using the pollen extract from Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae were performed on children with bronchial asthma. Forty (25%) and 30 (18.8%) of the 160 patients reacted positively to an allergen extract from the pollen grains of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese juniper, respectively.

  2. Data set on the effects of conifer control and slash burning on soil carbon, total N, organic matter and extractable micro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Bates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer control in sagebrush steppe of the western United States causes various levels of site disturbance influencing vegetation recovery and resource availability. The data set presented in this article include growing season availability of soil micronutrients and levels of total soil carbon, organic matter, and N spanning a six year period following western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis reduction by mechanical cutting and prescribed fire of western juniper woodlands in southeast Oregon. These data can be useful to further evaluate the impacts of conifer woodland reduction to soil resources in sagebrush steppe plant communities.

  3. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  4. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  5. Fire Science Strategy: Resource Conservation and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    are southern yellow pine ( Pinus spp.; this currently includes over 0.6 million acres of managed longleaf pine [P. palustris], Robert Larimore, pers...Prosopis spp.), pinyon ( Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.), and chaparral-type ecosystems, and 0.7 million acres of annual and perennial grasslands...that meet current and future military land-use and stewardship objectives. Under current conditions, the presence of insects, disease, and drought

  6. The draft genome sequence and annotation of the desert woodrat Neotoma lepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Campbell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the de novo draft genome sequence for a vertebrate mammalian herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida. This species is of ecological and evolutionary interest with respect to ingestion, microbial detoxification and hepatic metabolism of toxic plant secondary compounds from the highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata and the juniper shrub (Juniperus monosperma. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession LZPO01000000.

  7. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    monophylla or P. edulis), junipers (Juniperus), cottonwoods (e.g., Populus fremontii), willows (Salix), or hardwoods (e.g., Quercus , Platanus...pine in association with incense cedar and California black oak ( Quercus kelloggii) on the western slopes and Jeffrey pine on the eastern slopes...corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica ), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and bristlecone pine (P. aristata) (Bailey 1995). Black Hills (MLRA

  8. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  9. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Propagation physiology of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwork

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... also inhibition effects against bacteria and fungi (Mazari et al., 2010). Lack of .... change in seed inhibitors of J. phoenicea in response to increased ... 2.5% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite for 15 min and then washed ...

  11. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Atlantic and Mediterranean synoptic drivers of central Spanish juniper growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esper, J.; Großjean, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Garcia-Cervigón, A. I.; Olano, J. M.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Dominiguez-Castro, F.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 121, 3-4 (2015), s. 571-579 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : rogation ceremonies * Nort-atlantic * temporal patterns * climate * Spain * variability * reconstruction Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.433, year: 2015

  14. Root-associated fungal community response to drought-associated changes in vegetation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sarah L; Warnock, Daniel D; Litvak, Marcy E; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Sinsabaugh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent droughts in southwestern USA have led to large-scale mortality of piñon (Pinus edulis) in piñon-juniper woodlands. Piñon mortality alters soil moisture, nutrient and carbon availability, which could affect the root-associated fungal (RAF) communities and therefore the fitness of the remaining plants. We collected fine root samples at a piñon-juniper woodland and a juniper savannah site in central New Mexico. Roots were collected from piñon and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees whose nearest neighbors were live piñon, live juniper or dead piñon. RAF communities were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the universal fungal ITS region. The most common taxa were Hypocreales and Chaetothyriales. More than 10% of ITS sequences could not be assigned taxonomy at the phylum level. Two of the unclassified OTUs significantly differed between savanna and woodland, had few like sequences in GenBank and formed new fungal clades with other unclassified RAF from arid plants, highlighting how little study has been done on the RAF of arid ecosystems. Plant host or neighbor did not affect RAF community composition. However, there was a significant difference between RAF communities from woodland vs. savanna, indicating that abiotic factors such as temperature and aridity might be more important in structuring these RAF communities than biotic factors such as plant host or neighbor identity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) were present in juniper as well as piñon in the woodland site, in contrast with previous research, but did not occur in juniper savanna, suggesting a potential shared EM network with juniper. RAF richness was lower in hosts that were neighbors of the opposite host. This may indicate competitive exclusion between fungi from different hosts. Characterizing these communities and their responses to environment and plant neighborhood is a step toward understanding the effects of drought on a biome that spans 19,000,000 ha of southwestern USA. © 2015 by The

  15. On the tracks of sandarac, review and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azémard, Clara; Ménager, Matthieu; Vieillescazes, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The sandarac resin (Tetraclinis articulata) has been long used for its properties, mostly as a varnish component. Called juniper resin until the nineteenth century, the real botanical origin of sandarac is still unclear. The first approach to this issue is the review of the evolution of the etymology, terminology, and botanical description of sandarac through time. It seems that sandarac was mainly coming from T. articulata but the use of some juniper resins before the twentieth century is not to be excluded. The second approach is a chemical one; we used gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to characterise the resin. As sandarac was the main component of the famous Italian varnish Vernice liquida, its characterisation is important for old paintings studies. However, although we could hope to differentiate sandarac, Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus resins by looking at their chemical composition, it appears that these resins are very similar. Besides, we notice a lack of old varnishes containing sandarac which complicates our work.

  16. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, Kawther F

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla, Agrimonia eupatoria and Lupinus albus, even at the highest concentration did not inhibit any of the tested organisms. The essential oil extracted from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida plants did not show any antibacterial activities. However, essential oil extracts from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 2.0%( v/v) of Juniper oil and 0.5% (v/v) for Lavender oil against Candida albicans. Our results suggest that the anticandidal properties of Juniper and Lavender oils may be further investigated to explore the possibility of using them in the treatment of candidal infections. (author)

  17. Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Dan F; Kolb, Thomas E; Adams, Henry D

    2010-08-01

    Vegetation change from drought-induced mortality can alter ecosystem community structure, biodiversity, and services. Although drought-induced mortality of woody plants has increased globally with recent warming, influences of soil type, tree and shrub groups, and species are poorly understood. Following the severe 2002 drought in northern Arizona, we surveyed woody plant mortality and canopy dieback of live trees and shrubs at the forest-woodland ecotone on soils derived from three soil parent materials (cinder, flow basalt, sedimentary) that differed in texture and rockiness. Our first of three major findings was that soil parent material had little effect on mortality of both trees and shrubs, yet canopy dieback of trees was influenced by parent material; dieback was highest on the cinder for pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma). Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dieback was not sensitive to parent material. Second, shrubs had similar mortality, but greater canopy dieback, than trees. Third, pinyon and ponderosa pines had greater mortality than juniper, yet juniper had greater dieback, reflecting different hydraulic characteristics among these tree species. Our results show that impacts of severe drought on woody plants differed among tree species and tree and shrub groups, and such impacts were widespread over different soils in the southwestern U.S. Increasing frequency of severe drought with climate warming will likely cause similar mortality to trees and shrubs over major soil types at the forest-woodland ecotone in this region, but due to greater mortality of other tree species, tree cover will shift from a mixture of species to dominance by junipers and shrubs. Surviving junipers and shrubs will also likely have diminished leaf area due to canopy dieback.

  18. Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2013-04-01

    An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought.

  19. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district.

  20. Hydraulic and carbohydrate changes in experimental drought-induced mortality of saplings in two conifer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L; Anderegg, Leander D L

    2013-03-01

    Global patterns of drought-induced forest die-off indicate that many forests may be sensitive to climate-driven mortality, but the lack of understanding of how trees and saplings die during drought hinders the projections of die-off, demographic bottlenecks and ecosystem trajectories. In this study, we performed a severe controlled drought experiment on saplings of Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little, two species that both experienced die-off in a recent 'climate change-type' drought. We examined the roles of carbohydrate and hydraulic changes in multiple tissues as the saplings died. We found that saplings of both species exhibited large degrees of loss of hydraulic conductivity prior to death. Neither species exhibited significant changes in carbohydrate concentrations in any tissue during the relatively short and severe imposed drought. Native hydraulic conductivity successfully predicted the degree of canopy mortality in both species, highlighting the importance of drought characteristics and tree attributes in influencing physiological pathways to mortality. The relationships elucidated here, as well as the differences between our results and previous findings in adult trees, can help inform mortality mechanisms in climate-vegetation models, especially for young trees, and to understand species response to severe drought across ontogeny.

  1. Plant Survival and Mortality during Drought Can be Mediated by Co-occurring Species' Physiological and Morphological Traits: Results from a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions among co-occurring species are mediated by plant physiology, morphology and environment. Without proper mechanisms to account for these factors, it remains difficult to predict plant mortality/survival under changing climate. A plant ecophysiological model, TREES, was extended to incorporate co-occurring species' belowground interaction for water. We used it to examine the interaction between two commonly co-occurring species during drought experiment, pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), with contrasting physiological traits (vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water potential regulation). TREES was parameterized and validated using field-measured plant physiological traits. The root architecture (depth, profile, and root area to leaf area ratio) of juniper was adjusted to see how root morphology could affect the survival/mortality of its neighboring pine under both ambient and drought conditions. Drought suppressed plant water and carbon uptake, as well increased the average percentage loss of conductivity (PLC). Pine had 59% reduction in water uptake, 48% reduction in carbon uptake, and 38% increase in PLC, while juniper had 56% reduction in water uptake, 50% reduction in carbon and 29% increase in PLC, suggesting different vulnerability to drought as mediated by plant physiological traits. Variations in juniper root architecture further mediated drought stress on pine, from negative to positive. Different juniper root architecture caused variations in response of pine over drought (water uptake reduction ranged 0% ~63%, carbon uptake reduction ranged 0% ~ 70%, and PLC increase ranged 2% ~ 91%). Deeper or more uniformly distributed roots of juniper could effectively mitigate stress experienced by pine. In addition, the total water and carbon uptake tended to increase as the ratio of root area to leaf area increased while PLC showed non-monotonic response, suggesting the potential trade-off between maximizing resource uptake and

  2. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J. scopulorum by varying DT. This study can be used as a reference paper for comparing results of reports where different lengths of the DT were used.

  3. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  4. The impact of size and shape of particles of undergrowth and herbs mixtures on aerodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Panasiewicz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the size and shape of a selected group of herbs (dried juniper berries Juniperus communis, dry blueberries Vaccinium myrtillus, petals of cornflower Centaurea cyanus on the value of the volatility coefficient, the coefficient of sphericity and the critical speed was analysed in the presented research. A laboratory anemometer to measure the speed of air was used. The determination of the volatility coefficient of particular size fractions was conducted on the basis of critical speed values, calculated as an average established after five measurements. The established aerodynamic properties of particular mixtures allow the determination and the assessment of differences among fractions of valuable resources and different impurities. The presented data might constitute a basis to determine the scope of differences among them and establish interrelations which allow the application of proper parameters for the pneumatic separation process in practice.

  5. Plant Responses to Extreme Climatic Events: A Field Test of Resilience Capacity at the Southern Range Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Asier; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The expected and already observed increment in frequency of extreme climatic events may result in severe vegetation shifts. However, stabilizing mechanisms promoting community resilience can buffer the lasting impact of extreme events. The present work analyzes the resilience of a Mediterranean mountain ecosystem after an extreme drought in 2005, examining shoot-growth and needle-length resistance and resilience of dominant tree and shrub species (Pinus sylvestris vs Juniperus communis, and P. nigra vs J. oxycedrus) in two contrasting altitudinal ranges. Recorded high vegetative-resilience values indicate great tolerance to extreme droughts for the dominant species of pine-juniper woodlands. Observed tolerance could act as a stabilizing mechanism in rear range edges, such as the Mediterranean basin, where extreme events are predicted to be more detrimental and recurrent. However, resistance and resilience components vary across species, sites, and ontogenetic states: adult Pinus showed higher growth resistance than did adult Juniperus; saplings displayed higher recovery rates than did conspecific adults; and P. nigra saplings displayed higher resilience than did P. sylvestris saplings where the two species coexist. P. nigra and J. oxycedrus saplings at high and low elevations, respectively, were the most resilient at all the locations studied. Under recurrent extreme droughts, these species-specific differences in resistance and resilience could promote changes in vegetation structure and composition, even in areas with high tolerance to dry conditions. PMID:24489971

  6. Plant responses to extreme climatic events: a field test of resilience capacity at the southern range edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Herrero

    Full Text Available The expected and already observed increment in frequency of extreme climatic events may result in severe vegetation shifts. However, stabilizing mechanisms promoting community resilience can buffer the lasting impact of extreme events. The present work analyzes the resilience of a Mediterranean mountain ecosystem after an extreme drought in 2005, examining shoot-growth and needle-length resistance and resilience of dominant tree and shrub species (Pinus sylvestris vs Juniperus communis, and P. nigra vs J. oxycedrus in two contrasting altitudinal ranges. Recorded high vegetative-resilience values indicate great tolerance to extreme droughts for the dominant species of pine-juniper woodlands. Observed tolerance could act as a stabilizing mechanism in rear range edges, such as the Mediterranean basin, where extreme events are predicted to be more detrimental and recurrent. However, resistance and resilience components vary across species, sites, and ontogenetic states: adult Pinus showed higher growth resistance than did adult Juniperus; saplings displayed higher recovery rates than did conspecific adults; and P. nigra saplings displayed higher resilience than did P. sylvestris saplings where the two species coexist. P. nigra and J. oxycedrus saplings at high and low elevations, respectively, were the most resilient at all the locations studied. Under recurrent extreme droughts, these species-specific differences in resistance and resilience could promote changes in vegetation structure and composition, even in areas with high tolerance to dry conditions.

  7. Woody encroachment in northern Great Plains grasslands: Perceptions, actions, and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Leis, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Northern Great Plains (NGP) has a high potential for landscape-scale conservation, but this grassland landscape is threatened by encroachment of woody species. We surveyed NGP land managers to identify patterns in, and illustrate a broad range of, individual managers' perceptions on (1) the threat of woody encroachment to grasslands they manage, and (2) what management practices they use that may influence woody encroachment in this region. In the 34 surveys returned, which came from predominantly public lands in the study area, 79% of responses reported moderate or substantial woody encroachment. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) were the most problematic encroachers. Thirty-one survey respondents said that prescribed fire was used on the lands they manage, and 64% of these responses reported that controlling woody encroachment was a fire management objective. However, only 18% of survey respondents using prescribed fire were achieving their desired fire return interval. Most respondents reported using mechanical and/or chemical methods to control woody species. In contrast to evidence from the central and southern Great Plains, few survey respondents viewed grazing as affecting encroachment. Although the NGP public land managers we surveyed clearly recognize woody encroachment as a problem and are taking steps to address it, many feel that the rate of their management is not keeping pace with the rate of encroachment. Developing strategies for effective woody plant control in a variety of NGP management contexts requires filling ecological science gaps and overcoming societal barriers to using prescribed fire.

  8. Nitrogen isotopic patterns of vegetation as affected by breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris): A coupled analysis of feces, inorganic soil nitrogen and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizota, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two currently breeding colonies (Matsushima Bay and Rishiri island; northern Japan) of predominant Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris) were studied for N isotopic patterns of flora, which is affected by increased supply of inorganic soil N derived from the microbial transformation of feces. Coupled samples of feces, topsoil and flora were collected in early to mid July (2008), when input of fecal N onto soils was at its maximum. As bird migration and breeding continued, native Japanese red-pine (Pinus densiflora), junipers (Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus rigita; Matsushima Bay colony) and Sasa senanensis (Rishiri colony) declined, while ornithocoprophilus exotic plants succeeded. Among tree species on the islands, P. densiflora with ectomycorrizal colonization appears highly susceptible to elevated concentrations of NH 4 -N in the topsoil. A mechanism for best explaining the plant succession associated with the breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull was evidenced by two parameters: first, concomitant elevation of N content in the flora and second, inorganic soil N content, along with changes in N isotopic composition (δ 15 N). Earlier isotopic data on the foliar N affected by breeding activity were compiled and reviewed. Emphasis was put on isotopic information for inorganic N in soils that controls plant succession.

  9. Plastic bimodal xylogenesis in conifers from continental Mediterranean climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio; Olano, José Miguel; Parras, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    *Seasonal radial-increment and xylogenesis data can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Few xylogenesis studies have assessed how plastic xylogenesis is in sympatric conifer species from continental Mediterranean areas, where low winter temperatures and summer drought constrain growth. *Here, we analysed intra-annual patterns of secondary growth in sympatric conifer species (Juniperus thurifera, Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris). Two field sites (xeric and mesic) were evaluated using dendrometers, microcores and climatic data. *A bimodal pattern of xylogenesis characterized by spring and autumn precipitation and subsequent cambial reactivation was detected in J. thurifera at both study sites and in P. halepensis at the xeric site, but was absent in P. sylvestris where growth was largely controlled by day length. In the xeric site J. thurifera exhibited an increased response to water availability in autumn relative to P. halepensis and summer cambial suppression was more marked in J. thurifera than in P. halepensis. *Juniperus thurifera exhibited increased plasticity in its xylogenesis pattern compared with sympatric pines, enabling this species to occupy sites with more variable climatic conditions. The plastic xylogenesis patterns of junipers in drought-stressed areas may also provide them with a competitive advantage against co-occurring pines.

  10. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis and Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  11. Effects of Age and Size on Xylem Phenology in Two Conifers of Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao; Rossi, Sergio; Yang, Bao

    2017-01-01

    The climatic signals that directly affect the trees can be registered by xylem during its growth. If the timings and duration of xylem formation change, xylogenesis can occur under different environmental conditions and subsequently be subject to different climatic signals. An experimental design was applied in the field to disentangle the effects of age and size on xylem phenology, and it challenges the hypothesis that the timings and dynamics of xylem growth are size-dependent. Intra-annual dynamics of xylem formation were monitored weekly during the growing seasons 2013 and 2014 in Chinese pine ( Pinus tabulaeformis ) and Qilian juniper ( Juniperus przewalskii ) with different sizes and ages in a semi-arid region of northwestern China. Cell differentiation started 3 weeks earlier in 2013 and terminated 1 week later in 2014 in small-young pines than in big-old pines. However, differences in the timings of growth reactivation disappeared when comparing the junipers with different sizes but similar age. Overall, 77 days were required for xylem differentiation to take place, but timings were shorter for older trees, which also exhibited smaller cell production. Results from this study suggest that tree age does play an important role in timings and duration of growth. The effect of age should also be considered to perform reliable responses of trees to climate.

  12. Tree die-off in response to global change-type drought: Mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, D.D.; Myers, O.B.; Meyer, Clifton W.; Barnes, F.J.; Zou, C.B.; Allen, Craig D.; McDowell, N.G.; Pockman, W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is projected to produce warmer, longer, and more frequent droughts, referred to here as “global change-type droughts”, which have the potential to trigger widespread tree die-off. However, drought-induced tree mortality cannot be predicted with confidence, because long-term field observations of plant water stress prior to, and culminating in, mortality are rare, precluding the development and testing of mechanisms. Here, we document plant water stress in two widely distributed, co-occurring species, piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), over more than a decade, leading up to regional-scale die-off of piñon pine trees in response to global change-related drought. Piñon leaf water potentials remained substantially below their zero carbon assimilation point for at least 10 months prior to dying, in contrast to those of juniper, which rarely dropped below their zero-assimilation point. These data suggest that piñon mortality was driven by protracted water stress, leading to carbon starvation and associated increases in susceptibility to other disturbances (eg bark beetles), a finding that should help to improve predictions of mortality during drought.

  13. Neighboring trees affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a woodland-forest ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Nathaniel A; Gehring, Catherine A

    2008-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are frequently species rich and functionally diverse; yet, our knowledge of the environmental factors that influence local EMF diversity and species composition remains poor. In particular, little is known about the influence of neighboring plants on EMF community structure. We tested the hypothesis that the EMF of plants with heterospecific neighbors would differ in species richness and community composition from the EMF of plants with conspecific neighbors. We conducted our study at the ecotone between pinyon (Pinus edulis)-juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in northern Arizona, USA where the dominant trees formed associations with either EMF (P. edulis and P. ponderosa) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; J. monosperma). We also compared the EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines where their rhizospheres overlapped. The EMF community composition, but not species richness of pinyon pines was significantly influenced by neighboring AM juniper, but not by neighboring EM ponderosa pine. Ponderosa pine EMF communities were different in species composition when growing in association with pinyon pine than when growing in association with a conspecific. The EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines were similar where their rhizospheres overlapped consisting of primarily the same species in similar relative abundance. Our findings suggest that neighboring tree species identity shaped EMF community structure, but that these effects were specific to host-neighbor combinations. The overlap in community composition between pinyon pine and ponderosa pine suggests that these tree species may serve as reservoirs of EMF inoculum for one another.

  14. Linking ecosystem scale vegetation change to shifts in carbon and water cycling: the consequences of widespread piñon mortality in the Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvak, Marcy Ellen [University of New Mexico

    2012-10-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, were extremely vulnerable to this drought. An abrupt die-off of 40 to 95% of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) across 1.5 million ha triggered rapid and extensive changes in the structure of PJ woodlands with potentially large, yet unknown, consequences for ecosystem services and feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate system. Given the spatial extent of PJ woodlands (3rd largest biome in the US) and climatic predictions of increased frequency and intensity of drought in the region, it is crucial to understand the consequences of these disturbances on regional carbon and energy dynamics, biogeochemical processes and atmospheric CO2. The overall objective of our research was to quantify what impact widespread mortality of piñon trees has for carbon and water cycling in PJ woodlands. Our specific objectives for this proposal were: 1) Quantify the carbon, water and energy exchange trajectory after mortality in PJ woodlands; 2) Determine the mechanisms controlling the response and recovery of ecosystem production and respiration processes following large-scale piñon mortality; 3) Use the relationships we measure between ecosystem structure and function PJ woodlands recover from mortality to scale the results of our study up to the regional scale.

  15. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-11-01

    Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades, and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr-1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy ), computed annually (1964 to 2013) as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.67-0.88, P gy (r2 = 0.53, P gy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Consequently, maximum tree height, leaf area : sapwood area ratio, and stem wood density were all correlated with CMIgy . The tight coupling of forest carbon cycling and species traits with water availability suggests that warmer and drier conditions projected for the 21st century could have significant biogeochemical, ecological, and social consequences in the Pacific Northwest.

  16. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  17. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  18. Effectiveness of prescribed fire to re-establish sagebrush vegetation and ecohydrologic function on woodland-encroached sagebrush steppe, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Nouwakpo, S.; Weltz, M.; Vega, S.; Lindsay, K.

