WorldWideScience

Sample records for junior duck stamp

  1. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... to take this opportunity to comment on this IC. We may not conduct or sponsor and a person is not... buy a Federal migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp (Federal Duck Stamp) annually. The stamps... stamp images are also popular collector items. The Electronic Duck Stamp Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-266...

  2. Food Stamps: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; And Others

    A voluminous body of literature exists on the topic of food stamps including the administration of the federal and state programs and the question of abuses and fraud. This bibliography describes a portion of that material in print. An introduction provides general information and a chronology of the food stamp program and comments on the place of…

  3. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  4. Stamp in honour of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    1966-01-01

    21 February 1966. The Swiss post office issued a stamp in CERN's honour. This stamp showed the flags of the thirteen Member States at the time arranged in the geometrical outline of Switzerland against a background of a track photograph.

  5. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  6. Ducks Overboard!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Ingrid; Sheffield, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The authors open this article with a description of an incident that happened in 1992, when 28,800 rubber bath toys (i.e., ducks, frogs, turtles, and beavers) fell off a cargo ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. In 2009, these rubber bath toys were still washing ashore on beaches all around the world. This science instruction can be used with…

  7. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a flexible silicon stamp for homogenous large area nanoimprint lithography (NIL) are presented. The flexible stamp is fabricated by bulk semiconductor micro machining of a 4-inch silicon wafer and consists of thick anchor like imprint areas connected...... by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...

  8. Nanofabrication with molds & stamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron D. Gates

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of methods can be used to fabricate patterns with features having dimensions <100 nm. These techniques, however, can require specialized equipment and are often restricted to a cleanroom environment. Nanofabrication can be made accessible to multiple users by using elastomeric molds or stamps to transfer high-resolution patterns into other materials. These techniques are inexpensive and can transfer patterns into functional materials and onto a number of surfaces. This review describes recent advances in fabricating nanostructures using these techniques.

  9. Special Stamps:Antarctic Scenery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of three stamps, whose theme is Antarctic scenery.The first stamp depicts an iceberg. Antarctica is where 90 percent of the world’s ice exists. Each year countless icebergs float majestically through the sea, and are a magnificent scenic feature of Antarctica.

  10. Savory and Crisp Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A force-fed duck (fat and tender), cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine peel, spice, soy sauce, cooking wine. Directions: 1. Clean the duck, take out the internal organs. 2. Soak the duck in a marinade of cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine and spice, then add soy sauce and cooking wine to the marinade and let stand for three hours.

  11. Zhangcha Duck (Spiced and Smoked Duck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Preparation: Buy a ready cooked Zhangcha Duck—a kind of duck stewed in sugar, spiced with tea leaves and smoked, which can be bought at the takeout departments of many Chinese restaurants. Bring the duck home and fry in oil until the skin is crisp. Slice thickly and serve with steamed bread, sliced

  12. Investment Channels Stamp Markets in Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ "Iwill close my store for a couple of weeks,"says a stamp trader at Beijing's Dazhongsi market,the largest stamp exchange center in Asia. The summer is traditionally a low season for the stamp market, but with the added popularity of the 2006 World Cup, the purchase of stamps has taken a back seat on most people's to-do lists.

  13. Stamping Robust Design Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Q. Lin; Jian Ai; Weigang Zhang; Shuhui Li

    2004-01-01

    The application of the robust design to stamping is discussed in the paper. The regression equation of the quality index and its influencing factors can be attained by using method of central composite design. Stamping computer simulation takes the place of real stamping experiments to fulfill the special experimental conditions. The real stamping experiments prove the correctness and the feasibility of the stamping robust design method-central composite design.

  14. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps...... is presented. We focus on photocopied stamps as non-genuine stamps. Our previously presented stamp detection method is improved and extended to verify that the stamp is genuine and not a copy. Using a variety of features, a classifier is trained that allows successful separation between genuine stamps...... and copied stamps. Sensitivity and specificity of up to 95% could be obtained on a data set that is publicly available....

  15. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  16. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  17. Alaska duck production surveys: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  18. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  19. Expo Junior

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Fort de son succès Expo Juniors revient du 22 au 23 novembre 2014 - Papa & Maman Noël seront présents ! Nous avons le plaisir de  proposer à nos membres des billets d'entrées  à un tarif préférentiel, au prix de CHF 10.- l'unité au lieu de CHF 18.- (gratuit pour les enfants de 0 à 4 ans). Des centaines d’ateliers répartis en 3 villages : Sports & Loisirs, Jeux & Jouets, Éducation & Vie pratique. Cet événement propose aux familles aussi d'autres thèmes : tourisme, idées cadeaux, mode, bien-être, beauté, décoration, ainsi que des services destinés aux familles. Parades, attractions, castings, défilés de mode, dédicaces, séances photos avec Papa Noël, ainsi que de nombre...

  20. Do black ducks and wood ducks habituate to aircraft disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conomy, J.T.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have raised the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We hypothesized that habituation was a possible proximate factor influencing the low proportion of free-ranging ducks reacting to military aircraft activities in a training range in coastal North Carolina during winters 1991 and 1992. To test this hypothesis, we subjected captive, wild-strain American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to actual and simulated activities of jet aircraft. In the first experiment, we placed black ducks in an enclosure near the center of aircraft activities on Piney Island, a military aircraft target range in coastal North Carolina. The proportion of times black ducks reacted (e.g., alert posture, fleeing response) to visual and auditory aircraft activity decreased from 38 to 6% during the first 17 days of confinement. Response rates remained stable at 5.8% thereafter. In the second experiment, black ducks and wood ducks were exposed to 6 different recordings of jet noise. The proportion of times black ducks reacted to noise decreased (P 0.05) in time-activity budgets of black ducks between pre-exposure to noise and 24 hr after first exposure. Unlike black ducks, wood duck responses to jet noise did not decrease uniformly among experimental groups following initial exposure to noise (P = 0.01). We conclude that initial exposure to aircraft noise elicits behavioral responses from black ducks and wood ducks. With continued exposure of aircraft noise, black ducks may become habituated. However, wood ducks did not exhibit the same pattern of response, suggesting that the ability of waterfowl to habituate to aircraft noise may be species specific.

  1. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  2. Gourd-Shaped Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One duck, 125 grams of diced pork and 125 grams of chicken, 50 grams of diced mushroom, 25 grams of shrimp, 100 grams of gingko, soy sauce and sugar, each 150 grams, scallions, ginger, sesame oil, cooking wine, pepper, corn starch and soup-stock.

  3. Contact radius of stamps in reversible adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A mechanics model is developed for the contact radius of stamps with pyramid tips in transfer printing.This is important to the realization of reversible control of adhesion,which has many important applications,such as climbing robots,medical tapes,and transfer printing of electronics.The contact radius is shown to scale linearly with the work of adhesion between the stamp and the contacting surface,and inversely with the plane-strain modulus of the stamp. It also depends on the cone angle and tip radiu...

  4. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Distribution and Sale of Stamps § 479.163 Reuse of stamps prohibited. A stamp...

  5. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  6. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    An automatic system for stamp segmentation and further verification is needed especially for environments like insurance companies where a huge volume of documents is processed daily. However, detection of a general stamp is not a trivial task as it can have different shapes and colors and......, moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  7. Special Stamps:Historical Relic Beacons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In May 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of five stamps picturing historical relic beacons. They are the Mao Beacon, the Jiangxinyu Twin Beacon, the Huaniaoshan Beacon, the Laotieshan Beacon, and

  8. Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed......-point approximation algorithm which maintains a single copy of intermediate results. We then prove the correctness of this algorithm....

  9. A history of tuberculosis on stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shampo, Marc A; Rosenow, Edward C

    2009-08-01

    Tuberculosis, only a few decades ago, was believed to be under control and decreasing in incidence, in both developed and developing countries. A number of scientists and physicians have contributed to the understanding of tuberculosis and have been honored on postage stamps by several countries around the world. This article contains brief histories of these individuals and depictions of the postage stamps commemorating them for their contributions to the better understanding of the disease.

  10. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  11. Stamps of New China: Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui-Special Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On June 25, 2004 the State Postal Bureau issued a set of four special stamps entitled “Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun Villages.” The stamps depict two ancient villages in Yixian County, southern Anhui Province, which UNESCO added to the World Heritage List on November 30, 2000.

  12. An Unforgettable Stamp Of Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永章

    1997-01-01

    【一位澳大利亚的女教师Mrs. Johnston,不远万里,来到中国的涪陵,在那里尽心尽力,一丝不苟地教英语。她已经走了,但是,她的学生没有忘记她,以看似平淡,却含深情:读似稚嫩,其实认真的语言记叙了Mrs. Johnston感人的事迹。从表面看.Mrs.Johnston 似乎没有干出什么惊天动地的伟业.其实.我们这个世界就是在千千万万个人的兢兢业业、默默无闻的工作中而变得越来越美好.读许多名人的传记.我们常常发现.许多名人的成长.常因遇见了一个好的老师.所以.美国的Dorine教授也写道:This student was lucky to have such a teacher!本文一个值得称道之处是:善捕细节。全文以a stamp为线索,一气呵成.标题(An Unforgettable stamp Of Mine)又提纲挈领·文章的可读性大大增强。美国的Dorine教授对此文的评价也不俗:This is another good description of a good Person who obviously Ioved her job and was sincerely interested iu her students.The organization is excellent.and the few errors are merely surface ones .although in at least one case there is some interference,ith comprehensibility.

  13. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  15. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control.

  16. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  17. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002 (Professional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso; Daisy Ewell

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  18. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Cunnyngham; Beth Brown

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 21.3 million people received food stamps each month in 2003. A little more than half of all food stamp households contained children, and most of these households were headed by a single parent. About 18 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $195 per household. Compared with 2002, the number of pr...

  19. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  20. E-Commerce-Objected E-Stamp Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Boosting e-stamp's advantages are conduced to promote logistics to go forward and help postal departments to improve the quality of service, many other businesses add-valued can be developed in e-stamp systems. This paper analyzeds, designs e-commerce-objected e-stamp system, and discusseds crucial technologies involved in detail.

  1. UN to lssue Stamps of Chinese Children’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A set of stamps designed by Chinese children who took peace as their theme will be issued by the United Nations on October 25, 1996. This will be the first time the United Nations has used children’s paintings in its stamps. The paintings chosen are prize-winners of the Chinese national stamp-designing

  2. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  3. Teaching Hispanic Culture with Postage Stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Methods for using postage stamps to their greatest potential in any level Spanish class are outlined, with illustrations and examples provided. Among the subjects that can be addressed through this medium are economics, politics, anthropology, archaeology, history, language and literature, geography, and music. (MSE)

  4. Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisen, Norman M.; Collins, Curtis L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.

  5. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, Ruben B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the tra

  6. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  7. Numerical simulation of hot stamping of side impact beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yihui; Ma Mingtu; Fang Gang; Song Leifeng; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhou Dianwu

    2012-01-01

    Ls-DYNA software is adopted to conduct research of numerical simulation on hot stamping of side impact beam to calculate the temperature field distribution, stress field distribution, forming limit diagram (FLD) figure, etc. in the course of hot stamping so as to predict and analyze the formability of parts. ProCAST software is employed to conduct research of numerical simulation on solid quenching course concerning hot stamping to calculate temperature field distri- bution of tools and component of muhiple stamping cycles. The results obtained from numerical simulation can provide significant reference value to hot stamping part design, formability predication and tools cooling system design.

  8. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  9. Stamps Detection and Classification Using Simple Features Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Forczmański

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a problem of detection and classification of rubber stamp instances in scanned documents. A variety of methods from the field of image processing, pattern recognition, and some heuristic are utilized. Presented method works on typical stamps of different colors and shapes. For color images, color space transformation is applied in order to find potential color stamps. Monochrome stamps are detected through shape specific algorithms. Following feature extraction stage, identified candidates are subjected to classification task using a set of shape descriptors. Selected elementary properties form an ensemble of features which is rotation, scale, and translation invariant; hence this approach is document size and orientation independent. We perform two-tier classification in order to discriminate between stamps and no-stamps and then classify stamps in terms of their shape. The experiments carried out on a considerable set of real documents gathered from the Internet showed high potential of the proposed method.

  10. A stamped PEDOT:PSS-silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiz, Syed Abdul; Nahhas, Ahmed Muhammad; Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2012-04-13

    A novel stamped hybrid solar cell was proposed using the stamping transfer technique by stamping an active PEDOT:PSS thin layer onto the top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Compared to a bulk-type counterpart that fully embeds SiNWs inside PEDOT:PSS, an increase in the photovoltaic efficiency was observed by a factor of ∼4.6, along with improvements in both electrical and optical responses for the stamped hybrid cell. Such improvements for hybrid cells was due to the formation of well-connected and linearly aligned active PEDOT:PSS channels at the top ends of the nanowires after the stamping process. These stamped channels facilitated not only to improve the charge transport, light absorption, but also to decrease the free carriers as well as exciton recombination losses for stamped hybrid solar cells.

  11. Alaska duck production survey - July 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  12. Wood duck studies : Des Lacs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes wood duck studies on Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and provides a brief history on the status of wood ducks on the edge of their...

  13. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  14. An Optimization Study of Hot Stamping Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu; Averill, Ron

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot-stamping processes of Audi B-pillar product are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and HEEDS. Special attention is paid to the optimization of simulation technology coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. Numerical simulation based on FEM technology and optimization design using the hybrid adaptive SHERPA algorithm are applied to hot stamping operation to improve productivity. The robustness of the SHERPA algorithm is found through the results of the benchmark example. The SHERPA algorithm is shown to be far superior to the GA (Genetic Algorithm) in terms of efficiency, whose calculation time is about 7 times faster than that of the GA. The SHERPA algorithm could show high performance in a large scale problem having complicated design space and long calculation time.

  15. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ruben B A; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Reinhoudt, David N; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-07-27

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the transfer of hydrophobic n-octadecanethiol. In this case a good contrast was obtained, but the pattern was found to be susceptible to defects (cracks) in the barrier layer. Local stamp surface oxidation and subsequent modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane, for use as a barrier in the transfer of n-octadecanethiol, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and octanethiol, resulted in remarkably good contrast and stable patterns. The improved ink transfer control is ascribed to the reduction of undesired surface spreading and a superior mechanical stability of the stamp pattern. This new approach substantially expands the applicability of microcontact printing and provides a tool for the faithful reproduction of even extremely low filling ratio patterns.

  16. DNA microarray synthesis by using PDMS molecular stamp (II) -- Oligonucleotide on-chip synthesis using PDMS stamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the standard phosphoramidites chemistry protocol, two oligonucleotides synthetic routes were studied by contact stamping reactants to a modified glass slide. Route A was a contact coupling reaction, in which a nucleoside monomer was transferred and coupled to reactive groups (OH) on a substrate by spreading the nucleoside activated with tetrazole on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. Route B was a contact detritylation, in which one nucleoside was fixed on the desired synthesis regions where dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting groups on the 5′-hydroxyl of the support-bound nucleoside were removed by stamping trichloroacetic acid (TCA) distributed on features on a PDMS stamp. Experiments showed that the synthetic yield and the reaction speed of route A were higher than those of route B. It was shown that 20 mer oligonucleotide arrays immobilized on the glass slide were successfully synthesized using the PDMS stamps, and the coupling efficiency showed no difference between the PDMS stamping and the conventional synthesis methods.

  17. Optimal Nesting for Continuous Shape Stamping Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimal nesting problem for minimizing the scrap in continuous shape stamping processes. The shape sliding technique is used to propose a new approach, OVERLAP-and-ESCAPE, to solve the problem of continuously nesting shapes onto a metal coil of fixed or selectable width. The approach is used to construct the objective function of the mathematical model of the problem using the Simulated Annealing Algorithm to determine the globally minimal configurations for the nesting problems. Some representative cases are studied and the results are encouraging. An automatic nesting software package for manufacturing bicycle chain link blanks is also described.

  18. Stamp forming optimization for formability and crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderwinkel, T. G.; Rietman, B.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    The stamp forming process is well suited for high volume production of thermoplastic composite parts. The process can be characterized as highly non-isothermal as it involves local quench-cooling of a molten thermoplastic composite blank where it makes contact with colder tooling. The formability of the thermoplastic composite depends on the viscoelastic material behavior of the matrix material, which is sensitive to temperature and degree of crystallinity. An experimental study was performed to determine the effect of temperature and crystallinity on the storage modulus during cooling for a woven glass fiber polyamide-6 composite material. An increase of two decades in modulus was observed during crystallization. As this will significantly impede the blank formability, the onset of crystallization effectively governs the time available for forming. Besides the experimental work, a numerical model is developed to study the temperature and crystallinity throughout the stamp forming process. A process window can be determined by feeding the model with the experimentally obtained data on crystallization.

  19. Study on the Forming Limit Nomogram of Tensile Stamping Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachang KANG; Haobin TIAN; Shihong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Based on plasticity theory and physical experiments, the quantitative relationships between elongation δ obtained by uniaxial tensile test and forming limits of tensile stamping operations are given, which mainly resolves the problem that forming limits can be derived from simple tensile test. The forming limit nomogram of tensile stamping operations is also established to apply to engineering.

  20. Application of Decision Tree Algorithm in Stamping Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-chun; LI Da-yong; YIN Ji-long; PENG Ying-hong

    2005-01-01

    Various process parameters exert different effects in stamping process. In order to study the relationships among the process parameters of box stamping process, including the blank holder force, friction coefficient,depth of drawbead, offset and length of drawbead, the decision tree algorithm C4.5 was performed to generate the decision tree using the result data of the box stamping simulation. The design and improvement methods of the decision tree were presented. Potential and valuable rules were generated by traversing the decision tree, which plays an instructive role on the practical design. The rules show that the correct combination of blank holder force and setting of drawbead are the dominant contribution for controlling the cracking and wrinkling in box stamping process. In order to validate the rules, the stamping process for box was also performed. The experiment results show good agreement with the generated rules.

  1. Patterning of polymers: precise channel stamping by optimizing wetting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Ralf; Kramer, Edward J; Lange, Frederick F [Mitsubishi Chemical Center for Advanced Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Channel stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to fabricate small structures of polymeric materials. This technique is cheap and easy but a considerable drawback is the fact that reproduction of the patterns of the stamp is often imprecise due to the wetting properties of liquid and stamp. In this paper, we report on experiments that reveal the parameters governing the behaviour of liquids in grooves and on edges. Optimizing these parameters leads to better-quality channel-stamped structures and enables the design of sophisticated structured polymeric materials, allowing channels as small as about 100 nm to be fabricated. Moreover, we show that it is even possible to build up a freestanding three-dimensional structure by stamping line patterns on top of each other.

  2. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  3. Teaching Chinese Culture and Language with Postage Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Leung

    2000-01-01

    @@ While several articles have long been published on using stamps to teach French,German, and Spanish, I have yet to see one relating to the teaching of Chinese. As a vehicle for communicating a country's current and past values (cultural, political, social, economic,linguistic), stamps can play an important role in the culture and language class -- if only because they stimulate interest and heighten motivation by projecting images of a country's culture,politics, and language. But there is much more: stamps could serve as focal points for a class discussion; they could shed light on government priorities; they could be the subject of cultural quizzes and exercises for language practice; they could be assigned as research subjects. They are, after all, official documents and authentic cultural artifacts themselves. This paper examines the ways in which stamps can serve the teaching of various aspects of culture and language. For the purpose of teaching Chinese, one could use stamps from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Together, these stamps cover the full range of cultural domains: geography, archaeology,history and politics, language and literature, arts and architecture, science, patterns for daily living,symbolism, myths and culture heroes, etc. I will use these headings in my discussion. Unless otherwise stated, the stamps referred to below were issued in the People's Republic of China (with dates or official serial numbers in brackets).

  4. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  5. Single-layer versus two-layer stamps for reduced pressure thermal nanoimprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenheim, Marc; Dhima, Khalid; Wang, Si; Steinberg, Christian; Scheer, Hella-Christin

    2015-11-01

    Low-pressure imprint is interesting to avoid stamp deformation, stamp failure as well as polymer recovery. When large-area stamps are prepared with a stepping procedure, low pressure is required to optimize the stitching. However, with low-pressure imprint, conformal contact between stamp and substrate is critical. Admittedly, the imprint pressure required for conformal contact depends on the stamp material and its thickness. To get an idea to which extent the imprint pressure can be reduced with a flexible stamp, we compared different stamp materials and stamp architectures, single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps. The two-layer stamps are replica stamps, where the structures were replicated in a thin layer of OrmoStamp, fixed by a backplane. On the background of plate theory, we deduce the pressure reduction compared to a Si stamp by calculating the respective pressure ratio, independent from geometries. In addition, temperature-induced issues are addressed which are of relevance for a thermal imprint process. These issues are related to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the stamp and the substrate, and in case of a two-layer stamp, to the mismatch between the backplane material and the top layer. The latter results in temperature-induced stamp bending. On the basis of simple analytical calculations, the potential of single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps with respect to thermal imprint at reduced pressure is discussed and guidelines are provided to assess the imprint situation when replica stamps are used for imprint. The results demonstrate the attractiveness of two-layer stamps for reduced pressure nanoimprint, even in a temperature-based process.

  6. Typhlocolitis associated with spirochaetes in duck flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glávits, Róbert; Ivanics, Eva; Thuma, Akos; Kaszanyitzky, Eva; Samu, Péterné; Ursu, Krisztina; Dencso, László; Dán, Adám

    2011-02-01

    The aetiology of increased mortality observed in two breeder duck flocks (Flock A consisting of 3500 laying ducks and Flock B comprising 4300 laying ducks) during the first egg-laying season was studied. In Flocks A and B, 773 ducks and 715 ducks (18.4% and 16.6%) died within a 24-week and a 20-week period, respectively. Death was preceded by clinical signs including movement difficulties, lack of appetite and depression lasting for 1 to 2 days. Diarrhoea was not observed. On gross pathological examination, the ducks were found to have haemorrhagic to fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, renal degeneration accompanied by fibrosis and mineralization, hepatic and splenic amyloidosis, and swelling of some of the metatarsal and phalangeal joints. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination consistently demonstrated spirochaetes in the mucous membrane of the affected large intestine. On the basis of their cultural and biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis, four out of seven spirochaete strains isolated from the ducks (Flock A) by culture on special media under anaerobic conditions were identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and five out of eight strains (Flock B) were identified as Brachyspira pilosicoli. This is the first report on the isolation of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli from laying ducks affected by fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis.