    2017-12-01

    Range expansion of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) conifers into sagebrush steppe (Artemisia spp.) communities has imperiled a vast domain in the western US. Encroachment of sagebrush ecosystems by pinyon and juniper conifers has negative ramifications to ecosystem structure and function and delivery of goods and services. Scientists, land management agencies, and private land owners throughout the western US are challenged with selecting from a suite of options to reduce pinyon and juniper woody fuels and re-establish sagebrush steppe structure and function. This study evaluated the effectiveness of prescribed fire to re-establish sagebrush vegetation and ecohydrologic function over a 9 yr period. Nine years post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses reflect the combination of pre-fire site conditions, perennial grass recruitment, delayed litter cover, and inherent site characteristics. Burning initially increased bare ground, runoff, and erosion for well-vegetated areas underneath tree and shrub canopies, but had minimal impact on hydrology and erosion for degraded interspaces between plants. The degraded interspaces were primarily bare ground and exhibited high runoff and erosion rates prior to burning. Initial fire effects persisted for two years, but increased productivity of grasses improved hydrologic function of interspaces over the full 9 yr period. At the hillslope scale, grass recruitment in the intercanopy between trees reduced runoff from rainsplash, sheetflow, and concentrated overland flow at one site, but did not reduce the high levels of runoff and erosion from a more degraded site. In areas formerly occupied by trees (tree zones), burning increased invasive annual grass cover due to fire removal of limited native perennial plants and competition for resources. The invasive annual grass cover had no net effect on runoff and erosion from tree zones however. Runoff and erosion increased in tree zones at the more degraded site due to

  19. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Qin

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  20. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Melvin, Thomas M; Fan, Zexin; Zhao, Yan; Briffa, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  1. The juniper bush of autism spectrum disorder (ASD: metabolomics, microbiomics, acetaminophen. What else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Fanos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, a very recent survey performed on children aged 8 years assessed an overall prevalence of 16.8 autistic children every 1,000 non-ASD children (equal to 1 child every 59, with a higher prevalence in boys (26.6 per 1,000 than in girls (6.6 per 1,000.  Actually, very few human diseases like ASD can be considered the result of interplay between a multitude of factors: genetics, epigenetics, environment, socioeconomic status, maternal and neonatal infections, prenatal nutrients (i.e. folic acid, immune system, gut microbiota composition, maternal exposure to potentially toxic drugs (e.g. thalidomide and environmental toxicants, and formula feeding (instead of breastfeeding. Taken individually, each of these factors may be considered a potential risk factor for developing ASD. However, the wide range of symptoms and disabilities depicting ASD as a “galaxy of social and communication difficulties” takes place through the combination of two or more factors cited above; notably, the role of each (e.g. genetics cannot be dissociated from the context of epigenetic mechanisms and specific interactions. Today, we can accurately explore the metabolome and its variations over time in various perinatal conditions involved in ASD etiology, for example perturbations of the gut-brain axis, due to gut dysbiosis, and to the lack of the intestinal mucosal barrier, caused by inflammation. This means a great opportunity to establish an early diagnosis of ASD, to assess the risk of developing postnatal ASD and to search for new highly sensitive and specific biomarkers especially in urine. Most of the performed studies have found abnormalities in gut bacterial-derived compounds, tryptophan, vitamin B6, and purine metabolic pathways, phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis, unbalanced concentration of intermediary compounds of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, also known as the citric-acid or Krebs cycle, and finally diet-derived metabolites. By using 1H NMR spectroscopy, our group found a combination of increased and decreased concentrations of: hippurate, glycine, creatine, tryptophan, D-threitol, and glutamate, creatinine, lactate, valine, betaine, and taurine, respectively. These findings strongly suggest a crucial role of oxidative stress and gut microflora in ASD development. In children with ASD, gut dysbiosis is characterized by the increase in Clostridium, Alistipes, Akkermansia, Caloramator, Sarcina spp., and by the reduction in Prevotella spp., E. siraeum, and Bifidobacterium spp. As a result, in these children the urine metabolome is marked by alterations in hippuric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl-3-hydroxypropanoic acid concentration. Moreover, propionic acid, related to Clostridium spp. is strongly involved. Metabolomics can lead to the discovery of dozens of biomarkers strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD (i.e. mannitol, L-threonic acid, fucose, glycine, serine, and many others. Finally, the potential toxicity of acetaminophen (paracetamol, a very common analgesic and antipyretic drug widely used during pregnancy, after birth and in early childhood should be carefully considered in combination with the microbiome.

  2. Restoring big sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire: aspect and subspecies effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for restoration of shrubs is increasingly recognized around the world. In the western USA, restoration of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) after controlling encroaching conifers is a priority to improve sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. ...

  3. On the brink of change: plant responses to climate on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Schelz, Charles D.; Moran, Mary; Carolin, Tara W.

    2011-01-01

    The intensification of aridity due to anthropogenic climate change in the southwestern U.S. is likely to have a large impact on the growth and survival of plant species that may already be vulnerable to water stress. To make accurate predictions of plant responses to climate change, it is essential to determine the long-term dynamics of plant species associated with past climate conditions. Here we show how the plant species and functional types across a wide range of environmental conditions in Colorado Plateau national parks have changed with climate variability over the last twenty years. During this time, regional mean annual temperature increased by 0.18°C per year from 1989–1995, 0.06°C per year from 1995–2003, declined by 0.14°C from 2003–2008, and there was high interannual variability in precipitation. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of plant species at long-term monitoring sites indicated five distinct plant communities. In many of the communities, canopy cover of perennial plants was sensitive to mean annual temperature occurring in the previous year, whereas canopy cover of annual plants responded to cool season precipitation. In the perennial grasslands, there was an overall decline of C3 perennial grasses, no change of C4 perennial grasses, and an increase of shrubs with increasing temperature. In the shrublands, shrubs generally showed no change or slightly increased with increasing temperature. However, certain shrub species declined where soil and physical characteristics of a site limited water availability. In the higher elevation woodlands, Juniperus osteosperma and shrub canopy cover increased with increasing temperature, while Pinus edulis at the highest elevation sites was unresponsive to interannual temperature variability. These results from well-protected national parks highlight the importance of temperature to plant responses in a water-limited region and suggest that projected increases in aridity are likely to promote

  4. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, M. D.; Blair, J. M.; Johnson, L. C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); McKane, R. B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in plant productivity and above-ground plant biomass associated with red cedar forest expansion into areas formerly dominated by tallgrass prairie. Regionally appropriate allometric biomass regression equations were developed for the nondestructive estimation of red cedar biomass in eastern Kansas, followed by quantification of the carbon and nitrogen content of selected biomass components. The equations were applied, along with measurements of leaf litter production, to selected local stands of mature closed-canopy red cedars to estimate above-ground biomass, standing stocks of carbon and nitrogen and annual above-ground net primary productivity. Above-ground plant biomass for these red cedar-dominated sites ranged from 114,100 kg/ha for the youngest stand to 210,700 kg/ha for the oldest. Annual above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) ranged from 7,250 to 10,440 kg/ha/yr for the oldest and younger red cedar stands respectively. The ANPP in comparable tallgrass prairie sites in this region averages 3,690 k/ha/yr, indicating a large increase in carbon uptake and above-ground storage as a result of the change from prairie to red cedar forests. Comparing these results with similar published data from other sites led to the conclusion that the widespread change from tallgrass to red cedars across the woodland-prairie ecotone has important consequences for regional carbon storage.37 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Does sex matter? Gender-specificity and its influence on site-chronologies in the common dioecious shrub Juniperus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetti, Rohan; Buras, Allan; Smiljanic, Marko; Hallinger, Martin; Grigoriev, Andrey A.; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of studies have shown shrubs to be reliable proxies of environmental conditions in regions where Trees − due to harsh climate conditions − are absent. Although many shrubs are monoecious, some are dioecious, which poses certain questions related to

  6. Effects of juniperus species and stage of maturity on nutritional, in vitro digestibility, and plant secondary compound characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional ch...

  7. Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface created before or at the beginning of flow regulation. Red cedar establishment and soil property differences are correlated to percent sand in the soil. According to our interpretation of geomorphic surfaces, the sandier soils represent higher energy depositional surfaces, such as islands and pointbars. Thus, these legacy geomorphic surfaces are a determinant of red cedar establishment patterns and soil property patterns. Land managers and other researchers needing to make predictions for other areas can use our model-building process to quickly map and assess impacts of invasion. In addition, our results show how a Bayesian model provides information about feedbacks between environmental parameters that can help determine and target restoration goals.

  8. In vitro anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant proprieties of Juniperus phoenicea L. leaves from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henda Keskes

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: The findings showed that the extents of α-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the J. phoenicea extracts as well as their antioxidant activity are in accordance with total phenolics contents. Leaves of J. phoenicea being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of natural products with interesting medicinal properties.

  9. Cascading ecohydrological transitions: Multiple changes in vegetation and hydrology over the past 500 years for a semiarid forest/woodland boundary zone in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.

    2010-05-01

    On decadal and centennial time scales, multiple drivers can cause substantial changes in vegetation cover, which can trigger associated changes in runoff and erosion patterns and processes, with consequent feedbacks to the vegetation - cumulatively this can lead to a cascading series of non-equilibrial ecosystem changes through time. The work reported here provides a relatively detailed 500-year perspective of such changes on the mesas the eastern Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico (USA), which today exhibit vegetation transitions along an elevational gradient between semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, mixed woodlands dominated by piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and juniper savannas. Using multiple lines of evidence, a history of major ecosystem changes since ca. 1500 A.D. is reconstructed for a dynamic transition zone on one such mesa (Frijolito Mesa). Evidence includes intensive archaeological surveys, dendrochronological reconstructions of the demographic and spatial patterns of establishment and mortality for these three main tree species, dendrochronological reconstructions of fire regimes and climate patterns, broad-scale mapping of vegetation changes from historic aerial photographs since 1935, monitoring of vegetation from permanent transects since 1991, detailed soil maps and interpretations, intensive ecohydrological studies since 1993 on portions of this mesa, and research on the ecosystem effects of an experimental tree-thinning experiment conducted in 1997. Frijolito Mesa was fully occupied by large numbers of Native American farmers from the A.D. 1200's until the late 1500's, when they left these mesas for settlements in the adjoining Rio Grande Valley. Archaeological evidence and tree ages indicate that the mesa was likely quite deforested when abandoned, followed by episodic tree establishment dominated by ponderosa pine during the Little Ice Age. By the late 1700's Frijolito Mesa included

  10. Integrating ecophysiology and forest landscape models to improve projections of drought effects under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric J; De Bruijn, Arjan M G; Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T; Sturtevant, Brian R; Muss, Jordan D; Kubiske, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental drivers of ecosystem processes such as temperature and precipitation are rapidly changing and creating novel environmental conditions. Forest landscape models (FLM) are used by managers and policy-makers to make projections of future ecosystem dynamics under alternative management or policy options, but the links between the fundamental drivers and projected responses are weak and indirect, limiting their reliability for projecting the impacts of climate change. We developed and tested a relatively mechanistic method to simulate the effects of changing precipitation on species competition within the LANDIS-II FLM. Using data from a field precipitation manipulation experiment in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) ecosystem in New Mexico (USA), we calibrated our model to measurements from ambient control plots and tested predictions under the drought and irrigation treatments against empirical measurements. The model successfully predicted behavior of physiological variables under the treatments. Discrepancies between model output and empirical data occurred when the monthly time step of the model failed to capture the short-term dynamics of the ecosystem as recorded by instantaneous field measurements. We applied the model to heuristically assess the effect of alternative climate scenarios on the piñon-juniper ecosystem and found that warmer and drier climate reduced productivity and increased the risk of drought-induced mortality, especially for piñon. We concluded that the direct links between fundamental drivers and growth rates in our model hold great promise to improve our understanding of ecosystem processes under climate change and improve management decisions because of its greater reliance on first principles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Climatically sensitive tree-ring chronologies from Crimea, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomina, O.; Davi, N.; D Arrigo, R.

    2003-04-01

    Several tree species in Crimea can reach ages of 1000 years or more (Crimea..., 1999), including Taxus baccata L., Arbutus andrachne L., Quercus pubescens Willd, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl., Quercus robur L., Juniperus excelsa M.B., and Pistacia mutica Fisch.et Mey. In September 2002, we collected samples from several long-lived tree sites described in the literature (Vulf, 1948, Ivanenko, 1951, Ena, 1983, Podgorniy, 1990), located in the mountains of Central Crimea (Sokolinoye, Chufut-Kale, Chelter) and on the coast of the Black Sea (Ai-Todor, Kharaks, Ai-Petri). The trees sampled generally had 300-350 rings. At Ai-Todor, most oaks, junipers, and pistachio showed decay. However, enough samples of oak, juniper and pine were collected to build three chronologies with good replication over the last 350 years. Long meteorological records (for Sevastopol since 1821, Ai-Petri and Yalta since the 1880's) as well as detailed historical data on extreme climatic events since 1687 (summarized by Borisov 1956) are available for this area and can be used to calibrate and verify the tree growth/climate models. Resulting dendroclimatic reconstructions will be the first from this region. The tree-ring time-series may also be used for archaeological dating of historical wood from several medieval fortresses, towns and palaces. In turn, the archaeological wood could be used to extend the tree-ring time series. Stalactites and stalagmites (Dubliansky, 1977) found in numerous caves, as well as 4000-years old laminated lake sediments (Shostakovich, 1934) are also potentially important sources of paleoclimatic information in the area.

  12. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  13. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Li

    Full Text Available Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom. from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  14. Spatial partitioning of water use by herbaceous and woody lifeforms in semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies of soil moisture, plant water uptake, and community composition in semiarid regions have focused on differences with depth in the soil profile, yet there are many reasons to expect that moisture also varies with the presence or absence of woody vegetation. Plant and soil moisture relationships for three dominant species in a semiarid woodland, Bouteloua gracilis, Juniperus monosperma, and Pinus edulis, were studied for 1.5 years. Soil moisture varied by type of plant cover as well as by depth. Plant water potential and conductance differed among species and was related to spatial variability in soil moisture. Water potential for blue grama was most correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer of intercanopies; juniper water potential was highly correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer beneath tree canopies of either species, and pinyon water potential was only weakly correlated with soil moisture in the 15-30 cm depth interval beneath pinyons. Pinyons had consistently greater maximum conductance rates than junipers, even though pinyon conductance was more sensitive to reductions in soil moisture. The results from this study indicate that horizontal differences in the soil moisture profile associated with type of plant cover may be as important as differences in depth for predicting plant-water relationships. A simple model was hypothesized for predicting community composition of three lifeforms: Herbaceous plants, shallow-rooted woody plants, and deeper-rooted woody plants. Distributions of roots of each lifeform and plant-available water were defined with respect to four soil compartments that distinguish upper vs. lower and canopy vs. intercanopy soil regions. The model predicts that multiple combinations of herbaceous and woody biomass can exist at a site and was qualitatively consistent with field data from a climatic gradient

  15. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., juniper tar (oil of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate, oxyguinoline sulfate..., hexachlorophene, isobutamben, juniper tar (oil of cade), lanolin, magnesium sulfate, menthol, methyl salicylate...

  16. Assessment of drought related mortality in pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine forests using Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Widespread mortality in several forest types is associated with several years of drought in the Southwest. Implementation of USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory in several states coincided with the onset of elevated mortality rates. Analysis of data collected 2000-2004 reveals the status and...

  17. Linking wood anatomy and xylogenesis allows pinpointing of climate and drought influences on growth of coexisting conifers in continental Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Arturo; Camarero, J Julio; Carrer, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Forecasted warmer and drier conditions will probably lead to reduced growth rates and decreased carbon fixation in long-term woody pools in drought-prone areas. We therefore need a better understanding of how climate stressors such as drought constrain wood formation and drive changes in wood anatomy. Drying trends could lead to reduced growth if they are more intense in spring, when radial growth rates of conifers in continental Mediterranean climates peak. Since tree species from the aforementioned areas have to endure dry summers and also cold winters, we chose two coexisting species: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill., Pinaceae) and Spanish juniper (Juniperus thuriferaL., Cupressaceae) (10 randomly selected trees per species), to analyze how growth (tree-ring width) and wood-anatomical traits (lumen transversal area, cell-wall thickness, presence of intra-annual density fluctuations-IADFs-in the latewood) responded to climatic variables (minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, soil moisture deficit) calculated for different time intervals. Tree-ring width and mean lumen area showed similar year-to-year variability, which indicates that they encoded similar climatic signals. Wet and cool late-winter to early-spring conditions increased lumen area expansion, particularly in pine. In juniper, cell-wall thickness increased when early summer conditions became drier and the frequency of latewood IADFs increased in parallel with late-summer to early-autumn wet conditions. Thus, latewood IADFs of the juniper capture increased water availability during the late growing season, which is reflected in larger tracheid lumens. Soil water availability was one of the main drivers of wood formation and radial growth for the two species. These analyses allow long-term (several decades) growth and wood-anatomical responses to climate to be inferred at intra-annual scales, which agree with the growing patterns already described by xylogenesis approaches for the same

  18. Molecular and morphological characterization of Dothiorella species associated with dieback of Ostrya carpinifolia in Slovenia and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draginja PAVLIC-ZUPANC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolates that resemble Dothiorella (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota species were isolated from dead twigs, asymptomatic and necrotized bark of European hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Eurasian smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop. and common juniper (Juniperus communis L. growing in western Slovenia and northern Italy. They were identified based on anamorph morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS rDNA and EF-1α sequences, and previously designated as Dothiorella sp. A, B and C. This study has clarified the identity of these species by comparing them with other Dothiorella species known from culture based on gene sequence data, as well as morphological characters of the anamorphs. The phylogenetic results revealed three species, Dothiorella iberica, Dothiorella parva, and a Dothiorella sp. Isolates identified in the phylogenetic analyses as D. parva differed from the original description of this species and are thus described here based on the anamorph morphology. Isolates of D. parva were identified from O. carpinifolia in western Slovenia and northern Italy, and C. coggygria in western Slovenia, and coexist with Dothiorella sp. on O. carpinifolia in northern Italy. Dothiorella iberica was identified on J. communis in western Slovenia, thus expanding the geographic range of this species. This is the first record of D. parva from these hosts and countries. Our results indicate that these Dothiorella species occur widely across the Mediterranean region, and on a variety of hosts.

  19. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  20. Seasonal shift in climatic limiting factors on tree transpiration: evidence from sap flow observations at alpine treelines in southeast Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpine and northern treelines are primarily controlled by low temperatures. However, little is known about the impact of low soil temperature on tree transpiration at treelines. We aim to test the hypothesis that in cold-limited forests, the main limiting factors for tree transpiration switch from low soil temperature before summer solstice to atmospheric evaporative demand after summer solstice, which generally results in low transpiration in the early growing season. Sap flow, meteorological factors and predawn needle water potential were continuously monitored throughout one growing season across Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii and juniper (Juniperus saltuaria treelines in southeast Tibet. Sap flow started in early May and corresponded to a threshold mean air-temperature of 0 oC. Across tree species, transpiration was mainly limited by low soil temperature prior to the summer solstice but by vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation post-summer solstice, which was further confirmed on a daily scale. As a result, tree transpiration for both tree species was significantly reduced in the pre-summer solstice period as compared to post-summer solstice, resulting in a lower predawn needle water potential for Smith fir trees in the early growing season. Our data supported the hypothesis, suggesting that tree transpiration mainly responds to soil temperature variations in the early growing season. The results are important for understanding the hydrological response of cold-limited forest ecosystems to climate change.

  1. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  2. Hydrologic control of the oxygen isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration in a semi-arid woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted high frequency measurements of the δ18O value of atmospheric CO2 from a juniper (Juniperus monosperma woodland in New Mexico, USA, over a four-year period to investigate climatic and physiological regulation of the δ18O value of ecosystem respiration (δR. Rain pulses reset δR with the dominant water source isotope composition, followed by progressive enrichment of δR. Transpiration (ET was significantly related to post-pulse δR enrichment because the leaf water δ18O value showed strong enrichment with increasing vapor pressure deficit that occurs following rain. Post-pulse δR enrichment was correlated with both ET and the ratio of ET to soil evaporation (ET/ES. In contrast, the soil water δ18O value was relatively stable and δR enrichment was not correlated with ES. Model simulations captured the large post-pulse δR enrichments only when the offset between xylem and leaf water δ18O value was modeled explicitly and when a gross flux model for CO2 retro-diffusion was included. Drought impacts δR through the balance between evaporative demand, which enriches δR, and low soil moisture availability, which attenuates δR enrichment through reduced ET. The net result, observed throughout all four years of our study, was a negative correlation of post-precipitation δR enrichment with increasing drought.

  3. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  4. Effect of different polarities leaves crude extracts of Omani juniperus excels on antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and their biochemical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf M. Weli

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: More in-vivo and in-vitro studies along with detailed phytochemical investigations are needed in order to potentially use this plant in the prevention and therapies of some oxidative damage related diseases.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  6. Quantifying the impacts of piñon mortality on ecosystem-scale carbon and water cycling: a twinned flux tower approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. M.; Litvak, M. E.; McDowell, N.; Rahn, T.; Ryan, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, proved to be extremely vulnerable to an extended drought that began in 1999, leading to an abrupt die-off of 40 to 95% of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years. Climate predictions for the region suggest such droughts are likely to become more frequent and widespread in the future, extending northwards. Such large-scale change in vegetation has the potential to trigger rapid changes in ecosystem carbon dynamics and the local and regional hydrologic cycle. We are using a twinned ecosystem-scale manipulation study to quantify the transient dynamics of carbon and water flux responses to piñon mortality. A combination of eddy covariance, soil respiration and moisture, sap flow and biomass carbon pool measurements are being made at an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) site and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm diameter at breast height within the 4 ha flux footprint were killed in September 2009 using girdling and herbicide injection following 6 months of background measurements. We hypothesis that piñon mortality alters the local scale carbon cycle by shifting a large stock of carbon from productive biomass to detritus, leading to an initial decrease in net primary production and an increase in ecosystem respiration and net carbon flux to the atmosphere. However, reduced competition for water in these water-limited ecosystems and increased light availability may lead to compensatory growth in surviving small piñon, juniper and understory vegetation, offsetting or exceeding the expected reduction in NPP from piñon mortality. Because litter and coarse woody debris are slow to decompose in semiarid environments we hypothesize that the manipulation site will continue to be net carbon sources even after NPP recovers. Our general hypothesis for the local scale water cycle is

  7. Quantifying the transient carbon dynamics of ecosystem scale carbon cycle responses to piñon pine mortality using a large-scale experimental manipulation, remote sensing and model-data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Fox, A. M.; Robinson, E.; McDowell, N. G.; Rahn, T.; Sinsabaugh, R.

    2012-12-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, proved to be extremely vulnerable to this drought, experiencing 40 to 95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years (Breshears et al., 2005). Understanding the response trajectories of these woodlands is crucial given that climate projections for the region suggest that episodic droughts, such as the one correlated with these recent conifer mortality, are likely to increase in frequency and severity and to expand northward. We are using a combination of eddy covariance, soil respiration, sap flow and biomass carbon pool measurements made at: (i) an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) in central New Mexico and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm diameter at breast height within the 4 ha flux footprint were girdled (decreasing LAI by ~ 1/3) to quantify the response of ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in PJ woodlands to widespread piñon mortality. As expected, piñon mortality triggered an abrupt shift in carbon stocks from productive biomass to detritus, leading to a 25% decrease in gross primary production, and >50% decrease in net ecosystem production in the two years following mortality. Because litter and course woody debris are slow to decompose in these semiarid environments, ecosystem respiration initially decreased following mortality, and only increased two years post mortality following a large monsoon precipitation event. In the three years following mortality, reduced competition for water in these water limited ecosystems and increased light availability has triggered compensatory growth in understory vegetation observed in both remote sensing and ground

  8. Encapsulating model complexity and landscape-scale analyses of state-and-transition simulation models: an application of ecoinformatics and juniper encroachment in sagebrush steppe ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    State-and-transition simulation modeling relies on knowledge of vegetation composition and structure (states) that describe community conditions, mechanistic feedbacks such as fire that can affect vegetation establishment, and ecological processes that drive community conditions as well as the transitions between these states. However, as the need for modeling larger and more complex landscapes increase, a more advanced awareness of computing resources becomes essential. The objectives of this study include identifying challenges of executing state-and-transition simulation models, identifying common bottlenecks of computing resources, developing a workflow and software that enable parallel processing of Monte Carlo simulations, and identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different computing resources. To address these objectives, this study used the ApexRMS® SyncroSim software and embarrassingly parallel tasks of Monte Carlo simulations on a single multicore computer and on distributed computing systems. The results demonstrated that state-and-transition simulation models scale best in distributed computing environments, such as high-throughput and high-performance computing, because these environments disseminate the workloads across many compute nodes, thereby supporting analysis of larger landscapes, higher spatial resolution vegetation products, and more complex models. Using a case study and five different computing environments, the top result (high-throughput computing versus serial computations) indicated an approximate 96.6% decrease of computing time. With a single, multicore compute node (bottom result), the computing time indicated an 81.8% decrease relative to using serial computations. These results provide insight into the tradeoffs of using different computing resources when research necessitates advanced integration of ecoinformatics incorporating large and complicated data inputs and models. - See more at: http://aimspress.com/aimses/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?file_no=Environ2015030&flag=1#sthash.p1XKDtF8.dpuf

  9. Tree mortality from a short-duration freezing event and global-change-type drought in a Southwestern piñon-juniper woodland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study documents tree mortality in Big Bend National Park in Texas in response to the most acute one-year drought on record, which occurred following a five-day winter freeze. I estimated changes in forest stand structure and species composition due to freezing and drought in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park using permanent monitoring plot data. The drought killed over half (63%) of the sampled trees over the entire elevation gradient. Significant mortality occurred in trees up to 20 cm diameter (P Pinus cembroides Zucc. experienced the highest seedling and tree mortality (P droughts under climate change will likely cause even greater damage to trees that survived this record drought, especially if such events follow freezes. The results from this study highlight the vulnerability of trees in the Southwest to climatic change and that future shifts in forest structure can have large-scale community consequences. PMID:24949231

  10. Tree mortality from a short-duration freezing event and global-change-type drought in a Southwestern piñon-juniper woodland, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Helen M. Poulos

    2014-01-01

    This study documents tree mortality in Big Bend National Park in Texas in response to the most acute one-year drought on record, which occurred following a five-day winter freeze. I estimated changes in forest stand structure and species composition due to freezing and drought in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park using permanent monitoring plot data. The drought killed over half (63%) of the sampled trees over the entire elevation gradient. Significant mortality occurred in trees...

  11. Tree mortality from a short-duration freezing event and global-change-type drought in a Southwestern piñon-juniper woodland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    This study documents tree mortality in Big Bend National Park in Texas in response to the most acute one-year drought on record, which occurred following a five-day winter freeze. I estimated changes in forest stand structure and species composition due to freezing and drought in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park using permanent monitoring plot data. The drought killed over half (63%) of the sampled trees over the entire elevation gradient. Significant mortality occurred in trees up to 20 cm diameter (P Quercus emoryi Leibmann also experienced significant declines in tree density (P < 0.02) (30.9% and 20.7%, respectively). Subsequent droughts under climate change will likely cause even greater damage to trees that survived this record drought, especially if such events follow freezes. The results from this study highlight the vulnerability of trees in the Southwest to climatic change and that future shifts in forest structure can have large-scale community consequences.

  12. Ecosystem responses during Late Glacial period recorded in the sediments of Lake Łukie (East Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Słowiński, Michał; Correa-Metrio, Alex; Obremska, Milena; Luoto, Tomi; Nevalainen, Liisa; Woszczyk, Michał; Milecka, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    The main objectives of this study was to reconstruct climate impact on the functioning of Lake Łukie and its catchment (Łęczna Włodawa Lake District, East European Plain) during Late Glacial period. In order to reconstruct climatic fluctuations and corresponding ecosystem responses, we analysed lake sediments for pollen, subfossil Cladocera, plant macrofossils and chemical composition of the sediment. Of these, plant macrofossils and Cladocera were used to infer minimum and mean July temperatures and ordination analysis was used to examine biotic community shifts. Multiproxy analyses of late-glacial sediments of Lake Łukie clearly show that the main driver of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as geomorphological processes in the catchment was climate variation. The history of the lake initiated during the Older Dryas. In that period, Łęczna Włodawa Lake District was covered by open habitats dominated by grasses (Poaceae), humid sites were occupied by tundra plant communities with less clubmoss (Selaginella selaginoides), dry sites by dominated by steppe-like vegetation with light-demanding species such as Helianthemum, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and juniper bushes (Juniperus). Cold climate limited the growth and development of organisms in the lake, Cladocera community species composition was poor, with only few species present there all the time. During this time period, permafrost was still present in the ground limiting infiltration of rainwater and causing high erosion in the catchment area. Surface runoff is confirmed by the presence of sclerotia of Cenococcum geophilum and high terrigenous silica content. The warming of the early Allerød caused a remarkable change in the natural environment of this area. This is in accordance with the temperature rise reconstructed with the use of plant macrofossils though the Cladocera reconstruction did not recorded the rise than. This temperature increase resulted in turnover of vegetation in the

  13. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  14. Inference of past atmospheric delta13C and P/sub CO2/ from 13C/12C measurements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon dioxide release from fossil-fuel burning is significant enough that we may soon experience perceptible changes in climate with important human consequences. An accurate reconstruction of past 13 C/ 12 C ratios of atmospheric CO 2 may provide key constraints on the historical activity of the biosphere as CO 2 source or sink. Tree rings appear to be a repository of this information but there is much noise in the collection of previous reconstructions, presumably associated with site selection, radial variability, choice of representative wood chemical constituent, and subtle effects of climate on fractionation. This study attempts to avoid these pitfalls and develop a 50-yr delta 13 C/sub ATM/ record from juniper trees (genus Juniperus), in fact, by taking advantage of the influence of climate on fractionation. Trees were harvested from suitable sites in close proximity to weather stations with monthly records of temperature and precipitation. The most useful relationships for at most 7 of the 10 sites were delta 13 C with December temperature or precipitation, because the coefficients were nearly constant from one interval to the next and the intercepts differed. Local pollution effects are believed responsible for the three anomalous sites. The separation of these regression lines of different intervals is interpreted as the response of the trees to the changing delta 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 so that delta 13 C/sub ATM/ curves are constructed from this spacing. The shape of the best-fit reconstruction suggests the biosphere has acted as CO 2 source to about 1965 and may now be a net sink

  15. Cytotoxic effects of some animal and vegetable extracts and some chemicals on liver and colon carcinoma and myosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayazit, Vahdettin

    2004-01-01

    To study, the cytotoxic effects of some biological and chemical agents on G, S, G, M and G phases of liver and colon carcinomas and myosarcoma cells obtained with chemical carcinogens dimethylbenzanthracene (Dmba) and cadmium chloride. Eight rabbit livers, colon carcinoma and myosarcoma cell lines were obtained by injection of Dmba in the Biology Laboratory, of the University of Dumlupinar, Kutahya, Turkey between January 2001 and June 2003. All lines were grown at 37degrees celsius and 5% carbon dioxide in sterile RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum after addition of glutamate, penicillin (50 units/ml) and streptomycin (50 ug/ml) (complete medium). Cells were grown on standard tissue culture plastic flasks to 80% confluence and passed by trypsinization. Tortoise (Testudo graeca) shell, sponge (Geodia cydonium), medusa (Aurelia aurita), meat flies (Calliphora erythrocephala) larva, frog (Rana ridibunda) larva and juniper (Juniperus communis) berry extracts killed a large amount of the liver and colon carcinomas and the myosarcoma cells in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). The mistletoe (Viscum album) extract had more effect in only the G0 phase (p<0.05). Genistein, genistin, glycitein, glycitin, daitzein and daitzin have significantly decreased in the cancer cells tests, particularly, genistein and daitzein caused the apoptotic effect in G2, M and G0 phases (p<0.01). Cesium chloride, a mixture of cesium chloride with magnesium chloride had the most effect on tumor cells (p<0.01). AzhexSi, Azhex-AzhepSi, Et-Azhex-AzhepSi, AzhepSi, Hexamine and DL 54 have been inhibited in various levels of the cancer cells (p<0.05, p<0.01). This data suggest that some biological extracts and chemicals tested may be useful chemotherapeutic agents to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This study sheds some light for new anti cancerogenic experiments preventing various cancers on humans. (author)

  16. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The response of southern California ecosystems to Younger Dryas-like rapid climate change: Comparison of glacial terminations 1 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.; Hendy, I. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Younger Dryas is a well-known rapid climatic cooling that interrupted the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1-2 deglacial warming of Termination 1. This cool event has been associated with ice sheet readvance, meridional overturning, circulation changes, and southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. In Southern California, the Younger Dryas has been associated with cooler SST, low marine productivity, a well-ventilated oxygen minimum zone, and a wetter climate. Similar rapid cooling events have been found at other terminations including Termination 5 at the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (~425 Ka) identified by ice rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we present new pollen census data from a unique suite of cores taken from the sub-oxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin (MV0508-15JC, MV0805-20JC, MV0508-33JC, 29JC and 21JC). These short cores, collected on a truncated anticline within SBB, provide the opportunity to examine the response of southern California terrestrial and marine ecosystems to rapid climate change during the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (Termination 5), which is identified by a bioturbated interval within a sequence of laminated sediments. During Termination 1, changes in Southern California precipitation are reflected in pollen- based reconstructions Southern California vegetation. The high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages of pine (Pinus) and Juniper (Juniperus/Calocedrus) transitions into interglacial drought, as expresssed by arid oak (Quercus)/chaparral vegetation. The Younger Dryas interrupts the transition as a high-amplitude pulse in pine associated with increased Gramineae (grass). Termination 5 differs, as the high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages do not transition into arid oak/chaparral vegetation. However, a Younger Dryas-like rapid climate event was associated with increased pine and grass.

  18. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  19. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Alicyn R; Sthultz, Christopher M; Bowker, Matthew A; Stumpf, Stacy; Paxton, Kristina L; Kennedy, Karla; Muñoz, Axhel; Bailey, Joseph K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2006-10-01

    Understanding patterns of plant population mortality during extreme weather events is important to conservation planners because the frequency of such events is expected to increase, creating the need to integrate climatic uncertainty into management. Dominant plants provide habitat and ecosystem structure, so changes in their distribution can be expected to have cascading effects on entire communities. Observing areas that respond quickly to climate fluctuations provides foresight into future ecological changes and will help prioritize conservation efforts. We investigated patterns of mortality in six dominant plant species during a drought in the southwestern United States. We quantified population mortality for each species across its regional distribution and tested hypotheses to identify ecological stress gradients for each species. Our results revealed three major patterns: (1) dominant species from diverse habitat types (i.e., riparian, chaparral, and low- to high-elevation forests) exhibited significant mortality, indicating that the effects of drought were widespread; (2) average mortality differed among dominant species (one-seed juniper[Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] 3.3%; manzanita[Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth], 14.6%; quaking aspen[Populus tremuloides Michx.], 15.4%; ponderosa pine[Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson], 15.9%; Fremont cottonwood[Populus fremontii S. Wats.], 20.7%; and pinyon pine[Pinus edulis Engelm.], 41.4%); (3) all dominant species showed localized patterns of very high mortality (24-100%) consistent with water stress gradients. Land managers should plan for climatic uncertainty by promoting tree recruitment in rare habitat types, alleviating unnatural levels of competition on dominant plants, and conserving sites across water stress gradients. High-stress sites, such as those we examined, have conservation value as barometers of change and because they may harbor genotypes that are adapted to climatic extremes.

  20. A social-ecological impact assessment for public lands management: application of a conceptual and methodological framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Bentley Brymer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, federal action to manipulate habitat for species conservation requires an environmental impact statement, which should integrate natural, physical, economic, and social sciences in planning and decision making. Nonetheless, most impact assessments focus disproportionately on physical or ecological impacts rather than integrating ecological and socioeconomic components. We developed a participatory social-ecological impact assessment (SEIA that addresses the requirements of NEPA and integrates social and ecological concepts for impact assessments. We cooperated with the Bureau of Land Management in Idaho, USA on a project designed to restore habitat for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. We employed questionnaires, workshop dialogue, and participatory mapping exercises with stakeholders to identify potential environmental changes and subsequent impacts expected to result from the removal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis. Via questionnaires and workshop dialogue, stakeholders identified 46 environmental changes and associated positive or negative impacts to people and communities in Owyhee County, Idaho. Results of the participatory mapping exercises showed that the spatial distribution of social, economic, and ecological values throughout Owyhee County are highly associated with the two main watersheds, wilderness areas, and the historic town of Silver City. Altogether, the SEIA process revealed that perceptions of project scale varied among participants, highlighting the need for specificity about spatial and temporal scales. Overall, the SEIA generated substantial information concerning potential impacts associated with habitat treatments for Greater Sage-Grouse. The SEIA is transferable to other land management and conservation contexts because it supports holistic understanding and framing of connections between humans and ecosystems. By applying

  1. Holocene vegetation and climate history of the northern Bighorn Basin, southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M.E.; Betancourt, J.L.; Jackson, S.T.

    2002-01-01

    Records of Holocene vegetation and climate change at low elevations (treeline indicates wetter conditions between 4400 and 2700 14C yr B.P. Increased aridity after 2700 14C yr B.P. initiated expansion of J. osteosperma from the east to west side of the Pryor Mountains. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  2. Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...

  3. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    males selected areas that were characterized by greater levels of horizontal cover than females. During summer, white-tailed deer selected pine-deciduous, aspen (Populus tremuloides), aspen-coniferous, spruce (Picea glauca), and spruce-deciduous cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/juniper (Juniperus communis), aspen/shrubs, spruce/juniper, and spruce/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included pine, aspen, and spruce sapling pole stands with all levels (0--40%, 41--70%, 71--100%) of canopy cover. All habitat types (i.e., pine, aspen, and spruce) were used as bedding locations with pine sapling-pole structural stages with >70% canopy cover used most, whereas pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover was primarily used for feeding. Females bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites, whereas male feeding sites had greater horizontal cover characteristics than bedding or random locations.

  4. The impact of climate and environmental processes on vegetation pattern in the Czechowskie lake catchment Czechowo Region (Northern Tuchola Pinewoods) during the Younger Dryas cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka Maria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Czechowskie lake is located in the northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods District (Northern Poland) in a young glacial landscape. At present, the majority of the area is forested or used for agricultural purposes, but among them a high amount of basins filled with biogenic sediments are present. This area is very suitable for the postglacial vegetation development investigation because of the LST ash and laminated sediments which we found in the Trzechowskie palaeolake and Czechowskie Lake (Wulf et. all 2013). The aim of the research was to reconstruct the past landscape and vegetation response to Younger Dryas cooling and we present the results of the palinological analysis done for 6 core of biogenic sediments. Our main objective was to determine whether local factors such as topography and soil cover have a significant impact on the vegetation, eutrophy and sedimentation rate at this time. In the lake Czechowskie lake catchment we have six cores that cover postglacial succession (Lake Czechowskie small basin - profile JC-12-s; Lake Czechowskiego terrace - profile TK; Lake Czechowskie vicinity - profile "Oko and Cz/80; Trzechowskie paleolake - profile T/trz; Valley between paleolake Trzechowskie and Lake Czechowskie - profile DTCZ-4). The paleoecological research carried out involved an analysis of pollen, macrofossils, Cladocera, diatom, loss-on-ignition and CaCO3 content. The results show, that the dominant plant communities during the Youngers Dryas in the region nearby Lake Czechowskie are heliophytes xeric herb vegetation with juniper (Juniperus communis) shrubs and birch (Betula) and pine (Pinus sylvestris). In the pollen diagrams there was the difference noted in the participation of the dominant pollen, the juniper pollen was always high but varied from 18 to 37%, birch average pollen share was between 17-27%. The thickness and type of the sediment accumulated in Younger Dryas in the presented profiles differs significantly. In the profiles which

  5. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  6. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  7. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure in a distinct population segment of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    north–south gradient. This genetic subdivision within the Bi-State is likely the result of habitat loss and fragmentation that has been exacerbated by recent human activities and the encroachment of singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees. While genetic concerns may be only one of many priorities for the conservation and management of the Bi-State greater sage-grouse, we believe that they warrant attention along with other issues (e.g., quality of sagebrush habitat, preventing future loss of habitat). Management actions that promote genetic connectivity, especially with respect to WM and PNa, may be critical to the long-term viability of the Bi-State DPS.

  8. 76 FR 6775 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Wind Power LLC; Hay Canyon Wind LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Klamath Energy LLC; Klamath... Energy V LLC; Vantage Wind Energy LLC; White Oak Energy LLC. Description: Generation Site Report Fourth..., LLC; Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Hay Canyon Wind LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Klamath Energy...

  9. Habitat Fragmentation Handbook for Installation Planners: Status and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    slippery elm , sycamore, American elm , black walnut, eastern redbud, and American basswood, • Species composition of herbaceous vegetation of poison ivy...water source (creek, draw, spring, seep). The mature ash juniper stand can include oaks, ashs, elms , or wal- nuts. A juniper/deciduous mix of varying

  10. Hydraulic lift and tolerance to salinity of semiarid species: consequences for species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Cristina; Padilla, Francisco M; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    The different abilities of plant species to use ephemeral or permanent water sources strongly affect physiological performance and species coexistence in water-limited ecosystems. In addition to withstanding drought, plants in coastal habitats often have to withstand highly saline soils, an additional ecological stress. Here we tested whether observed competitive abilities and C-water relations of two interacting shrub species from an arid coastal system were more related to differences in root architecture or salinity tolerance. We explored water sources of interacting Juniperus phoenicea Guss. and Pistacia lentiscus L. plants by conducting physiology measurements, including water relations, CO2 exchange, photochemical efficiency, sap osmolality, and water and C isotopes. We also conducted parallel soil analyses that included electrical conductivity, humidity, and water isotopes. During drought, Pistacia shrubs relied primarily on permanent salty groundwater, while isolated Juniperus plants took up the scarce and relatively fresh water stored in upper soil layers. As drought progressed further, the physiological activity of Juniperus plants nearly stopped while Pistacia plants were only slightly affected. Juniperus plants growing with Pistacia had stem-water isotopes that matched Pistacia, unlike values for isolated Juniperus plants. This result suggests that Pistacia shrubs supplied water to nearby Juniperus plants through hydraulic lift. This lifted water, however, did not appear to benefit Juniperus plants, as their physiological performance with co-occurring Pistacia plants was poor, including lower water potentials and rates of photosynthesis than isolated plants. Juniperus was more salt sensitive than Pistacia, which withstood salinity levels similar to that of groundwater. Overall, the different abilities of the two species to use salty water appear to drive the outcome of their interaction, resulting in asymmetric competition where Juniperus is negatively

  11. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Hassanali, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia

  12. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  13. Heterogeneous freezing of super cooled water droplets in micrometre range- freezing on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    A new setup to analyse the freezing behaviour of ice nucleation particles (INPs) dispersed in aqueous droplets has been developed with the aim to analyse ensembles of droplets with sizes in the micrometre range, in which INPs are immersed. Major disadvantages of conventional drop-freezing experiments like varying drop sizes or interactions between the water- oil mixture and the INP, were solved by introducing a unique freezing- chip consisting of an etched and sputtered 15x15x1 mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold film (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015). Using this chip, isolated micrometre-sized droplets can be generated with sizes similar to droplets in real world clouds. The experimental set-up for drop-freezing experiments was revised and improved by establishing automated process control and image evaluation. We were able to show the efficiency and accuracy of our setup by comparing measured freezing temperatures of different INPs (Snomax®, K- feldspar, birch pollen (Betula pendula) washing water, juniper pollen suspension (Juniperus communis) and ultrapure water) with already published results (Atkinson et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013; Pruppacher and Klett, 1997; Pummer et al., 2012; Wex et al., 2015; Zolles et al., 2015). Comparison of our measurements with literature data show the important impact of droplet size, INP concentration and number of active sites on the T50 values. Here, the new set-up exhibits its strength in reproducibility and accuracy which is due to the defined and isolated droplets. Finally, it opens a temperature window down to -37˚ C for freezing experiments which was not accessible with former traditional approaches .Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds (vol 498, pg 355, 2013), Nature, 500, 491-491, 2013. Augustin, S., Wex, H

  14. Plaadid / Mait Eelrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eelrand, Mait, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest JJ CAle & Eric Clapton "The Road To escondido", Fergie "The Dutchess", Cosmoskva "Juniper", "The Devil Wears Prada", Peaches "Impeach My Bush", Ludacris "Release Therapy", Milburn "Well Well Well"

  15. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon Grape Root Parsley Root Pennyroyal Ruta Graveolens Uva Ursi Yohimbe What ... bucha leaves and juniper berries. Uva Ursi and parsley capsules may also have bad side effects. Can ...

  16. Endangered Species Management Plan for Fort Hood, Texas: FY06-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Texas red oak, post oak, Texas ash (Fraxinus texensis), shin oak, blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), cedar elm ...by Ashe juniper and Texas oak. Other important tree species included live oak, cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), Lacey oak (Quercus laceyi), Arizona...0.83 m (Cimprich 2005). Nest substrates include shin oak, Texas red oak, Texas redbud, Ashe juniper, Texas ash, Plateau live oak, cedar elm , rusty

  17. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Aridification du climat régional et remontée de la limite inférieure du cèdre de l'Atlas (Cedrus atlantica Manetti aux confins de la plaine de Midelt (Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Rhanem

    2011-09-01

    slope – allows to formulate the following hypothesis: failings are caused by rain deficit combined with an increasing of temperatures, in association with several droughts during the 1982-2005 period.During this period, climatic conditions had a negative impact on cedar vitality resulting in the death of numerous trees. The effects of drying are particularly perceptible in the areas where the initial conditions were already far from the species ecological optimum. Disappearance of ecological niches in the lowest sectors of the species repartition area has provoked an ascent of the lower altitudinal limit from 1800 m to 2000 m. The Atlas cedar was gradually replaced by holm oak stands (Quercus ilex L. with prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus L..For different reasons, all related to aspect (sunlight, diurnal topoclimatic differences, west wind snow deflation, cedar decline is more important on the east slopes of small valleys flowing from the Middle Atlas down to Midelt plain.