  7. ULSE-MAGNETIC STAMPING OF THIN-WALLED CYLINDRICAL DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bondar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of pulse magnetic stamping technological operation is considered in the given article. The stress state of die – slug system is analyzed. Recommendations concerning the technological equipment condition are given.

  8. State waterfowl conservation stamp/print programs considerations for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An Alaska Waterfowl Conservation Stamp program has been proposed in several bills put before the legislature in 1983. The intent of this report is to present a brief...

  9. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  10. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  11. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  12. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  13. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Russell, Robin E; Franson, J Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J; Allen, R Bradford; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  14. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mottled duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, James C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1983-01-01

    The mottled duck is a mallard-like resident species of the Gulf of Mexico coast, from the marshes of Pearl River on the Lou i si ana-Ht ss t ss ipp i border to the Al varado Lagoon near Veracruz, Mexico (Bell rose 1976). The highest densities of nesting mottl ed ducks are found in brackish to fresh coastal marshes (H. Bateman, Louisiana Department of Wildl ife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge; pers , comm.). Mottled ducks also inhabit prairie land near prairie potholes in Texas and flooded rice fields in Texas (Engel ing 1950) and Louisiana (Linscombe 1972).

  16. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  17. Polyurethane Molecular Stamps for the in situ Synthesis of DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of polyurethane molecular stamps (PU stamps) based on polypropylene glycol (PPG) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), using 3, 3(-dichloro-4, 4(-methylenedianiline (MOCA) as the crosslinker, is reported. It was shown from the contact angle measurement that PU stamps surface has good affinity with acetonitrile, guaranteeing the well distribution of DNA monomers on patterned stamps. Laser confocal fluorescence microscopy images of oligonucleotide arrays after hybridization confirmed polyurethane is an excellent material for molecular stamps when transferring polar chemicals and conducting reactions on interfaces by stamping.

  18. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Duck nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the 1991 duck nest survey at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Key areas of the refuge were nest searched during the period between May 25th and July...

  19. Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Duck River flows 290 miles through several major ecoregions before entering the impounded main stem Tennessee River at Sycamore Landing, Tennessee, adjacent to...

  20. Nowitna NWR duck production survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a duck production survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The survey employed a stratified...

  1. Koyukuk NWR 1985 duck brood survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a duck brood survey that was conducted in the area within the boundaries of the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and the Kaiyuh...

  2. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). ...

  3. Fabrication of Silver Interdigitated Electrode by a Stamp Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Sen Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A stamp method was developed in this study to fabricate interdigitated electrodes (IDEs on glass substrate from a 37.5 wt% silver ink. This method is simple and fast. A small amount of silver ink was first dripped into an IDE-patterned sponge of a stamp and then one could stamp out the desired IDE pattern made of nanosized silver colloids on a glass substrate, which was subsequently sintered at 280°C for 10 minutes to obtain the final silver IDE. Our brief study showed that when a large stamping force was used, more ink would be stamped out in the beginning and it decreased after each usage. However, if the force was too small, there would not be sufficient ink for a complete IDE. There existed therefore an optimal force to fabricate IDEs with minimal changes from sample to sample. The average dimension of an IDE when the applied force was 102 gm was roughly 403 ± 20 µm in width and 1154 ± 153 nm in height, and the average final electrical resistivity was about 10×10-6 Ω-cm.

  4. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  5. Research on Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation of Stamping Process Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Tingwei; GAO Jun; ZHAO Guoqun

    2006-01-01

    Stamping process, which is widely used in automobile, aerospace, machine-building industries, and etc., is a creative process needing time and experiences. The lead time is mainly spent on stamping die design and manufacturing. As the basis of die design, process design is a non-linearity and creative process, which can be solved by using the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. In this paper, the potential of fuzzy synthetic evaluation for dealing with stamping process design was explored. The influencing factor set, factor weight set, evaluation set, single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix, and fuzzy synthetic evaluation scheme were studied. Finally, the washer part, considering forming equipment, part dimensions and other factors, was selected to testify the evaluation process.

  6. Research of Stamp Forming Simulation Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xaio-ping; XU Lian

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the finite element method offers a greta functional improvement for analyzing the stamp forming process of an automobile panel. Using the finite element theory and the simulation method of sheet stamping forming, the element model of sheet forming is built based on software HyperMesh,and the simulation of the product's sheet forming process is analyzed based on software Dynaform. A series of simulation results are obtained. It is clear that the simulation results from the theoretical basis for the product's die design and are useful for selecting process parameters.

  7. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  8. 1988 Duck nesting study: Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer, 1988, we conducted a duck nesting study to determine nest success for ducks at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). We calculated nest...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or...

  10. Differential expression and function of stamp family proteins in adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Sikkeland

    Full Text Available Six transmembrane protein of prostate (Stamp proteins play an important role in prostate cancer cell growth. Recently, we found that Stamp2 has a critical role in the integration of inflammatory and metabolic signals in adipose tissue where it is highly expressed and regulated by nutritional and metabolic cues. In this study, we show that all Stamp family members are differentially regulated during adipogenesis: whereas Stamp1 expression is significantly decreased upon differentiation, Stamp2 expression is increased. In contrast, Stamp3 expression is modestly changed in adipocytes compared to preadipocytes, and has a biphasic expression pattern during the course of differentiation. Suppression of Stamp1 or Stamp2 expression both led to inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation in concert with diminished expression of the key regulators of adipogenesis - CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/ebpα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ. Upon Stamp1 knockdown, mitotic clonal expansion was also inhibited. In contrast, Stamp2 knockdown did not affect mitotic clonal expansion, but resulted in a marked decrease in superoxide production that is known to affect adipogenesis. These results suggest that Stamp1 and Stamp2 play critical roles in adipogenesis, but through different mechanisms.

  11. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  12. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The purpose of those models is to be able to predict the deformation and stretch of the flexixble stamps in order to take that into account when designing the plan...... 2D silicon master used in the NIL process. Two different manufacturing processes are investigated; (i) Embossing of an electroplated nickel foil into a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) polymer resist on a double-curved surface, (ii) NIL of a flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stamps...... into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. Challenges comprise several non-linear phenomena. First of all geometrical non-linearities arising from the inherent large strains and deformations during the process are modelled. Then, the constitutive behaviors of the nickel foil and the PTFE polymer during...... deformation are addressed. This is achieved by a general elasto-plastic description for the nickel foil and a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for the PTFE material, in which the material parameters are found. Last, the contact conditions between the deforming stamp and the injection moulding tool insert...

  13. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.67 Cancellation of stamp. The... genuineness from being readily determined. Exceptions to Tax on Making Firearms...

  14. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and relationship among some Chinese domestic ducks and wild ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Feihuan; ZUO Zhenghong; CHEN Mei; SONG Yueqiang; L(U) Liangju; CHEN Yixin

    2006-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic(AFLP)technique was used to analyze the genome DNA polymorphism among 8 breeds of domestic ducks and 2 species of wild ducks.Nine of the 17 selected primers pairs gave reproducible polymorphic DNA amplification bands.The amplified bands ranged from 44 to 83 per primer pair.Of the 513 AFLP markers obtained.498 were polymorphic.The proportion of polymorphic loci was 97.1%.The genetic distance(D)and similarity coefficients(GS)were calculated based on the polymorphic data.Between domestic ducks D ranged from 0.331 to 0.589,while between domestic ducks and the wild ducks,it ranged from 0.298 to 0.520(vs.Anas Platyrhynchos)and from 0.316 to 0.522(vs.A.Poecilorhyncha),respectively.The variance analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups of data,which indicated that both mallard and spot-billed ducks made contributions to domestic duck evolution.A dendrogram was constructed according to the D value.

  15. Mortality at an automotive stamping and assembly complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R; Krebs, J; Mirer, F

    1994-10-01

    Mortality among workers with 2 or more years employment at an automotive stamping and assembly complex was analyzed using standardized mortality ratio (SMR), proportional mortality ratio (PMR), and mortality odds ratio (MOR) methods. The stamping plant all-cause SMR was considerably less than expected (for white men, SMR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54, 0.79; for black men, SMR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.13), indicating a strong "healthy worker effect." However, six stomach cancer deaths produced an SMR of 4.4 (95% CI = 1.62, 9.6) and a PMR of 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 15). Based on small numbers of cases, stomach cancer risk increased with duration in stamping and tool and die departments where exposures included drawing compound and other metalworking fluids. Stamping plant lung cancer mortality was elevated among production welders (MOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.3), and increased with duration. Welding was performed on sheet metal sometimes coated with drawing compound, primer, or epoxy resin adhesive. As was observed for the stamping plant, the all-cause SMR for the two assembly plants was unusually low (for white men, SMR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.73; for black men, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.75). The lung cancer SMR was not elevated but the MOR was (MOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.4) and increased with assembly plant duration (MOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.1, at mean duration of cases). In the assembly plants, paint oven stack emissions had been reintroduced into the plant by the ventilation system.

  16. Junior Professors Question Job Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Female and minority faculty members rated their institutions less positively as places for junior professors to work than did their male and white counterparts, according to a new report. Young professors said institutional policies designed to help them succeed were important, but they were less satisfied that those policies were effective. Women…

  17. Improving Junior High Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether descriptive-correlational results from classroom management research could be implemented by junior high school teachers, and whether such implementation would result in improved classroom management. An experimental group (18 teachers) received management manuals developed by researchers, and…

  18. Holography in the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Examines the use of holography in the art technology program of a junior high school. Characterizing holography as a valuable artistic experience and discovery experience and stressing the importance of student interest and involvement, the author discusses the necessary equipment for the project and includes two diagrams of a holographic setup.…

  19. Prediction and Control of Wrinkle and Fracture for Stamping Regular Polygonal Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jun-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the deformation characteristic of regular polygonal box stamped parts and the superfluous triangle material wrinkle model, the criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts without wrinkle was deduced and used to predict and control the wrinkle limit. According to the fracture model, the criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts without fracture was deduced and used to predict and control the fracture limit. Combining the criterion for stamping without wrinkle with that without fracture, the stamping criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts was obtained to predict and control the stamping limit. Taken the stainless steel 0Cr18Ni9 (SUS304) sheet and the square box stamped part as examples, the limit diagram was given to predict and control the wrinkle, fracture and stamping limits. It is suitable for the deep drawing without flange, the deep drawing and stretching combined forming with flange and the rigid punch stretching of plane blank. The limit deep-drawing coefficient and the minimum deep-drawing coefficient can be determined, and the appropriate BHF (blank holder force) and the deep-drawing force can be chosen. These provide a reference for the technology planning, the die and mold design and the equipment determination, and a new criterion evaluating sheet stamping formability, which predicts and controls the stamping process, can be applied to the deep drawing under constant or variable BHF conditions.

  20. Dating of seals produced with stamp-pad ink using gas chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao

    2014-09-01

    Seals are often placed on important documents, and determining the date when a seal was affixed can be important to assess the authenticity of a document. In this study, thirty-seven different brands of stamp-pad inks and three different types of paper were used to make diachronic samples of the seals. The volatile components of stamp-pad ink were determined, and the stamp-pad ink was classified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Calibration curves were created to show the relationship between the content of volatile stamp-pad ink components and the age of stamp-pad ink entries stored under natural aging, UV-induced aging, and heating aging conditions. The experimental results showed that GC was useful in the analysis of stamp-pad ink and applicable for determining the relative age of stamp-pad ink entries in some cases where the seal was placed on the document within 3 months.

  1. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class I gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG; WEI-JIE LIU; JIA-QIANG WU; MIN-LI XU; ZHENG-JIE KONG; YAN-YAN HUANG; SHAO-HUA YANG

    2017-06-01

    To enrich gene polymorphism ofDuMHCI and provide data for further studies on disease resistance, 14DuMHCI genes from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overallconservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within the sequences, and relative conservation were also displayed in the peptide-binding domain and CD8 interaction sites. Based on full-length amino acid homology, MHC class I fromdifferent duck lines could be divided into 13 gene groups and three novel gene groups existed.Moreover, 14 key variable residues corresponding to gene groups division were exhibited on the homology modelling constructed based on theresolved protein structure of DuMHC I. This study explicit the characteristics of DuMHC I in the two duck lines and could contribute to design effective diagnostics and vaccines for the species against various infections.

  2. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  3. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  4. Stereo Matching of Planar Curves Composed of Time Stamped Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuwen; Zhang Tianxu

    2006-01-01

    Matching features such as curve segments in stereo images play a very important role in scene reconstruction. In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm for the trajectories composed of time stamped points is proposed. Based on time stamped points, planar curve match measurements are given first, such as time constraint, cross-ratio invariant constraint and epipolar geometry constraint;then, a trajectory matching method is proposed based on epipolar geometry constraint and cross-ratio invariant constraint. In order to match the planar curve segments projected by perspective projection system, the curve start time and end time are selected first to prepare match candidates. Then, the epipolar equation is used to discard the unmatched curve segment candidates. At last, a cross ratio invariant constraint is used to find the most matched curve segments. If their match measurement is higher than the specialized threshold, a candidate with the least cross ratio difference is then selected as the match result; otherwise, no match is found. Unlike the conventional planar curve segments matching algorithm, this paper presents a weakly calibrated binocular stereo vision system which is based on wide baseline. The stamped points are obtained by targets detecting method of flying objects from image sequences.Due to wide baseline, there must exist the projection not in epipolar monotonic order or the curve segments located in very short distance and keeping the epipolar monotonic order. By using the method mentioned above, experiments are made to match planar curve segments not only in epipolar monotonic order but also not in epipolar monotonic order. The results show that the performance of our curve matching algorithm is effective for matching the arc-like planar trajectories composed of time stamped points.

  5. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Drobyshev, Alexei L.; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfu...

  6. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshev, A L; Zasedatelev, A S; Drobyshev, Alexei L; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfully applied to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance.

  7. [Water provisions for Muscovy ducks--behaviour at duck showers and modified plasson drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Andreas; Hänsch, Friederike; Hartung, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Feather pecking and cannibalism are serious problems in keeping Moscovy ducks. Prevention of feather pecking by regularly applied beak and claw trimming are increasingly criticised by the public. The recommendation of the Council of Europe (COE) for the keeping of Muscovy ducks in farming systems calls for environmental enrichment including water for preening and bathing after December 31,2010. A total of 126 female Muscovy ducks (not beak nor claw trimmed) from commercial breeding lines were kept for 63 resp. 70 days in four compartments with 15-16 ducks each during two production cycles. Two pens where equipped either with duck showers or open water facility (modified Plasson drinker). Water provisions were made available for the ducks four hours daily at working days from their fifth week of life until slaughter. Behaviour at the water provision was registered and analysed for the number of ducks being engaged with water (944 hours recordings over 59 days from four pens analysed in five-minute-intervals (11,540 observations). Additionally 858 feather preening bouts (five a day for each compartment) were analysed for the duration of feather preening behaviour at the water provision. From the fifth to the tenth week of life the mean percentage of animals of a pen was significantly higher at the open trough (trough: 8,3% (+/-5,37); shower: 4.9% (+/-6.1), Mann-Whitney p animals observed at both water provisions increased with age. Nonetheless only ten percent of the feather preening behaviour exceeded five minutes. Most animals made use of water in the first hour of the time period when water was provided. In the first weeks of water provision open water troughs were used more often and preening behaviour was longer. When given the choice, younger ducks preferred open drinkers to showers while older ducks showed a higher preference for the duck showers. In future it may be useful to elaborate whether a combination of open water troughs in the first few weeks of the

  8. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  9. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  10. Application of Raman spectroscopy in forensic investigation of questioned documents involving stamp inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ali; Saha, Basudeb

    2013-09-01

    Stamp pad inks from different manufacturers across India have been analyzed to investigate the feasibility of Raman scattering as a tool for forensic analysis of questioned documents involving stamp inks. Nine different stamping inks were analyzed by both Raman spectroscopic and HPTLC methods. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods in classifying the investigated stamping inks based on their spectral pattern and HPTLC chromatogram. Raman scattering tool was able to determine the sequence of heterogeneous intersection strokes involving a blue stamp pad ink and other writing instruments, such as ballpoint pen ink (red and black), pencil and laser printer toner. However, this method was unable to resolve the exact sequencing for the intersection strokes involving investigated stamp ink and blue ballpoint ink or gel pen ink (all colors).

  11. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10(2) copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  13. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  14. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  15. Pathogenicity and genetic characterization of a duck Tembusu virus associated with egg-dropping in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Qin; Lin, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Zhan-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Zhou, Qing-Feng; Qin, Jian-Ping; Xie, Qing-Mei; Bi, Ying-Zuo; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-02

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has spread to the major duck-farming region in China, causing acute egg-production drop in Chinese duck population. In this study, we characterized a DTMUV strain (named GD2014) isolated from an egg-production drop duck farm in Guangdong province, South China. The virus was pathogenic to Muscovy duck embryos and caused severe egg production drop for laying Muscovy ducks. The genome sequence of GD2014 shared 97-99% homologies with other waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses, and shared 89% identities with MM1775 strain isolated from mosquito. Phylogenetic analysis of entire open reading frame (ORF), E gene and NS5 gene indicated that GD2014 belonged to Ntaya group. These results have implications for understanding the orgin, emergence and pathogenicity of DTMUV as well as for the development of vaccines and diagnostics based on epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  17. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  18. Teaching History in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    1989-01-01

    Recommends techniques for teaching history in the junior college. Discusses subject matter to be taught, the psychology of learning, and the philosophy of teaching history. Addresses the special needs of the junior college classroom. Outlines criteria to be followed in teaching history. (RW)

  19. Junior High Career Planning: What Students Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    This research used "The Comprehensive Career Needs Survey" to assess the career counselling needs of 3,562 junior high students in Southern Alberta. This article examines junior high students' responses regarding their perceptions of (a) the relevance of career planning, (b) who they would approach for help with career planning, and (c)…

  20. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  1. Effective Management in Junior High Mathematics Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Reporting on part of the data collected in the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, this document focuses on the mathematics subsample. Twenty-six mathematics teachers in 11 junior high schools were observed in two classes. The major purpose of this paper is to describe the classroom procedures and behaviors of teachers identified as…

  2. Injection of duck recombinant follistatin fusion protein into duck muscle tissues stimulates satellite cell proliferation and muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-he; Wang, Ji-wen; Yu, Hai-yue; Zhang, Rong-ping; Chen, Xi; Jin, Hai-bo; Dai, Fei; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Follistatin (FST) can inhibit the expression of myostatin, which is a predominant inhibitor of muscle development. The potential application of myostatin-based technology has been prompted in different ways in agriculture. We previously constructed an expression vector of duck FST and isolated the FST fusion protein. After the protein was purified and refolded, it was added to the medium of duck myoblasts cultured in vitro. The results show that the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide value of the myoblasts in the duck FST treatment group is higher than that in the control group, which indicates that the duck FST fusion protein exhibits the biological activities that can accelerate myoblast proliferation. To further investigate the roles of duck FST on muscle development, we injected the protein into the duck muscle tissues in vivo. The results show that both the duck muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the satellite cell activation frequency are influenced more in the FST treatment group than they are in the control group. In addition to these phenomena, expression of MyoD and Myf5 were increased, and the expression of myostatin was decreased. Together, these results suggest the potential for using duck FST fusion protein to inhibit myostatin activity and subsequently to enhance muscle growth in vivo. The mechanism by which FST regulates muscle development in the duck is similar to that in mammals and fishes.

  3. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  5. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  6. Analysis Of Die Design For The Stamping Of A Bathtub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojny M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.

  7. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  8. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  9. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  10. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  11. New postage stamp design with tone gradation in Infraredesign technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of new steganographic methods in postage stamp printing technology with the goal of securing them against counterfeiting. Postage stamp designs are presented which contain double information in the visible and in the infrared spectrum area. New methods include printing with process printing inks that have a continuous response in the infrared area of the spectrum. The infrared Z image cannot be produced with conventional CMYK separation in such a way that the hidden picture does not show through when looking at the print. This is the reason for introducing CMYKIR separation, with mathematical relations that respect printing ink characteristics in the RGB to CMYKIR system conversion.A mathematical model with targeted separation characteristics is proposed, with seven independent variables. It has been created as the result of optimal regression model developed on the basis of colour tone measuring for the visual and infrared spectrum. A technological procedure has been elaborated for producing and printing based on such designs. It is possible to detect the infrared image with the help of a device – the infrared ZRGB camera. Counterfeiting is impossible due to the irreversible conversion of the CMYKIR separation into the RGB system applied in contemporary scanners or cameras.

  12. Single Time-Stamped Tries for Retroactive Call Subsumption

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Tabling is an evaluation strategy for Prolog programs that works by storing answers in a table space and then by using them in similar subgoals. Some tabling engines use call by subsumption, where it is determined that a subgoal will consume answers from a more general subgoal in order to reduce the search space and increase efficiency. We designed an extension, named Retroactive Call Subsumption (RCS), that implements call by subsumption independently of the call order, thus allowing a more general subgoal to force previous called subgoals to become answer consumers. For this extension, we propose a new table space design, the Single Time Stamped Trie (STST), that is organized to make answer sharing across subsumed/subsuming subgoals simple and efficient. In this paper, we present the new STST table space design and we discuss the main modifications made to the original Time Stamped Tries approach to non-retroactive call by subsumption. In experimental results, with programs that stress some deficiencies of ...

  13. Morpho peleides butterfly wing imprints as structural colour stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobl, Sigrid; Salvenmoser, Willi; Schwerte, Thorsten; Gebeshuber, Ille C; Schreiner, Manfred

    2016-02-02

    This study presents the replication of a color-causing nanostructure based on the upper laminae of numerous cover scales of Morpho peleides butterfly wings and obtained solely by imprinting their upper-wing surfaces. Our results indicate that a simple casting technique using a novel integrated release agent can obtain a large positive replica using negative imprints via Polyvinylsiloxane. The developed method is low-tech and high-yield and is thus substantially easier and less expensive than previous methods. The microstructures were investigated with light microscopy, the nanostructures with both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the reflections with UV visible spectrometry. The influence of the release agent and the quality of the master stamp were determined by comparing measurements of the cover-scale sizes and their chromaticity values obtained by their images and with their positive imprints. The master stamp provided multiple positive replicas up to 3 cm(2) in just 1 h with structural coloration effects visible to the naked eye. Thus, the developed method proves the accuracy of the replicated nanostructure and its potential industrial application as a color-producing nanostamp.