  19. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  20. Junos Security

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 30 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation physiology of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Jordan using seeds and in vitro culture techniques: Baseline information for a conservation perspective ... Morphological and chemical characteristics of tomato foliage as mechanisms of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae ...

  2. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  3. Little Blue Prehistory: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs and Longview Lakes, Jackson County, Missouri. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    areas included sumac and poison ivy, persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana), red cedar (Juniperus virgin- iana), knotweed (Polygonum aviculare), lambs...of this genus is available from mid to late fall, which may indicate occupation of Acorn Shelter during this season. The possibility of storage and

  4. Woodland diagnosis of ecological reserve "Cerro de Amalucan" in the City of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees in urban parks play a key role in the sustainability of cities. The tree is urban landscape of a city, provides environmental, aesthetic, scenic, recreational, cultural and economic benefits. The obwas to study the current state of woodland in the Cerro de Amalucan Ecological Reserve in the city of Puebla, Mexico, a forest dasometric diagnosis was applied by sampling in the area. Settling 17 sampling sites area of 1000 m2, completely randomized design with dasometric data. The results were averaged 183.5 trees per hectare, the most dominant Eucalyptus sp with 61.5% of actual stocks species. Following the species Cupressus lindleyi with 22.2%. Subsequently, the species Juniperus deppeana, with 6.8%, and the species Ipomoea murocoides, which had 2.9% of the total population, like the species polystachya Eysenhardtia, continuing the species flaccid Juniperus, with 1.6%, followed Cupressus sempervirens with 0.96%, Casuarina equisetifolia, with 0.64%, finally Pinus patula with 0.64%. Are cataloged as exotic tree species the next in line: Eucalyptus sp, and Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupressus lindleyi, Cupressus semprevirens and Pinus patula and were characterized as native species: Juniperus deppeana Eysenhardtia polystachya, Juniperus flacida. The areas are to manage 20 hectares with reforestation for restoration, on 75 hectares’ protection is carried out in areas prone to invasion and species conservation and recreation area with 40 hectares for hiking, ecological tours, bike paths and recreation.

  5. Arrasia rostrata (Basidiomycota), a new corticioid genus and species from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarosa Bernicchia; Sergio P. Gorj& #243; n; Karen K. Nakasone

    2011-01-01

    An unusual corticioid species with distinctive large basidiospores that develop a distal refractive rostrum when fully mature is described as new. It grows on living bark of Juniperus phoenicea on the Italian island of Sardinia. Because it is morphologically distinct from any known genus of corticioid fungi, the new genus Arrasia...

  6. Antifungal and repellent activities of the essential oils from three aromatic herbs from western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation we examined the essential oils of three aromatic plants; Zanthoxylum armatum, Juniperus communis, and, Dysphania ambrosioides, which are used by the local population of the western Himalayan region for medicinal purposes. These plants were studied for their antifungal, larvicid...

  7. Inoculation of fumigated nursery beds and containers with arbuscular mycorrhizal products for eastern redcedar production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) products were applied at an operational rate to eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) nursery beds and containers to evaluate seedling growth and colonization responses. A field study at the Augusta Forestry Center in Crimora, VA, and a companion container study were initiated in the fall of 2012. MycoApply® Endo...

  8. Growth rates of important East African montane forest trees, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These trees showed growth rates at least twice as high as those of the primary species. Juniperus procera was found to be the fastest growing species in the cedar forest, underlining its success in forming dense stands after a fire. Only young Podocarpus latifolius showed a similar fast growth. Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, ...

  9. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Wetland and Riparian Forests in the Ouachita Mountains and Crowley’s Ridge Regions of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua Gleditsia triacanthos Quercus alba Pinus taeda Juniperus virginiana Quercus pagoda Quercus nigra Prunus serotina Quercus phellos...maple, sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), American elm (Ulmus americana), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana ). Wetlands of higher terraces typically are...hazels (Hamamelis virginiana , H. vernalis), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium arboreum). The groundcover layer is usually very diverse and may include

  10. Environmental Assessment: Tailwater West Trail and Frisbee Golf Course at Coralville Reservoir, Johnson County, Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Cirsium sp.), goldenrod (Sol4dago sp.), and blackberry (Rubus sp.). Immature honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), red cedar (Juniperus virginiana ...cherry ( Prunus sp.), elm, silver maple, and box elder are widely scattered throughout the meadow. V. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PREFERRED ACTION

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  12. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  13. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    S) mulletbush (B. halimifolia) (S) American barberry (Berchemia scandens) (L) Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (L) winged sumac...include coastal red cedar {Juniperus silicicola), red bay ( Persea borbonia), live oak (Quercus virginiana) and cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto; Stalter...scattered pines. The canopy is composed of live oak, slash pine, myrtle oak (Quercus myrtifolia), American olive (Osmanthus americanus), Chapman’s oak

  14. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  15. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  16. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  17. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  18. Removal of phosphorus using AMD-treated lignocellulosic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Soo-Hong Min; Yeong-Kwan Kim

    2005-01-01

    Excess nutrients, including phosphorus, can cause eutrophication in surface water and reservoirs. We tested the phosphate removal capacity of juniper fiber through isotherm, kinetic, column, and field tests. Heavy metals from an acid mine drainage (AMD) site were precipitated on the surface ofjuniper fiber. The modified fiber was tested in laboratory- caled batch and...

  19. The hidden treasures of long-term paired watershed monitoring in the forests and grasslands of Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Poff; D. G. Neary; V. Henderson; A. Tecle

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s, researchers of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service established a series of paired watershed studies throughout north-central and eastern Arizona. A total of nine experimental watershed areas were established in the pinyon-juniper and chaparral woodlands, as well as the ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests. While most...

  20. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr.: Apache-plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Fallugia contains a single species - Apache-plume, F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. - found throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It occurs mostly on coarse soils on benches and especially along washes and canyons in both warm and cool desert shrub communities and up into the pinyon-juniper vegetation type. It is a sprawling, much-...

  1. Annosus Root disease of Western Conifers (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Schmitt; John R. Parmeter; John T. Kliejunas

    2000-01-01

    Annosus root disease is found on all western conifer species but is of most concern on true firs, hemlocks, and pines. Incense cedar, coast redwood and sequoia are sometimes infected in California. Western juniper is infected throughout its range. Annosus is common and causes extensive decay in old-growth western and mountain hemlock stands. Many mixed conifer stands...

  2. LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Smith, W.J.; Johnson, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been developing techniques for evaluating the adequacy of shallow land radioactive disposal sites to contain disposed radionuclides. This report discusses developments in applying a Biological Transport Model to simulate the cycling of plutonium in pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa pine forest ecosystems through serial stage developments using plant growth dynamics created in the model

  3. Piñon mortality from 2001 to 2005: Causes and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Eager

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Pinon mortality in the pinon-juniper and pinon-sage types of the Southwest peaked in 2003 following several years of winter drought. The majority of the droughtweakened trees died from pinon ips bark beetle attacks, but twig beetles also played a role. Forest Service aerial surveyors estimate more than 50 million pinon trees died...

  4. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... treat affected stands, improve the resiliency of stands at risk of these large-scale epidemics and... across diverse vegetation ranging from sagebrush, pi[ntilde]on, juniper and ponderosa pine to Engelmann... past decade has been the hottest and driest in centuries. This climate pattern, together with...

  5. 78 FR 2485 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...; predation (often facilitated by human development or disturbance); genetic risks in the declining, smaller... plants, fire, and climate change, and the interaction of these three factors; fences; renewable and non-renewable energy development; pi[ntilde]on-juniper encroachment; water development; disease;, drought; and...

  6. Effects of a natural fire on a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri) and nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus viridiflorus) population in Southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Sivinski

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, a natural wildfire burned 250 acres of juniper savanna on Rawhide Ridge in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. This fire burned through the center of a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus population. This threatened cactus is locally sympatric with the more abundant nylon hedgehog cactus, which has similar growth form and stature...

  7. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  8. Identifying markets for pinyon pine in the Four Corners Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes

    2008-01-01

    A search for opportunities to use pinyon pine is currently being conducted at Colorado State University by the Colorado Wood Utilization and Marketing Program as part of an effort to improve financial feasibility of forest restoration and hazardous fuel reduction work in pinyon-juniper stands. The properties of pinyon wood reveal that it is suitable for a range of...

  9. Woody debris dynamics in Interior West forests and woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw; James Long; Raffaella Marzano; Matteo Garbarino

    2012-01-01

    Managers are interested in the dynamics of down woody material because of its role as a fuel component, a feature of wildlife habitat, a carbon pool, and other characteristics. We analyzed nearly 9,000 plots from the Interior West, spanning the range from sparse juniper and mesquite woodland to dense spruce-fir forests, in order to characterize down woody material as...

  10. Climate change effects on vegetation in the Pacific Northwest: a review and synthesis of the scientific literature and simulation model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Becky K. Kerns; Erich Kyle Dodson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review scientifi c knowledge and model projections on vegetation vulnerability to climatic and other environmental changes in the Pacifi c Northwest, with emphasis on fi ve major biome types: subalpine forests and alpine meadows, maritime coniferous forests, dry coniferous forests, savannas and woodlands (oak and juniper), and interior...

  11. Conflicting short and long-term management goals: Fire effects in endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Andruk; Norma L. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Decades of fire suppression have significantly altered the vegetation structure and composition of savannas, woodlands, and forests. The presence of endangered species and other species of conservation concern in these fire-suppressed systems makes re-introducing fire more challenging. In oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, we are presented with the challenge of re...

  12. An improvement of tree-Rule firewall for a large network: supporting large rule size and low delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    Firewalls are important network devices which provide first hand defense against network threat. This level of defense is depended on firewall rules. Traditional firewalls, i.e., Cisco ACL, IPTABLES, Check Point and Juniper NetScreen firewall use listed rule to regulate packet flows. However, the

  13. Prescribed fire, soil, and plants: burn effects and interactions in the central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Rau; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Dale W. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon and juniper expansion into sagebrush ecosystems results in decreased cover and biomass of perennial grasses and forbs. We examine the effectiveness of spring prescribed fire on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems by documenting burn effects on soil nutrients, herbaceous aboveground biomass, and tissue nutrient concentrations. This study was conducted in a...

  14. Removal of phosphorus using chemically modified lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; N. Hur; B. Choi; Soo-Hong Min

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals from an acid mine drainage (AMD) site were precipitated on the surface of juniper fiber. The modified fiber was tested in lab-scaled batch and column tests and in the field. Elemental analysis showed that soluble iron species deposited on the fiber act as an inorganic adsorbent for anions. Sorption capacity, determined by fitting results to a Langmuir...

  15. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated microbial quality of spices used in production of meat products (black pepper, allspice, coriander, juniper, cumin, cinnamon, badian, mustard, bay leaf, paprika, rosemary, garlic, ginger, thyme, cardamom. The spices were analysed on the presence of total count of mesophilic, thermoresistant and coliforming microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and moulds. For the detection of fungal contamination was used agar with glucose, yeast extract and oxytetracyklin and dichloran-glycerol agar. The cultivation was performed at 25 ±1°C for 5 - 7 days. The microscopic method was used for species identification. The aflatoxin presence was confirmed by ELISA test in all of tested spices and was performed in ppb (pars per billion = μg/kg. TCM ranged from 200 to 5600000 cfu/g, TRM from 20 to 90000 cfu/g and coliforming bacteria from 30 to 3200 cfu/g. B. cereus was present in juniper, mustard, bay leaf, thyme and cardamom (32%, while B. licheniformis was confirmed in 58% of cases (allspice, pepper, ground juniper, badian, bay leaf, paprika, garlic, thyme and cardamom. S. aureus was detected in whole coriander, cinnamon, badian and mustard but only in law number (30, 40, 20 and 10 cfu/g respectively. No strains S. aureus was identified as MRSA. The presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli was not confirmed. The fungal contamination was found in 14 spices and the their count varied from 0 to 1550 cfu/g. There were confirmed the presence of Aspergillus flavus (allspice whole and ground, black pepper whole and ground, whole coriander, ground cumin, ground bay leaf, Aspergillus niger (allspice whole and ground, black pepper ground, ground juniper, cumin ground, bay leaf ground, ground rosemary, ground thyme, Penicillium glaucum (allspice whole and ground, whole juniper, whole cinnamon, Penicillium claviforme (whole black pepper

  16. Mycena Juniperina (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for the Polish and Central European Mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycena juniperina Aronsen was collected in March 2013 in the Origano-Brachypodietum association from trunks of living Juniperus communis in the Pieniny Mts (S Poland. The species is described and illustrated based on Polish specimens, its ecology and general distribution are outlined, and it is compared with similar species: M. meliigena (Berk. & Cooke Sacc., M. pseudocorticola Kühner, and others.

  17. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  18. Residual Efficacy of Field-Applied Permethrin, d-Phenothrin, and Resmethrin on Plant Foliage Against Adult Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the American Mosquito Control Association, 24(4):543–549, 2008 Copyright E 2008 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. 543 Report...southern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola J. Silba), beauty berry (Callicarpa americana L.), and bay trees ( Persea spp.). Insecticides Permethrin...plant foliage to adult 544 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION VOL. 24, NO. 4 Cx. quinquefasciatus. A single leaf was exposed to 10–15

  19. Location and Description of Transects for Ecological Studies in Floodplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Level Datum of 1929. Horizontal datum: In this report, horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27...ileopa Ilex opaca Ait. var. opaca American holly junsil Juniperus silicicola (Small) Bailey 1 southern red cedar liqsty Liquidambar styraciflua L...swamp gum nyssyl Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.1 blackgum ostvir Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam perpal Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg

  20. Trophic priorities of millipedes (Diplopoda) in process of rehabilitation of the territories disturbed by mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Y. L. Kulbachko; О. O. Didur

    2012-01-01

    The food selectivity of millipedes (Diplopoda) was studied in different variants of mine spoils and chernozem fillings applied as topsoil. It was found that the ordinary chernozem fillings determines the formation of food priorities increasingly in comparison with the mine spoil. There are shown statistically significant differences between millipeds food priorities depending on the proposed feed: litter leaves of trees (Acer platanoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juniperus virginiana) used in fo...

  1. Trophic priorities of millipedes (Diplopoda in process of rehabilitation of the territories disturbed by mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The food selectivity of millipedes (Diplopoda was studied in different variants of mine spoils and chernozem fillings applied as topsoil. It was found that the ordinary chernozem fillings determines the formation of food priorities increasingly in comparison with the mine spoil. There are shown statistically significant differences between millipeds food priorities depending on the proposed feed: litter leaves of trees (Acer platanoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juniperus virginiana used in forest revegetation of mining lands.

  2. Foraging ecology and habitat association of black-winged lovebird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.4% of the lovebirds in Bole Sub-City were observed foraging on Zea mays and 16.5 % on Ricinus communis while in Entoto Natural Park, 50% of these lovebirds used the berries of Juniperus procera. Among the identified foraging plant parts, fruit had 60% in Bole Sub-City and 66.6% in Entoto Natural Park. The threat ...

  3. Climate history of the Tibetan Plateau for the last 1500 years as inferred from stable carbon isotopes in three-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, G.; Schleser, G.H.; Braeuning, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the south-eastern part of Tibet, i.e. Qamdo, a carbon isotope chronology from spruce and juniper trees, covering the last 400 and 1600 years, respectively, has been developed. Juniper tree-rings were sampled in pentad blocks, whereas the spruce chronology is annually resolved in order enable appropriate calibration of isotope data with the short instrumental temperature record available. The chronology shows a number of different climatic phases which have their analogues in Europe and North America. A short warm phase between 1200 and 1300AD appears to correspond to the Mediaeval Warm Period and a larger cool phase from about 1450 to 1600AD appears to correspond to the Little Ice Age with a short recurring episode around 1850. The current results suggest that the observed events may have occurred over the entire Northern Hemisphere, though they do not seem to have been contemporaneous with Europe and North America. (author)

  4. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Рagan Meadow"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglacheva Arina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "Pagan Meadow" - one of the business cards of Botanic Garden of PSU filled deep sense of creation and originality. Pyramidal junipers were rescued and brought to the mining sites shungit in 1999. The unique expedition was attended by students and graduate students of the Ecology-Biological Faculty. Stone maze and seids appeared in 2011 as a result of the competition landscape projects "Northern motives." Despite the initial dissociation of the two projects lined up a complete picture of the veneration of wood and stone in the history of Karelia. Consideration "Pagan Meadow" by studying upland meadows with a treelike junipers and diversity of the maze of boulders lets discuss the issues of ecology and geology.

  5. Dynamics investigation of change of freshness and properties of new types of semi-smoked sausages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Іллівна Маркович

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable quality of sausages during storage is achieved through improving processes, modes and storage conditions, use of various food additives and antioxidants that will positively affect the inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative changes in lipids. In production technology of semi- smoked sausages we propose the use of plant material – flour of sprouted and not sprouted lentil, and to lengthen shelf life – thyme and juniper 

  6. Sibul, kadakas ja küüslauk – toidutaimed ja regionaalne toidukultuur Eestis

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Bardone; Renata Sõukand; Raivo Kalle

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the role of food producers and tourism industry in shaping Estonian regional food traditions. The authors base their study on three regional culinary symbols – onion from the area of Lake Peipsi, juniper from Saaremaa Island and garlic in the focus of Jõgeva Garlic Festival – and analyse the way that a region can define itself, both culturally and economically, by means of a concrete plant. Different regions compete as tourist destinations and food plays an important ...

  7. Austin's Urban Forest, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Allison R. Bodine; Robert E. Hoehn; Christopher B. Edgar; Dudley R. Hartel; Tonya W. Lister; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the urban forest in Austin, Texas, reveals that this area has an estimated 33.8 million trees with tree canopy that covers 30.8 percent of the city. The most common tree species are Ashe juniper, cedar elm, live oak, sugarberry, and Texas persimmon. Trees in Austin currently store about 1.9 million tons of carbon (7.0 million tons of carbon dioxide [CO...

  8. CONTRIBUTION DE LA RMN 13C A L'ANALYSE D'HUILES ESSENTIELLES ET D'OLEORESINES : CARACTERISATION DE GENEVRIERS ET DU PIN MARITIME DE CORSE

    OpenAIRE

    Ottavioli , Joséphine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize various plants growing wild in Corsica (juniper, maritime pine) through the composition of their essential oils and resins. For this, we used various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, including an analytical method for complex natural mixtures based on 13C NMR spectroscopy, developed in our laboratory. Thus, we showed various aspects of this method of analysis by 13C NMR through i) the study of essential oils of the genus Cymbopogon,...

  9. Tragulidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) from the Middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    KHAN, Muhammad Akbar; AKHTAR, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Spanish Sparrows were recorded in numerous locations and specimens were collected from Samsun, Çorum, and Denizli provinces in Turkey. The breeding subpopulations preferred various nesting sites, including wooded areas and White Stork nests. These sparrows were primarily observed in flocks of variable size and were rarely solitary. The largest flock recorded was found in juniper and pine woods in Denizli. We collected data on 23 allozyme loci to compare the genetic variation am...

  10. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Рagan Meadow"

    OpenAIRE

    Eglacheva Arina

    2015-01-01

    "Pagan Meadow" - one of the business cards of Botanic Garden of PSU filled deep sense of creation and originality. Pyramidal junipers were rescued and brought to the mining sites shungit in 1999. The unique expedition was attended by students and graduate students of the Ecology-Biological Faculty. Stone maze and seids appeared in 2011 as a result of the competition landscape projects "Northern motives." Despite the initial dissociation of the two projects lined up a complete picture of the ...

  11. Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    grade by Applied Visions personnel. The CIAS also worked with Pacific Northwest National Labs to create a substation, control center, and plant ...center network, substation, and plant network were housed behind a Juniper firewall so that the plant network and substation were only accessible...will not provide copies of their actual network traffic to anyone. On the rare occasions traffic logs are shared, they are typically heavily modified

  12. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    sihject to the lesser constraints of COR East. This will occur as voon as comunications capability and radar surveillance will ,*.rr1t. The proposed COR...These communities are found at eleva- tionz mostly above the Pinon-Juniper Woodland comunities , or often in close association with them. The principal...species are relict or may have aesthe- tic and scientific value; (6) economic or recreational importance; and (7) various combinations of the above. The

  13. The hydraulic architecture of conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe G Hacke; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jarmila Pittermann; Stefan Mayr; Jean-Christophe Domec; Paul J. Schulte

    2015-01-01

    Conifers survive in diverse and sometimes extreme environments (Fig. 2.1a–f). Piñon-juniper communities are found in semi-arid environments, receiving ca. 400 mm of yearly precipitation (Linton et al. 1998), which is less than half the average precipitations received by other coniferous tree species worldwide. Picea mariana and Larix laricina grow in boreal peatlands...

  14. Cenozoic climate change shaped the evolutionary ecophysiology of the Cupressaceae conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Stuart, Stephanie A.; Dawson, Todd E.; Moreau, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The Cupressaceae clade has the broadest diversity in habitat and morphology of any conifer family. This clade is characterized by highly divergent physiological strategies, with deciduous swamp-adapted genera-like Taxodium at one extreme, and evergreen desert genera-like Cupressus at the other. The size disparity within the Cupressaceae is equally impressive, with members ranging from 5-m-tall juniper shrubs to 100-m-tall redwood trees. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that despite this varia...

  15. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...- 000; EG10-34-000; EG10-34-000; EG10-35-000; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow...

  16. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  17. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  18. A biography and obituary of Alfred Traverse (1925–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Riding, James B.; Chaloner FRS, William G.; Farley, Martin B.; Rich, Fredrick J.; Strother, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Professor Alfred (‘Al’) Traverse passed away following a long illness at 90 years of age on September 15th 2015 at Juniper Village, State College, Pennsylvania, USA. With his death, the twin sciences of palaeobotany and palynology have lost one of their most influential and productive of practitioners and teachers. He had a stellar student career, was a coal petrologist, an industrial palynologist and held parallel positions in the Episcopal (Anglican) church. However he is principally define...

  19. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing δ13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112μmol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in

  20. Chemical Composition of Herbal Macerates and Corresponding Commercial Essential Oils and Their Effect on Bacteria Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Białoń

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial essential oils (clove, juniper, oregano, and marjoram oils, as well as appropriate herbal extracts obtained in the process of cold maceration and their biological activity against selected Escherichia coli strains: E. coli ATTC 25922, E. coli ATTC 10536, and E. coli 127 isolated from poultry waste. On the basis of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS analysis, it was found that the commercial essential oils revealed considerable differences in terms of the composition and diversity of terpenes, terpenoids and sesquiterpenes as compared with the extracts obtained from plant material. The commercial clove, oregano, and marjoram oils showed antibacterial properties against all the tested strains of E. coli. However, these strains were not sensitive to essential oils obtained from the plant material in the process of maceration. The tested strains of E. coli show a high sensitivity, mainly against monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, α,β,γ-terpinene, limonene and some terpenoids (thymol, carvacrol. The commercial juniper oil contained mainly monoterpenes and monoterpenoids, while the extracts contained lower amounts of monoterpenes and high amounts of sesquiterpenes—the anti-microbiotic properties of the juniper herbal extract seem to be caused by the synergistic activity of mono- and sesquiterpenes.

  1. Vegetative communities, Davis and Lavender Canyons, Paradox Basin, Utah: ecosystem studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The major vegetative communities of Davis and Lavender canyons located in southeastern Utah are characterized. The report identifies potential secondary impacts and appropriate mitigation options. The Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon Study Area contains nine major vegetative communities: galleta-shadscale, juniper-blackbrush, juniper-shadscale-ephedra, shadscale-ephedra, grayia-shadscale, juniper, drywash, greasewood, and riparian. The natural recovery times of these communities are exceedingly long. Natural reinvasion of various species would take from 15 to 100 years. No threatened or endangered plant species were identified in the study area. Davis and Lavender canyons have been subject to off-road vehicle activity and extensive grazing. The plant communities may be subject to additional impacts as a result of increased human activity and off-highway activities such as camping, hiking, and hunting could result in changes in cover, composition, and frequency of plant species. Mitigation options for potential impacts include shuttle-busing workers to the site from the highway and fencing site access roads to prevent vehicles from leaving the roads

  2. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    . rhynchocarpa Polhill, C. saltiana Andrews, C. thomasii Harms) in having the inside of the pod densely packed with long, white hairs. C. trifoliolata was observed at the edge of and in glades inside dry Juniperus-Olea forest, in which the canopy is dominated by J. procera Endl. and the undergrowth by Barbeya...... oleoides Schweinf. and other species characteristic of dry Afromontane forest and bushland. The species is found only in a limited area near the eastern Ethiopian escarpment at Sheik Hussein. It is documented with images and maps, its potential distribution is modelled and a conservation assessment...

  3. 1754-IJBCS-Article-Mhamed Khaffou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    7 janv. 2017 ... Juniperus thurifera et du chêne vert Quercus rotundifolia. On note la présence par pieds isolés de deux espèces forestières qui sont le genévrier oxycèdre et le genévrier de Phénicie. (Chillasse, 2004). Peu de végétation verte près du lac; elle a été broutée ou se trouve sèche. Une seule plante aquatique ( ...

  4. Stable-carbon isotope variability in tree foliage and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1986-01-01

    This study documents variation of stable-carbon isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C) in trees of genera Juniperus and Pinus under field conditions. Results are from cellulose analysis on leaves, twigs, and wood from a number of localities in the southwestern US. Substantial variability, typically 1-3%, exists among leaves, within wood (radially, vertically, circumferentially), and between individuals at a site. These results may help guide sampling in tracer-type studies with stable-carbon isotope ratios and aid in the interpretation of isotopic results from such studies

  5. Desarrollo de ecuaciones alométricas de biomasa para la regeneración de cuatro especies en Durango, México

    OpenAIRE

    Favian Flores Medina; Daniel José Vega-Nieva; José Javier Corral-Rivas; Juan Gabriel Álvarez-González; Ana Daria Ruiz-González; Carlos Antonio López-Sanchez; Artemio Carillo Parra

    2018-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo consistió en el desarrollo de ecuaciones alométricas para estimar la biomasa aérea por fracciones de grosor de la regeneración de Arbutus arizonica, Juniperus deppeana, Quercus sideroxyla y Pinus cooperi en la Unidad de Manejo Forestal (Umafor 1008) en el estado de Durango. Se utilizaron datos provenientes de 114 individuos (25, 29, 30 y 30, respectivamente), colectados mediante un muestreo destructivo para ajustar los modelos. La aditividad de las ecuaciones de estima...

  6. A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE, SOIL STRUCTURE, FOREST AREAS, GROWING STOCK AND SOME FORESTRY APPLICATIONS OF ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksek, Turan; Ölmez, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    Artvin is located in the North Eastern Blacksea region of Turkey. Forests of Artvin are spread out from cool climate zone to cold climate zone. Artvin has approximately 390471 ha of forests, which is consist of 276883 ha (70.91%) natural forest and 113588 (29.09 %) coppice forests. Forest area covering 54.77% of total land of Artvin. Most of species of forests (natural and coppice forests) areconiferous trees, such as Picea ssp., Pinus ssp., Juniperus ssp. and broaded leaves such as Quercus s...

  7. Lidar-derived estimate and uncertainty of carbon sink in successional phases of woody encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Temuulen; Shrestha, Rupesh; Sankey, Joel B.; Hardgree, Stuart; Strand, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Woody encroachment is a globally occurring phenomenon that contributes to the global carbon sink. The magnitude of this contribution needs to be estimated at regional and local scales to address uncertainties present in the global- and continental-scale estimates, and guide regional policy and management in balancing restoration activities, including removal of woody plants, with greenhouse gas mitigation goals. The objective of this study was to estimate carbon stored in various successional phases of woody encroachment. Using lidar measurements of individual trees, we present high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon storage in juniper woodlands. Segmentation analysis of lidar point cloud data identified a total of 60,628 juniper tree crowns across four watersheds. Tree heights, canopy cover, and density derived from lidar were strongly correlated with field measurements of 2613 juniper stems measured in 85 plots (30 × 30 m). Aboveground total biomass of individual trees was estimated using a regression model with lidar-derived height and crown area as predictors (Adj. R2 = 0.76, p 2. Uncertainty in carbon storage estimates was examined with a Monte Carlo approach that addressed major error sources. Ranges predicted with uncertainty analysis in the mean, individual tree, aboveground woody C, and associated standard deviation were 0.35 – 143.6 kg and 0.5 – 1.25 kg, respectively. Later successional phases of woody encroachment had, on average, twice the aboveground carbon relative to earlier phases. Woody encroachment might be more successfully managed and balanced with carbon storage goals by identifying priority areas in earlier phases of encroachment where intensive treatments are most effective.

  8. Lidar-derived estimate and uncertainty of carbon sink in successional phases of woody encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Temuulen; Shrestha, Rupesh; Sankey, Joel B.; Hardegree, Stuart; Strand, Eva

    2013-07-01

    encroachment is a globally occurring phenomenon that contributes to the global carbon sink. The magnitude of this contribution needs to be estimated at regional and local scales to address uncertainties present in the global- and continental-scale estimates, and guide regional policy and management in balancing restoration activities, including removal of woody plants, with greenhouse gas mitigation goals. The objective of this study was to estimate carbon stored in various successional phases of woody encroachment. Using lidar measurements of individual trees, we present high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon storage in juniper woodlands. Segmentation analysis of lidar point cloud data identified a total of 60,628 juniper tree crowns across four watersheds. Tree heights, canopy cover, and density derived from lidar were strongly correlated with field measurements of 2613 juniper stems measured in 85 plots (30 × 30 m). Aboveground total biomass of individual trees was estimated using a regression model with lidar-derived height and crown area as predictors (Adj. R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001, RMSE = 0.58 kg). The predicted mean aboveground woody carbon storage for the study area was 677 g/m2. Uncertainty in carbon storage estimates was examined with a Monte Carlo approach that addressed major error sources. Ranges predicted with uncertainty analysis in the mean, individual tree, aboveground woody C, and associated standard deviation were 0.35 - 143.6 kg and 0.5 - 1.25 kg, respectively. Later successional phases of woody encroachment had, on average, twice the aboveground carbon relative to earlier phases. Woody encroachment might be more successfully managed and balanced with carbon storage goals by identifying priority areas in earlier phases of encroachment where intensive treatments are most effective.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  10. Junos Enterprise Routing A Practical Guide to Junos Routing and Certification

    CERN Document Server

    Southwick, Peter; Reynolds, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Considered the go-to study guide for Juniper Networks enterprise routing certification exams, this book offers you unparalleled coverage of all the services available to Junos administrators-including the most recent set of flow-based security services and design guidelines that incorporate services and features of the MX, SRX, and EX network devices. Its emphasis on practical solutions also makes this book an ideal on-the-job reference for design, maintenance, and troubleshooting issues in the enterprise. Simply put, this updated edition is the most comprehensive and authoritative resource

  11. Woodland recovery following drought-induced tree mortality across an environmental stress gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Cobb, Neil S; Clifford, Michael J; Barger, Nichole N

    2015-10-01

    Recent droughts and increasing temperatures have resulted in extensive tree mortality across the globe. Understanding the environmental controls on tree regeneration following these drought events will allow for better predictions of how these ecosystems may shift under a warmer, drier climate. Within the widely distributed piñon-juniper woodlands of the southwestern USA, a multiyear drought in 2002-2004 resulted in extensive adult piñon mortality and shifted adult woodland composition to a juniper-dominated, more savannah-type ecosystem. Here, we used pre- (1998-2001) and 10-year post- (2014) drought stand structure data of individually mapped trees at 42 sites to assess the effects of this drought on tree regeneration across a gradient of environmental stress. We found declines in piñon juvenile densities since the multiyear drought due to limited new recruitment and high (>50%) juvenile mortality. This is in contrast to juniper juvenile densities, which increased over this time period. Across the landscape, piñon recruitment was positively associated with live adult piñon densities and soil available water capacity, likely due to their respective effects on seed and water availability. Juvenile piñon survival was strongly facilitated by certain types of nurse trees and shrubs. These nurse plants also moderated the effects of environmental stress on piñon survival: Survival of interspace piñon juveniles was positively associated with soil available water capacity, whereas survival of nursed piñon juveniles was negatively associated with perennial grass cover. Thus, nurse plants had a greater facilitative effect on survival at sites with higher soil available water capacity and perennial grass cover. Notably, mean annual climatic water deficit and elevation were not associated with piñon recruitment or survival across the landscape. Our findings reveal a clear shift in successional trajectories toward a more juniper-dominated woodland and highlight the

  12. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad

    2009-01-01

    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  13. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  14. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    and olive ridley marine turtle hatchlings. T.T. Jones, R.R. Reina Symposium and P.L. Lutz. Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca 44.0 REGULATION OF VERTEBRATE... preference of 16[deg]C acclimated emabs was a genseralist woodrat, with a choice bersween control anod 50% juniper diet under Wsarm (26 1 4.6fdeg]C and thsey...and Olive Ridley Marine Turtle Harvey B. Lillywhite’, Jaishri G. Mceon2, Gopinathan K. Menon’. Ming C. Tuo: ’University, Hatchllngs of Florida

  15. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  16. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  17. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley; Efecto de la contaminacion atmosferica por metales pesados en las hojas de los arboles de la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-07-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  18. Anti-cancer agents in Saudi Arabian herbals revealed by automated high-content imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina

    2017-06-13

    Natural products have been used for medical applications since ancient times. Commonly, natural products are structurally complex chemical compounds that efficiently interact with their biological targets, making them useful drug candidates in cancer therapy. Here, we used cell-based phenotypic profiling and image-based high-content screening to study the mode of action and potential cellular targets of plants historically used in Saudi Arabia\\'s traditional medicine. We compared the cytological profiles of fractions taken from Juniperus phoenicea (Arar), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kaff Maryam), and Citrullus colocynthis (Hanzal) with a set of reference compounds with established modes of action. Cluster analyses of the cytological profiles of the tested compounds suggested that these plants contain possible topoisomerase inhibitors that could be effective in cancer treatment. Using histone H2AX phosphorylation as a marker for DNA damage, we discovered that some of the compounds induced double-strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the active fraction isolated from Juniperus phoenicea revealed possible anti-cancer compounds. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of cell-based phenotypic screening of natural products to reveal their biological activities.

  19. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  20. Characteristics of physical properties in soil profiles under selected introduced trees in the Nature Reserve Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polláková Nora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

  1. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  2. Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Häusler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a new approach to analyze the freezing behavior of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles. The freezing chip consists of an etched and sputtered (15 × 15 × 1 mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold chip, enabling the formation of droplets with defined diameters between 20 and 80 µm. Several applications like an automated process control and an automated image evaluation were implemented to improve the quality of heterogeneous freezing experiments. To show the functionality of the setup, we compared freezing temperatures of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles (i.e., microcline, birch pollen washing water, juniper pollen, and Snomax® solution measured with our setup, with literature data. The ice nucleation active surface/mass site density (ns/m of microcline, juniper pollen, and birch pollen washing water are shown to be in good agreement with literature data. Minor variations can be explained by slight differences in composition and droplet generation technique. The nm values of Snomax® differ by up to one order of magnitude at higher subzero temperatures when compared with fresh samples but are in agreement when compared with reported data of aged Snomax® samples.

  3. Comercio de psitácidos en Nicaragua, del bosque a Managua. Evaluación de la procedencia, métodos de captura y beneficios financieros de la actividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Herrera Scott

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con Collar y Juniper (1992, la mayoría de los psitácidos globalmente amenazados se encuentran en regiones donde la destrucción de la vegetación natural ha sido, y continua siendo, particularmente severa. Si bien Nicaragua no tiene especies globalmente amenazadas de extinción, un acelerado proceso de deforestación ha estado afectando a todo el país, y el riesgo de extinción local es alto para las poblaciones de loras nicaragüenses, (Pérez, 1997 especialmente para las lapas (Collar y Juniper, 1992; Snyder et al. 1992; Wiedenfield et al., 1999. Varias especies de psitácidos, especialmente las lapas, han sido extirpadas de extensos territorios en la planicie del Pacífico del país, donde habitaban hace varias décadas (Ridgely 1980; Wiedenfield et al., 1999; Kainer, 1991; Martínez, 1991.

  4. Minimizing risk associated with shallow burial of waste in semiarid ecosystems: Erosion and vegetation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Martens, S.N.; Nyhan, J.W.; Springer, E.P.; Wilcox, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous regulations govern the disposal of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste by burial in shallow pits. The overall goal of these regulations is to reduce the risk to humans and components of the ecosystem for 500 to 1 000 years. Erosional loss of the soil profile covering waste and contamination of groundwater by leachate are two pathways that influence human and ecological risks. Screening calculations for a waste site in a pinyon-juniper woodland at Los Alamos National Laboratory predict the entire 2 m cover of a waste site could be lost by erosion in less than 500 years. In contrast, less than 0.001% of the waste would reach groundwater by leachate. Predicted erosion rates depend highly on plant cover. The boundary between ponderosa pine forest and pinyon-juniper woodland has shifted more than 1 km in less than 50 years in the Los Alamos region and additional boundary shifts have been hypothesized in conjunction with global warming. High erosion rates (> 0.2 cm per year) have been measured in these transition zones. In concert, these results suggest that risk associated with erosional loss of the waste site cover may greatly exceed risks associated with groundwater contamination in semiarid ecosystems

  5. Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat.

  6. Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat

  7. Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Martin, Paul S.; Foppe, Theresa; Long, Austin

    1980-11-01

    Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dung balls provided radiocarbon ages of 11,330, 12,330 and 12,430 yr B.P. Packrat ( Neotoma) middens disclose a xeric juniper woodland at Shelter Cave during the sloth's occupation. Plant cuticles from the dung indicate that the ground sloth had a diet dominated by mormon tea ( Ephedra) and other xerophytic shrubs. Pollen spectra from the coprolites have high representations of anemophilous plants and low representations of the dietary items shown in the cuticle analysis. Fifteen radiocarbon dates of sloth dung obtained since 1974 strengthen the hypothesis that sloth extinction occurred about 11,000 yr B.P. Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that ground sloths lived in juniper woodlands and montane conifer communities. Nothrotheriops commonly dined on shrubs that are still present in these habitats. It is difficult to explain the demise of the Shasta ground sloth by climatic change or dietary stress. Human predation remains as a possible explanation; ground sloth extinction appears to coincide with the time of Clovis mammoth hunters.

  8. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biotic survey of Los Alamos radioactive liquid-effluent receiving areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.

    A preliminary study was completed of the vegetation and small mammal communities and associated climatology in three canyon liquid waste receiving areas at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Data were gathered on plant and animal composition, distribution, and biomass, along with air temperature, humidity, and precipitation, as a function of elevation and where data were available with season. Initial studies of the understory vegetation in the spring of 1974 indicate grass species to be dominant at higher elevations, with forb species becoming dominant at lower elevations. Generally, the highest total mass estimates for standing green vegetation were obtained in the study sites located in the upper portions of the canyons where precipitation is greatest, and where the terrain and intermittent stream flow result in a wetter habitat. Fourteen species of small mammals were trapped or observed in canyon study areas during two trapping sessions of May--June 1974 and December 1974--February 1975. A greater number of species and the highest rodent biomass estimates in the spring were generally associated with the ponderosa pine/pinion--juniper woodland in the upper reaches of the canyons, and were lowest in the pinion--juniper woodland at the lower portions of the canyons. This trend was observed in only one of the canyons during the winter season. Climatological data gathered in the three canyons since 1973 are also presented to serve as a data base for future reference

  10. Identification of major backscattering sources in trees and shrubs at 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughi, R.; Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A short-range very-fine-resolution FM-CW radar scatterometer has been used to identify the primary contributors to 10-GHz radar backscatter from pine, pin oak, American sycamore and sugar maple trees, and from creeping juniper shrubs. This system provided a range resolution of 11 cm and gave a 16-cm diameter illumination area at the target range of about 4 m. For a pine tree, the needles caused the strongest backscatter as well as the strongest attenuation in the radar signal. Cones, although insignificant contributors to the total backscatter, were more important for backscattering than for attenuation. For the rest of the trees, leaves were the strongest cause of backscattering and attenuation. However, in the absence of leaves, the petioles, small twigs, and branches gave relatively strong backscatter. For American sycamore and sugar maple trees, the fruits did not affect the total backscatter unless they were packed in clusters. For creeping juniper the backscattered energy and attenuation in the radar signal were mainly due to the top two layers of the evergreen scales. The contribution of the tree trunks was not determined.

  11. Engineering report on drilling in the Sand Wash Basin intermediate grade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Intermediate Grade Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 19 drill holes ranging in depth from 275 to 1220 feet (83.9 to 372.1 m). A total of 11,569 feet (3528.5 m) was rotary drilled and 130 feet (39.7 m) were cored for a total of 11,699 feet (3568.2 m) for the project. The project objective was to provide comprehensive subsurface geologic data relevant to Intermediate Grade uranium mineralization of the Browns Park Formation in the Sugar Loaf Peak Site A, and the Little Juniper Mountain Site B areas. All boreholes are located on the USGS Juniper Hot Springs and the Lay 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic) Quadrangles. The project began May 2, 1980; drilling was completed June 3, 1980. Site restoration and clean up was initiated immediately upon the completion of the last borehole and was completed June 8, 1980

  12. over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K. Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sagebrush steppe ecosystems of the Intermountain West have experienced a decline over the past 150 years due to changing fire regimes, invasive species and conifer encroachment. Prescribed fire is a common and cost-effective tool used in sagebrush restoration and fuels management. We examined the post-fire succession of a sagebrush steppe community over a nearly 30-year period at two study sites in northeastern California. The long-term nature of this study was particularly significant, as invasive annual grasses dominated the plant community in the years immediately following fire, but native perennial grasses and shrubs successfully out-competed them in the long term. Shrubs were slow to recover but had returned to pre-fire levels by the end of the study period. There was also notable increase in western juniper throughout the study sites, particularly in areas that had not been burned. Our results indicate that mean fire return intervals of 50 years or less would help reduce western juniper encroachment and preserve sagebrush habitat, especially for potentially threatened species such as the sage grouse.

  13. Nitrogen transformations in response to temperature and rainfall manipulation in oak savanna: A global change experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, R. L.; Boutton, T. W.; Tjoelker, M. G.; Volder, A.; Briske, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are projected to elevate global surface air temperatures by 1.1 to 6.4°C by the end of the century, and potentially magnify the intensity and variability of seasonal precipitation distribution. The mid-latitude grasslands of North America are predicted to experience substantial modification in precipitation regimes, with a shift towards drier summers and wetter spring and fall seasons. Despite these predictions, little is known concerning the effects of these global climate change drivers or their potential interactive effects on nitrogen (N) cycling processes. The purpose of this study is to quantify seasonal variation in rates of N-mineralization, nitrification, and N-losses via leaching in soil subjected to experimental warming and rainfall manipulation. Research was conducted at the Texas A&M Warming and Rainfall Manipulation (WaRM) Site in College Station where eight 9x18m rainout shelters and two unsheltered controls were established in post oak savanna in 2003. Replicate annual rainfall redistribution treatments (n = 4) are applied at the shelter level (long term mean vs. 40% of summer redistributed to fall and spring with same annual total). Warming treatments (ambient vs. 24-hr IR canopy warming of 1-3°C) were applied to planted monocultures of juniper and little bluestem, and a juniper-grass combination. Both juniper and little bluestem are key species within the post oak savanna region. Plots were sampled from the full factorial design during years six and seven of the WaRM experiment. Soil N-mineralization, nitrification, and N-losses via leaching were assessed quarterly for two years using the resin core incubation method. Rainfall, species composition, and time interacted significantly to influence both ammonification and nitrification. Highest rates of ammonification (0.115 mg NH4+ -N/ kg soil/day) occurred in grass monocultures during summer in the control rainfall plots, whereas highest rates of

  14. The quality of the diet of foxes (Vulpes vulpes in a Mediterranean coastal area (Central Italy / Qualità della dieta della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in un'area costiera mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of foxes in the Natural Park of Maremma includes essentially Juniperus fruits and Arthropods, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera. These components were analysed in order to value their chemical nutritive. The following parameters were determined: proximate analysis (crude protein Nx6.25; ether extract; crude fibre; ash, aminoacids, and mineral contents. Juniperus berries are characterized by a low crude protein and ash content (1.83 and 2.75% on dry matter while the level of fibrous constituents, expressed in terms of crude fibre, occurs in relatively high quantities (30.8% on dry matter. By contrast, Orthoptera and Coleoptera show high crude protein content (67.3 and 57.8% on dry matter of average nutritive value (chemical score 0.52 and 0.51. The ash level is 68.8 and 76.6 g/kg on dry matter, with high phosphorus, iron and zinc content. Juniperus berries are a feed component of moderate energy level, while Arthropods seem to be an important mineral and protein source. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nel Parco Naturale della Maremma è costituita essenzialmente da frutti di Ginepro e da Artropodi, soprattutto Coleotteri ed Ortotteri. Allo scopo di fornire una valutazione delle caratteristiche chimico-nutritive di questi componenti alimentari, sono stati analizzati diversi campioni della dieta. Sono stati determinati i parametri riguardanti le analisi standard per gli alimenti di uso zootecnico, il contenuto in aminoacidi e in elementi minerali. I frutti di Ginepro sono caratterizzati da uno scarso tenore in proteine grezze e in ceneri (1,83 e 2,75% della sostanza secca, mentre il contenuto in costituenti fibrosi, espressi in termini di fibra grezza, risulta relativamente elevato (30,8% della sostanza secca. Gli Ortotteri ed i Coleotteri mostrano invece un considerevole contenuto in proteine grezze (67,3 e 57,8% della sostanza secca, di valore

  15. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern red cedar to examine the chemical history of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, R.; McGinnes, E.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research examines the potential of utilizing elemental concentrations in the wood of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) to make inferences about past changes in atmospheric and site chemistry. Crossdated growth increments from live trees and remnant wood are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP Scan) for elements with potential environmental information. Radial heartwood ring series from 300 to 700 years in length are analyzed in 20 year increments for 37 different elements. Evidence for minimal radial translocation of elements in the heartwood is presented. The radial concentration of elements in the bole is found to be coincident with early smelting activities. 7 references, 4 figures

  16. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    John Thornes found that srubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m 2 ) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  17. Insecticidal effects of essential oils extracted from aromatic plants on Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Chahine, M [Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Jdeidet el-Metn (Lebanon); Khoury, N; Webeh, E [Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Jdeidet el-Metn (Lebanon)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The excessive use of chemical pesticides to control agricultural pests is becoming alarming. The objective of this study is to search for biopesticides of plant origin that could be used to control one of the major pest of fruit production; the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). A colony of the Lebanese wild strain of this insect was reared under laboratory condition to provide biological material. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils extracted from aromatic plants in Lebanon was assessed. The tested plants are: Foeniculum vulgare, Thymbra spicata, Artemisia herba alba, Origanum syriacum, Ruta chalepensis, Lavandula stoechas, Salvia fruticosa, Mentha microphylla, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis and Ocimum gratissimum. Results show that essential oils isolated from F. vulgare, T. spicata, A. herba alba, O. syriacum and R. chalepensis have promising insecticidal potential. (author)

  18. Reconstrucción paleoambiental del Pleistoceno Superior en la desembocadura del río Millars a través del análisis palinológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Casas Gallego

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis palinológico efectuado sobre sedimentos del Pleistoceno superior en la desembocadura del río Millars, que han permitido detectar un episodio frío que interrumpió la vegetación presente en la zona y ejerció un efecto de debilitamiento sobre el caudal del río. La presencia de polen de arbustos termófilos constata la importancia del litoral castellonense como zona refugio durante el último máximo glacial. La interpretación paleoclimática está basada en la variación de los porcentajes de Pinus, Juniperus, arbustos mesotermófilos y elementos acuáticos.