  14. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  15. Health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntunji Abel O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, duck production is in its infancy stage in Nigeria. Ducks are mostly reared extensively and concentrated in the hands of small-holder farmers. A survey on health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks was conducted in three south-west (Oyo, Osun and Lagos and one north central (Niger states in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 400(100 per state duck farmers and were analysed with descriptive statistics (percentage. Results on management of health-related challenges showed that 51.5% of respondents were practicing self-medication and majority in this category used ethno-veterinary medicines. Other measures adopted were neglect (12.25%, consumption of sick animals (10.50%, veterinary service (10.25%, among others. Reproductive performance estimates showed that about half (52.50% of the respondents indicated 5‒6 (24.75% and 7−8 (27.50% months as sexual maturity age of female ducks while the highest proportion (41.25% indicated 16−20 eggs as clutch size. Hatchability rate was very high; 52% of duck farmers indicated that hatching rate was above 80%. Adoption of improved management systems by duck farmers will be of immense contribution to the health management and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria.

  16. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  17. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  19. Pearl millet in diets of white Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Rogler, J C; Sullivan, T W

    1994-03-01

    In two 21-d experiments, the performance, nutrient utilization, and carcass composition of ducks fed diets containing pearl millet were compared with those fed diets containing corn. Corn, in diets at two protein levels (22 vs 18% in Experiment 1 and 22 vs 16% in Experiment 2), was replaced by pearl millet either on an equal-weight or isonitrogenous basis. During the first 2 wk of the first experiment, corn diets compared on an isonitrogenous basis were superior (P duck) and feed consumption (965 vs 914 g per duck); but when compared on an equal-weight basis, the millet diets were similar to the corn diets in promoting growth. No significant differences were observed for weight gain, feed consumption, or feed efficiency at the end of 3 wk. Over the 21-d study, the higher protein diets were more efficiently (P ducks fed the corn diets was greater (P growth performance differences across dietary protein levels were similar to those in Experiment 1. However in contrast to Experiment 1, feed consumption was similar for corn and pearl millet diets (776 vs 786 g per duck, respectively), and ducks fed the corn diets gained less (P duck) during the first 2 wk of Experiment 2. Results of the nutrient utilization trial conducted at the end of Experiment 2 revealed that diets containing pearl millet were higher (P ducks.

  20. DC-STAMP, the key fusion-mediating molecule in osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Dou, C E; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2014-10-01

    As a member of the mononuclear phagocyte system, osteoclasts (OC) absorb the bone matrix and participate in bone modeling by keeping a balance with osteoblasts (OB) and stromal cells. Mature OC derive from the fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts (mOC) and the fusion is considered as the indispensable process for the osteoclastogenesis and absorbing activity of OC. DC-STAMP (dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) has been validated playing a key role in the fusion of mOC. DC-STAMP is mainly expressed in OC, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). While DC-STAMP was discovered in DC, more attentions have been paid to DC-STAMP in OC in this decade. This review will mainly focus on the function of DC-STAMP in OC. Studies on DC-STAMP in DC may also provide new sight for the study of DC-STAMP in OC. Since the function of DC-STAMP is still poorly understood and few studies have been implemented for illustration, many issues are still unknown and need to be revealed. We will also discuss these questions in this review.

  1. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  2. On Uniform Motion of a Periodic System of Absolutely Rigid Stamps, in the Hollow Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirjanyan H. A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Axissymetric stress state of the infinite hollow cylinder when on the inner surface of the cylinder acts a periodic system of uniformly moving circular stamps and the outer surface is free of loads or rigidly clamped is considered The behavior of the contact stresses, acting under the stamp, in dependence on the physical and geometrical parameters of the cylinder is studied.

  3. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... requirements for the receipt of food stamps. The provisions of the final rule will simplify program... Families (TANF) cash assistance or Medicaid programs; replace the current, fixed standard deduction with a... receive transitional food stamp benefits when they cease to receive TANF cash assistance; and restore...

  4. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  5. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  6. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  7. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Duck Hepatitis B Virus Isolated from Hubei Brown Ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Quan; ZHANG Xiaoyong; LEI Yangchang; ZHANG Zhengmao; Mengji Lu; YANG Dongliang

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genome structure of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) isolated from Hubei brown ducks. The natural carrier rate of DHBV in adult ducks from Hubei area was investigated and the DHBV DNA-positive serum screened out. The complete genome of a DHBV strain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into T vector and sequenced. The results showed that the carrier rate of DHBV in Hubei brown ducks was 10 %.This strain (GenBank accession number DQ276978) had a genome of 3024 nucleotides with three overlapping open reading frames encoding the surface, core and polymerase proteins respectively. Comparison of the strain with 17 DHBV strains registered in GenBank revealed a homology from 89.3 % to 93.5 % at the nucleotide level. The sequences of the structural and functional domains of these proteins were highly conserved. The strain was found to share more signature amino acids in the polymerase genes with the "Chinese" DHBV strains than those of the "Western" country strains.This finding was also corroborated by a phylogenetic tree analysis. Therefore, the DQ276978 might belong to a subtype of the Chinese DHBV strains.

  9. Evidence of possible vertical transmission of Tembusu virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiuli; Chen, Hao; Ti, Jinfeng; Yang, Guoping; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yunjian; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-09-30

    In 2013, Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection was successively observed on several breeding duck farms in Shandong province, China. Affected ducks showed consistently acute anorexia, diarrhea and egg production drop. 125 hatching eggs produced by TMUV infected breeding ducks from four duck farms were collected. Among them, 35 hatching eggs were selected randomly from all before incubation for vitelline membrane samples collection. The rest of 90 hatching eggs were incubated routinely. As a result, 16 hatching eggs were found non-embryonated, 28 duck embryos died during incubation and 46 newly hatched ducklings were obtained. Vitelline membranes of non-embryonated hatching eggs, vitelline membrane, brain or liver samples of dead embryos and brain samples of newly hatched ducklings were collected for virus detection. Samples collected from one egg, embryo or duckling were treated as one. Consequently, 18 of 35 (51.43%) hatching eggs, 2 of 16 (12.50%) non-embryonated duck eggs, 17 of 28 (60.71%) dead duck embryos and 5 of 46 (10.87%) newly hatched ducklings were detected positive for TMUV using NS3-based RT-PCR. Overall, 42 of 125 (33.6%) eggs were positive for TMUV. A virus strain, designated as TMUV-SDDE, was isolated from one of these dead duck embryos which were detected TMUV positive. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that E gene of TMUV-SDDE virus was closely related to other TMUV strains isolated in China during 2010-2013. Pathogenicity studies showed that TMUV-SDDE strain was virulent to ducklings. This is the first report that TMUV is isolated from duck embryos. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of TMUV from breeding ducks to ducklings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A new species of duck from Central Colombia A new species of duck from Central Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C. Lehmann gave a brief summary of what was known of these birds. His account indicates that dark-colored ducks are of common occurrence in various part of Colombia, especially in the Bogotá Savanna where they are called "pico de oro" or "picodioro". He recorded others near Cali in the Cauca Valley where they are known as "pato amarillo". The matter is of especial interest since the black duck of North America, Anas rubripes, while migratory in the northern part of its range is not known to pass south of the southern United states except for two or three casual records from the West Indies. Shortly before this, on September 17, 1943, Brother Nicéforo Maria of the Instituto de La Salle in Bogotá wrote that he has forwarding to the U. S. National Museum as a gift a small collection of birds taken principally by himself for which he desired identifications. When these arrived in due time there was among them a strange duck somewhat resembling Anas spinicauda, but differing in form and especially in much darker color. There was some supposition that it might be a hybrid, but this seemed hardly probable, so that the question of the "black ducks" reported from this area came immediately to mind.For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C

  11. Modeling of Duck Density and Complex Stocking Time in Rice-Duck Agroecosystems in Terms of Economic and Ecological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahong Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice-duck integrated farming is an effective step under today’s sustainable development background. To make better economic and ecological benefits, a rice-duck agroecosystem is established and kept, in which the paddy field, rice, and the duck mutually promote one another. But the duck density and complex stocking time must be rationally selected. Aiming to attain quantitative assessment and optimal selection of the duck density and complex stocking time in this kind of systems, a methodology based on proposed mathematical models in terms of comparative economic and ecological benefits is addressed. Then the models are solved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm NN-GA that integrates the Neural Networks (NN and Genetic Algorithm (GA, making use of the fitting ability in nonlinear fitness context of Neural Networks and the optimization ability of the Genetic Algorithm. Besides, numerical examples are demonstrated in order to test the proposed models. Results reveal that the methodology is reasonable and feasible.

  12. Design and Development on Intelligent Layout System of Stamping Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjuan Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal layout of stamping blanks is a complicated problem under the control of multi-circumstances, and it cannot be best solved by any single algorithm. In order to solve this problem, the paper proposed a new kind of algorithm combining CHNN and genetic algorithm. It set up models for irregular parts, and these irregular parts were processed by using the surrounding rectangle methods and graphic composition. The paper used AutoCAD as a develop studio, and discussed CHNN and its mapping to layout and optimize the weight of CHNN by genetic algorithm. The kernel program adopted VB program language and developed the intelligent layout system. With the input of layout parts graphics and layout parameter, the system preprocessed graphics and gave layout results automatically. Sample analysis showed the results that the system had good man-machine interfaces, interactive features, high speed and quality retention of solution.

  13. Triboanalysis in Industry for PVD-coated Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zdravecká

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of hard wear-resistant coatings is expanding into various sectors of industry to protect tools and other components from failure caused by wear and corrosion. However, in forming industry it is still rather an exception than a rule to find coated forming dies. This study has objectives to investigate wear behaviour of P/M Vanadis 6 ledeburitic steel with PVD-TiN and TiCN coatings. The tests were carried out in the laboratory and industrial process conditions. The obtained results under operating conditions show that the application of PVD coatings appears as a very effective method for increasing the lifetime and wear resistance of cold stamping dies.

  14. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E T

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  15. Multicriteria shape design of a sheet contour in stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima-Zahra Oujebbour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the hottest challenges in automotive industry is related to weight reduction in sheet metal forming processes, in order to produce a high quality metal part with minimal material cost. Stamping is the most widely used sheet metal forming process; but its implementation comes with several fabrication flaws such as springback and failure. A global and simple approach to circumvent these unwanted process drawbacks consists in optimizing the initial blank shape with innovative methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce an efficient methodology to deal with complex, computationally expensive multicriteria optimization problems. Our approach is based on the combination of methods to capture the Pareto Front, approximate criteria (to save computational costs and global optimizers. To illustrate the efficiency, we consider the stamping of an industrial workpiece as test-case. Our approach is applied to the springback and failure criteria. To optimize these two criteria, a global optimization algorithm was chosen. It is the Simulated Annealing algorithm hybridized with the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation in order to gain in time and in precision. The multicriteria problems amounts to the capture of the Pareto Front associated to the two criteria. Normal Boundary Intersection and Normalized Normal Constraint Method are considered for generating a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with the characteristic of uniform distribution of front points. The computational results are compared to those obtained with the well-known Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II. The results show that our proposed approach is efficient to deal with the multicriteria shape optimization of highly non-linear mechanical systems.

  16. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-07-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful.

  17. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  18. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  19. Cloning,sequencing and phylogenic analysis of duck prion gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qigui; ZHANG Lei; HU Xiaoxiang; FAN Baoliang; LI Ning; LI Hui; WU Changxin

    2004-01-01

    Duck prion gene was cloned and sequenced. Similar to mammalian prion protein (PrP), duck prion is encoded by a single exon of a single copy in genome, which was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. All of the structural features of mammalian PrP were also identified in the duck PrP. Compared with mammalian PrP, it exhibited a 30 % of general similarity. When compared with chicken PrP, it showed a higher homology of 97%. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to trace evolution of prion gene in animals.

  20. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.

  1. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  2. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClere, D J; Thompson, G E; Derby, B

    2009-06-17

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  3. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    with predictions provided by a geometrical model [1]. Simulated and experimental observations were in good accordance. Future work will include the application of current results to design nanostructured patterns forwhich the stamp deformation will be compensated to achieve more reliable surface characteristics....... characterized by analyzing the center-to-centerdistance of the pillars at several points across the spheres. From the measurements and the observed deviation of the distance of pillars, the stamp deformation was calculated. Finally, the experimentally determined deformation of the flexible stamp was compared...

  4. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  5. Black Duck Nesting Study at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For decades, the black duck population of North America has steadily declined due to such factors as habitat degradation and competition from the mallard. Beginning...

  6. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the Circumpolar region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during the last several decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be...

  7. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  8. 1989 duck production study : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a duck production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Nest dragging was initiated on the refuge for the first time in...

  9. Central Flyway Duck Banding project : Annual progress report 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Central Flyway Council (CFC) initiated a six year duck banding program in 1996 with emphasis on mallard banding in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and...

  10. Wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions for Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey has two surveying...

  11. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  12. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  13. Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge : duck nesting success report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report summarizing the fourth consecutive year of data collection for duck nesting success at Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge during the 1990 nesting...

  14. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  15. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiseok; Wubs, Kevin; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Soo

    2012-06-01

    Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Polyurethane (PU) prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle) for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  16. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slange, Tjitse; Warnet, Laurent; Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Chinesta, Francisco; Cueto, Elias; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on

  17. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  18. Numerical Effectiveness of the Simulation of an Automotive Body Part Stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stadnicki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of advanced high-strength steel sheet (AHSS stamping processes by means of dedicated computer-aided engineering (CAE software requires the use of appropriate material models, the use of complex FEM models, and the use of advanced methods for solving nonlinear problems of their analysis. In practice, the engineering design of automotive body parts often leads to the formulation of problems, the solution of which requires ample computer resources and is very time-consuming. The paper describes a methodology to simulate stamping on the example of a car body part, with special attention being paid to the numerical efficiency of the FEM model and methods of solving it. The simulations of stamping of a sample stamped part—the automotive body part—in DynaForm and AutoForm programs are compared, focusing on the numerical effectiveness and consistency of the simulation results with the reality.

  19. Should Traditional Roast Ducks Follow The Fast Food Pattern?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It had to happen.Fast food has crept into every facet of life in China,but one area of culinary delight was thought too sacred to tamper with. The time-honored cooking process of Peking roast duck,has finally succumbed to modernity. Quanjude,Beijing’s most famous Peking roast duck brand,has been cooking the juicy birds hung on a pole over a wood fire since

  20. Clinical and Pathological Observation on Infectious Serositis of Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to clinical and pathological observation in infectious serositis of duck, the main signs of this disease were diarrhoea, breathing with difficulty, head tremble and movement beyond coordination. The pathological changes that had been found in 30 experimental ducks were fibrous pericarditis, hepatitis, and encephalitis. The fibrous serositis, liver fatty degeneration or focus necrosis, nonsuppurative encephalitis and serous-fibrous pneumonia were typical pathological changes of histology.

  1. Food Stamp Program Elderly Nutrition Demonstrations: Interim Report on Elderly Participation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Cody

    2004-01-01

    To raise participation in the Food Stamp Program by low-income elderly people, USDA implemented the Elderly Nutrition Demonstration in Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Maine, Michigan, and North Carolina in 2002. Each demonstration used one of three strategies to increase participation: (1) simplifying eligibility requirements for those applying for food stamps, (2) directly assisting applicants with completing the application process, and (3) offering applicants the option of receiving package...

  2. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  3. Monitoring population size of endangered Hawaiian duck and prevalence of Mallard/Hawaiian duck hybrids: Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hawaiian duck or Koloa maoli (Anas wyvilliana) is endemic to Hawai‘i and one of three extant waterfowl species occurring on the Hawaiian Islands. Relatively...

  4. Neurotransmitter level changes in domestic ducks(Shaoxing duck) growing up in typical mercury contaminated area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiu-ling; YANG Liu; SHEN Zhe-min; CHENG Jin-ping; JIN Gui-wen; QU Li-ya; WANG Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    The neurotransmitter level changes of ducks exposed 8-month in a mercury-polluted site(Wanshan, China) and a reference site ( Shanghai, China) were examined. Chemical analyses showed both higher mercury and selenium concentrations in the organ of Wanshan ducks. An increased content of acetylcholine(ACh) in brain and blood and a decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in blood were observed. Moreover, there was an increasing trend for nitric oxide synthase(NOS) activity and nitric oxide(NO) production in duck brain, but a reduction of NOS activity in duck serum. The possible explanations were due to the interactive effect of selenium accumulation and the sublethal exposure level of mercury in Wanshan area. The present study showed that AChE and NOS were sensitive to mercury contamination of real circumstance, suggesting that these two indexes have the potential to be biomarkers in assessment of health effects by mercury contamination.

  5. Surface modification of elastomeric stamps for microcontact printing of polar inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Veera Bhadraiah; Perl, Andras; Péter, Maria; Rozkiewicz, Dorota I; Engbers, Gerard; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-06-05

    Chemical modification of the surface of a stamp used for microcontact printing (microCP) is interesting for controling the surface properties, such as the hydrophilicity. To print polar inks, plasma polymerization of allylamine (PPAA) was employed to render the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyolefin plastomers (POP), and Kraton elatomeric stamps hydrophilic for long periods of time. A thin PPAA film of about 5 nm was deposited on the stamps, which increased the hydrophilicity, and which remained stable for at least several months. These surface-modified stamps were used to transfer polar inks by microCP. The employed microCP schemes are as follows: (a) a second generation of dendritic ink having eight dialkyl sulfide end groups to fabricate patterns on gold substrates by positive microCP, (b) fluorescent guest molecules on beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) printboards on glass employing host-guest recognition, and (c) Lucifer Yellow ethylenediamine resulting in covalent patterning on an aldehyde-terminated glass surface. All experiments resulted in an excellent performance of all three PPAA-coated stamp materials to transfer the polar inks from the stamp surface to gold and glass substrates by microCP, even from aqueous solutions.

  6. Simulation about hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel on the basis of lightweight technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiang; Ma Fangwu; Wang Xiaona; Yao Zaiqi; Song Wei; Zhao Fuquan; Ma Mingttu; Song Leifeng

    2012-01-01

    With the development of automobile lightweight, it is very necessary to apply the ultra-high strength steel parts manufactured by hot stamping, which offers the possibility to reduce the weight of automobiles and maintain the safety requirement. In order to complete hot stamping, it is important to design the structure of parts reasonably, which is related with reasonable matching of strength. The objective of this paper is to guide the design of parts manufactured by hot stamping and find the forming technical requirements of vehicle performance. Through experiments, the paper obtains the stress and strain curves at different deformation temperatures and strain rates. Based on experimental data, the constitutive relationship model is established which can reflect the deformation capacity of ultra-high strength steel during the process of hot stamping. Combined with finite element simulation results of hot stamping by commercial soft- ware AUTOFORM, transfer path of load and matching law of strength, the paper determines the design criteria and forming technical requirements of parts manufactured by hot stamping. At the same time, the impact performance of front cross member internal plate is taken into consideration.

  7. Hot Stamping of Boron Steel Using Partition Heating for Tailored Properties: Experimental Trials and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yanhong; Wang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Xu; Li, Xuetao

    2017-08-01

    Hot-stamped components with tailored properties are becoming popular for their better performance in collision. In this article, an M-shaped part with varying properties was formed by hot stamping using partition heating. Different soaking temperatures induce different austenite fractions at the different regions of the blank, resulting in the partitioned microstructure and mechanical properties in a single part. In the high-temperature region, the average tensile strength and elongation are 1565 MPa and 8.65 pct, respectively, and the average tensile strength and elongation are 626 MPa and 24.37 pct, respectively, in the low-temperature region. A finite element model of hot stamping using partition heating was established based on the relationship of austenite fraction with heating temperature determined by the dilatometer test and the stress-strain curve of 22MnB5 with different austenite fractions acquired from the hot tensile test.The differences of temperature, thickness, and Vickers hardness in different zones of the M-shaped part during forming and quenching stages were analyzed. The effects of hot stamping parameters, such as stamping velocity and heating temperature, on the forming and mechanical properties of the tailored M-shaped part were investigated, providing theoretical guidance for the production of tailored hot-stamped components using partition heating.

  8. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  9. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  10. Cooling Systems Design in Hot Stamping Tools by a Thermal-Fluid-Mechanical Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping tools with cooling systems are the key facilities for hot stamping process of Ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS in automotive industry. Hot stamping tools have significant influence on the final microstructure and properties of the hot stamped parts. In serials production, the tools should be rapidly cooled by cooling water. Hence, design of hot stamping tools with cooling systems is important not only for workpieces of good quality but also for the tools with good cooling performance and long life. In this paper, a new multifield simulation method was proposed for the design of hot stamping tools with cooling system. The deformation of the tools was also analyzed by this method. Based on MpCCI (Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface, thermal-fluid simulation and thermal-fluid-mechanical coupled simulation were performed. Subsequently, the geometrical parameters of the cooling system are investigated for the design. The results show that, both the distance between the ducts and the distance between the ducts and the tools loaded contour have significant influence on the quenching effect. And better quenching effect can be achieved with the shorter distance from the tool surface and with smaller distance between ducts. It is also shown that, thermal expansion is the main reason for deformation of the hot forming tools, which causes the distortion of the cooling ducts, and the stress concentration at corner of the ducts.

  11. Comparison between Laser and Stamping without Die (SWD for Micro Tapered Hole Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The forming of a micro tapered hole is based on nanosecond pulsed laser processing, which conforms to fast processing time and high throughput; however, the microhole quality should be improved. Micro stamping is a technology providing high precise size and speed. The greatest difficulty in forming a microhole by micro stamping is the precision alignment of the punch head to the lower die. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a concept of stamping without die (SWD. Without a lower die, the tapered punch head was directly applied to the workpiece for micro stamping, and a thicker workpiece surrounding the punching area provides a better support to the stamping process. Thus, a successful forming of micro tapered holes is completed. The micro tapered hole depth is 300 μm, and the maximum ratio of inlet to outlet diameter is 18:1. In order to reduce the number of experiments, the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D was used for forming analysis. The simulation forecast result was compared with the experimental processing, which was well validated. Under different experimental parameters of laser energy and defocusing distance, drilling results by two methods show that the microhole quality by stamping process is better than by laser processing.