  19. A simple and rapid method for isolation of high quality genomic DNA from fruit trees and conifers using PVP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Shin, J S; Chung, Y S; Hyung, N I

    1997-03-01

    Because DNA degradation is mediated by secondary plant products such as phenolic terpenoids, the isolation of high quality DNA from plants containing a high content of polyphenolics has been a difficult problem. We demonstrate an easy extraction process by modifying several existing ones. Using this process we have found it possible to isolate DNAs from four fruit trees, grape (Vitis spp.), apple (Malus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.) and persimmon (Diospyros spp.) and four species of conifer, Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis,Taxus cuspidata and Juniperus chinensis within a few hours. Compared with the existing method, we have isolated high quality intact DNAs (260/280 = 1.8-2.0) routinely yielding 250-500 ng/microl (total 7.5-15 microg DNA from four to five tissue discs).

  20. The Volatile Composition of Portuguese Propolis Towards its Origin Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia I. Falcão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles from thirty six propolis samples collected from six different geographical locations in Portugal (mainland, Azores archipelago and Madeira Island were evaluated. Populus x canadensis Moenchen leaf-buds and Cistus ladanifer L. branches essential oils were comparatively analysed. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on propolis samples volatiles chemical composition defined three main clusters, not related to sample site collection. Cluster I grouped 28 samples with high relative amounts of oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes (20-77%, while cluster II grouped 7 samples rich in oxygen-containing monoterpenes (9-65% and the only sample from cluster III was monoterpene hydrocarbons rich (26%. Although Populus x canadensis and Cistus ladanifer were associated as resin sources of Portuguese propolis, other Populus species as well as plants like Juniperus genus may contribute to the resin in specific geographical locations.

  1. Conifers in decorative arboretum of Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglacheva Arina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation that taking place during of spontaneous cultivars introduction have not taken into consideration for last 10 years. The plants introduction in the Botanic Garden PSU have a planned character in a northwest middle taiga. Decorative arboretum was laid in 2000 (Potapova, Prokhorov, 2010. By 2014, the conifers collection includes 159 specimens of 98 cultivars belonging to 28 species, 10 genera and 3 families (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Taxaceae. Taxa are presented as species with narrow native habitat (Microbiota decussata, Thujopsis dolabrata, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Picea omorika, and with a wide (Juniperus communis. Plants were planted gradually. Annual plant monitoring include measuring of height, width of the crown, trunk diameter, needles color, seed-bearing, damage. Based on the study was identified plants groups in growth rate, seed-bearing. The number of generative samples are increased from 17 to 53% during 2007-2014. Seed-bearing is not a constant parameter and depends on a complex of abiotic factors.

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in plant leaves from Yan׳an city of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youning; Wang, Dexiang; Wei, Lijing; Zhang, Xinping; Song, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Urban plants are capable of reducing environmental pollutions through bioaccumulation contaminants in their tissues. The accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn) in leaves of nine tree species and five shrub species from Yan׳an city of China were investigated, and total metal accumulation capacities of different plants were evaluated using the metal accumulation index (MAI). The results indicated that plants in polluted environments are enriched in heavy metals relative to those in pristine environments, this is mainly caused by traffic emissions and coal combustion. Species with the highest accumulation of a single metal did not have the highest total metal accumulation capacity, the MAI should be an important indicator for tree species selection in phytoextraction and urban greening. Considering total accumulation capacities, Sabina chinensis, Juniperus formosana, Ailanthus altissima and Salix matsudana var. matsudana could be widely used in the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain; El matorral como protector del suelo y los recursos hidricos en la Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Espana. Implicaciones economicas de su manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    John Thornes found that scrubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m{sup 2}) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  4. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  5. Exploring the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan: a case study from the Merak Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtsho, Karma; Sridith, Kitichate

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted from March to September 2012 along the altitudinal gradient of the Jomokungkhar trail in the Merak Himalaya of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary to study the floristic compositions and the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan. The vegetation of the sampled plots is classified into five types of communities based on the hierarchical cluster analysis at similarity index 63% viz., (1) Riverine Community; (2) Abies-Rhododendron Woodland Community; (3) Juniperus Scrub Community; (4) Rhododendron Krummholz and (5) Alpine Meadow, based on the floristic compositions. In addition, it was noticed that the fragile alpine environment of the Merak Himalaya has high plant diversity and important plants that are susceptible to the anthropogenic pressures.

  6. Determining the resilience of carbon dynamics in semi-arid biomes of the Southwestern US to severe drought and altered rainfall patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Hilton, T. W.; Fox, A. M.; Osuna, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Water is critically important for biotic processes in semi-arid ecosystems and 2011 is developing as one of the most severe drought years on record for many parts of the Southwestern US. To quantify the impact of this severe drought on regional carbon and energy balance, we need a more detailed understanding of how water limitation alters ecosystem processes across a range of semi-arid biomes. We quantified the impact of severe drought and changes in both the quantity and distribution of precipitation on ecosystem biotic structure and function across the range of biomes represented in the NM elevation gradient network (desert grassland, creosote shrubland, juniper savanna, piñon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest and subalpine mixed conifer forest). We compared how daily, seasonal and annual carbon and energy balance and their components in each of these biomes respond to changes in rainfall patterns using continuous measurements of carbon, water and energy exchange and associated measurements in each of these biomes during a 5 year period (2006-2011) that included a severe drought, and large variability in both winter precipitation and the timing and intensity of the monsoon. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we used time series of radiation absorbed by vegetation, surface albedo, soil moisture storage, phenology, gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and WorldView-2 images acquired pre- and post-monsoon in each of these biomes. In all of the biomes except the desert grassland site, the strength and timing of both winter and monsoon precipitation are important controls over carbon and energy dynamics in this region, though we see site-specific sensitivities across the elevation gradient. Over the past 5 years, carbon dynamics in the desert grassland site appears to be decoupled from winter precipitation. In addition, carbon dynamics in disturbed grassland and pinon-juniper ecosystems were more sensitive to severe drought than

  7. Catálogo florístico del término de Ladruñán (Castellote, Maestrazgo, Teruel [Floristic Checklist of Ladruñán (Castellote, Teruel, E Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni AGUILELLA i PALASÍ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta el catalogo florístico del término de Ladruñán, en el Guadalope medio (NE de Teruel, donde la diversidad de hábitats favorece la coexistencia de 694 taxones vegetales, en un área que apenas llega a una tercera parte de una cuadrícula MGRS de 10x10 km. Algunas citas como la de Ridolfia segetum, constituyen una nueva localidad relevante para la flora aragonesa. De cada taxón se dan las cuadrículas MGRS en las que está presente. En algunos casos como Arbutus unedo, Erica multiflora, Juniperus thurifera y Ridolfia segetum, se hacen comentarios adicionales. Palabras clave: Florística, Catálogo, Corología. SUMMARY: Floristic Checklist of Ladruñán (Castellote, Teruel, E Spain. In this work, the checklist of Ladruñán area is presented. The habitats diversity of this territory, from the medium Guadalope River Basin, allows the presence of 693 taxa, with an area near to a third part of a 10x10 km2 MGRS square. Some records, as that of Ridolfia segetum, are a new and relevant record for the flora of Aragón. For every taxon we provided the 10x10 km2 squares were it has been observed or collected. In some cases as Arbutus unedo, Erica multiflora, Juniperus thurifera and Ridolfia segetum, some extra comments are made. Key words: loristics, Checklist, Chorology.

  8. Desarrollo de ecuaciones alométricas de biomasa para la regeneración de cuatro especies en Durango, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favian Flores Medina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo consistió en el desarrollo de ecuaciones alométricas para estimar la biomasa aérea por fracciones de grosor de la regeneración de Arbutus arizonica, Juniperus deppeana, Quercus sideroxyla y Pinus cooperi en la Unidad de Manejo Forestal (Umafor 1008 en el estado de Durango. Se utilizaron datos provenientes de 114 individuos (25, 29, 30 y 30, respectivamente, colectados mediante un muestreo destructivo para ajustar los modelos. La aditividad de las ecuaciones de estimación de biomasa se aseguró mediante el ajuste simultáneo de todas las ecuaciones, con el procedimiento estadístico denominado 3SLS (Three-Stage Least Squares. Los modelos desarrollados permiten estimar la biomasa en peso seco de los componentes, peso total, hojas, ramillas ( 2.51 cm. Las ecuaciones alométricas con mejor ajuste correspondieron al peso total, con valores de coeficiente de determinación ajustado de 0.97, 0.94, 0.95 y 0.97 para Arbutus, Juniperus, Quercus y Pinus cooperi, respectivamente. En general las ecuaciones mostraron un ajuste satisfactorio en cada una de las fracciones; con ellas se podrán hacer estimaciones no destructivas de la biomasa por categoría de grosor de la regeneración de las cuatro especies estudiadas, lo que mejorará las predicciones de biomasa y almacén de carbono por fracciones en los bosques con presencia de los cuatro taxa estudiados.

  9. Diurnal Variations of Airborne Pollen and Spores in Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lin Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of airborne pollen and spores in Taipei City, Taiwan, was investigated during a two-year survey from 1993 to 1994. The pollen and spores were sampled using a Burkard seven-day volumetric pollen trap. The diurnal trends of the total amount of pollen and spores in 1993 and in 1994 were similar to each other, and peaked at 3 to 10 o’clock. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen and spores of Broussonetia, Fraxinus, Cyathea and Gramineae in 1993 were similar to those in 1994. High concentrations of Broussonetia and Fraxinus were obtained from midnight to the next morning. Cyathea spores peaked from morning till noon, and Gramineae peaked in the afternoon. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen of Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae in 1993 were different to those in 1994. Regular diurnal patterns also associated with the taxa, which produce large pollen or spores, such as Gramineae and Cyathea. In contrast, Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae produce relatively small pollen and the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were found irregular. The source plants Broussonetia and Fraxinus were close to the collection site so the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were regular, suggesting that the diurnal fluctuations of the pollen or spores in air might be affected by the source of plants and the sizes of pollen or spores. The transportation of the smaller pollen or spores in air is probably more easily affected by instability of air currents; they are therefore more likely to exhibit irregular diurnal patterns.

  10. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego A; Gomez, Analía de Los A; Jimenez, Cristina M; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A

    2017-06-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves of Kazakhstan medicinal plants was analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were 1,8-cineole (34.2%), myrcene (19.1%) and α-pinene (9.4%) in Ajania fruticulosa; 1,8-cineole (21.0%), β-thujone (11.0%), camphor (8.5%), borneol (7.3%) and α-thujone (6.5%), in Achillea nobilis; camphor (47.3%), 1,8-cineole (23.9%), camphene (9.8%) and β-thujone (6.0%) in Artemisia terrae-albae; 1,8-cineole(55.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%) in Hyssopus ambiguus; α-thuyene(46.3%) and δ-cadinene(6.3%) in Juniperus sibirica; sabinene (64%) in Juniperus sabina; and α-pinene (51.5%), β-phellandrene (11.2%) and δ-cadinene (6.3%) in Pinus sibirica. The essential oils did not show antifungal effect (MIC > 1.20 mg/mL) on Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger, while the oils from A. nobilis, A. terrae-albae, H. ambiguus and J. sabina exhibited moderate and moderate to weak antimicrobial activities on Fusarium verticillioides (MIC = 0.60 mg/mL) and Fusarium graminearum (MIC = 0.60-1.20 mg/mL), respectively. A principal component analysis associated the antifungal activity (r 2  > 0.80, p = 0.05) with the presence of borneol, camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole,α- and β-thujone, and of the oxygenated monoterpenes.

  11. The greening of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Pramod; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Atreya, Kishor

    2017-12-01

    The possible disruption of climate change (CC) on the ecological, economic and social segments of human interest has made this phenomenon a major issue over the last couple of decades. Mountains are fragile ecosystems, projected to endure a higher impact from the increased warming. This study presents modelled CC projections with respect to the suitability for the growth of nine near-treeline plant species of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau through niche modelling technique using CLIMEX and estimates their potential future distribution and the extent of greening in the region. Two global climate models, CSIRO-MK 3.0 (CS) and MIROCH-H (MR) were used under IPCC A1B and A2 emission scenarios for the year 2050 and 2100. The results indicate that climatic suitability of the nine species expands towards higher elevations into areas that are currently unsuitable while currently suitable areas in many regions become climatically unsuitable in the future. The total climatically suitable area for the nine species at current time is around 1.09 million km2, with an additional 0.68 and 0.35 million km2 becoming suitable by 2050 and 2100 respectively. High elevation belts, especially those lying above 3500 m, will see more climatically suitable areas for the nine species in the future. Cold stress is the main factor limiting current distribution and its decrease will affect the overall expansion of climatic suitability in the region. Impacts on nature conservation and water and food security could be expected from such shift of climatic suitability in the region. The species includes (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga dumosa, (vii) Rhododendron campanulatum, (viii) Ephedra gerardiana, and (ix) Cassiope fastigiata. The species list from top to bottom are (i) Abies spectabilis, (ii) Acer campbellii, (iii) Betula utilis, (iv) Juniperus indica, (v) Quercus semecarpifolia, (vi) Tsuga

  12. A comparison of 137Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental 137 Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil 137 Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage 137 Cs concentrations. The study's objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation 137 Cs concentrations are statistically the same

  13. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora

  14. Floristic composition and plant succession on near-surface radioactive-waste-disposal facilities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, G.D.; Foxx, T.S.

    1982-03-01

    Since 1946, low-level radioactive waste has been buried in shallow landfills within the confines of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Five of these sites were studied for plant composition and successional patterns by reconnaissance and vegetation mapping. The data show a slow rate of recovery for all sites, regardless of age, in both the pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine communities. The sites are not comparable in succession or composition because of location and previous land use. The two oldest sites have the highest species diversity and the only mature trees. All sites allowed to revegetate naturally tend to be colonized by the same species that originally surrounded the sites. Sites on historic fields are colonized by the old field flora, whereas those in areas disturbed only by grazing are revegetated by the local native flora.

  15. Radionuclides in redistributed sediments and ash from the Las Conchas fire in Northern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, B.S.; Oldham, Jr.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Las Conchas fire burned 632 km 2 of ponderosa pine forests and pinon-juniper woodlands in the Jemez Mountains in north central New Mexico. In the weeks following the fire, heavy rainfall caused extensive flooding and erosion of surface soil and ash from the affected areas. Samples from mud and ash flows were collected and analyzed for 137 Cs and Pu, which were originally deposited as global fallout during the era of atmospheric nuclear testing. The mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs were 0.18 ± 0.05, 4.16 ± 1.95, and 111 ± 56 mBq/g, respectively. 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs are significantly elevated above non-fire affected regional background levels. (author)

  16. Response of Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa_and Cladobotrym sp. Mushroom Pathogens to Some Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of 18 essential oils was evaluated against Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa and Cladobotryum sp., the causal agents of button mushroom diseases. Essential oils including: turpentine, basil, lemon, mint, fenchel, rose geranium, anise, cinnamon, scots pine, clove, thyme, juniper, lavender, orange, eucalyptus, rosemary, bergamot orange and tea tree, were screened for their effectiveness against the pathogens in vitro. In order to investigate fungicidal activity, isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils for seven days. Of the 18 essential oils analyzed, cinnamon, clove, thyme, and tea tree showed the highest antifungal activity against all investigated mycopathogens,with Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC being 0.02 μl/ml of air. Turpentine essential oil expressed the lowest antifungal effect to all isolates tested.

  17. NEAR FIELS COMMUNICATIONS – FROM TOUCH TO TAP MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MITREA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Machine to Machine (M2M Market, according to Digital Research (2012 was 121 bn. $ in 2010, and was estimated by Digital Research to be 948 bn. $ for 2020. The so-called non-connectivity revenue (no human implication will rise from 3% in 2010 to 25% in 2017, meaning no human interaction will be necessary to retrieve certain machines data. The data models processed from the information gathered here, can certainly predict clear consumer behaviors. Near Filed Communication has its own capacity to be part of the internet of things, as an interaction meter for human reactions to environment. Juniper Research (2014 on NFC, splits his marketing potential between smart posters, coupons, smart tickets for public transportation, consumer goods information, electronic wallet, but also on social media, smart homes, smart cars or even smarter cities.

  18. Phenological Characterization of Desert Sky Island Vegetation Communities with Remotely Sensed and Climate Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are expected to impact the synchronicity and interactions between the Sonoran Desert and the forested sky islands which represent steep biological and environmental gradients. The main objectives were to examine how well satellite greenness time series data and derived phenological metrics (e.g., season start, peak greenness can characterize specific vegetation communities across an elevation gradient, and to examine the interactions between climate and phenological metrics for each vegetation community. We found that representative vegetation types (11, varying between desert scrub, mesquite, grassland, mixed oak, juniper and pine, often had unique seasonal and interannual phenological trajectories and spatial patterns. Satellite derived land surface phenometrics (11 for each of the vegetation communities along the cline showed numerous distinct significant relationships in response to temperature (4 and precipitation (7 metrics. Satellite-derived sky island vegetation phenology can help assess and monitor vegetation dynamics and provide unique indicators of climate variability and patterns of change.

  19. Sensitivity of the normalized difference vegetation index to subpixel canopy cover, soil albedo, and pixel scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical framework is provided for examining the physically based behavior of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of the variability in bulk subpixel landscape components and with respect to variations in pixel scales, within the context of the stochastic-geometric canopy reflectance model. Analysis focuses on regional scale variability in horizontal plant density and soil background reflectance distribution. Modeling is generalized to different plant geometries and solar angles through the use of the nondimensional solar-geometric similarity parameter. Results demonstrate that, for Poisson-distributed plants and for one deterministic distribution, NDVI increases with increasing subpixel fractional canopy amount, decreasing soil background reflectance, and increasing shadows, at least within the limitations of the geometric reflectance model. The NDVI of a pecan orchard and a juniper landscape is presented and discussed.

  20. Patient-reported outcomes instruments: bridging the gap between international copyright laws and common practice for developers and users--a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfray, Caroline

    2009-12-01

    Copyright laws are intended to protect the rights of authors in their literary, scientific, and artistic works. The recent controversy about the standardized version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire between Elizabeth Juniper and Eirini Grammatopoulou et al. is an example of the difficulties inherent to copyright faced by developers and users of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. This brief communication presents the basics of international copyright laws (i.e., the Berne Convention), the facts behind the controversy, and our analysis of the case based on our experience as a distributing center of PRO instruments. We conclude that better communication between developers and users would prevent most unfortunate complications and misunderstandings.

  1. Ground motion effects of underground nuclear testing on perennial vegetation at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1976-07-01

    In this study to estimate the potential injury to vegetation from earth movement caused by underground nuclear detonations and to estimate the extent to which this may have occurred at NTS, two explosions in the megaton range on Pahute Mesa were studied in some detail: Boxcar, which caused a surface subsidence, and Benham, which did not. Because of the subsidence phenomenology, shock propagation through the earth and along the surface, and the resulting fractures, shrubs were killed at Boxcar around the perimeter of the subsidence crater. Both trees and shrubs were killed along tectonic faults, which became the path for earth fractures, and along fractures and rock falls elsewhere. There was also evidence at Boxcar of tree damage which antedated the nuclear testing program, presumably from natural earthquakes. With the possible exception of damage to aged junipers this investigation did not reveal any good evidence of immediate effects from underground testing on vegetation beyond that recognized earlier as the edge effect

  2. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  3. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  4. Modelling the Ozone-Based Treatments for Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Joanna Brodowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of a model for ozone treatment in a dynamic bed of different microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus niger, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum on a heterogeneous matrix (juniper berries, cardamom seeds initially treated with numerous ozone doses during various contact times was studied. Taking into account various microorganism susceptibility to ozone, it was of great importance to develop a sufficiently effective ozone dose to preserve food products using different strains based on the microbial model. For this purpose, we have chosen the Weibull model to describe the survival curves of different microorganisms. Based on the results of microorganism survival modelling after ozone treatment and considering the least susceptible strains to ozone, we selected the critical ones. Among tested strains, those from genus Bacillus were recognized as the most critical strains. In particular, B. subtilis and B. pumilus possessed the highest resistance to ozone treatment because the time needed to achieve the lowest level of its survival was the longest (up to 17.04 min and 16.89 min for B. pumilus reduction on juniper berry and cardamom seed matrix, respectively. Ozone treatment allow inactivate microorganisms to achieving lower survival rates by ozone dose (20.0 g O3/m3 O2, with a flow rate of 0.4 L/min and contact time (up to 20 min. The results demonstrated that a linear correlation between parameters p and k in Weibull distribution, providing an opportunity to calculate a fitted equation of the process.

  5. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  6. Available nitrogen: A time-based study of manipulated resource islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Michelle M.; Pyke, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of available nitrogen are critical determinants of the distribution and abundance of plants and animals in ecosystems. Evidence for the resource island theory suggests that soils below tree and shrub canopies contain higher amounts of resources, including available nitrogen, than are present in interspace areas. Disturbances, such as prescribed fire and tree removal, are common management practices in shrub-woodland ecosystems, but it is not known if these practices affect resource islands. We examined temporal variation in resource islands of available nitrogen and their retention after fire and woody plant removal. From August 1997 to October 1998, soil nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) were measured monthly from canopy and interspace plots within four juniper-sagebrush sites along a precipitation gradient in central Oregon, USA. At each site, soil samples were collected from untreated plots, plots in which woody plants were removed, and those treated with prescribed fire in fall 1997. In burned treatments, canopy concentrations were significantly higher than interspace concentrations throughout the measurement period. Canopy NO3− and NH4+ concentrations were significantly higher on burned vs. unburned treatments for four months after fire. After woody plant removal, NO3− and NH4+ concentrations did not differ from the controls. Untreated control areas had higher NO3− and NH4+ concentrations under juniper canopies for nearly all months. Wetter sites had smaller differences between canopy and interspace concentrations through time than did the two drier sites. In relation to NO3− and NH4+ in this ecosystem, resource islands appear to be more ephemeral in wetter sites, and more pronounced following fire disturbances than in controls or those treated by woody plant removal.

  7. Food habits of rodents inhabiting arid and semi-arid ecosystems of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe seasonal dietary composition for 15 species of rodents collected in all major habitats on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Socorro County) in central New Mexico. A comprehensive literature review of food habits for these species from throughout their distribution also is provided. We collected rodents in the field during winter, spring and late summer in 1998 from six communities: riparian cottonwood forest; piñon-juniper woodland; juniper-oak savanna; mesquite savanna; short-grass steppe; and Chihuahuan Desert scrubland. Rodents included Spermophilus spilosoma (Spotted Ground Squirrel), Perognathus flavescens (Plains Pocket Mouse), Perognathus flavus (Silky Pocket Mouse), Dipodomys merriami (Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys ordii (Ord’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys spectabilis (Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat), Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western Harvest Mouse), Peromyscus boylii (Brush Mouse), Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus Mouse), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse), Peromyscus truei (Piñon Mouse), Onychomys arenicola (Mearn’s Grasshopper Mouse), Onychomys leucogaster (Northern Grasshopper Mouse), Neotoma albigula/leucodon (White-throated Woodrats), and Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat). We collected stomach contents of all species, and cheek-pouch contents of heteromyids, and quantified them in the laboratory. We determined seasonal diets in each habitat by calculating mean percentage volumes of seeds, arthropods and green vegetation (plant leaves and stems) for each species of rodent. Seeds consumed by each rodent were identified to genus, and often species, and quantified by frequency counts. Comparisons of diets between and among species of rodents, seasons, and ecosystems were also examined. We provide an appendix of all plant taxa documented.

  8. Modelling the Ozone-Based Treatments for Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Nowak, Agnieszka; Kondratiuk-Janyska, Alina; Piątkowski, Marcin; Śmigielski, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a model for ozone treatment in a dynamic bed of different microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus niger, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum) on a heterogeneous matrix (juniper berries, cardamom seeds) initially treated with numerous ozone doses during various contact times was studied. Taking into account various microorganism susceptibility to ozone, it was of great importance to develop a sufficiently effective ozone dose to preserve food products using different strains based on the microbial model. For this purpose, we have chosen the Weibull model to describe the survival curves of different microorganisms. Based on the results of microorganism survival modelling after ozone treatment and considering the least susceptible strains to ozone, we selected the critical ones. Among tested strains, those from genus Bacillus were recognized as the most critical strains. In particular, B. subtilis and B. pumilus possessed the highest resistance to ozone treatment because the time needed to achieve the lowest level of its survival was the longest (up to 17.04 min and 16.89 min for B. pumilus reduction on juniper berry and cardamom seed matrix, respectively). Ozone treatment allow inactivate microorganisms to achieving lower survival rates by ozone dose (20.0 g O3/m3 O2, with a flow rate of 0.4 L/min) and contact time (up to 20 min). The results demonstrated that a linear correlation between parameters p and k in Weibull distribution, providing an opportunity to calculate a fitted equation of the process. PMID:28991199

  9. Factors that influence quality of life in rural children with asthma and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work, and asthma education on their quality of life. Two hundred one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children participated in interactive asthma workshop(s) and received asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained before and after the intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (P = .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (P = .08). Parent's EQOL and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, P = .009; AQOL, P = .03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements was associated with asthma severity. Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents.

  10. Termoplastia brônquica: relato do primeiro tratamento endoscópico de asma na América Latina Bronchial thermoplasty: report on the first endoscopic treatment for asthma in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Sperb Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A termoplastia brônquica é um novo procedimento broncoscópico que libera energia por radiofreqüência nas vias aéreas, com potencial redução da broncoconstrição causada pela contratura da musculatura lisa. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 48 anos, portador de asma persistente moderada, submetido à termoplastia brônquica. O tratamento aumentou o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, aumentou o número de dias livres de sintomas, reduziu o uso da medicação de resgate e melhorou o escore no questionário de Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Scale. A termoplastia brônquica foi bem tolerada e segura. Esta foi a primeira termoplastia brônquica na América Latina, com resultados estimulantes após 12 meses quanto ao seu potencial benefício em asmáticos pouco controlados.Bronchial thermoplasty is a new bronchoscopic procedure that delivers radiofrequency energy to the airway and potentially reduces the smooth muscle-mediated bronchoconstriction. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with persistent moderate asthma submitted to bronchial thermoplasty. The treatment increased the forced expiratory volume in one second, increased the number of symptom-free days, reduced the use of relief medications, and improved the Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Scale score. In this patient, bronchial thermoplasty was well tolerated and safe. This was the first bronchial thermoplasty performed in Latin America. At 12 months after the procedure, the results were encouraging in terms of its potential benefits in patients with difficult-to-control asthma.

  11. The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nathan B; McDowell, Nate G; Allen, Craig D; Mora, Claudia

    2011-10-30

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ(13)C or δ(18)O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ(13)C (up to 0.4‰) and δ(18) O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ(13)C and δ(18)O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ(13)C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ(18)O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen isotope variation in live and dead trees†

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, Craig D.; Mora, C.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring carbon and oxygen isotope ratios from live and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ13C and δ18O values of whole wood obscuring the isotopic signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from live and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of isotopic compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ13C or δ18O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both live and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ13C (up to 0.4‰) and δ18O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ13C and δ18O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ18O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of isotopic patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.

  13. Bio-prospecting of Plants and Marine Organisms in Saudi Arabia for New Potential Bioactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.

    2016-12-08

    The natural resources offer a unique opportunity for the discovery of active compounds, due to the complexity and biodiversity of their chemical structures. Natural resources have been used as medicines throughout human history. Saudi Arabia’s natural resources, for instance its terrestrial medicinal plants and the Red Sea sponges, have not been extensively investigated with regard to their biological activities. To better identify the diversity of compounds with bioactive potential, new techniques are also necessary in order to improve the drug discovery path. This study comprises three sections. The first section examines Juniperus phoenicea (Arar), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kaff Maryam) and Citrullus colocynthis (Hanzal); these herbal plants were screened for potential bioactivity using a newly developed pipeline based on a high-content screening technique. We report a new cell-based high-throughput phenotypic screening for the bio-prospecting of unknown natural products from Saudi Arabian plants, in order to reveal their biological activities. The second section investigates Avicennia marina plants, screened for reverse transcriptase anti-HIV bioactivity using biochemical assay. Image-based high-content screening with a set of cellular stains was used to investigate the phenotypic results of toxicity and cell cycle arrest. The third section considers the isolation of Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges. Actinomycetes bacterial isolates were tested for bioactivity against West Nile Virus NS3 Protease. Analytical chemical techniques such as liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to gain more understanding of the possible chemical compounds responsible for this bioactivity. Overall, the aim of this work is to investigate the potential bioactive effect of several Saudi Arabian plants and Red Sea sponges against cancer cells and viral infections. Our study

  14. Environmental variables and the use of habitat of the Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in the Maremma Natural Park, Grosseto province, Central Italy / Parametri ambientali e uso dell'habitat della volpe Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 in alcune aree del Parco Naturale della Maremma (GR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lovari

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Berries of Juniperus oxycedrus, beetles and grasshoppers were the staple of the fox diet in the coastal ecotone of the Maremma Natural Park, while fruit and Insects were the main food resources in a rural zone around the park. Chiefly berries of J. oxycedrus, but also Insects and carrion, built up the greater part of the fox diet in the pinewood. On average, the presence in diet was correlated with the availability of the main food resources, which in turn was correlated with climatic factors. These influenced also the activity pattern of the Red fox. Home ranges were the largest (330 ha in the pinewood, intermediate (213 ha in the coastal ecotone, and smallest (131 ha in the rural zone. Such differences in size may be explained with the local pattern of food distribution and abundance, which also influenced the habitat use of the fox. In spite of the presence of several farm houses in the rural range, poultry and domestic rabbits were almost absent in the fox diet. The scrubwood (macchia was consistently the most preferred vegetation type. Riassunto Frutti di ginepro (Juniperus oxycedrus, Coleotteri e Ortotteri hanno costituito la maggior parte della dieta della Volpe nell'ecotone costiero del Parco Naturale della Maremma, mentre frutti e Insetti sono stati le principali risorse trofiche in una zona rurale nella parte esterna del parco. Nella pineta la dieta è risultata costituita prevalentemente da frutti di ginepro, ma anche da insetti e carogne. In media la presenza nella dieta delle principali risorse alimentari è risultata correlata con la loro disponibilità, la quale si è dimostrata a sua volta correlata con fattori climatici. Questi ultimi hanno influenzato anche il ritmo di attività della Volpe. Le dimensioni degli home range sono risultate massime (330 ha nella pineta, intermedie (213 ha nell'ecotone costiero e minime (131 ha nella zona rurale. Queste differenze

  15. Aeropalynological Study of Kinmen Island, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng-Cheng Huang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hay-fever and allergic rhinitis have been a serious problem in Kinmen, an island close to mainland China. To elucidate the relationship of pollen and spores to such a problem, an aeropalynological study was conducted during 2003 in Kinmen. In Kinmen’s Kin-Hu City, a Burkard seven-day volumetric pollen trap was installed on the roof of a house, about 10 m above the ground, to collect airborne pollen samples. Over a study period of one year, a total of 50,278 pollen grains and fern spores, belonging to 51 taxa of 39 families were identified. Among them, 33 families were angiosperms, two families gymnosperms, and four families ferns. Twelve taxa produced a higher percentage of airborne pollen in this survey. They are Casuarina (27.5%, Morus (15.2%, Fraxinus (12.3%, Pinus (11.3%, Dicranopteris (7.0%, Celtis (5.0%, Juniperus (4.2%, Ambrosia (4.0%, Gramineae (2.8%, Liquidambar (1.3%, Podocarpus (1.1%, and Artemisia (0.5%. The highest concentrations of airborne pollen were detected over the period from mid February to mid June. The dominant pollen species varied with seasons, with Morus, Juniperus and Liquidambar dominating in February and the beginning of March, Pinus in February and March, Celtis in March, Casuarina in April, May, June, and August, Podocarpus from the end of April to the beginning of May, Fraxinus in June, Dicranopteris in June and July, Ambrosia in August, Artemisia in October, and Gramineae in November. Throughout the study time, arboreal pollen (79.9% was more abundant than non-arboreal pollen (8.5% and fern spore (8.1%. Ragweed pollen, the allergenic one, reached its maximum in the atmosphere in August and showed a peak of diurnal periodicity at 7:00-9:00 am. As a result of this study, a pollen calendar for Kinmen was established to illustrate the seasonal variations in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of airborne pollen and spores. The data of the present study provide a basis for further pollinosis studies in

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  17. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  18. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  19. Essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants as antioxidant and novel anticancer agents in human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of tumor growth using extracts from aromatic plants are rapidly emerging as important new drug candidates for cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity and in vitro anticancer evaluation of the essential oils from thyme, juniper and clove has been assessed against five different human cancer cell lines (liver HepG2, breast MCF-7, prostate PC3, colon HCT116 and lung A549. A GC/MS analysis revealed that α-pinene, thymol and eugenol are the major components of Egyptian juniper, thyme and clove oils with concentrations of 31.19%, 79.15% and 82.71%, respectively. Strong antioxidant profiles of all the oils are revealed in vitro by DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that clove oil was similarly potent to the reference drug, doxorubicin in prostate, colon and lung cell lines. Thyme oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in breast and lung cell lines while juniper oil was more effective than the doxorubicin in all the tested cancer cell lines except prostate cancer. In conclusion, the essential oils from Egyptian aromatic plants can be used as good candidates for novel therapeutic strategies for cancer as they possess significant anticancer activity.Los inhibidores de crecimiento de tumores usando extractos de plantas aromáticas están emergiendo con rapidez como nuevos e importantes medicamentos para el tratamiento del cáncer. La citotoxicidad y la acción anticancerígena in vitro de aceites esenciales de tomillo, enebro y clavo han sido evaluadas en cinco líneas celulares de cáncer humano (hígado HepG2, mama MCF-7, próstata PC3, colon HCT116 y pulmón A549. Los análisis de GC/MS mostraron que α-pineno, timol y eugenol son los principales componentes de los aceites egipcios de enebro, tomillo y clavo, con concentraciones de 31,19%, 79,15% y 82,71%, respectivamente. Se demuestra, mediante ensayos in vitro de blanqueo de DPPH y β-caroteno, el enérgico perfil antioxidante de todos los aceites. Los resultados

  20. Develop a solution for protecting and securing enterprise networks from malicious attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuru, Harshitha; Nijim, Mais

    2014-05-01

    In the world of computer and network security, there are myriad ways to launch an attack, which, from the perspective of a network, can usually be defined as "traffic that has huge malicious intent." Firewall acts as one of the measure in order to secure the device from incoming unauthorized data. There are infinite number of computer attacks that no firewall can prevent, such as those executed locally on the machine by a malicious user. From the network's perspective, there are numerous types of attack. All the attacks that degrade the effectiveness of data can be grouped into two types: brute force and precision. The Firewall that belongs to Juniper has the capability to protect against both types of attack. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are one of the most well-known network security threats under brute force attacks, which is largely due to the high-profile way in which they can affect networks. Over the years, some of the largest, most respected Internet sites have been effectively taken offline by Denial of Service (DOS) attacks. A DoS attack typically has a singular focus, namely, to cause the services running on a particular host or network to become unavailable. Some DoS attacks exploit vulnerabilities in an operating system and cause it to crash, such as the infamous Win nuke attack. Others submerge a network or device with traffic so that there are no more resources to handle legitimate traffic. Precision attacks typically involve multiple phases and often involves a bit more thought than brute force attacks, all the way from reconnaissance to machine ownership. Before a precision attack is launched, information about the victim needs to be gathered. This information gathering typically takes the form of various types of scans to determine available hosts, networks, and ports. The hosts available on a network can be determined by ping sweeps. The available ports on a machine can be located by port scans. Screens cover a wide variety of attack traffic

  1. Determining the Impact of Forest Mortality in Semi-Arid Woodlands on Local and Regional Carbon Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2018-04-09

    We received funds in July 2012, and with supplemental funds, this funding ended in July 2017. Our overall project goals were to quantify the consequences of pinon mortality for carbon, water and energy exchange in pinon-juniper woodlands. To do this, we have been continuously measuring carbon, water and energy exchange using eddy covariance, over two pinon-juniper woodlands in central New Mexico. In one site, we girdled 1632 trees in the 4 ha surrounding the tower in Sept 2009. The other site, only 5 km away on the same plateau, was left intact, to serve as a control. We used this paired tower approach so we could directly evaluate the differences between how fluxes from disturbed and intact woodlands respond to the exact same climate conditions. In addition to eddy covariance measured fluxes from the two woodlands, we also made sap flux measurements, biomass, gas exchange, and soil respiration fluxes simultaneously in the two sites. The overall objective of this proposal is to measure the carbon and climate forcing consequences of widespread coniferous mortality events in the Southwestern US. We will incorporate these findings into a land surface model to understand the long term carbon dynamics of these mortality events and use remote sensing maps of mortality in PJ woodlands in NM to scale the implications of these events to regional carbon dynamics and atmospheric CO2. In 2013, our control PJ woodland experienced a natural pinon mortality event as bark beetles invaded the area. We received supplemental funds to quantify the extent of the mortality and how it progresses, and to add remotely sensed imagery to aid in this and estimate the loss of biomass at the site due to mortality. Finally, we have been exploring the use of both CLM and SIPNET to analyze how well these models to in representing how these woodlands change following pinon mortality. Here, I present the results of what we have learned in these areas: 1) how carbon, water and energy fluxes, have

  2. Drought responses of conifers in ecotone forests of northern Arizona: tree ring growth and leaf delta13C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Kolb, Thomas E

    2004-07-01

    We sought to understand differences in tree response to meteorological drought among species and soil types at two ecotone forests in northern Arizona, the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone, and the higher elevation, wetter, ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. We used two approaches that provide different information about drought response: the ratio of standardized radial growth in wet years to dry years (W:D) for the period between years 1950 and 2000 as a measure of growth response to drought, and delta13C in leaves formed in non-drought (2001) and drought (2002) years as a measure of change in water use efficiency (WUE) in response to drought. W:D and leaf delta13C response to drought for Pinus edulis and P. ponderosa did not differ for trees growing on coarse-texture soils derived from cinders compared with finer textured soils derived from flow basalts or sedimentary rocks. P. ponderosa growing near its low elevation range limit at the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone had a greater growth response to drought (higher W:D) and a larger increase in WUE in response to drought than co-occurring P. edulis growing near its high elevation range limit. P. flexilis and Pseudotsuga menziesii growing near their low elevation range limit at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone had a larger growth response to drought than co-occurring P. ponderosa growing near its high elevation range limit. Increases in WUE in response to drought were similar for all species at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. Low elevation populations of P. ponderosa had greater growth response to drought than high-elevation populations, whereas populations had a similar increase in WUE in response to drought. Our findings of different responses to drought among co-occurring tree species and between low- and high-elevation populations are interpreted in the context of drought impacts on montane coniferous forests of the southwestern USA.

  3. Holocene vegetation dynamics of Taiga forest in the Southern Altai Mountains documented by sediments from Kanas Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Chen, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is the southern limit of the Taiga forest of the continent, and regional vegetation dynamics during the Holocene will help us to understand regional climate changes, such as the Siberian High variations. Here we present a pollen-based vegetation and climate reconstruction from a well dated sediment core from Kanas Lake, a deep glacial moraine dammed lake in the Southern Altai Mountains (Chinese Altai). The 244-cm-long sequence spans the last 13,500 years, and the chronology is based on nine accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant macrofossils. At least five stages of regional vegetation history are documented: (i) From 13.5 to 11.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), Kanas Lake region was occupied by steppe dominated by Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and grass pollen, with low tree coverage. (ii) From 11.7 to 8.5 ka, regional forest build up dramatically indicated by increasing tree pollen percentages, including Picea, Larix, and the highest Junipers, with decreasing Artemisia and increasing Chenopodiaceae. (iii) From 8.5 to 7.2 ka, the forest around the lake became dense with the maximum content of Picea and Betula pollen types. And the steppe pollen types reached their lowest values. (iv) From 7.2 to 4 ka, as a typical tree species of Taiga forest, Larix pollen percentage became much higher than previous stage, and the sum of trees & shrubs pollen types decreased, which possibly indicated cooler and wetter climate (v) After 4 ka, trees & shrubs (e.g. Betula, Junipers) pollen types decreased, with increasing Artemisia and decreasing Chenopodiaceae, which might indicated more humid and cooler climate in the late Holocene. Comparing to the other pollen records in the Altai Mountains, Lake Grusha and Lake Hoton had recorded a slightly different process of vegetation evolution in the early Holocene, where forest was built up in the northern side of the Chinese Altai faster than that of the Kanas Lake area. And the difference could

  4. Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these

  5. Measuring canopy loss and climatic thresholds from an extreme drought along a fivefold precipitation gradient across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Amanda M; Swenson, Jennifer J; González-Roglich, Mariano; Johnson, Daniel M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    Globally, trees are increasingly dying from extreme drought, a trend that is expected to increase with climate change. Loss of trees has significant ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical consequences. In 2011, a record drought caused widespread tree mortality in Texas. Using remotely sensed imagery, we quantified canopy loss during and after the drought across the state at 30-m spatial resolution, from the eastern pine/hardwood forests to the western shrublands, a region that includes the boundaries of many species ranges. Canopy loss observations in ~200 multitemporal fine-scale orthophotos (1-m) were used to train coarser Landsat imagery (30-m) to create 30-m binary statewide canopy loss maps. We found that canopy loss occurred across all major ecoregions of Texas, with an average loss of 9.5%. The drought had the highest impact in post oak woodlands, pinyon-juniper shrublands and Ashe juniper woodlands. Focusing on a 100-km by ~1,000-km transect spanning the State's fivefold east-west precipitation gradient (~1,500 to ~300 mm), we compared spatially explicit 2011 climatic anomalies to our canopy loss maps. Much of the canopy loss occurred in areas that passed specific climatic thresholds: warm season anomalies in mean temperature (+1.6°C) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD, +0.66 kPa), annual percent deviation in precipitation (-38%), and 2011 difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (-1,206 mm). Although similarly low precipitation occurred during the landmark 1950s drought, the VPD and temperature anomalies observed in 2011 were even greater. Furthermore, future climate data under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 trajectory project that average values will surpass the 2011 VPD anomaly during the 2070-2099 period and the temperature anomaly during the 2040-2099 period. Identifying vulnerable ecological systems to drought stress and climate thresholds associated with canopy loss will aid in predicting how forests will

  6. Mapping Tree Density in Forests of the Southwestern USA Using Landsat 8 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Humagain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of tree density in forests of the American Southwest promotes extreme fire events, understory biodiversity losses, and degraded habitat conditions for many wildlife species. To ameliorate these changes, managers and scientists have begun planning treatments aimed at reducing fuels and increasing understory biodiversity. However, spatial variability in tree density across the landscape is not well-characterized, and if better known, could greatly influence planning efforts. We used reflectance values from individual Landsat 8 bands (bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 and calculated vegetation indices (difference vegetation index, simple ratios, and normalized vegetation indices to estimate tree density in an area planned for treatment in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, characterized by multiple vegetation types and a complex topography. Because different vegetation types have different spectral signatures, we derived models with multiple predictor variables for each vegetation type, rather than using a single model for the entire project area, and compared the model-derived values to values collected from on-the-ground transects. Among conifer-dominated areas (73% of the project area, the best models (as determined by corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc included Landsat bands 2, 3, 4, and 7 along with simple ratios, normalized vegetation indices, and the difference vegetation index (R2 values for ponderosa: 0.47, piñon-juniper: 0.52, and spruce-fir: 0.66. On the other hand, in aspen-dominated areas (9% of the project area, the best model included individual bands 4 and 2, simple ratio, and normalized vegetation index (R2 value: 0.97. Most areas dominated by ponderosa, pinyon-juniper, or spruce-fir had more than 100 trees per hectare. About 54% of the study area has medium to high density of trees (100–1000 trees/hectare, and a small fraction (4.5% of the area has very high density (>1000 trees/hectare. Our results provide a