  12. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  13. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects.

  14. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administeredto amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonucleaserestriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck wasstatistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restrictionenzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D,E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and theother native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity ofMagelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by usingPCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  15. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  16. Pintail ducks tread the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Male (foreground) and female pintail ducks climb onto a grassy spot in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The pintails can be found in the marshes, prairie ponds and tundra of Alaska, Greenland and north and western United States; in the winter they range south and east to Central America and the West Indies, sometimes in salt marshes such as the refuge offers. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  17. Stamping Formability of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying; Li Yuanyuan; Li Wei

    2007-01-01

    ZE10 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through ingot casting and the hot-rolling process. The mechanical properties, conical cup value (CCV), bore expanding performance, and limit drawing ratio (LDR) were investigated to examine the stamping formability of ZE10 alloy sheets, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 ℃. The results showed that the tensile strength decreased, whereas, plasticity, drawing-bulging performance, bore expanding properties, and deep drawing performance increased markedly at elevated temperatures. The CCV specimens could be drawn into the conical die's underside cylindrical hole from the conical cliff, without cracking, and could have the minimum CCV at 200 and 250 ℃. In the bore-expanding test, the bore (Φ10 mm) could be expanded to the dimension of the punch (Φ25 mm) and the maximum bore-expanding ratio could be achieved at above 150 ℃. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.85 is acquired during the deep drawing test at 230 ℃ with the punch temperature of 20~ 50 ℃, the punch velocity of 50 mm·min-1, and the mixture of graphite and cylinder grease as lubricant.

  18. Optimization of Stamp Forming Process for Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Min Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the development of a two-dimensional stamping method for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites with thermoplastic matrix resins. Materials investigated are carbon fiber reinforced polyamide-6. Taguchi L16 orthogonal array is used in split-plot designs. The processing conditions include thermoforming temperature, mold temperature, pressure and time, required to establish high-quality parts. From the experimental results, we derive a set of best combination, A1 (90°, B2 (263C, C1 (105C, D1 (33 kg/cm2 and E2 (48 sec and carry out an estimated equation for the short-beam shear strength. The results have described the correlations between processing parameters and shear stress. Finally, for verifying the prediction ability of the estimated equation, the confirmation experiments are conducted. The confirmation test result is 48.67 kg/mm2, fall in the confidence interval. It shows that the prediction ability of estimated equation and the repetition of the experimental results has confirmed and accepted by the tests.

  19. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  20. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior Secondary School. ... learners' reading ability of English at junior secondary school in Botswana. ... teachers' schemes and records of work to explore the subjects' reading skills.

  1. Differential expression of duck Toll-like receptor 7 (dTLR7 in various organs of indigenous ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gautham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present molecular study was taken up with an aim of investigating the expression profile of duck TLR7 mRNA in various tissues of indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 ducks which are reared in extensive system have been chosen as research material for the present experiment. Ducks were sacrificed and tissue samples namely lungs, spleen and gastrointestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum were collected in RNA later solution. Total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA. Gene specific primers were designed and quantitative SYBR Green based Real-time Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to study the gene expression levels. The qRT-PCR data was normalized to β-actin, house keeping gene as endogenous control. Results: Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed higher expression in lungs and spleen, while expression being lower in digestive organs. Among gut associated tissues, ileum showed highest expression followed by caecum. Statistically no significant difference (P<0.05 in TLR7 expression was found between duodenum and jejunum. Conclusion: These findings have indicated that considerable level of dTLR7 is expressed in different tissues of ducks. The results suggest that TLR7 mediated innate immune response mechanism exists in native ducks, to fight against single stranded RNA viruses.

  2. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat.

  3. Live Attenuated Vaccine Based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhong; Ma, Ji; Huang, Kun; Chen, Huanchun; Liu, Ziduo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as 3 days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. PMID:27777571

  4. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee: Annual report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in west central Tennessee and to compare foods of black ducks and...

  5. 42 CFR 21.25 - Eligibility; junior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; junior assistant grade. 21.25 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.25 Eligibility; junior assistant grade. (a) Requirements; all candidates... for appointment in the grade of junior assistant: (1) Shall be a citizen of the United States; (2...

  6. Newly Designed Cr-Mn Alloyed Ultra-high Strength Steel without Boron Addition for Hot-stamping Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hui ZHU; Hong-bing ZHOU; Qin-yi LI; Qi-wei CHEN; Hai-rong GU; Yong-gang LIU

    2015-01-01

    A newly designed hot-stamping steel alloyed by chromium (Cr)and manganese (Mn)without boron (B) addition was developed for automobile mass reduction.The experimental results showed the Cr-Mn alloyed steel could be quenched to full martensite microstructure when the cooling rate was higher than 1 4 ℃/s.Yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the experimental hot stamping part reached 1 1 8 0 MPa,1 6 4 5 MPa and 8.4%, respectively.The experimental hot stamping part possessed higher tensile strength and elongation,compared with conventional hot-stamping steel of 2 2 MnB5 .Furthermore,excellent processing flexibility would be obtained in this novel hot-stamping steel because of its lower critical cooling rate and phase transformation temperature.The design of the composition and investigations of microstructure,mechanical properties and hot-stamping processing were also studied.

  7. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  8. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  9. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Origin of Some Chinese Domestic Duck Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; CHEN Guo-hong; CHEN Yang; ZHEN Ting; HUANG Zheng-yang; CHEN Chang-yi; LI Xin-yu; DUAN Xiu-jun; DONG Biao; XU Qi

    2014-01-01

    Twelve lfuorescence-labeled microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 12 domestic duck breeds and 2 wild duck breeds to determine the relationship and origin of Chinese domestic duck breeds. Gene frequency, effective number of alleles (Ne), expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphism information contents (PIC), inbreeding coefficient in population (Fis), standard genetic distance (DS), and genetic distance (DA) were calculated by FSTAT and distance and phylogenetic analysis after the dates which were output from the Microsatellite-Toolkit software. Genetic distances between 12 domestic duck breeds and 2 wild duck breeds were analyzed by variance analysis. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and phylogenetic trees used for cluster analysis were structured. The results indicated that 11 loci had medium-or high-level genetic diversity among the 12 loci, which could be efifciently used in the detection of the genetic parameters of each population. The values of He were 0.5414 to 0.7343, those of PIC proved similar, and those of Fis were 0.1101 to 0.3381 among all populations. All breeds were clustered into three groups by UPGMA phylogenetic trees. Banzui duck was clustered into a separate group. Differences of the DA were analysed by t-test. The results showed that difference in DA between the 12 domestic duck breeds and Lvtou duck and the Banzui duck were very signiifcant (P<0.01), indicating that these 12 domestic duck breeds originated from Lvtou wild duck, but not Banzui duck.

  10. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-11-10

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  11. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  12. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  13. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  14. 7 CFR 765.206 - Junior liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Junior liens. 765.206 Section 765.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... determinations for future requests for assistance and may adversely impact such requests. (b) Conditions...

  15. Pygmalion Effect on Junior English Teaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yurong Wang; Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    .... This thesis mainly focuses on the application of Pygmalion effect in English teaching, especially junior English teaching in China. If we can make good use of the Pygmalion Effect to conduct teaching and have positive expectations to students, it will improve teaching greatly.

  16. Organizing and Managing the Junior High Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines and activities for organizing and managing junior high school classes. The first five chapters are devoted to the topic of getting ready for the beginning of the school year; the last four chapters suggest guidelines and activities that are helpful in maintaining a management system. Chapter 1 deals with organizing…

  17. A Senior Partner in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The development and current status of the student personnel program at Sante Fe Junior College is described. Statements of purpose and philosophy are amplified through an outline of the needs and characteristics of Santa Fe students and a description of the elements of the program as they relate to specific needs and characteristics. The elements…

  18. Mathematics for Junior High School. Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is a supplementary SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include sets, projective geometry, open and closed paths, finite…

  19. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' READING ABILITIES IN JUNIOR SCHOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Bixi

    2001-01-01

    In This Article, the writer focus on an over- all analysis of the present situation of the students' reading activities in junior middle school in the countryside and put forward some suggestions on improving the teaching arts to enhance the students' fast reading abilities . It provided some theoretical basis on the further improcement of students' reading abilities in the school

  20. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  1. Foreign Languages at Tarrant County Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jane

    Even during the 1970's when diminished national interest in foreign language study was reflected in declining enrollments at most colleges, Tarrant County Junior College (TCJC) was able to maintain a vigorous language program by emphasizing oral communication and developing a flexible curriculum. Since 1975, the college has offered its preparatory…

  2. Curriculum Reviews: Middle/Junior High Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Pathways in Science" (Globe Book Company), designed as a complete middle/junior high school science program. Strengths (including sixth-grade readability) and weaknesses (indicating that limited process skill development may not challenge more capable students). Limited process skill development and the possibility for the program…

  3. Theme: Junior High and Middle School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    On the topic of agricultural education programs in middle/junior high schools, nine articles address developing self-concept, selecting materials, the benefits of agriscience contests, adopting new curricula, the role of Future Farmers of America in the development of adolescents, teaming science and agriculture, and the rationale for middle…

  4. Santa Fe Junior College, Gainesville, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    The design of Santa Fe Junior College is examined, beginning with the development of an educational philosophy. Subsequent design decisions are based largely upon this philosophy which emphasizes the development of the individual student and the fulfillment of his needs. Further, the need for flexibility is recognized and is an important aspect of…

  5. Redskin Images. Roy Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, William M.

    The school and self-improvement programs instituted at Roy Junior High School include the development of a self-performance evaluative instrument, the incorporation of a daily 15-minute reading session, the encouragement of dance and movement education through use of visiting professionals, and implementation of a self-esteem improvement mechanism…

  6. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  7. Cracking Prediction in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel by a Temperature-Dependent Forming Limit Surface Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Cui, Junjia; Jiang, Kaiyong; Zhou, Guangtao

    2016-11-01

    Hot stamping of high-strength steel (HSS) can significantly improve ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of hot-stamped part and thus meet the increasing demands for weight reduction and safety standards in vehicles. However, the prediction of forming defect such as cracking in hot stamping using traditional forming limit curve (FLC) is still challenging. In this paper, to predict HSS BR1500HS cracking in hot stamping, a temperature-dependent forming limit surface (FLS) is developed by simulations combined with experiments of biaxial tension of the plate with a groove at different temperatures. Different from the FLC, the newly developed FLS in which temperature is included suits the hot stamping of HSS. Considering the interplay among phase transformation, stress and strain, a finite element (FE)-coupled thermo-mechanical model of the hot stamping is developed and implemented under ABAQUS/Explicit platform where the developed FLS is built-in to predict strain distributions and HSS BR1500HS cracking in the hot stamping. Finally, the developed FLS is used to evaluate hot formability of HSS BR1500HS by using a hot stamping experiment for forming a box-shaped part. Results confirm that the developed FLS can accurately predict HSS BR1500HS cracking occurrence in the hot stamping.

  8. Why are junior doctors reluctant to consult attending physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Otto H

    2010-03-01

    A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so. This paper presents a model that explains (i) which junior doctors shy away from consulting; (ii) when junior doctors are reluctant; (iii) the importance of protocols in the medical sector; and (iv) when consulting is a sign of strength or a sign of weakness. Furthermore, I show that encouraging junior doctors to consult by investigating mishaps leads to another distortion: they will give too much weight to own assessments.

  9. Addition of enzyme to starter and grower diets for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Burrows, H; Adeola, O

    2002-12-01

    The growth performance and nutrient utilization responses of White Pekin ducks to a commercial enzyme preparation were investigated. The enzyme contained 4,000 units amylase, 12,000 units protease, and 1,600 units xylanase per gram. Twelve pens of 10 ducks were fed diets based on corn and soybean meal and wheat middlings. The diets contained the enzyme mixture at 0, 0.375, or 0.5 g/kg in a growth study for 42 d. At the end of growth study, four ducks from each of eight pens per diet were retained and continued their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/kg for 7 d. Intestinal content was sampled to determine ileal digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids. One duck from each pen was selected at the end of the growth study and was fitted with retainer rings around the vent for the attachment of an excreta collection apparatus; these ducks were maintained on their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/ kg to determine dietary nitrogen, amino acids, and energy retention. Results from the performance study showed a 6 to 8% increase (P ducks fed diets containing the enzyme preparation at 0.5 g/kg, but ileal digestibility of energy was not affected by enzyme supplementation of diets. Apparent nitrogen retention was greater (P ducks that received enzyme at 0.5 g/kg diet than in ducks fed diets without the enzyme. Energy retention (AME and AMEn) of diets was not affected by the addition of enzyme to diets. Excreta amino acid digestibilities were found to be consistently higher than ileal estimates. The mean ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in diets with enzyme at 0, 0.375, and 0.5 g/kg were 86.94, 88.82, and 88.87%, respectively. The addition of enzyme improved (P growth performance, nitrogen, and amino acid retention of White Pekin ducks.

  10. Quantitation of mule duck in goose foie gras using TaqMan real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2004-03-24

    A real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method has been developed for the quantitation of mule duck (Anas platyrhynchos x Cairina moschata) in binary duck/goose foie gras mixtures. The method combines the use of real-time PCR with duck-specific and endogenous control "duck + goose" primers to measure duck content and total foie gras content, respectively. Both PCR systems (duck-specific and duck + goose) were designed on the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA). The duck-specific system amplifies a 96 bp fragment from duck DNA, whereas the duck + goose system amplifies a 120 bp fragment from duck and goose DNA. The method measures PCR product accumulation through a FAM-labeled fluorogenic probe (TaqMan). The C(t) (threshold cycle) values obtained from the duck + goose system are used to normalize the ones obtained from the duck-specific system. Analysis of experimental duck/goose foie gras binary mixtures demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection and quantitation of duck in the range of 1-25%. This genetic marker can be very useful to avoid mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution of goose by duck in foie gras.

  11. A homogenous nature of native Chinese duck matrilineal pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi-Ping

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China, with around 30 unique breeds, has a diverse duck genetic pool. Currently, there is no systematic report which investigates the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and matrilineal genetic structure of these domestic breeds and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos. Results In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region segments in 278 domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica from 19 indigenous breeds/populations and 70 wild mallard samples and analyzed them together with the 101 control region sequences from published sources. Fifty-two samples were then sequenced for a cytochrome b (Cyt b gene fragment to solidify the pattern emerged from the control region sequences. All domestic duck and wild mallard haplotypes were essentially indistinguishable and were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. There was no geographic differentiation and breed/population-specific distribution of duck lineages. Conclusion Our results showed that unlike other domesticated farm animals in China such as chicken, cattle, goat, and yak with multiple matrilineal components, the matrilineal pool of Chinese ducks was homogenous.

  12. Molecular characterization of Duck Plague virus isolated from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostakin Ahamed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Duck plague (DP is the most feared duck disease in the world. For isolation, identification, molecular detection and characterization of DP virus (DPV, a total of 94 samples were collected from commercial farms (n=6 and households (n=13 from Rajshahi (n=37, Netrokona (n=35 and Mymensingh (n=22 districts of Bangladesh. The samples were processed and inoculated into 11-13 days old embryonated duck eggs for virus propagation. Virus was identified using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIT and passive hemagglutination (PHA test, and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting DNA polymerase and gC genes, followed by sequencing. Pathogenicity tests were performed using duck embryos, ducklings and ducks. Among the 94 samples, 17 isolates were confirmed as DPV by PCR amplification of partial DNA polymerase (446-bp and gC genes (78-bp, respectively. One of the isolates (Anatid herpes 1 BAU DMH was sequenced and found to be closely related with a Chinese variant of DPV (GenBank: JQ647509.1. Thus, we assume that both Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates of DPV may have a common ancestor. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 296-303

  13. Audio signal analysis for tool wear monitoring in sheet metal stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhayaratne, Indivarie; Pereira, Michael P.; Xiang, Yong; Rolfe, Bernard F.

    2017-02-01

    Stamping tool wear can significantly degrade product quality, and hence, online tool condition monitoring is a timely need in many manufacturing industries. Even though a large amount of research has been conducted employing different sensor signals, there is still an unmet demand for a low-cost easy to set up condition monitoring system. Audio signal analysis is a simple method that has the potential to meet this demand, but has not been previously used for stamping process monitoring. Hence, this paper studies the existence and the significance of the correlation between emitted sound signals and the wear state of sheet metal stamping tools. The corrupting sources generated by the tooling of the stamping press and surrounding machinery have higher amplitudes compared to that of the sound emitted by the stamping operation itself. Therefore, a newly developed semi-blind signal extraction technique was employed as a pre-processing technique to mitigate the contribution of these corrupting sources. The spectral analysis results of the raw and extracted signals demonstrate a significant qualitative relationship between wear progression and the emitted sound signature. This study lays the basis for employing low-cost audio signal analysis in the development of a real-time industrial tool condition monitoring system.

  14. Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality.

  15. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  16. Effect of Microstructures on Yield Strength in Hot-Stamped Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabata Shin-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For automotive structural parts, hot stamping is being increasingly used because of the need for both higher fuel efficiency and crashworthiness. The yield strength of hot-stamped steel sheet is lower than that of water-quenched steel sheet. The microstructure of hot-stamped low-carbon steel sheet comprises lath martensite and retained austenite. Due to the slow cooling rate below the martensite start temperature, the martensite formed by hot stamping is auto-tempered. To clarify the factor dominating the yield strength of the hot-stamped steel, the authors herein investigated the effect of microstructures on the yield strength with heat-treated specimens at various cooling rates and heating temperatures. Consequently, it was clarified that the yield strength of the auto-tempered low-carbon steel depends on grain, dislocation, solute carbon, carbide, and retained austenite. As far as the present experiment is concerned, the retained austenite is the most effective factor on the yield strength.

  17. Direct printing of silver nanoparticles by an agarose stamp on planar and patterned substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Yu-Chih; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan, E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-06

    In this study, we have used an agarose stamp to conduct direct printing of silver nanoparticles, nanowires and nanoplates on both planar and structured substrates. Nanoparticle solution could be first coated on an agarose stamp, and then transferred to a planar substrate. Micro-patterns comprising metal nanoparticles could be printed on planar substrates without the formation of residual layers. Thus a three-dimensional metal microstructure could be easily fabricated. The patterning of electrodes by printing Ag nanowires directly on TiO{sub 2} was also demonstrated to fabricate resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices by all-solution-processing methods. By using a flat agarose stamp, the patterns printed on the microstructured substrates were quite different from those on the nanostructured substrates. On the microstructured substrates, direct printing could print silver nanoparticles onto the protrusion surface, and could print silver layers as thick as several microns, useful for high conductivity electrodes. On the substrates with nanostructures such as photonic crystals or nano-gratings, direct printing could transfer nanoparticles into the grooves or cavities only due to the contact of the agarose stamp with the groove or concavity surface. A new approach to fabricate metal wire grid polarizers was further demonstrated. A nanoporous agarose stamp has a good potential for printing using nanoparticle suspension.

  18. Lysine requirement of growing male Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, A; Timmler, R; Jeroch, H

    2002-12-01

    1. One growth experiment and one balance test were conducted to study the response to increasing levels of dietary lysine supplementation in male Pekin ducks with special reference to the growth periods from 1 to 3 weeks and 4 to 7 weeks of age. 2. Two different low-lysine diets were used as basal diets in both periods. The basal lysine levels were 7.6 g/kg (d 1 to 21) and 6.2 g/kg (d 22 to 49) and the ranges in lysine concentration were 7.6 to 12.6 g/kg (d 1 to 21) and 6.2 to 11.2 g/kg (d 22 to 49). 3. Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and meat yield increased (P < 0.05) with increasing lysine concentration (requirement defined as 95% of the asymptote). 4. It is concluded that the dietary lysine concentration should be 0.93 g/MJ nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (11.7 g/kg) for the starter period (until d 21) and 0.75 g/MJ AMEN (10.0 g/kg) for the grower period (from d 22 onwards).

  19. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  20. INSTALLATION FOR LARGE SIZE STAMP HARDENING TRANINIG BY WATER-AIR MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The BNTU has developed a technological process for large-size stamp hardening by means of a water-air mixture.  The  basic  requirements  imposed on an hardening  installation using  a  water-air mixture are the following: provision of smooth cooling of a part in order to achieve the required  hardness and structure; possibility of machining parts of various sizes; change of modes for machining parts of various grades of steel according to any hardness rate.The peculiar features of the given installation are: a presence of microprocessor control of water-air mixture supply, possibility of simultaneous machining of a stamp set (2 parts and position change of parts to be hardened in the process of thermal treatment.Installation for large-sized stamp hardening has been manufactured and introduced at theMinskplant of special tools and machining attachments.

  1. Modeling the constitutive and frictional behavior of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the deformation on micro-scale of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography is modeled. This is achieved via a combination of proper models for the constitutive behavior as well as the frictional conditions between the deforming PTFE stamp and the steel tool. The model...... was verified through an experiment, where a PTFE sheet was deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations and experimental results is found, both regarding force–displacement and corresponding principal strain measurements. As expected, applying the correct...... frictional behavior between PTFE and steel on micro-scale is shown to be of major importance in order to accurately simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE stamp. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  2. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  3. Imprints of the Neolithic mind – clay stamps from the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and unusual structure of clay stamps found in Neolithic settlements often give rise to multiple interpretations to define their character. The small dimensions and specific shape of the stamps suggests that these portable objects were important in the social relations and visual communication between members within the same community and, possibly, more distant communities. The definite patterns distinguishe their function in maintaining the visual traditions of the populations inhabiting southeastern Europe. They had an important role in building the Neolithic image modularity, so that they fitted into the comprehensive decorative structure of Neolithic iconography, and the patterns present on the stamps are related to several aspects of Neolithic material culture from the Balkans and Anatolia. This homogeneity of patterns indicates that they were actively included in the transposition of cognition into visual metaphors.

  4. Numerical Validation of an Optimized Cooling System for Hot Stamping Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, A.; Abidin, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. S. N.; Senin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical analysis of hot stamping process is very complex mainly due to thermomechanical processes involved. Many variables such as heat transfer coefficient, density, young modulus and other thermal parameters are temperature and pressure dependent. The paper presents results of CFD analysis on the near optimized cooling system of hot stamping die for automotive structural part. By using actual parameters obtained from the industry production line, this research is aimed at comparing the performance of actual cooling system with the results obtained by CFD simulation using commercial software. The die and blank were modelled as 3D volume mesh in a closed position thus ignoring blank history data prior to stamping operation. Temperature distribution representing hardness of the simulated final part is an agreement with the QA data of the actual part thus showing viability of this method to be used in cooling system design

  5. Effect of Quenching and Partitioning with Hot Stamping on Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of AHSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Li, Guanzhong; Wang, Cunyu; Li, Xiaodong; Dong, Han

    2015-08-01

    Two-step quenching and partitioning treatment with hot stamping was applied to advanced high-strength steel (AHSS). The newly treated steel possesses a fine microstructure and typically curved micromorphology. The martensite start temperature of the newly treated steel is increased through the effect of plastic deformation on austenitic microstructure. However, the martensite volume fraction of this steel is deceased because of the enhanced stability of the untransformed austenite after plastic deformation. Consequently, the fraction of retained austenite is increased. The newly treated steel also shows excellent mechanical properties. The volume fraction of retained austenite reaches the highest value of 17.2% when hot stamping is performed at 750 °C. Hence, the steel displays favorable plasticity with an elongation of 14.5%. Moreover, the highest hardness value of 426 HV is obtained when hot stamping is performed at 650 °C. The newly developed process may be employed to develop a new generation of AHSSs.

  6. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  7. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  8. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  9. Conditioned aversion of aluminum sulfate in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if reduced consumption of foods with elevated Al levels by black ducks (Anas rubripes) was due to taste aversion, conditioned taste aversion or malaise. Black ducks preferred a diet with 1,000 ppm Al over a control diet but ate less of a diet with 5,000 ppm Al. Prior experience with the high Al diet enhanced preference for the control diet. Changes in body weight and food consumption through time suggested that aversion to the high Al diet was a conditioned response to mild malaise.

  10. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  11. STATE USE OF FUNDS TO INCREASE WORK SLOTS FOR FOOD STAMP RECIPIENTS: REPORT TO CONGRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Botsko, Christopher; Gabor, Vivian; Schreiber, Susan; Pachikara, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Since passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, most States have retargeted services in the Food Stamp Employment and Training (E&T) Program to able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs). The Balanced Budget Act more than doubled funding to States for USDA's Food Stamp E&T Program. The law requires States to send at least 80 percent of the funding on services that can fulfill the work requirement imposed by welfare reform legislation in 1996 on ABAWDs. ABAWDs must either work at least 2...

  12. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)], E-mail: hy-low@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2008-10-15

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold.

  13. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3......,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 μm wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material...

  14. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  15. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  16. Dating With Super Junior-M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    担心情人节没人陪?还在幻想能与谁约会?2009年2月14日,梦想照进现实,SJ-M将在上海举办“情人Superman-Super Junior-M 2009上海歌会”,化身你的甜蜜情人,与你一起共度浪漫情人节。

  17. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspectives--Overview: Can Food Stamps Do More To Improve Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Joanne F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ver Ploeg, Michele; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The increased food purchasing power offered by the Food Stamp Program can promote food security and improve the overall economic well-being of low-income households. Now, as Americans struggle with obesity and other diet-related health problems, there is interest in whether the program can be more effective in encouraging participants to make healthy food choices. ERS has compiled economic research to provide decisionmakers with information on the likely effects of various proposed strategies...

  18. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  19. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no su...

  20. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of DHV-1 in Pekin ducks and on the innate immune responses of ducks to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Duan, Yunbing; Hu, Yue; Qiu, Xvsheng; Tan, Lei; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun; Ding, Chan

    2014-05-01

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) affects 1-week-old but not 3-week-old ducks, and it causes a more severe disease in the younger ducks. These differences may be partially due to the host response to DHV infection. In order to understand this difference, we characterized the pathobiology of and innate immune response to DHV infection in 1-day-old (1D) and 3-week-old (3 W) ducks. Viral RNA was detected in duck livers at 24, 36 and 72 h after inoculation with DHV at a dose of 10(3) LD50. Virus-induced pathology ranged from no clinical signs to severe disease and death, and it was more severe in the 1D ducks. Infection with DHV induced up-regulation of gene expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7, TLR3, retinoic-acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), interferon-stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like gene (OASL) in the livers of 3 W ducks. Of these, IL-6, OASL and ISG12 mRNA levels were more than 100-fold higher in infected 3 W ducks than in mock-infected ducks of the same age. These genes were induced much less in infected 1D ducklings. We present evidence that a lower level of viral replication in the hepatocytes of 3 W ducks, whose basal level of cytokines is higher than that in 1D ducklings, may be related to the strong innate immunity induced. From our data, we conclude that duck age plays an important role in the pathogenicity of and innate immune responses to DHV.

  1. Evaluation of duck efficiency as a biocontrol agent on weed density and diversity in rice-duck farming (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.

  2. Proteomic analysis of primary duck hepatocytes infected with duck hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Tianlun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major cause of liver infection in human. Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro. In this report, we explored global changes in cellular protein expression in DHBV infected PDHs by two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results The effects of hepadnavirus infection on hepatocytes were investigated in DHBV infected PDHs by the 2-DE analysis. Proteomic profile of PDHs infected with DHBV were analyzed at 24, 72 and 120 h post-infection by comparing with uninfected PDHs, and 75 differentially expressed protein spots were revealed by 2-DE analysis. Among the selected protein spots, 51 spots were identified corresponding to 42 proteins by MS/MS analysis; most of them were matched to orthologous proteins of Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos or other avian species, including alpha-enolase, lamin A, aconitase 2, cofilin-2 and annexin A2, etc. The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. Conclusions Differentially expressed proteins of DHBV infected PDHs revealed by 2-DE, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress responses and cytoskeleton processes etc, providing the insight to understanding of interactions between hepadnavirus and hepatocytes and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus pathogenesis.

  3. A Study of the 1968 Graduates of Manatee Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Earl R.

    This study of the 1968 graduates of Manatee Junior College, Florida, showed that: (1) it is not necessary to be in the top 40% of grade 12 to succeed in junior college, (2) students in the lowest percentiles at entrance can earn a degree, (3) the average candidate for a degree should expect to spend more than four terms at the junior college, (4)…

  4. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  5. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  6. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  7. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stevenson, Mark; Yulianto, Didik; Priyono, Walujo; Meers, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  9. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  10. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  11. Development of Duck Diseases Expert System with Applying Alliance Method at Bali Provincial Livestock Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Gede Hendra Divayana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Farming is one of the activities that have a business opportunity. One is raising ducks. The main results can be obtained from the breeding duck is a duck meat and eggs for consumption and also means praying ceremony in Bali, as well as duck egg shells that can be used for jewelry. Since the outbreak of avian influenza began in 2008, have an impact on consumer demand of ducks decreased and consumers become more careful in choosing and consuming duck. The avian influenza virus not only spread across the country of China, Thailand and Vietnam, but also in Indonesia, Bali is no exception. This is evidenced by the discovery of cases of death due to bird flu virus in some areas in Bali, among others: the regency of Karangasem, Badung, Tabanan, Klungkung and Jembrana. From this, the Bali Provincial Livestock Office took steps to develop an expert system in the detection of diseases ducks. This expert system uses a alliance method is a combination of forward chaining, backward chaining and weighted product to search the physical symptoms and behavioral symptoms duck by the name of a known disease and to determine the percentage of disease attack level in ducks. In this study, the analytical techniques used to analyze the truth is a alliance method of duck disease expert system. Activity data collection and information to support research conducted by, among others, literature studies, interviews, and observations.

  12. 75 FR 11937 - General Motors Company, Lordstown Stamping Plant, Warren, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Company, Lordstown Stamping Plant, Warren, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, an investigation was initiated on September 28, 2009 in...

  13. Surface Modification of Elastomeric Stamps for Microcontact Printing of Polar Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadhu, Veera Bhadraiah; Perl, András; Peter, Mária; Rozkiewicz, Dorota I.; Engbers, Gerard; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    Chemical modification of the surface of a stamp used for microcontact printing (uCP) is interesting for controling the surface properties, such as the hydrophilicity. To print polar inks, plasma polymerization of allylamine (PPAA) was employed to render the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS),

  14. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  15. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  16. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  17. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  18. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  19. Impacting Mediators of Change for Physical Activity among Elderly Food Stamp Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Cheryl J.; Williams, Joel E.; Kemper, Karen A.; McGuire, Francis A.; Aybar-Damali, Begum

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team developed and pilot-tested a curriculum, delivered by trained lay educators, to increase self-efficacy for physical activity among elderly food stamp recipients. Curriculum development was guided by a comprehensive literature review. Process evaluation was used to revise the curriculum and to assess lay educator training…

  20. 75 FR 23565 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which was published on January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4912... / Tuesday, May 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 272 and 273 RIN 0584-AD30 Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification...

  1. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  2. Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

  3. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H., E-mail: baba@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ota, S.; Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  4. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  5. Postage Stamps and Peace Education: The Nobel Peace Prize. Peace Education Miniprints No. 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Irwin

    This paper suggests how peace stamps can be used to further understanding of the movement for world peace. In this effort the Nobel Peace Prize, the most prestigious award in the world for peacemaking, is used as a focus. In the prizes from 1901 to the present, the Norwegian Nobel committees have recognized the major paths to peace. This variety…

  6. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  7. THE QUALIMETRY OF LARGE-SIZED STAMPED-SHEET DETAILS GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Demchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualimetric method of the large-sized stamped-sheet details influence of geometric shape on the manufacture performance characteristics are given. The graphic model of shape classification and geometric shape factor definition algorithms for triangular and quadrangular shapes are proposed.

  8. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  9. PROCESS AND UNCONVENTIONAL METHOD OF MARKING OR STAMPING OF HARD METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this work a new unconventional technological way of marking or stamping ofvery hard metals from tempered steel with help of explosives. Even this method is in experimental stage, it canbecame an object for study in another related domains.

  10. 27 CFR 479.36 - The special tax stamp, receipt for special (occupational) taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The special tax stamp, receipt for special (occupational) taxes. 479.36 Section 479.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND...

  11. Honoring Avicenna, the great Persian physician on the world's postage stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2010-09-01

    Many nations are indebted to Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) for their scientific progressions and civilization. Many countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe have honored Avicenna, the great Persian scientist, by depicting his vignette on their postage stamps. The symbolic value of Avicenna has been chosen to commemorate scientific occasions, achievements and anniversaries, which represents the ultimate performance of conscious honoring.

  12. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  13. Fabrication of a silicon oxide stamp by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, M.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a stamp reinforced with silicon nitride is presented for its use in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication process is based on edge lithography using conventional optical lithography and wet anisotropic etching of 110 silicon wafers. SiO2 nano-ridges of 20 nm in width were

  14. China to Stamp Inspection and Quarantine Marks on Export Foods from September 1, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) announced that as of September 1, 2007,shipping packages of export foods will be stamped with inspection and quarantine marks after the foods are inspected and quarantined in conformity with the entry-exit inspection and quarantine rules. Unstamped packages will be prohibited from export.

  15. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 1 - A parameter study on stampability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the coke making plant using cost efficient raw materials, but oven throughput is also increased. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend depending on the stamping energy. The first part of this paper defines the overall process objectives and presents results from systematic investigations of the effects of several coal properties on the so called stampability as the integral model parameter for compacting. Surface moisture, coal granulometry and mechanical properties have significant influence on the densification. The incorporation of these parameters into the model allows the differentiated calculation of the cake density.

  16. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General... than a private car, that is equipped with a rim-stamped straight-plate wheel if a brake shoe acts on... replacement wheel on a private car that operates in a passenger train if a brake shoe acts on the tread of...

  17. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  18. Falling through the Social Safety Net: Food Stamp Use and Nonuse among Older Impoverished Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Redmond, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults are less likely than any other age group to use the federal Food Stamp Program. The personal and social costs of elderly diet insufficiency include disease exacerbation, depression, and increased hospitalization. In order to improve targeting and outreach efforts, this study identifies the characteristics of eligible older…

  19. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  20. “蛋饼早餐”工艺研究%Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg and Duck Egg Pancake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅

    2016-01-01

    文章以咸鸭蛋为核心原料,一物二用,以其蛋黄为基础制作糯米鸭蛋,以其蛋清为基础制作鸭蛋煎饼。采用正交试验,优化糯米鸭蛋的调味料配比,选取生抽、黄酒、白糖、盐为影响因素,进行感官评价。结果表明,糯米鸭蛋的最佳配方为在1000g馅料中加入生抽15mL、黄酒30mL、白糖6g、盐1g。鸭蛋煎饼以口感为指标,考察和面时沸水及冷水的用量。结果表明,制作500g煎饼需预先100mL沸水和面,再加入100mL冷水,最后加入150g蛋清,这样制得的煎饼有较好的口感。%This research selects salted duck egg as major ingredients to develop two dishes. Yolk of salted duck egg is used to make Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg. Egg white of salted duck egg is used to make Duck Egg Pan-cakes. This paper employs orthogonal experiments to optimize the formulation of Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg, taking light soy sauce, yellow rice wine, sugar and salt as the four factors for sensory evaluation. The results show that the optimum formula is 1000g fillings, 15mL light soy sauce, 30mL yellow rice wine, 6g sugar and 1g salt. The dough mixing process of Duck Egg Pancake was studied by amounts of boiling water and cold wa-ter . The results of sensory evaluation show that adding boiling water of 100 mL first followed by 100 mL cold wa-ter and 150g egg white achieve pancakes with the best texture.

  1. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  2. FE Simulation Models for Hot Stamping an Automobile Component with Tailor-Welded High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bingtao; Wang, Qiaoling; Wei, Zhaohui; Meng, Xianju; Yuan, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high-strength in sheet metal parts can be achieved with hot stamping process. To improve the crash performance and save vehicle weight, it is necessary to produce components with tailored properties. The use of tailor-welded high-strength steel is a relatively new hot stamping process for saving weight and obtaining desired local stiffness and crash performance. The simulation of hot stamping boron steel, especially tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) stamping, is more complex and challenging. Information about thermal/mechanical properties of tools and sheet materials, heat transfer, and friction between the deforming material and the tools is required in detail. In this study, the boron-manganese steel B1500HS and high-strength low-alloy steel B340LA are tailor welded and hot stamped. In order to precisely simulate the hot stamping process, modeling and simulation of hot stamping tailor-welded high-strength steels, including phase transformation modeling, thermal modeling, and thermal-mechanical modeling, is investigated. Meanwhile, the welding zone of tailor-welded blanks should be sufficiently accurate to describe thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical parameters. FE simulation model using TWBs with the thickness combination of 1.6 mm boron steel and 1.2 mm low-alloy steel is established. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hot stamped automotive component (mini b-pillar), hardness and microstructure at each region are investigated. The comparisons between simulated results and experimental observations show the reliability of thermo-mechanical and metallurgical modeling strategies of TWBs hot stamping process.

  3. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  4. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel.

  5. Postcatastrophe population dynamics and density dependence of an endemic island duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavy, N.E.; Reynolds, M.H.; Link, W.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) are restricted to approximately 9 km2 in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. To evaluate the importance of density dependence for Laysan ducks, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to estimate the parameters of a Gompertz model and the magnitude of process variation and observation error based on the fluctuations in Laysan duck abundance on Laysan Island from 1994 to 2007. This model described a stationary distribution for the population at carrying capacity that fluctuates around a long-term mean of 456 ducks and is between 316 to 636 ducks 95% of the time. This range of expected variability can be used to identify changes in population size that warn of catastrophic events. Density-dependent population dynamics may explain the recovery of Laysan duck from catastrophic declines and allow managers to identify population monitoring thresholds.

  6. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Kyu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in ducks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes are important bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis. The consumption of poultry meat and their products is considered as a major and leading source of human infection. While surveys of chicken meat and products, and its association with foodborne pathogens are widely available, such information on ducks is scarce. This survey examines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolated from ducks. Data obtained from key surveys are summarized. The observed prevalence of these pathogens and their resistance to various antibiotics varies from one study to the other. The mean prevalence (and range means from individual surveys) are duck 53.0% (0.0-83.3%), duck meat and parts 31.6% (12.5-45.8%), and duck rearing and processing environment 94.4% (92.0-96.7%) for Campylobacter spp. For Salmonella spp., the mean prevalence data are duck 19.9% (3.3-56.9%), duck meat and parts 28.4% (4.4-75.6%), duck egg, shell, and content 17.5% (0-4.17%), and duck rearing and processing environment 32.5% (10.5-82.6%). Studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes in ducks are by far very rare compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, although ducks have been noted to be a potential source for these foodborne pathogens. From our survey, ducks were more frequently contaminated with Campylobacter than Salmonella. Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. also exhibited varying resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  8. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology...... are more important in shaping mid-winter duck distributions than factors related to thermoregulation alone....

  9. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Junior Secondary School Students in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmiyati, Nuri; Rasyid, Muhammad Amin; Rahman, M. Asfah; Arsyad, Azhar; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Multiple Intelligences profiles of the students at junior secondary school in Makassar. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory was used to identify the dominant intelligence among the students. The sample of this research was 302 junior secondary schools students in Makassar Indonesia who willing to participated…

  10. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

  11. Interest Learning about English in Junior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-qin

    2015-01-01

    In modern time, interest learning play a more and more important role in the children’study. So the paper plays a key on the interest learning in junior middle school. And the paper mainly explores theoretical research, the reason of interest learning and the way to motivate junior middle students’interest learning in English learning.

  12. General Education in Occupational Education Programs Offered by Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Robert R.

    This report, directed toward junior college board members, presidents, deans, department heads, and teachers, as well as legislators, attempts to stimulate thought and action to improve general education in occupational programs offered by junior colleges. Following a review of the unsatisfactory status of present curricula, a rationale and…

  13. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of duck invariant chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dalian; Yu, Weiyi; Bao, Min; Xu, Zhiben; Li, Lin; Liu, Jing

    2006-04-15

    In the present study we identified a duck invariant chain (Ii) cDNA, named duck Ii-1, by RT-PCR and RACE. It was 1190 bp in length and contained a 669 bp open reading frame. An alternative transcript encoding a thyroglobulin (Tg)-containing form of Ii, named duck Ii-2, was also found in duck. The putative amino acid sequence of duck Ii-1 showed an 82% similarity to chicken Ii-1 and about 60% similarity to its mammalian homologues. The similarity of the Tg domain between duck and chicken Ii-2 was 96%, and about 70% between duck and mammalian Ii. The result of RT-PCR showed that Ii mRNA was extensively expressed in various tissues. High levels of both Ii-1 and Ii-2 mRNA were observed in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures of duck Ii trimerization and Tg domain are similar to the corresponding regions of human Ii analyzed by comparative protein modeling. These findings indicate that the two isoforms of duck Ii, which strongly expressed in the major immune organs, share structural identity with human Ii.

  14. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, P.; Kaewmanee, T.; Benjakul, S.; Baharin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a ra...

  15. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  16. Outcome of aggressive interactions between American black ducks and mallards during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Longcore, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) numbers have declined during the past several decades, while mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have expanded their range eastward. Competitive exclusion of black ducks from wetlands by mallards has been proposed as a principal cause of the decline. We studied a sympatric population of black ducks and mallards in Maine during the early breeding season to document behavior and interactions. We observed 832 aggressive interactions; most (72%) were between members of the same species. When a choice was available, both species interacted more often with conspecifics than with the other species (P behaviorally superior to black ducks.

  17. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  18. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  19. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  20. Has your ancient stamp been regummed with synthetic glue? A FT-NIR and FT-Raman study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Remo; Oliveri, Paolo; Henry, Adrien; Duponchel, Ludovic; Lanteri, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The potential of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies to characterise the gum applied on the backside of ancient stamps was investigated for the first time. This represents a very critical issue for the collectors' market, since gum conditions heavily influence stamp quotations, and fraudulent application of synthetic gum onto damaged stamp backsides to increase their desirability is a well-documented practice. Spectral data were processed by exploratory pattern recognition tools. In particular, application of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that both of the spectroscopic techniques provide information useful to characterise stamp gum. Examination of PCA loadings and their chemical interpretation confirmed the robustness of the outcomes. Fusion of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectral data was performed, following both a low-level and a mid-level procedure. The results were critically compared with those obtained separately for the two spectroscopic techniques.

  1. The vaccine efficacy of recombinant duck enteritis virus expressing secreted E with or without PrM proteins of duck tembusu virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Jinxiong; Jiang, Yongping; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Qimeng; Wu, Li; He, Xijun; Chen, Hualan

    2014-09-15

    A newly emerged tembusu virus that causes egg-drop has been affecting ducks in China since 2010. Currently, no vaccine is available for this disease. A live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine has been used routinely to control lethal DEV in ducks since the 1960s. Here, we constructed two recombinant DEVs by transfecting overlapping fosmid DNAs. One virus, rDEV-TE, expresses the truncated form of the envelope glycoprotein (TE) of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), and the other virus, rDEV-PrM/TE, expresses both the TE and pre-membrane proteins (PrM). Animal study demonstrated that both recombinant viruses induced measurable anti-DTMUV neutralizing antibodies in ducks. After two doses of recombinant virus, rDEV-PrM/TE completely protected ducks from DTMUV challenge, whereas rDEV-TE only conferred partial protection. These results demonstrate that recombinant DEV expressing the TE and pre-membrane proteins is protective and can serve as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  2. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  3. Adaptation of a Duck Influenza A Virus in Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Shinya, Kyoko; Takada, Ayato; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Le, Quynh Mai; Ebina, Masahito; Kasai, Noriyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Taisuke; Rivailler, Pierre; Chen, Li Mei; Donis, Ruben O.