  7. A conservation planning tool for Greater Sage-grouse using indices of species distribution, resilience, and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Coates, Peter S; Gustafson, K Benjamin; Brussee, Brianne E; Chambers, Jeanne C; Espinosa, Shawn P; Gardner, Scott C; Lisius, Sherri; Ziegler, Pilar; Delehanty, David J; Casazza, Michael L

    2018-06-01

    Managers require quantitative yet tractable tools that identify areas for restoration yielding effective benefits for targeted wildlife species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As a contemporary example of high national significance for conservation, the persistence of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Great Basin is compromised by strongly interacting stressors of conifer expansion, annual grass invasion, and more frequent wildfires occurring in sagebrush ecosystems. Associated restoration treatments to a sagebrush-dominated state are often costly and may yield relatively little ecological benefit to sage-grouse if implemented without estimating how Sage-grouse may respond to treatments, or do not consider underlying processes influencing sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species. Here, we describe example applications of a spatially explicit conservation planning tool (CPT) to inform prioritization of: (1) removal of conifers (i.e., pinyon-juniper); and (2) wildfire restoration aimed at improving habitat conditions for the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of Sage-grouse along the California-Nevada state line. The CPT measures ecological benefits to sage-grouse for a given management action through a composite index comprised of resource selection functions and estimates of abundance and space use. For pinyon-juniper removal, we simulated changes in land-cover composition following the removal of sparse trees with intact understories, and ranked treatments on the basis of changes in ecological benefits per dollar-unit of cost. For wildfire restoration, we formulated a conditional model to simulate scenarios for land cover changes (e.g., sagebrush to annual grass) given estimated fire severity and underlying ecosystem processes influencing resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasion by annual grasses. For both applications, we compared CPT rankings to land cover changes along with sagebrush

  8. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  9. Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity towards multidrug-resistant leukemia cells of essential oils derived from Lebanese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Maietti, Silvia; Zeino, Maʼen; Arend, Joachim; Gambari, Roberto; Bernardi, Francesco; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Juniperus excelsa fruit essential oil as well as J. oxycedrus, Cedrus libani, and Pinus pinea wood essential oils have been obtained with yields between 2.2 ± 0.3 % to 3.4 ± 0.5 % and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sesquiterpenes mainly characterized C. libani and J. oxycedrus essential oils, while in P. pinea and J. excelsa, monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds. In J. oxycedrus, cis-calamenene (7.8 %), cuparene (3.8 %), and cis-thujopsenal (2.0 %) have been detected for the first time. The cytotoxic activity of these essential oils against drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-expressing CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells has been investigated (IC₅₀ values: 29.46 to 61.54 µg/mL). Remarkably, multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cells did not reveal cross-resistance, indicating that these essential oils might be useful to treat otherwise drug-resistant and refractory tumors. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  11. More than just drought: complexity of recruitment patterns in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Understanding community dynamics during early life stages of trees is critical for the prediction of future species composition. In Mediterranean forests drought is a major constraint for regeneration, but likely not the only factor determining the observed spatial patterns. We carried out a sowing experiment aimed at identifying main filters during seed-seedling transition. Specifically, we studied seed fate (predation, fungi infection, emergence) and subsequent seedling performance (mortality during the first summer and overall recruitment after 2 years) of four co-occurring Mediterranean tree species (Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Juniperus thurifera, Pinus nigra). We related these processes to the dominant species composition, microhabitat heterogeneity, herb cover and seed mass. The identity of the dominant species in the forest canopy was more important for recruitment than the forest canopy being dominated by conspecific vs. heterospecific species. The patterns we found suggest that biotic interactions such as facilitation (lower mortality under the canopies) and herb competition (during emergence of J. thurifera) are relevant during recruitment. Moreover, our results pointed to ontogenetic conflicts regarding the seed mass of Q. faginea and to density-dependent seed mortality for Q. ilex, rarely described in Mediterranean ecosystems. We propose that our study species experience population growth in forests dominated by heterospecifics where the recruitment success depends on habitat heterogeneity and on moderated biotic and abiotic stresses created by each species. Our results reveal patterns and mechanisms involved in recruitment constraints that add complexity to the well-known drought-related processes in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  12. Ungulate exclusion, conifer thinning and mule deer forage in northeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David W.; Sorensen, Grant E.; Taylor, Chase A.; Cox, Robert D.; Gipson, Philip S.; Cain, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The southwestern United States has experienced expansion of conifer species (Juniperus spp. and Pinus ponderosa) into areas of semi-arid grassland over the past century. The expansion of conifers can limit palatable forage and reduce grass and forb communities. Conifer species are sometimes thinned through hydraulic mulching or selective cutting. We assessed the effects of these treatments on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) habitat in northeastern New Mexico to determine if conifer thinning improved cover of preferred forage species for mule deer in areas with and without ungulates. We measured plant cover and occurrence of preferred forage species in the summers of 2011 and 2012. An ongoing regional drought probably reduced vegetation response, with preferred forage species and herbaceous cover responding to conifer thinning or ungulate exclusion immediately following treatment, but not the following year. In 2011, areas that received thinning treatments had a higher abundance of preferred forage when compared to sites with no treatment. Grass coverage exhibited an immediate response in 2011, with ungulate exclosures containing 8% more coverage than areas without exclosures. The results suggest that conifer thinning and ungulate exclusion may elicit a positive response, however in the presence of drought; the positive effects are only short-term.

  13. Multiple measures could alleviate long-branch attraction in phylogenomic reconstruction of Cupressoideae (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiao-Jian; Jin, Jian-Jun; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2017-01-25

    Long-branch attraction (LBA) is a major obstacle in phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogenetic relationships among Juniperus (J), Cupressus (C) and the Hesperocyparis-Callitropsis-Xanthocyparis (HCX) subclades of Cupressoideae are controversial. Our initial analyses of plastid protein-coding gene matrix revealed both J and C with much longer stem branches than those of HCX, so their sister relationships may be attributed to LBA. We used multiple measures including data filtering and modifying, evolutionary model selection and coalescent phylogenetic reconstruction to alleviate the LBA artifact. Data filtering by strictly removing unreliable aligned regions and removing substitution saturation genes and rapidly evolving sites could significantly reduce branch lengths of subclades J and C and recovered a relationship of J (C, HCX). In addition, using coalescent phylogenetic reconstruction could elucidate the LBA artifact and recovered J (C, HCX). However, some valid methods for other taxa were inefficient in alleviating the LBA artifact in J-C-HCX. Different strategies should be carefully considered and justified to reduce LBA in phylogenetic reconstruction of different groups. Three subclades of J-C-HCX were estimated to have experienced ancient rapid divergence within a short period, which could be another major obstacle in resolving relationships. Furthermore, our plastid phylogenomic analyses fully resolved the intergeneric relationships of Cupressoideae.

  14. Morphological and Genetic Analyses of the Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora austrocedri Reveal that Two Clonal Lineages Colonized Britain and Argentina from a Common Ancestral Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricot, Béatrice; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Armstrong, April C; Sharp, Paul M; Green, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina, and Germany are homothallic, with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia, or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance, although most isolates, regardless of origin, grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions when inoculated onto both A. chilensis and J. communis; however, the Argentinian isolate caused longer lesions on A. chilensis than on J. communis and vice versa for the British isolate. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical. Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between the British and Argentinian isolates. We concluded that British isolates and Argentinian isolates conform to two distinct clonal lineages of P. austrocedri founded from the same as-yet-unidentified source population. These lineages should be recognized and treated as separate risks by international plant health legislation.

  15. Activity of Scottish plant, lichen and fungal endophyte extracts against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordien, Andréa Y; Gray, Alexander I; Ingleby, Kevin; Franzblau, Scott G; Seidel, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    With tuberculosis the leading bacterial killer worldwide and other mycobacterial diseases on the increase, the search for new antimycobacterial agents is timely. In this study, extracts from plants, lichens and fungal endophytes of Scottish provenance were screened for activity against Mycobacterium aurum and M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv. The best activity against M. aurum was observed for extracts of Juniperus communis roots and Cladonia arbuscula (MIC = 4 microg/mL), and a fungal endophyte isolated from Vaccinium myrtillus (MIC = 8 microg/mL). The best activity against M. tuberculosis was observed for extracts of C. arbuscula, Empetrum nigrum, J. communis roots, Calluna vulgaris aerial parts, Myrica gale roots and stems (93 to 99% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Potent antitubercular activity (90 to 96% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) was also observed for the ethanol extracts of Xerocomus badius, Chalciporus piperatus, Suillus luteus and of endophytes isolated from C. vulgaris, E. nigrum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus. The results obtained this study provide, in part, some scientific basis for the traditional use of some of the selected plants in the treatment of tuberculosis. They also indicate that fungal endophytes recovered from Scottish plants are a source of antimycobacterial agents worthy of further investigation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80–90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  17. Changes in the high-mountain vegetation of the Central Iberian Peninsula as a probable sign of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Elorza, Mario; Dana, Elías D; González, Alberto; Sobrino, Eduardo

    2003-08-01

    Aerial images of the high summits of the Spanish Central Range reveal significant changes in vegetation over the period 1957 to 1991. These changes include the replacement of high-mountain grassland communities dominated by Festuca aragonensis, typical of the Cryoro-Mediterranean belt, by shrub patches of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina and Cytisus oromediterraneus from lower altitudes (Oro-Mediterranean belt). Climatic data indicate a shift towards warmer conditions in this mountainous region since the 1940s, with the shift being particularly marked from 1960. Changes include significantly higher minimum and maximum temperatures, fewer days with snow cover and a redistribution of monthly rainfall. Total yearly precipitation showed no significant variation. There were no marked changes in land use during the time frame considered, although there were minor changes in grazing species in the 19th century. It is hypothesized that the advance of woody species into higher altitudes is probably related to climate change, which could have acted in conjunction with discrete variations in landscape management. The pronounced changes observed in the plant communities of the area reflect the susceptibility of high-mountain Mediterranean species to environmental change.

  18. Co-occurring woody species have diverse hydraulic strategies and mortality rates during an extreme drought: Belowground hydraulic failure during drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Daniel M. [College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Domec, Jean-Christophe [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, UMR INRA-ISPA 1391, Gradignan 33195 France; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Carter Berry, Z. [College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow ID 83844 USA; Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824 USA; Schwantes, Amanda M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; McCulloh, Katherine A. [Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53705 USA; Woodruff, David R. [US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis OR 97331 USA; Wayne Polley, H. [Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Temple TX 76502 USA; Wortemann, Remí [INRA Nancy, UMR INRA-UL 1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières, Champenoux 54280 France; Swenson, Jennifer J. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 USA; Scott Mackay, D. [Department of Geography, State University of New York, Buffalo NY 14261 USA; McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Jackson, Robert B. [Department of Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment, and Precourt Institute for Energy, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 USA

    2018-01-29

    From 2011 to 2013, Texas experienced its worst drought in recorded history. This event provided a unique natural experiment to assess species-specific responses to extreme drought and mortality of four co-occurring woody species: Quercus fusiformis, Diospyros texana, Prosopis glandulosa and Juniperus ashei. We examined hypothesized mechanisms that could promote these species’ diverse mortality patterns using post-drought measurements on surviving trees coupled to retrospective process modeling. The species exhibited a wide range of gas exchange responses, hydraulic strategies, and mortality rates. Multiple proposed indices of mortality mechanisms were not consistent with the observed mortality patterns across species, including measures of iso/anisohydry, photosynthesis, carbohydrate depletion, and hydraulic safety margins. Large losses of growing season whole-tree conductance (driven by belowground losses of conductance), and shallower rooting depths, were associated with species that exhibited greater mortality. Based on this retrospective analysis, we suggest that species more vulnerable to drought were more likely to have succumbed to hydraulic failure belowground.

  19. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  20. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  1. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  3. How appetizing is the dissolved organic matter (DOM) trees lose during rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Whitetree, A.; Zhu, L.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the chemical backbone of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which is important because it drives many processes in soils and waterways. Current DOC work has paid little attention to interactions between rain and plant canopies, where rainfall is partitioned into throughfall and stemflow. Even less DOC research has investigated the effect of arboreal epiphytes on throughfall and stemflow DOC. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) assess the degree and timing of DOC consumption by microbial communities (biolability) in throughfall and stemflow, and (2) determine whether the presence of arboreal epiphytes in the canopy affect DOC biolability. Biolability of stemflow and throughfall DOC from Juniperus virginiana (cedar) was determined by incubating samples for 14 days. Throughfall and stemflow DOC was highly biolabile with DOC concentrations decreasing by 30-60%. Throughfall DOC was more biolabile than stemflow DOC. DOC in both throughfall and stemflow from epiphyte-covered cedars was less biolabile than DOC from trees without epiphytes. The high biolability of tree-derived DOC indicates that its supply provides carbon substrates to the microbial community at the forest floor, in soils and the rhizosphere. Epiphytes appear to be important in determining the biolability of DOC and therefore the size of this carbon subsidy to the soil ecosystem.

  4. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  5. Regional climatic and North Atlantic Oscillation signatures in West Virginia red cedar over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Ed; Wilson, Rob

    2012-03-01

    We describe a millennial length (~ 1500-yr) tree-ring chronology developed from West Virginia (WVA), USA red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) ring widths that is significantly correlated with local to regional temperature and precipitation for the region. Using ensemble methods of tree-ring standardization, above average ring widths are indicated for the period between ~ 1000 and 1300 CE, the approximate time of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the most recent major warm episode prior to the modern era. The chronology then transitions to more negative overall growth persisting through much of the subsequent period known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). While WVA cedar growth levels during the MCA are broadly similar to the 20th century mean, the most positive values during the MCA are associated with RCS-standardized chronologies, which pseudoproxy tests reveal are likely biased artificially positive, warranting further investigation. This cedar record is significantly correlated with the NAO, due to the tendency for warmer, wetter conditions to occur in the eastern-central USA during the NAO's positive phase. These types of conditions are inferred for this cedar chronology during the MCA period, during which NAO reconstructions suggest a persistently-positive NAO state.

  6. Temporal Dynamics in the Concentration, Flux, and Optical Properties of Tree-derived Dissolved Organic Matter (Tree-DOM) in an Epiphyte-laden Oak-cedar Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitetree, A.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Wagner, S.; Guillemette, F.; Lewis, J.; Silva, L.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow pathway typically begin in streams or soils, neglecting the initial enrichment of rainfall with DOM during contact with plant canopies. However, rain water can gather significant amounts of tree-derived DOM (tree-DOM) when it drains from the canopy, as throughfall, and down the stem, as stemflow. We examined the temporal variability of event-scale tree-DOM concentrations, yield, and optical (light absorbance and fluorescence) characteristics from an epiphyte-laden Quercus virginiana-Juniperus virginiana forest on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia (USA). All tree-DOM fluxes were highly enriched compared to rainfall and epiphytes further increased concentrations. Stemflow DOC concentrations were greater than throughfall across study species, yet larger throughfall water yields produced greater DOC yields versus stemflow. Tree-DOM optical characteristics indicate it is aromatic-rich with FDOM dominated by humic-like fluorescence, containing 10-20% protein-like (tryptophan-like) fluorescence. Storm size was the only storm condition that strongly correlated with tree-DOM concentration and flux; however, throughfall and stemflow optical characteristics varied little across a wide range of storm conditions (from low magnitude events to intense tropical storms). Annual tree-DOM yields from the study forest (0.8-46 g-C m-2 yr-1) compared well to other yields along the rainfall-to- discharge flow pathway, exceeding DOM yields from some river watersheds.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  8. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  9. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  10. Hierarchical statistical modeling of xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Kiona; Barber, Jarrett J; Willson, Cynthia; Thompson, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Cavitation of xylem elements diminishes the water transport capacity of plants, and quantifying xylem vulnerability to cavitation is important to understanding plant function. Current approaches to analyzing hydraulic conductivity (K) data to infer vulnerability to cavitation suffer from problems such as the use of potentially unrealistic vulnerability curves, difficulty interpreting parameters in these curves, a statistical framework that ignores sampling design, and an overly simplistic view of uncertainty. This study illustrates how two common curves (exponential-sigmoid and Weibull) can be reparameterized in terms of meaningful parameters: maximum conductivity (k(sat)), water potential (-P) at which percentage loss of conductivity (PLC) =X% (P(X)), and the slope of the PLC curve at P(X) (S(X)), a 'sensitivity' index. We provide a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting the reparameterized curves to K(H) data. We illustrate the method using data for roots and stems of two populations of Juniperus scopulorum and test for differences in k(sat), P(X), and S(X) between different groups. Two important results emerge from this study. First, the Weibull model is preferred because it produces biologically realistic estimates of PLC near P = 0 MPa. Second, stochastic embolisms contribute an important source of uncertainty that should be included in such analyses.

  11. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  12. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  13. Late glacial vegetation and climate changes in the high mountains of Bulgaria (Southeast Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozilova, E.D.; Tonkov, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Late glacial vegetation history in the high mountains of Southern Bulgaria (Rila, Pirin, Western Rhodopes) is reconstructed by means of pollen analysis, plant macrofossils and radiocarbon dating of sediments from lakes and peat-bogs located between 1300 and 2200 m a.s.l. The vegetation response to the climate fluctuations after 13000 14 C yrs. BP in the Rila Mountains is bound for the first time to a detailed chronological framework. Two stadial and one interstadial phases are delimited analogous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas cycle for Western Europe. During the stadials mountain-steppe vegetation composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae and other cold-resistant herbs dominated at high elevation with sparse stands of Pinus, Betula, and shrubland of Juniperus and Ephedra. The climate improvement in the interstadial resulted in the initial spread of deciduous and coniferous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Corylus, Carpinus, Abies, Picea) from their local refugia below 1000 m. The palaeoecological record from the climate deterioration during the Younger Dryas is documented in thin sections of the cores investigated. (author)

  14. Evaluación de la supervivencia y del crecimiento en la reforestación del proyecto piloto de Albatera tras 12 años

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    John Molina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consiste en el seguimiento y evaluación de los resultados de la restauración forestal ecológica realizada en la cuenca de Albatera durante los años 2003 y 2004, poniendo énfasis en la supervivencia después del verano de 2014 comparada con la supervivencia registrada en los años anteriores. Para la toma de los datos ha sido necesario desplazarse a la cuenca durante 20 días entre los meses de febrero y marzo del 2015 para recoger datos de supervivencia y tamaño de las diez especies estudiadas: tres especies arbóreas (Pinus halepensis, Tetraclinis articulata, Ceratonia siliqua y siete arbustivas (Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera, Rhamnus lycioides, Ephedra fragilis, Chamaerops humilis, Juniperus oxycedrus y Olea europea ssp sylvestris. Además fue necesario realizar otras tareas como la revisión de los datos históricos de las repoblaciones realizadas como del clima de la zona. Los resultados muestran mayor supervivencia y crecimiento de los plantones plantados en la solana sobre los de umbría, y sobre todo sobre los ubicados en la unidad de terrazas forestales. Además se encontró una mayor supervivencia de los especímenes plantados en la campaña del año 2004 respecto a los introducidos en la campaña del 2003.

  15. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

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    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  16. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  17. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

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    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  18. Combining remote sensing and climatic data to estimate net primary production across Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, B.E.; Waring, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A range in productivity and climate exists along an east—west transect in Oregon. Remote sensing and climatic data for several of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research Project (OTTER) forested sites and neighboring shrub sites were combined to determined whether percentage intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (%IPAR) can be estimated from remotely sensed observations and to evaluate climatic constraints on the ability of vegetation to utilize intercepted of radiation for production. The Thematic Mappers Simulator (TMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) provided a good linear estimate of %IPAR (R 2 = 0.97). Vegetation intercepted from 24.8% to 99.9% of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) ranged from 53 to 1310 g·m —2 ·yr —1 . The ANPP was linearly related to annual IPAR across sites (R 2 = 0.70). Constraints on the ability of each species to utilize intercepted light, as defined by differential responses to freezing temperatures, drought, and vapor pressure deficit, were quantified from hourly meteorological station measurements near the sites and field physiological measurements. Vegetation could utilize from 30% of intercepted radiation at the eastside semiarid juniper woodland and shrub sites to 97% at the maritime coastal sites. Energy—size efficiency (ϵu), calculated from aboveground production and IPAR modified by the environmental limits, averaged 0.5 g/MJ for the shrub sites and 0.9 g/MJ for the forested sites. (author)

  19. Herbal medicinal products in the treatment of pain as a symptom of osteoarthritis

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    Maksimović Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products which are used perorally in the treatment of minor articular pain include those obtained from willow bark, Salicis cortex, devil's claw root, Harpagophyti radix, nettle leaf and herb, Urticae folium/herba, meadowsweet flower and herb, Filipendulae ulmariae flos/herba, ash leaf, Fraxini folium, and blackcurrant leaf, Ribis nigri folium. They can be in the form of a herbal tea or solid and liquid dosage forms. Anti-inflammatory and/or analgetic action form/s basis for their therapeutic usage. Among mentioned herbal drugs, only willow bark, Salicis cortex, is employed for producing herbal medicinal products with well-established use (dry standardised hydroethanolic extract in the solid dosage form intended for oral application. Furthermore, traditional herbal medicines prepared from arnica flower, Arnicae flos, which are intended for dermal application (liquid and semi-solid dosage forms are used for symptomatic relief of rheumatic complaints, also because of their anti-inflammatory and analgetic effects. Owing to rubefacient activity, herbal medicinal products with well-established use based on the soft extracts of capsicum, Capsici frustus, (medicated plasters and semi-solid dosage forms for cutaneous use, as well as traditional herbal medicines based on rosemary leaf and oil, Rosmarini folium/aetheroleum, juniper oil, Juniperi aetheroleum, and eucalyptus oil, Eucalypti aetheroleum (bath additives and/or liquid and semi-solid dosage forms for dermal application, are used to decrease pain.

  20. Comparison of composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenqiang, Guan; Shufen, Li; Ruixiang, Yan; Yanfeng, Huang

    2006-09-01

    Essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence was obtained by supercritical CO(2) extraction and hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to characterize its components and was also tested for antifungal activity. A total of 61 compounds were identified in the hydrodistilled oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (4.46%), borneol (3.58%), terpinol (10.18%), spathulenol (10.03%), caryophyllene oxide (6.51%), juniper camphor (8.74%), Camazulene (2.05%), and camphor (3.49%). By using supercritical CO(2) at 50 degrees C and 10 MPa, the concentrations of previous main components were lower than oil obtained by hydrodistillation, while miscellaneous compounds were higher. The essential oil extracted by these two methods exhibited antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternate, two common storage pathogens of fruits and vegetables. The inhibition of B. cinerea and A. alternate were 93.3 and 84.7% for oil extracted by hydrodistillation when exposed to a concentration of 1,000 mg L(-1), while values of 70.8 and 60.5% were observed from oil extracted by supercritical CO(2).