    2012-01-01

    Quail are thought to serve as intermediate hosts of influenza A viruses between aquatic birds and terrestrial birds, such as chickens, due to their high susceptibility to aquatic-bird viruses, which then adapt to replicate efficiently in their new hosts. However, does replication of aquatic-bird influenza viruses in quail similarly result in their efficient replication in humans? Using sialic acid-galactose linkage-specific lectins, we found both avian (sialic acid-α2-3-galactose [Siaα2-3Gal] linkages on sialyloligosaccharides)- and human (Siaα2-6Gal)-type receptors on the tracheal cells of quail, consistent with previous reports. We also passaged a duck H3N2 virus in quail 19 times. Sequence analysis revealed that eight mutations accumulated in hemagglutinin (HA) during these passages. Interestingly, many of the altered HA amino acids found in the adapted virus are present in human seasonal viruses, but not in duck viruses. We also found that stepwise stalk deletion of neuraminidase occurred during passages, resulting in reduced neuraminidase function. Despite some hemagglutinin mutations near the receptor binding pocket, appreciable changes in receptor specificity were not detected. However, reverse-genetics-generated viruses that possessed the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the quail-passaged virus replicated significantly better than the virus possessing the parent HA and neuraminidase in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas no significant difference in replication between the two viruses was observed in duck cells. Further, the quail-passaged but not the original duck virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells. These data indicate that quail can serve as intermediate hosts for aquatic-bird influenza viruses to be transmitted to humans. PMID:22090115

  4. Adaptation of a duck influenza A virus in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Shinya, Kyoko; Takada, Ayato; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Le, Quynh Mai; Ebina, Masahito; Kasai, Noriyuki; Kida, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Taisuke; Rivailler, Pierre; Chen, Li Mei; Donis, Ruben O; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Quail are thought to serve as intermediate hosts of influenza A viruses between aquatic birds and terrestrial birds, such as chickens, due to their high susceptibility to aquatic-bird viruses, which then adapt to replicate efficiently in their new hosts. However, does replication of aquatic-bird influenza viruses in quail similarly result in their efficient replication in humans? Using sialic acid-galactose linkage-specific lectins, we found both avian (sialic acid-α2-3-galactose [Siaα2-3Gal] linkages on sialyloligosaccharides)--and human (Siaα2-6Gal)-type receptors on the tracheal cells of quail, consistent with previous reports. We also passaged a duck H3N2 virus in quail 19 times. Sequence analysis revealed that eight mutations accumulated in hemagglutinin (HA) during these passages. Interestingly, many of the altered HA amino acids found in the adapted virus are present in human seasonal viruses, but not in duck viruses. We also found that stepwise stalk deletion of neuraminidase occurred during passages, resulting in reduced neuraminidase function. Despite some hemagglutinin mutations near the receptor binding pocket, appreciable changes in receptor specificity were not detected. However, reverse-genetics-generated viruses that possessed the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of the quail-passaged virus replicated significantly better than the virus possessing the parent HA and neuraminidase in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas no significant difference in replication between the two viruses was observed in duck cells. Further, the quail-passaged but not the original duck virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells. These data indicate that quail can serve as intermediate hosts for aquatic-bird influenza viruses to be transmitted to humans.

  5. A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.

  6. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  7. Time Stamp Attack on Wide Area Monitoring System in Smart Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Li, Husheng; Pei, Changxing

    2011-01-01

    Security becomes an extremely important issue in smart grid. To maintain the steady operation for smart power grid, massive measurement devices must be allocated widely among the power grid. Previous studies are focused on false data injection attack to the smart grid system. In practice, false data injection attack is not easy to implement, since it is not easy to hack the power grid data communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate that a novel time stamp attack is a practical and dangerous attack scheme for smart grid. Since most of measurement devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to provide the time information of measurements, it is highly probable to attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS. By employing the real measurement data in North American Power Grid, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the time stamp attack on smart grid.

  8. Finite Element Modelling Full Vehicle Side Impact with Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T.; Fourlaris, G.; Cafolla, J.

    2016-10-01

    "Hot stamped boron steel" 22MnB5 has been imperative in meeting the automotive industry's demand for materials exhibiting higher tensile strength in the final component. In this paper, the crash performance of three experimental grades developed for automotive hot stamping technologies, exhibiting wider tensile property ranges than 22MnB5, was validated by finite element modelling full vehicle side impact with the experimental material data applied to the B-pillar reinforcement. The superior anti-intrusive crash performance of grade 38MnB5 was demonstrated, with 11 mm less intrusion of the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5. Moreover, the superior "impact-energy absorptive" crash performance of grade 15MnCr5 was demonstrated, with 0.15 kJ greater impact-energy absorption by the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5.

  9. Validation of the stamping method for CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Maira G.; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C., E-mail: mgnunes@ipen.br, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The IPEN method for the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® production, developed and patented at the Dosimetric Materials Laboratory - LMD/IPEN in the earlier 1980's, is highly time-demanding, so that the use of the stamping method, already widely industrially applied, would enhance the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production. Thus, validating the stamping method, by comparing the dosimetric properties of a batch of pellets produced by each method, became a must. The stamped batch presents the same mean non-irradiated signals either after sintering or annealing while IPEN batch mean non-irradiated signals vary in 23%. The mean TL signal after irradiation was about 50 nC, but the standard deviation varies from 20% to 33% for IPEN batch and keeps in 10% for the stamped batch. 24 h after the irradiation, the TL signal decreased to about 35 nC, with no differences in IPEN batch standard deviation and a decrease to 5% in stamped batch standard deviation, for the five performed essays. Calibration curves present a linear behavior over the entire studied dose range and the same coefficients for both methods, however, the uncertainties in the coefficients determined to the calibration curve obtained with stamped pellets are significantly smaller, leading to a more precise dose determination. This results show that the stamping method produces more homogeneous batches, with pellets that maintain the dosimetric characteristics of the detectors produced by IPEN method, in such a way that the stamping method can substitute with advantages the IPEN method in the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® dosimetric pellets production. (author)

  10. Meiotic recombination analysis in female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, M I; Del Priore, L

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in female ducks was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein, a mismatch repair protein of mature recombination nodules. In total, 6820 crossovers were scored along the autosomal synaptonemal complexes in 122 meiotic nuclei. From this analysis we predict that the female map length of the duck is 2845 cM, with a genome wide recombination rate of 2 cM/Mb. MLH1-focus mapping along the six largest bivalents shows regional variations of recombination frequencies that can be linked to differences in chromosome morphology. From this MLH1 mapping it can be inferred that distally located markers will appear more separated in genetic maps than physically equidistant markers located near the centromeres on bivalents 1 and 2. Instead, markers at interstitial positions on the acrocentric bivalents 3-6 will appear more tightly linked than expected on the basis of their physical distance because recombination is comparatively lower at the mid region of these chromosomes. The present results provide useful information to complement linkage mapping in ducks and extend previous knowledge about the variation of recombination rates among domestic Galloanserae.

  11. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-03-17

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications.

  12. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kuo-Tai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and for breeding applications.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboubakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV and oral (PO dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β and mean residence time (MRT were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1 was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1. Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el at a significant slower rate (3.94 h in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

  15. Floor laying by Pekin ducks: effects of nest box ratio and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagon, M M; Mench, J A

    2011-06-01

    The laying of eggs outside nest boxes is a common problem in poultry production systems. Factors potentially contributing to floor laying by Pekin ducks were investigated. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 16 groups of 18-wk-old ducks (8/group) were provided access to either 2 (4 ducks/box) or 8 (1 duck/box) closed-topped or open-topped nest boxes. Egg locations were recorded daily for 16 wk. Video analyses were used to determine the time of day eggs were laid on the floor when the ducks were 18 to 22, 26, 30, and 34 wk of age. An analysis of nontoxic dye deposition in the egg yolk was conducted on wk 30, 32, and 36 to determine the contribution of each duck to floor laying. The proportion of floor eggs was especially high early in the laying cycle, reaching 84 and 44% of eggs laid in pens offering ratios of 4 ducks/box and 1 duck/box, respectively, when ducks were 22 wk of age. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that although the proportion of floor eggs decreased over time (F(3,9) = 29.29, P box vs. 1 duck/box (F(1,11) = 24.09, P = 0.0005). The proportion of floor eggs was not affected by box design (F(1,11) = 0.08, P = 0.8). Not all available nest boxes contained eggs on a given day, and the distribution of eggs within the pen was clumped. However, it was unlikely that this reflected nest box location preferences because the locations of the eggs laid within the nest boxes changed over time. Taken together, these results suggest that floor laying by Pekin ducks may be caused in part by insufficient nest box availability. However, the clumped distribution of eggs suggests that other social factors, such as conspecific attraction, may also be important.

  16. Establishment of the Comprehensive Evaluation System of Cold Stamping Die Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-chun; GUO Sheng; RUAN Feng

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation system of die quality,a multiplayer hierarchical amendment index system according to the characteristics of cold stamping die production,an evaluation standard referring to the technique and design rules ofdies,and a scientific evaluation by using the multiplayer hierarchical and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods are presented in this paper.The applications show that the system can be used to evaluate the die quality objectively,fairly,and reasonably.

  17. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  18. Organic field-effect transistor circuits with electrode interconnections using reverse stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Yun, Minseong; Dindar, Amir; Khan, Talha M.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    We discuss a non-vacuum low-cost reverse stamping method for the realization of circuits based on top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bi-layer gate dielectric. This method allows for patterning of high-k inorganic dielectric films produced by atomic layer deposition and consequently of the bilayer gate dielectric layers used in our top-gate OFETs. We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of logic inverters and ring oscillators following this approach.

  19. Design and fabrication of Si-based photonic crystal stamps with electron beam lithography (EBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesary, Reyhaneh; Bergmair, Iris; Zamiri, Saeid; Hingerl, Kurt; Hubbard, Graham; Abbott, Steven; Chen, Qin; Allsopp, Duncan

    2009-05-01

    The quest for mass replication has established technologies like nanoimprinting via hard stamps or PDMS stamps, where the stamps are usually produced via Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) for applications in the microelectronic industry. On the other hand, nanopatterning with self ordered structures1 or via holographic patterns provide the basis for large area imprints for applications for example, antireflection coatings based on biomimetic motheyes2. In this work we report on a technology for enabling the mass replication of custom-designed and e-beam lithographically prepared structures via establishing novel roll to roll nanoimprint processes for pattern transfer into UV curable pre-polymers. The new nano-fabrication technology is based on the concept of Disposal Master Technology (DMT) capable of patterning areas up to 1 x 1 m2 and is suitable for mass volume manufacturing of large area arrays of sub-wavelength photonic elements. As an example to show the potential of the application of the new nanoimprint technologies, we choose the fabrication of a photonic crystal (PhC) structure with integrated light coupling devices for low loss interconnection between PhC lightwave circuits and optical fibre systems. We present two methods for fabrication of nanoimprint lithography stamps in Si substrate. In the first method optimized electron beam lithography (EBL) and lift-off patterning of a 15-nm thick Cr mask, and then the pattern transfer into Si using reacting ion etching (RIE) with SF6 as etch gas. In the first method, we use 200nm of positive resist PMMA 950K for EBL exposure. In this method, resist thickness, exposure dose, development time and parameter for etching have been optimized and a photonic crystal of Si-rods in air was fabricated. In the second method lift-off has not been performed and metal mask has been used as master. The subsequent steps for fabricating the master will be presented in detail.

  20. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    OpenAIRE

    Suryakanta Panda; Santosh Kumar Sahu; Jagannath Mohapatra; Ramesh Kumar Mohapatra

    2013-01-01

    Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting) refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  1. Thermal expansion and contraction of an elastomer stamp causes position-dependent polymer patterns in capillary force lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Youn Sang; Jeong, Unyong

    2011-12-01

    It is often observed that polymer patterns fabricated by capillary force lithography (CFL) are not identical, position-dependent even in one sample. The drawback has not been successfully explained so far. This paper reveals that the position-dependent pattern is mainly caused by the volume expansion and contraction of the elastomer stamp during heating and cooling in the CFL process. The stamp expands on a polymer liquid on heating, accumulating the polymer at one side-wall of each pattern of the stamp. And the stamp shrinks back to the initial position, accumulating the polymer at the opposite wall of the stamp pattern. For crystalline polymers, the morphology was mainly determined by the annealing temperature, that is, the degree of expansion. The position-dependence of the morphology was enhanced as the annealing temperature was increased. For amorphous polymers, the morphology was sensitive to cooling rate. Fast cooling led to a frozen morphology generated at the hot annealing temperature, while slow cooling produced an opposite morphology from the one at the annealing. The experimental results were theoretically explained by analyzing thermal expansion of the stamp and the shear stress exerted in the polymer layer. In the conclusion, we added our suggestions to avoid the nonuniformity in the polymer pattern by CFL process.

  2. Advanced stamp geometries and adhesiveless transfer printing modalities for use in deterministic materials assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrew

    Transfer printing has become a robust technique for assembling disparate classes of micro- and nanomaterials into spatially organized, functional arrangements in two and three-dimensional layouts. Such capabilities have made this assembly process invaluable in realizing novel or unusual forms of many high-performance systems, such as flexible electronics, three-dimensional optoelectronics, and bio-compatible or bio-integrated electronic devices. The focus of this thesis is to develop a collection of advanced transfer printing modalities that enable expansion in breadth and diversity of materials and formats that serve as either ink or substrate layers during assembly. Targeted modulation of adhesion at the stamp/nanomaterial interface provides a direct route for enhancing printing efficacy, particularly in 'dry' or adhesiveless systems where intimate contact between the substrate and transferred material is desired. This body of work progresses from several simple, passive techniques that demonstrate either strong or weak levels of stamp adhesion for retrieval and printing, respectively, to more active methods that utilize first dynamic adhesion switching and then ultimately fine control over stamp adhesive strength through the use of targeted mechanical loading. Several examples of assembled devices are discussed to demonstrate the broad utility of these protocols, as well as integration strategies for high throughput, massively parallel printing paradigms.

  3. STAMP: A New Data Acquisition System For ESA's Large Space Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijt, H.; Popovitch, A.

    2004-08-01

    STAMP is an advanced data acquisition, analysis and presentation system for thermal testing. To meet the increasingly complex requirements for modern spacecraft testing, STAMP was designed to be a flexible system that supports thousands of sensors and hundreds of power supplies. A high-performance, feature-rich presentation system is used to manipulate and present the acquired data in real time. The system runs on cheap computer hardware and supports multiple users. STAMP is currently used with the Large Space Simulator at ESTEC (see Fig. 1) and several other test facilities. Key features are: powerful data presentation capabilities, including various table formats and graphs, alarm generation, equilibrium detection, and output to Excel; extensive formula system to manipulate acquired data; able to acquire data from many thousands of sensors of virtually any type, including thermocouples, thermistors, and digital lines; able to control hundreds of power supplies; able to interface with customer EGSE and spacecraft hardware; high degree of flexibility with respect to thermal test configuration.

  4. An Intelligent Master Model of Computer Aided Process Planning for Large Complicated Stampings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinqiao; Wang Yilin; Li Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    Process planning for large complicated stampings is more complicated, illegible and multiform than that for common stampings.In this paper, an intelligent master model of computer aided process planning (CAPP) for large complicated stampings has been developed based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) and feature technology. This innovative model consists of knowledge base ( KB), process control structure (PCS), process information model (PIM), multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), model link environment (MLE) and simulation engine (SE), to realize process planning, optimization, simulation and management integrated to complete intelligent CAPP system. In this model, KBE provides knowledge base, open architecture and knowledge reuse ability to deal with the multi-domain and multi-expression of process knowledge, and forms an integrated environment. With PIM,all the knowledge consisting of objects, constraints, experience and decision-makings is carried by object-oriented method dynamically for knowledge-reasoning. PCS makes dynamical knowledge modified and updated timely and accordingly. MLE provides sev eral methods to make CAPP system associated and integrated. SE provides a programmable mechanism to interpret simulation course and result. Meanwhile, collaborative optimization, one method of MDO, is imported to deal with the optimization distributed for multiple purposes. All these make CAPP system integrated and open to other systems, such as die design and manufacturing system.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of stamping forming process of head using Pareto-based genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 卓芳; 黄磊; 罗艳

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the optimal process parameters of stamping forming, finite element analysis and optimization technique were integrated via transforming multi-objective issue into a single-objective issue. A Pareto-based genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the head stamping forming process. In the proposed optimal model, fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying are a function of several factors, such as fillet radius, draw-bead position, blank size and blank-holding force. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the objective functions and the variables in order to make objective functions varying minimized simultaneously. Firstly, the central composite experimental (CCD) with four factors and five levels was applied, and the experimental data based on the central composite experimental were acquired. Then, the response surface model (RSM) was set up and the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that it is reliable to predict the fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying functions by the response surface model. Finally, a Pareto-based genetic algorithm was used to find out a set of Pareto front, which makes fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying minimized integrally. A head stamping case indicates that the present method has higher precision and practicability compared with the“trial and error”procedure.

  6. A Simple Method for Fabrication of Microstructures Using a PDMS Stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple method to fabricate PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane microwell arrays on glass by using a PDMS stamp to study cell-to-cell adhesion. In the cell-to-cell study, a glass substrate is required since glass has better cell attachment. The microwell arrays are replicated from an SU-8 master mold, and then are transferred to a glass substrate by lifting the PDMS stamp, followed by oxygen plasma bonding of the PDMS stamp on the glass substrate. For the cell-to-cell adhesion, four different types of PDMS arrays (e.g., rectangle, bowtie, wide-rhombus, and rhombus were designed to vary the cell-to-cell contact length. The transfer success rates of the microwell arrays were measured as a function of both the contact area of the PDMS and the glass substrate and the different ratios between the base polymers and the curing agent. This method of generating the microwell arrays will enable a simple and robust construction of PDMS-based devices for various biological applications.

  7. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  8. SU socket stamping processing method%SU插孔的冲压加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗阳

    2013-01-01

    通过对SU插孔零件的工艺性分析,确定了用冲压方法来加工SU插孔的扁和小槽,并通过变形抗力F和冲裁力P的计算验证了冲压方法的可行性.加工工序分为切扁、撕口和切废料,介绍了切扁模、撕口模和切料模的设计以及模具的工作原理.生产实际证明,该冲压方法加工的SU插孔生产效率高,产品质量好.%By the process analysis of SU socket, it was confirmed to use stamping to make the socket's flat and small slot. Feasibility of the stamping process was tested by the calculating of deformation resistance F and blanking force P. The forming process was divided into flat cutting, tearing and waste blanking. Design and working principle of flat cutting mould, tearing mould and waste blanking mould was introduced. The production practice shows that SU sockets formed in the stamping method were in high production efficiency and good quality.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Method for the Analysis of Warm Titanium Sheet Stamping of an Automotive Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fiorentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Product design involves many aspects as geometry and material or mechanical requirements that have to be chosen on the base of the part requirements. Manufacturing process is the link between them representing a fundamental aspect of the product design process. Designers and technicians have a consolidated set of tools and knowledge based on long time experience, but the request of more new performing products characterized by more complex geometries or harder to form materials as Titanium alloys stimulated the use of numerical models. They allow us to study the product feasibility but they require reliable inputs for their development and validation. The present research focuses on sheet stamping processes and proposes a methodology that uses the Nakazima test to characterize the formability of the material and to develop and validate the model. In particular, the method is applied to cold (20°C and warm (300°C stamping of a complex automotive component made of CP Titanium. After characterizing the material and validating the model at the different temperatures, the stamping process is studied and results are compared. In particular, this approach allowed joining the experimental tests required to develop and validate the model, therefore reducing the resources required for the product design.

  10. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  11. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  12. Pygmalion Effect on Junior English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pygmalion Effect, or Robert Rosenthal Effect, was proved by the famous American psychologist Robert Rosenthal and Jacobson in 1968. Pygmalion Effect, as a matter of fact, is a psychological suggestion, which believes that people can accept the influence and suggestion given by the people whom very much they admire, like, believe, and respect. This effect was first applied in the field of management and medication. What’s more, remarkable achievements have been accomplished on human resource management. Robert Rosenthal put it into education through an experiment called Pygmalion in the Classroom, which aroused widely attention in the education sector. This thesis mainly focuses on the application of Pygmalion effect in English teaching, especially junior English teaching in China. If we can make good use of the Pygmalion Effect to conduct teaching and have positive expectations to students, it will improve teaching greatly.

  13. PIXE technique applied to Almeida Junior materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Neves, Graziela; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Moleiro, Guilherme F.; Dias, Flavia A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mails: paschola@if.usp.br; rizzutto@if.usp.br; graziela@if.usp.br; tabacniks@if.usp.br; guimol@if.usp.br; fladias@if.usp.br; Mendonca, Valeria de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: vmendonca@pinacoteca.org.br

    2007-07-01

    The Institute of Physics University of Sao Paulo in collaboration with the Pinacoteca do Estado of the State of Sao Paulo has a project to develop a data bank with information about the elementary composition of pigments of paintings and materials of its collection for future application as conservation and restoration as well as authenticity,. The project is beginning with the materials (palette, paint box and paint tubes) belonging to the painter Almeida Junior. Twenty-three spots on the palette were chosen with determined colors, and also the paint tubes present in the paint box. The PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis of the spectra enabled to conclude that the red colors have predominant Hg and S suggesting Vermellion and the white one are consisted of Pb (Lead White). The analyzed tubes of same colors confirm the elements pigment present in the palette. (author)

  14. Career Progression of Junior Professional Officers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper S. E.; Carbonaro J.; Hoffheins, B; Collins, T.

    2015-07-12

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) has funded more than 25 Junior Professional Officer (JPO) positions in the IAEA Department of Safeguards since 2005. JPOs are college graduates with zero to two years’ work experience who work alongside experienced IAEA staff members for one to two years and assist with basic, yet essential work while obtaining valuable experience. They contribute to equipment development, testing, integration, open source information collection and analysis, and software and database development. This paper will study the trends in career progression for the JPOs who have completed assignments with the IAEA in the Department of Safeguards. Brookhaven National Laboratory, in its role in managing the USSP, has compiled information that can be analyzed for this purpose.

  15. Gene expression responses to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in host response to infection with avian influenza (AI) viruses were investigated by identifying genes differentially expressed in tissues of infected ducks. Clear differences in pathogenicity were observed among ducks inoculated with five H5N1 HPAI viruses. Virus titers in tissues cor...

  16. Scavenging ducks and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza, Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Wibawa, Hendra; Morton, John; Usman, Tri Bhakti; Junaidi, Akhmad; Meers, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007-March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4x more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits, duck was H5 seropositive when all sampled in-contact chickens were seronegative. Subtype H5 virus was detected during 2.5% of duck-flock visits and 1.5% of chicken-flock visits. When deaths from HPAI infection occurred, H5 virus shedding occurred in apparently healthy birds on 68.8% of farms. Of 180 poultry deaths investigated, 43.9% were attributed to H5 virus. These longitudinal study results indicate that ducks are a source of infection for chickens and, potentially, for humans.

  17. Epidemiology of egg drop syndrome virus in ducks from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, C-K; Choi, K-S; Jang, H-K

    2013-07-01

    Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an important pathogen of poultry that decreases egg production in chickens and causes respiratory disease in goslings. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 139 domestic Pekin ducks, 416 one-day-old Pekin ducklings, and 75 wild ducks (67 mallards and 8 pintails) to survey their exposure to EDSV. A total of 123 of 139 sera (88.5%) from Pekin ducks, 396 of the ducklings (95.2%), and 16 of 67 mallards (23.9%) were positive. Field cases of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks were investigated. Six cases from domestic Pekin ducks were identified by PCR detection and were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial hexon and full fiber genes showed that the D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 strains among 6 isolates belonged to different clusters compared with other known strains including the 127 strain. We assessed cell growth efficiency by hemagglutination (HA) titers and cytopathic effects in duck embryo liver cells and chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells to investigate host adaptation. The D11-JW-017 strain propagated more in chicken embryo liver than the D11-JW-012 strain and the field isolate from chickens. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks in South Korea and provide information on EDSV from ducks that showed variable adaptability in chickens.

  18. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  19. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Naveen K; Wang, Feng-bin; Zou, Xingfu; Wahl, Lindi M

    2012-01-01

    Baiyangdian (BYD) virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0) = 21) indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average) for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  20. WTA President Sim Jae-Duck and His Party Visit China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sim Jae-Duck, president of the World Toilet Association (WTA), and his party visited Beijing, Shandong and Shanghai from May 19 to 23 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. Sim Jae-Duck is the founder of the WTA,

  1. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.54 Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (a... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control order for muscovy ducks in the...

  2. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Gregory S.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    Dabbling ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the shallow wetlands and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily omnivorous, feeding on both plant material and macroinvertebrate prey by “tipping” to access benthic foods in bottom sediments or by foraging in the water column. Although the majority of these ducks are migratory, smaller numbers also nest locally in the SFB. These species vary in body size, ranging from the large mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) to the small green-winged teal (Anas crecca). Other dabbling duck species present in the SFB include American wigeon (Anas americana), gadwall (Anas strepera), cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), northern pintail (Anas acuta), and wood duck (Aix sponsa). Most of these dabbling duck species are known to breed in the SFB with the exception of the American wigeon and green-winged teal. However, the majority of wintering ducks originate from breeding grounds in the Central Valley of California, Pacific Coast States, Alaska, and Intermountain States/provinces, prairie potholes, and boreal forest. Their wintering populations in SFB are greatest between October and January, and dabbling duck species are found in all SFB regions. However, most dabbling duck use is associated with former salt production ponds and in the north and south bays, and managed wetlands of the Suisun Marsh.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of duck interleukin-17D in Riemeralla anatipestifer infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL)-17D is a proinflammatory cytokine with limited information on its biological functions. Here we provide the description of the sequence, bioactivity, and mRNA expression profile of duck IL-17D homologue. A full-length duck IL-17D (duIL-17D) cDNA with a 624-bp coding region was ident...

  4. Body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; Butler, PJ; Woakes, AJ; Zegwaard, F

    1998-01-01

    Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorph

  5. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  6. Threonine requirement of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Zhang, L; Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Huang, W; Hou, S S

    2014-01-01

    1. A dose-response experiment with 5 dietary threonine concentrations (5.0, 5.8, 6.6, 7.4 and 8.2 g/kg) was conducted to estimate the threonine requirement of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 240 one-d-old male White Pekin ducks were allotted to 5 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 6 replicate pens with 8 ducks per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 21 d of age. At 21 d of age, growth performance and intestinal morphology were determined. 3. The weight gain and feed intake of Pekin ducks increased and feed/gain of these birds decreased linearly or quadratically as dietary threonine increased from 5.0 to 8.2 g threonine/kg. Compared to ducks fed on diets containing 5.0 g threonine/kg, ducks given diets containing 7.4 g threonine/kg had higher villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. 4. The threonine requirements for weight gain of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age was estimated to be 6.72 g/kg when dietary crude protein concentration was 189.8 g/kg and threonine supply was critical for maintaining intestinal structure of these birds.

  7. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  8. Diffferential innate responses of chickens and ducks to low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Post, J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Vervelde, L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ducks and chickens are hosts of avian influenza virus, each with distinctive responses to infection. To understand these differences, we characterized the innate immune response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N1 infection in chickens and ducks. Viral RNA was detected in the lungs of ch

  9. Assessing the waddle: An evaluation of a 3-point gait score system for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagon, Maja M; Woolley, Rebecca; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-08-01

    Impaired walking ability is an economically important welfare problem that affects poultry raised for meat production, including Pekin ducks. To gain a better understanding of the impacts of walking impairments on duck production, and to identify contributing variables and plausible remedies, an accurate measure of walking ability must first be defined. The viability of a 3-point gait score system for characterizing the walking abilities of Pekin ducks was evaluated. Specifically, we examined whether the qualitative gait score categories corresponded to quantitative gait parameter measures, and evaluated the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the gait score system. Commercial Pekin ducks aged 13 to 14 d (14 d; 248 ducks), 20 to 21 d (21 d; 350 ducks), and 30 to 32 d (31 d; 368 ducks), were video recorded and gait scored using a 3-point system (GS0 = best gait; GS2 = poor gait) as they crossed a Tekscan(®) gait analysis system. Gait structure parameters were calculated based on 4 steps made by each duck. The most prominent differences were observed at 21 d and 31 d of age between the ducks with GS0 and GS2, with GS2 scoring ducks walking a shorter total distance, having greater differences in the amount of pressure applied to the right versus left leg, and the amount of time spent standing on 2 feet between steps. Gait score reliabilities were calculated separately for observers who received minimal training (M, N = 10) and those who viewed and discussed the sample cases (V, N = 13). Both groups assessed the gait of ducks from video footage. Inter-rater reliability (Fleiss kappa) was lowest for 14 d old ducks (M: k = 0.47, T: k = 0.62), and best for the 32 d old ducks (V: k = 0.75; T: k = 0.8). Overall, intra-rater reliabilities (Pearson's correlation) were high and were unaffected by the scorer's level of training (M: r = 0.87; V: r = 0.87; t21 = 0.43). The results indicate that a 3-point gait score system is a promising tool for assessing the walking ability

  10. Contaminants in sea ducks: metals, trace elements, petroleum, organic pollutants, and radiation: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to lead and petroleum has caused deaths of sea ducks, but relatively few contaminants have been shown to cause mortality or be associated with population level effects. This chapter focuses primarily on field reports of contaminant concentrations in tissues of sea ducks in North America and Europe and results of some pertinent experimental studies. Much of the available interpretive data for contaminants in waterfowl come from studies of freshwater species. Limits of available data present a challenge for managers interested in sea ducks because field reports  have shown that marine birds may carry greater burdens of some pollutants than freshwater species, particularly metals. It is important, then, to distinguish poisoning due to a particular contaminant as a cause of death in sea ducks versus simple exposure based solely on tissue residues. A comprehensive approach that incorporates information on field circumstances, any observed clinical signs and lesions, and tissues residues is recommended when evaluating contaminant concentrations in sea ducks.

  11. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: liuxx751@umn.edu

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  12. Black ducks and their Chesapeake Bay habitats : proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The symposium 'Black Ducks and Their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held October 4, 2000, provided a forum for scientists to share research about the American black duck (Anas rubripes), an important breeding and wintering waterfowl species dependent upon the Chesapeake Bay habitats. American black ducks have declined significantly in the last 50 years and continue to be a species of management concern. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, highlighted papers and posters on a range of topics, from the traditional concerns of hunting, habitat, and hybridization to the more recent concerns of human disturbance and neophobia. Other presentations provided a historical perspective of black duck management. The direction that black duck conservation initiatives could and/or should take in the future was also discussed. As populations of humans in the Chesapeake Bay region continue to increase, we can expect that these subjects will receive increased discussion in the future.

  13. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  14. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  15. The Status of Basic Technology in Cross River State Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Copyright © IAARR, 2007-2016: www.afrrevjo.net. Indexed African ... instructional materials for teaching basic technology in junior secondary school in. Cross River State and .... resource utilization. Conference paper, Nigeria Audio – visual.

  16. Variables that influence junior secondary school students‟ attitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variables that influence junior secondary school students‟ attitude to agricultural ... and cluster) sampling techniques was employed to select a sample of 254 students. ... It was recommended that efforts be geared towards implementation of ...

  17. Strategies for Teaching Elementary and Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuegra, Gerard F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the applications of Piaget's theory of cognitive development to elementary and junior high school science teaching. Topics include planning concrete experiences, inductive and hypothetical deductive reasoning, measurement concepts, combinatorial logic, scientific experimentation and reflexive thinking. (SA)

  18. Teaching Human Sexuality in Junior High School: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Lucy; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An experimental sex education program designed for the junior high school adolescent is described. The program's goal is to affect primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy and other problems related to adolescent sexuality. (Author/JMF)

  19. PSI for Low-Enrollment Junior-Senior Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Charles P.; Young, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The administration of a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) for junior-senior level courses in mechanics, electricity and magneturn, atomic physics, mathematical physics, physics and computers, astrophysics, and relativity is described. (CP)

  20. Profiles Junior high School West Java in Education Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Nahadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive studies have been conducted on the existing junior high profile in West Java on Education Learning Environment. The study was conducted by purposive sampling and descriptive done to get an idea about the profile of SMP in West Java implementation of the learning environment. in junior high school in West Java. Research conducted by distributing questionnaires, and observations based on the indicators developed. Based on this research, it is known that, PLH learning in junior high school in West Java has been in force since 2007 after the enactment of the Governor of West Java on environmental education for junior high school students in West Java. Learning that lasts generally implemented in conventional teacher, and it is without any innovations. It has made learning the essential condition runs well, but has not lasted optimally.

  1. John Brozovsky appointed Wayne E. Leininger Junior Faculty Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    John Brozovsky, associate professor of accounting and information systems in the Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech, has been appointed the Wayne E. Leininger Junior Faculty Fellow by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  2. Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Junior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' ... comprehension achievement in English language using Owerri Educational Zone. ... basis for incorporating the cloze approach as a method of teaching reading ...

  3. Academic achievement of junior high school students with sleep disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auliyanti, Fijri; Sekartini, Rini; Mangunatmadja, Irawan

    2016-01-01

    ... status, family structure, after-hours education program, presence of TV/computer in the bedroom, sleep duration during school days, as well as bedtime and wakeup time difference in junior high school...

  4. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Choi, Y I; Kim, E J; Kim, H K; Heo, K N; Choi, H C; Lee, S K; Kim, C J; Kim, B G; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (pducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (pducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (pducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  5. 鸭新城疫病毒和鸭圆环病毒二重PCR检测方法的建立%Development of a Duplex PCR Assay for Detection of Duck Newcastle Disease Virus and Duck Circovirus in Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宗丽; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 刘加波; 谢志勤; 邓显文; 范晴

    2012-01-01

    According to the sequences of duck NDV F gene and DuCV V1/rep gene in GenBank, two pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized, and then a duplex PCR assay was developed for detection of Newcastle disease virus and circovirus in ducks. All samples containing Newcastle disease virus and circovirus could be amplified into two specific bands, 493 bp for duck Newcastle disease virus and 218 bp for duck circovirus by this duplex PCR, but no specific bands of the same sizes were amplified from other duck pathogens, such as Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck plague virus, duck hepatitis virus, gosling plague virus, duck H9 subtype avian influenza virus, Riemerella anatipestifer, E.coli, avian Pasteurella multocida. As little as 40 fg of duck NDV and 20 fg ofDuCV DNA could be detected.%本研究根据GenBank中鸭新城疫病毒(NDV)的F基因和鸭圆环病毒(DuCV)的V1/rep基因的保守序列,各设计一对特异性引物,并对二重PCR的扩增条件进行优化,建立了鸭NDV和DuCV的二重PCR检测方法。对混合样品进行扩增,得到2条大小为493bp(鸭NDV)和218bp(DuCV)的特异性条带,与预扩增片段相符。而对番鸭细小病毒、鸭瘟病毒、鸭肝炎病毒、鸭源小鹅瘟病毒、鸭H9亚型流感病毒、鸭疫里氏杆菌、大肠杆菌、禽多杀性巴氏杆菌等病原检测,结果为阴性。该方法的敏感性试验表明,鸭NDV的核酸最小量为40fg,DuCV为20龟。

  6. A Study of Junior Students'Cross- Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension%A Study of Junior Students' Cross-Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅琴

    2015-01-01

    This paper will research Junior students' cross-cultural obstacles in English reading from the perspective of culture background,Eliminating Junior students'cross-cultural barriers can improve intercultural communication competent.

  7. Errors in Junior English Writing:Resources and Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shu-ling

    2013-01-01

    The research on the common errors in junior English writings reflects the categories of errors, resources of errors, and how to do with errors in effective ways. Errors are divided into two types:intralingual errors and interlingual errors. The research finds that Chinese junior students depend heavily on their native language in English writing and finds out some effective strate-gies avoiding errors in writing.

  8. What makes work experience program in junior high school effective?

    OpenAIRE

    五島, 萌子; 重川, 純子

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the work experience program in junior high schools is spreading all over Japan in order that students get views on occupation and works. The purpose of this study is to clarify the value of this program and its determinants of effectiveness. We conducted interview survey to informantswho experienced the work experience programs in junior high school from 2000 to 2004. We have found that the followings are important to make the program more effective: adequacy interm and difficulty, ...

  9. Obesity prevention for junior high school students: An intervention programme

    OpenAIRE

    Topalidou,Anastasia; Dafopoulou, GM

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generally, schools are an important setting to provide programmes for obesity prevention for children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigates how an intervention programme in the school subject of Physical Education can help reduce obesity for junior high school students in combination with information on dietary and health matters in school and family. Materials and Methods: A quantitative study for junior high school students (N = 250) and a ...

  10. Perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in junior athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory and research suggest that perfectionism is a personal factor contributing to athletes’ vulnerability to doping (using banned substances/drugs to enhance sporting performance). So far, however, no study has examined what aspects of perfectionism suggest a vulnerability in junior athletes. Employing a cross-sectional design, this study examined perfectionism and attitudes towards doping in 129 male junior athletes (mean age 17.3 years) differentiating four aspects of perfectionism...

  11. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P < 0·05). The adoption of this positive-negative threshold value for this i-ELISA assay resulted in specificity of 98·0%. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products.

  13. The effects of environmental enrichment devices on feather picking in commercially housed Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, S; Fraley, G S

    2014-09-01

    Like other poultry species, Pekin ducks occasionally show an auto-mutilation behavior referred to as feather picking. Self-picking can lead to further pecking by conspecifics and ultimately to reduced feather quality and poor overall health of the bird. Although the reasons underlying feather picking are not clear, it appears to occur when the ducks are transitioning between downy feathers and adult plumage, between 17 and 22 d of age. We hypothesized that giving Pekin ducks a substitute outlet for this behavior in the form of environmental enrichment devices (EED) would decrease feather picking and improve feather quality and duck health and welfare. The EED were plastic Wiffle-style balls, each threaded with 4 zip-ties. In the first experiment, we set out to determine that placement of EED would not induce fear or harmful behaviors. Five barns were each divided into 2 pens, holding an average combined total of approximately 4,500 ducks with one pen per barn used as control. Upon placement of the EED in one pen per barn, both pens were videotaped for a total of 2 h per day. The physical characteristics of 100 ducks per pen were scored at age 7, 21, 28, and 35. Results showed a decrease (P = 0.034) in both self-picking and conspecific-pecking in pens with EED compared with pens without EED. Although no differences in body condition scores were observed at 7 d of age, by d 21 ducks with EED showed better (P = 0.021) feather quality and cleanliness scores compared with ducks without EED. In a second experiment, we set out to determine if ducks had a color preference for blue/green, red, or white EED. Again, ducks with EED showed reduced (P = 0.038) feather picking compared with ducks without EED. Ducks interacted considerably more (P = 0.00089) frequently with blue/green EED then either red or white EED. These results suggest that providing environmental enrichment may minimize feather picking and improve feather quality and duck welfare.

  14. "Junior Doctor Decision Making: Isn't that an Oxymoron?" A Qualitative Analysis of Junior Doctors' Ward-Based Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Stephanie; Mattick, Karen; Postlethwaite, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Unacceptable levels of adverse healthcare events, combined with changes to training, have put the spotlight on junior doctor decision-making. This study aimed to describe the decisions made by junior doctors and the contextual factors influencing how decisions were made and justified. Stimulated recall interviews with 20 junior doctors across five…

  15. "Junior Doctor Decision Making: Isn't that an Oxymoron?" A Qualitative Analysis of Junior Doctors' Ward-Based Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Stephanie; Mattick, Karen; Postlethwaite, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Unacceptable levels of adverse healthcare events, combined with changes to training, have put the spotlight on junior doctor decision-making. This study aimed to describe the decisions made by junior doctors and the contextual factors influencing how decisions were made and justified. Stimulated recall interviews with 20 junior doctors across five…

  16. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  17. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  18. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  19. Nest and brood attentiveness in female black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelman, J.K.; Longcore, J.R.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation rhythms and brood attentiveness of radio-marked Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) were studied in southcentral Maine during 1977-1980. Recess duration and frequency differed between three females nesting near wetlands (x = 82 min, 2.3 recesses/day) and two nesting at upland sites(x = 183 min, I. I recesses/day), but incubation constancy was similar for all birds (x = 86.7%). A fourth wetland-nesting female apparently responded to the absence of down and concealing cover at the nest site by taking shorter and fewer recesses (x= 34 min, 1.0 recesses/day) than did other wetland-nesters with typical nests. Wetland-nesters took longer recesses with increasing air temperature and following long incubation sessions. After their ducklings were two weeks old, two brood-rearing females began leaving their broods to forage on nearby wetlands. Duration of rearing recess (x = 56 min) and total recess time (x = 94 min/day) were less during this mid-rearing stage than during the latter part of rearing (x = 265 min, 488 min/day). The two hen-brood bonds terminated at 43 and 48 days. We suggest that small endogenous nutrient reserves and the low density of invertebrate foods, typical of Black Duck breeding habitat, were critical factors affecting the evolution of Black Duck incubation behavior. Bouts of inattention during brood rearing may have also evolved in relation to food requirements; by foraging on wetlands away from their broods, females avoid competing with offspring for common food resources.

  20. Effects of different wavelengths of light on the biology, behavior, and production of grow-out Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C L; Colton, S; Haas, R; Rice, M; Porter, A; Schenk, A; Meelker, A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that red light conditions may improve growth and decrease aggressive behaviors in chickens and turkeys; however, more recent studies suggest that blue-green light may improve production of broilers over red light. To date, no research has been conducted to examine whether different wavelengths of light have an impact on production in the Pekin duck. To determine this, we raised Pekin ducks under aviary conditions that were similar to standard commercial barns. The ducks were kept in 3 different pens: red light (approximately 625 nm), blue light (approximately 425 nm), and white light. Light sources in each pen were standardized to produce a peak energy at 1.6 × 10³ μM photons/m²/s at the level of the ducks' heads. Ducks were given ad libitum access to water and commercial duck diet, and were housed on pine shavings at a density of 0.43 m²/duck. Ducks were evaluated weekly for BW and condition and a subjective measure of the duck's anxiety levels was determined. We found that ducks housed under blue light had significantly (P < 0.01) reduced BW at every age until the end of the study (processing age; 35 d). Unlike ducks housed under red or white light, ducks housed in the blue pen showed a higher level of anxiety; while evaluators were in the pen a majority of them began panting, they were much less inquisitive than other ducks, they took longer to exhibit normal social behavior once evaluation was completed, and they frequently "swarmed" when no people were present. There were no differences in any measurements between the red and white-lighted pens. These data suggest that unlike the chicken, blue lights may be inappropriate for raising Pekin ducks in a commercial setting.

  1. Do postage stamps versus pre-paid envelopes increase responses to patient mail surveys? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Malcolm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies largely from the market research field suggest that the inclusion of a stamped addressed envelope, rather than a pre-paid business reply, increases the response rate to mail surveys. The evidence that this is also the case regarding patient mail surveys is limited. Methods The aim of this study is to investigate whether stamped addressed envelopes increase response rates to patient mail surveys compared to pre-paid business reply envelopes and compare the relative costs. A sample of 477 initial non-responders to a mail survey of patients attending breast clinics in Greater Manchester between 1/10/2002 – 31/7/2003 were entered into the trial: 239 were randomly allocated to receive a stamped envelope and 238 to receive a pre-paid envelope in with their reminder surveys. Overall cost and per item returned were calculated. Results The response to the stamped envelope group was 31.8% (95% CI: 25.9% – 37.7% compared to 26.9% (21.3% – 32.5% for the pre-paid group. The difference (4.9% 95% CI: -3.3% – 13.1% is not significant at α = 0.05 (χ2 = 1.39; 2 tailed test, d.f. = 1; P = 0.239. The stamped envelopes were cheaper in terms of cost per returned item (£1.20 than the pre-paid envelopes (£1.67. However if the set up cost for the licence to use the pre-paid service is excluded, the cost of the stamped envelopes is more expensive than pre-paid returns (£1.20 versus £0.73. Conclusion Compared with pre-paid business replies, stamped envelopes did not produce a statistically significant increase in response rate to this patient survey. However, the response gain of the stamped strategy (4.9% is similar to that demonstrated in a Cochrane review (5.3% of strategies to increase response to general mail surveys. Further studies and meta analyses of patient responses to mail surveys via stamped versus pre-paid envelopes are needed with sufficient power to detect response gains of this magnitude in a patient population.

  2. Efficiency of different xylanase preparations in diets for pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmler, R; Rodehutscord, M

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with a total of 2288 pekin ducks. Day-old ducklings were group-penned on straw bedding and were fed complete, pelleted diets ad libitum for up to 49 days depending on experiment. In each experiment, starter diets (until day 21) and grower diets (from day 22) were used adequate in ME content and nutrient content. The sum of wheat, rye, and triticale amounted to at least 57% (starter diet) and 63% (grower diet), respectively. The inclusion level of wheat, rye, and triticale was different between experiments, with a maximum rye inclusion of 45%. Five different enzyme preparations all having, 1,4-beta-xylanase as the main activity were considered in this study with either one (2 preparations) or three (3 preparations) levels of supplementation. The effect of enzyme supplementation on ileal digesta viscosity was studied at the end of two experiments comprising 4 enzyme preparations. A significant reduction in digesta viscosity was determined for all preparations. The viscosity of digesta was higher in birds that were fed 45% rye in their diet as compared to those fed a diet based on triticale and wheat, even with enzyme supplementation. Differences in digesta viscosity were not reflected in growth or feed conversion data. In one experiment, the body weight of ducks on day 21 was significantly improved by enzyme supplementation. This effect disappeared with progress in experiment. In another experiment, feed intake was significantly improved with enzyme supplementation. Apart from this, no statistically significant improvement in performance could be detected. On overall average, the final BW of ducks fed an enzyme was (as compared to the unsupplemented control = 100), 100, and the feed conversion ratio was 101. There is no indication from the growth and feed conversion data that an enzyme effect becomes more pronounced with increasing inclusion rate of soluble NSP by rye. It is concluded that supplementary xylanases are efficient in

  3. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  4. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  5. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional study with non-probability sampling method, was conducted in a junior high school Jatinangor during the month of July 2013. Ninety six participants were included in this study. All the participants underwent an interview about the food intake for breakfast in seven days using eating pattern recall guidelines. Results: Overall, 37% of the respondents skipped breakfast. The mean of total calories among the adolescents who consumed breakfast was 286.06 (187.89 kcal. The amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein consumed was 29.23 (19.93 gram, 13.93 (13.29 gram and 8.78 (6.11 gram accordingly. The main reason for adolescent to skip breakfast was lack of time. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents have their breakfast before they go to school. Overall, the total calories comsumed is sufficient however the amount of protein consumed is low.

  6. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  7. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  8. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingliang; Li, Shuang; Hu, Xudong; Yu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongyue; Liu, Peipei; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Guozhong; Hu, Xueying; Liu, Di; Li, Xiaoxia; Su, Wenliang; Lu, Hao; Mok, Ngai Shing; Wang, Peiyi; Wang, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Gao, George F

    2011-03-24

    Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  9. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-04-01

    Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

  10. Effect of immunosuppression on newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy W; Nyaga, Phillip N; Bebora, Lilly C; Mbuthia, Paul G; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks from all groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P < 0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  12. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Na

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9% than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%, and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese. Conclusions The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.

  14. [Genetic variance of duck preproinsulin gene and its correlations to the traits of carcasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2008-06-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of exon 2 and partial intron of preproinsulin gene were studied in Peking duck and Cherry Valley duck by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technologies. Two single nucleotide mutations, T179C and C195T, were found, respectively. chi2 test reflects that the tested population of Peking duck and Cherry Valley duck were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state (P>0.05). The relationships between SNPs and the traits of carcasses were analyzed by the least square analysis, which showed that the genotype BB in three lines of Peking duck was significantly higher in carcass weight, carcass net weight and breast muscle weight than AA and BB (P<0.01) and significantly higher in leg muscle weight and sebum weight than AB (P<0.01). In addition, the genotype AA was significantly greater than AB in sebum rate (P<0.01) and carcass net weight (P<0.05), respectively. However, for Cherry Valley duck, only the genotype AB was significantly higher than AA in sebum weight and abdomen fat weight (P<0.05). The results indicated that there was significant correlation between the genetic polymorphisms of preproinsulin gene and the traits of duck carcasses and the allele B was valuable for increasing the carcass weight and breast muscle weight.

  15. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zeng

    Full Text Available To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  16. Effect of contamination of diets with aflatoxins on growing ducks and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski-Meissner, H T

    1983-08-01

    Growing Alabio ducks and White Leghorn chickens were used in a growth study in which diets containing either soybean meal (SBM), peanut meal (PNM) or fish meal (FM) as protein sources were contaminated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus providing the following aflatoxin levels: 0, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms aflatoxin B1 equivalent per kg ration. There were no differences in responses of growing ducks and chickens (at age of 28 days) to the various protein sources at the zero aflatoxin level. However diets contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and containing 50 micrograms/kg aflatoxin B1 equivalent or more significantly reduced body weight gain and utilisation of dietary protein in ducks as compared with chickens. The higher the aflatoxin content above 50 micrograms/kg the greater was the difference in performance between ducks and chickens. Dietary aflatoxins caused liver damage in ducks while no damage was recorded in chickens. Ducks fed diets containing SBM or PNM were more affected by the same concentration of aflatoxins than those fed diets with FM. When intensification of duck husbandry is envisaged, particularly in humid tropical regions, measures to avoid the deleterious ill effects of aflatoxins are needed.

  17. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  18. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  19. Nowcasting and forecasting the monthly food stamps data in the US using online search data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantazzini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of Google online search data for nowcasting and forecasting the number of food stamps recipients. We perform a large out-of-sample forecasting exercise with almost 3000 competing models with forecast horizons up to 2 years ahead, and we show that models including Google search data statistically outperform the competing models at all considered horizons. These results hold also with several robustness checks, considering alternative keywords, a falsification test, different out-of-samples, directional accuracy and forecasts at the state-level.

  20. Design optimization of the tool structure for stamping an automotive part with the high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Rho, J. D.; Kim, K. P.; Park, K. D.; Kwon, B. K.; Cho, C. H.; Kang, M. J.; Bae, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Optimum shape design of the tool structure is carried out in order to decrease the deformation and the stress from the large amount of stamping load with a simultaneous effect of weight reduction. Topology optimization is carried out to design the shape of the rib structure and Taguchi method is utilized to optimize the core shape. As a result of optimization, the weight of the rib and the core structures is reduced to 3.1% and the deformation and the stress of the rib and the core structures are decreased to 10.6% and 3.7% comparing to the initial design, respectively.

  1. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Panda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  2. Embodiment and visual reproduction in the Neolithic: the case of stamped symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Skeates

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cultural and conceptual dimensions of ceramic (and stone stamps found at Neolithic and Copper Age sites in Western Asia and Southern Europe, dating to between the eighth and third millennia BC. Based upon a recent study of their archaeological deposition contexts, their surviving forms and regional variations in their style, they are discussed here in terms of their biographies, their reciprocal relations with people, and their embeddedness in cultural processes. More specifically, they are interpreted with reference to a pair of key cultural processes that characterise the material culture of Neolithic Eurasia: embodiment and visual reproduction.

  3. Toxicity of maize containing known levels of fumonisin B1 during force-feeding of ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J D; Benard, G; Tran, T S; Guerre, P

    2004-08-01

    The toxicity of maize containing known doses of fumonisin B1 (FB1) was investigated in mallard ducks during force-feeding. Seventy-five ducks at 12 wk of age were randomly divided into 3 groups of 25, and received control maize, naturally contaminated maize containing 20 mg/kg of FB1, or a mixture of control and contaminated maize (50/50, vol/vol). Force-feeding was performed during 12 d that correspond to a final average feed intake of approximately 10 kg of maize per duck. At the end of the study, 8% mortality was observed in ducks fed 20 mg of FB1/kg of feed, whereas no mortality occurred in the other groups. Liver weight, and plasma concentrations of protein, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were increased by force-feeding, whereas feed conversion ratio appeared decreased by the toxin. Microscopic examination of the liver showed that steatosis was mostly macrovacuolar in control ducks, whereas it was microvacuolar in ducks fed 20 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Free sphingolipid concentrations were measured in liver and plasma. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine to sphingosine (Sa/So) ratio were increased in all treatment groups. These parameters were not affected by force-feeding and all individual values obtained in the treated ducks were higher than those obtained in control ducks. Our results suggest that free Sa level and Sa/So ratio can be used to reveal exposure of ducks to FB1 at doses of 10 mg/kg or greater in feed.

  4. Epidemiological Investigation and Genome Analysis of Duck Circovirus in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-he Wan; Guang-hua Fu; Shao-hua Shi; Long-fei Cheng; Hong-mei Chen; Chun-xiang Peng; Su Lin; Yu Huang

    2011-01-01

    Duck circovirus(DuCV),a potential immunosuppressive virus,was investigated in Southern China from March 2006 to December 2009 by using a polymerase chain reaction(PCR)based method. In this study,a total of 138 sick or dead duck samples from 18 different farms were examined with an average DuCV infection rate of~35%. It was found that ducks between the ages of 40~60 days were more susceptible to DuCV. There was no evidence showing that the DuCV virus was capable of vertical transmission. Farms with positive PCR results exhibited no regularly apparent clinical abnormalities such as feathering disorders,growth retardation or lower-than-average weight. The complete genomes of 9. strains from Fujian Province and 1 from Zhejiang Province were sequenced and analyzed. The 10 DuCV genomes,compared with others genomes downloaded from GenBank,ranged in size from 1988 to 1996 base pairs,with sequence identities ranging from 83.2% to 99.8%. Phylogenetic analysis based on genome sequences demonstrated that DuCVs can be divided into two distinct genetic genotypes,Group I(the Euro-USA lineage)and Group II(the Taiwan lineage),with approximately 10.0% genetic difference between the two types. Molecular epidemiological data suggest there is no obvious difference among DuCV strains isolated from different geographic locations or different species,including Duck,Muscovy duck,Mule duck,Cheery duck,Mulard duck and Pekin duck.

  5. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  6. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  7. Junior empresa: un modelo empresarial diferente = Junior enterprise: a different business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen¿Quién no está harto ya de oír cómo está el mercado laboral? Nos bombardean con un ruido de fondo incesante, como si graduarnos no fuese suficiente reto. Bueno, ¿y qué? Un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (ETSIDI-UPM nos hemos unido y hemos creado nuestra propia Junior Empresa, un modelo empresarial diferente, innovador, que nos permite revertir todos los beneficios en aprendizaje. ¿Quién ha dicho que tengamos que dejarnos vencer por un sistema laboral obsoleto?AbstractAre you tired of hearing how difficult it is to get a job? They are filling our minds with a non-stop background noise, as if getting a degree was an insufficient challenge. So what? Well, some students from the Superior Technical School of Engineering and Industrial Design from the Technical University of Madrid (ETSIDIUPM have come together and created our own Junior Enterprise, a different business model, an innovative canvas, which allows us to transform all the benefits into learning. Who said our destiny is being crushed by an obsolete labour market?

  8. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jianbo; FU Zhihui; YIN Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue. which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64. 44%of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21. 78%of total nitrogen(TN)and 23. 02%of total phosphorus(TP). Both dissolved oxygen(DO)and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2. 5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5. 86%and 9. 79%higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the0. 01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group Was 2. 36%higher than in the control group(P<0. 05), but the feed conversion ratios Were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength Were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  9. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P < 0.01). As expected, linear increases in tibia and femur bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P < 0.01). Right and left hip angle increased with duck age (P < 0.01). Additionally, ducks with a GS2 had wider hip angles opposed to ducks with a GS0 (P < 0.01). Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P < 0.05). Femur ash content was lowest in 32-day-old ducks and ducks with GS1 and GS2 (P < 0.0001). Tibia ash content increased with age, but decreased as gait score increased (P < 0.001). The observation that right hip angle changed with gait scores merits further investigation into the relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth.

  10. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  11. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structures produced through novel low-cost stamp fabrication and hot embossing of thermoplastic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hee; Han, Sol Yi; Kim, Kwang; Kim, Wook Bae [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Dong [SNDENG Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We present a simple and cost-effective method to produce super hydrophobic surfaces in thermoplastic polymer substrates, which contain hierarchical micro/nano structures that resemble lotus leaves. The method involved the fabrication of an Al stamp through the sequential application of laser ablation and anodization to create micro- and nano-structures, respectively. The fabricated patterns on the Al stamp were replicated on the thermoplastic Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film surfaces through a hot embossing technique. Static water contact angles were measured to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the patterned COC surfaces. The static water contact angle on the micro/nano hierarchical structured COC surface was measured to be 162.3 .deg. on average. The hot embossing process was repeated 31 times with a nano-structured Al stamp, and the replicated COC surfaces showed consistent water contact angles.

  12. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  13. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-07-12

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Numerical Modeling for Springback Predictions by Considering the Variations of Elastic Modulus in Stamping Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunok; Kimchi, Menachem

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting springback by considering the variations of elastic modulus on springback in stamping AHSS. Various stamping tests and finite-element method (FEM) simulation codes were used in this study. The cyclic loading-unloading tensile tests were conducted to determine the variations of elastic modulus for dual-phase (DP) 780 sheet steel. The biaxial bulge test was used to obtain plastic flow stress data. The non-linear reduction of elastic modulus for increasing the plastic strain was formulated by using the Yoshida model that was implemented in FEM simulations for springback. To understand the effects of material properties on springback, experiments were conducted with a simple geometry such as U-shape bending and the more complex geometry such as the curved flanging and S-rail stamping. Different measurement methods were used to confirm the final part geometry. Two different commercial FEM codes, LS-DYNA and DEFORM, were used to compare the experiments. The variable elastic modulus improved springback predictions in U-shape bending and curved flanging tests compared to FEM with the constant elastic modulus. However, in S-rail stamping tests, both FEM models with the isotropic hardening model showed limitations in predicting the sidewall curl of the S-rail part after springback. To consider the kinematic hardening and Bauschinger effects that result from material bending-unbending in S-rail stamping, the Yoshida model was used for FEM simulation of S-rail stamping and springback. The FEM predictions showed good improvement in correlating with experiments.

  15. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2017-08-16

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, W J; Fry, A C; Warren, B J; Stone, M H; Fleck, S J; Kearney, J T; Conroy, B P; Maresh, C M; Weseman, C A; Triplett, N T

    1992-02-01

    To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Estimation of Thermal Contact Conductance between Blank and Tool Surface in Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Hanafiah Shaharudin, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    In hot stamping, the determination of the thermal contact conductance values between the blank and tool surface during the process is crucial for the purpose of simulating the blank rapid cooling inside the tool using finite element analysis (FEA). The thermal contact conductance value represents the coefficient of the heat transfer at the surface of two solid bodies in contact and is known to be influenced greatly by the applied pressure. In order to estimate the value and its dependency on applied pressure, the process of hot stamping was replicated and simplified into a process of compression of heated flat blank in between the tool at different applied pressure. The temperature of the blank and tool surface were measured by means of thermocouples installed inside the tool. Based on the measured temperature, the thermal contact conductance between the surfaces was calculated using Newton's cooling law equation. The calculated value was then used to simulate the blank cooling inside the tool using FEA commercial software. This paper describes an experimental approach to estimate the thermal contact conductance between a blank made of Boron Steel (USIBOR 1500) and tool made of Tool Steel (STAVAX). Its dependency on applied pressure is also studied and the experimental results were then compared with FEA simulations.

  18. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  19. Efficacy of StaMPS technique for monitoring surface deformation in L'Aquila, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.; Dwivedi, R.; Narayan, A. B.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    This research work investigates the efficacy of the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (StaMPS) in measuring the surface deformation over the L'Aquila region, Italy just before an event of earthquake of magnitude Mw 6.3 by using seven descending Envisat C-Band ASAR images. The results show that the StaMPS technique successfully extracted sufficient number of Persistent Scatterers (PS) to derive a one dimensional (1D) time series displacement map which shows the deformation rates up to 59 mm/year in the satellite Line of Sight (LOS) direction and 50.8 mm/year in the direction opposite to the satellite LOS. Further, several deformation gradients are also observed from this map which indicate the occurrence of multiple crustal movement mechanism. Another dataset of 14 ASAR images is processed covering a time period before and after the earthquake in the study area to validate the results obtained by the previous dataset. We observed that the generated displacement map follows the deformation characteristics of the earlier displacement map in terms of magnitude and surface movement. We conclude that the generated displacement maps validate the presence of a normal fault mechanism with a tectonic process stretching in a NW-SE direction as predicted by earlier research studies.

  20. Virtual method for the determination of an optimum thermal design of hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, W.; Koplenig, M.; Alb, M.; Graf, J.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a new virtual method for the optimised thermal design of hot stamping tools. It provides optimal positions of the tool's tempering ducts with respect to the average working temperature and its homogeneous distribution on the surface of a tool. It consists of a specific procedure for hot stamping tool design and a software framework in order to interconnect three domains: (I) a parametrised CAD tool model, (II) a linear thermal solver using a fast boundary element method and (III) an optimisation algorithm. This enables the automated set-up, simulation and optimisation of a duct topology. The boundary conditions for the simulations are derived from a reduced model of the thermal loading of the tool. The virtual method proposed is demonstrated on simplified tool segment geometries. The results are transferred to complex tool designs used in industry. For a selected use case, the number of ducts could be reduced by 50% through the application of the proposed method. These results are validated virtually based on an existing design. Hence, the new virtual method contributes to a CAE-driven tool design and a more efficient tool manufacturing.

  1. Importance of surface modification of a microcontact stamp for pattern fidelity of soluble organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hea-Lim; Lee, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Se-Um; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We described the effect of the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on the fidelity of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) patterns produced from a TIPS-PEN/polymer blend by selective contact evaporation (SCE). During the SCE process, the TIPS-PEN in contact with the nanoporous PDMS was absorbed into the PDMS stamp, leaving out the TIPS-PEN patterns, complementary to the PDMS patterns, in the noncontact regions. For the case of the untreated, hydrophobic PDMS surface, the TIPS-PEN patterns developed initially were shrunken and eventually disappeared after 24 h due to the steady absorption of the TIPS-PEN in time. In contrast, for the UVO-treated case, the TIPS-PEN patterns were found to maintain the initial shapes over the period of 24 h since the absorption of the TIPS-PEN was limited by the hydrophilic nature of the UVO-treated PDMS. The modified PDMS surface by the UVO for 30 min yielded the highest fidelity of the TIPS-PEN patterns in both height and width. The patterned TIPS-PEN layer by the SCE was implemented into an organic field-effect transistor to demonstrate the viability of the SCE combined with the UVO treatment for solution-processed organic electronic devices.

  2. Value-meaning Barriers in Research Activity of Junior Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalovskaya M.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contents of value-meaning barriers are covered that acquire certain specifics in research activity and influence formation of meaning-forming research motivation of junior scientists. Such barriers were assumed to be conditioned by dissonance between dominating values and degree of their realization in junior researchers. Sample of respondents included 88 beginners: postgraduate students (n=65 and masters (n=23 of Tomsk high schools aged between 21 and 35 years. As research methods the expanded version of technique by M. Rokeach (proposed by M.S. Yanitsky and A.V. Seryy, methods of statistical analysis of results (frequency analysis, Mann-Whitney test were used. Relevant value orientations of junior scientists are presented. Gender differences in value-meaning domain are revealed. Differences in values in postgraduate students and masters were found. Dissonance in degree of fulfillment of terminal and instrumental values has been established that indicates disturbances of value-meaning domain of the personality of junior scientists. Results add to scientific ideas about value-meaning barriers in research activity of junior scientists.

  3. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  4. Method of Stamping Surface-Enhance Raman Spectroscopy for Label-Free, Multiplexed, Molecular Sensing and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates the use of a stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates to produce a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique. A NPGD SERS substrate is stamped onto a surface containing one or more target molecules, followed by SERS measurement of the target molecules located between the surface and SERS substrate. The target molecules may be deposited on the surface, which may be a carrier substrate such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

  5. Temperature distribution of boron-manganese sheet metal blank by induction heating in application for hot stamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ya; Liu Peixing; Wang Zijian; Zhang Yisheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to speed up the production and save more energy in hot stamping process,the induction heating technology as a new effective heating method is considerable. Finite element (FE)-simulation and a se-ries of experiments are carried out to research the temperature homogenization of induction heating with the face inductor. It is found the edge effect has a notable influence on the temperature distribution. Results concer-ning the mechanical properties of the stamped part as well as surface characteristics will be presented and dis-cussed.

  6. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  7. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  8. An infectious full-length cDNA clone of duck Tembusu virus, a newly emerging flavivirus causing duck egg drop syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Yongyue; Wang, Shuxia; Sun, Haigang; Su, Wenliang; He, Weiyong; Han, Bo; Su, Jingliang

    2013-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogenic flavivirus that causes severe egg drop and encephalitis in Chinese ducks and geese. It has been found to be most closely related to the mosquito-origin Tembusu virus and chicken Sitiawan virus reported in Malaysia. However, the ecological characteristics and the pathogenesis of duck TMUV are largely unknown. We report the construction of full-length cDNA clone of duck TMUV strain JXSP. The virus genome was reverse transcribed, amplified as seven overlapping fragments and successively ligated into the low copy number vector pWSK29 under the control of a T7 promoter. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the transcribed RNA from the full-length cDNA clone resulted in production of highly infectious progeny virus. In vitro growth characteristics in BHK-21 cells and virulence in ducklings and BALB/c mice were similar for the rescued and parental viruses. This stable infectious cDNA clone will be a valuable tool for studying the genetic determinants of duck TMUV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  10. Duck nesting success and small mammal abundances in Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report in on an investigation of duck nest success and small mammal abundance as it related to predation on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR)An...

  11. Proposal: Tennessee River and Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provide the Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) with baseline data on freshwater mussel communities found within the lower 24 miles of the Duck River and the...

  12. Daily Movements, Habitat Use, and Mortality Factors of American Ducks Wintering in Western Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in the Mississippi Flyway comprise approx 30% if the continental population. Winter surveys for this population have...

  13. Report of Black Duck Nesting on the Blackwater River Migratory Bird Refuge 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this investigation is to determine the extent of nesting in the area by ducks and the amount of destruction during the nesting season by predacious...

  14. Contaminants in redhead ducks wintering in Baffin Bay and Redfish Bay, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A sample of 39 redhead ducks was collected from Redfish and Baffin Bays on the Texas Coast during the winter of 1988-1989 to obtain baseline information on...

  15. Phylogenetics, phylogeography and population genetics of North American sea ducks (tribe: Mergini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Pearce, John M.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments occupied by North American sea ducks are remote and difficult to access, and as a result, detailed information about life history characteristics that drive population dynamics within and across species is limited. Nevertheless, progress on this front during the past several decades has benefited by the application of genetic technologies, and for several species, these technologies have allowed for concomitant tracking of population trends and genetic diversity, delineation of populations, assessment of gene flow among metapopulations, and understanding of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. This chapter provides an overview of phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and population genetics studies of North American sea duck species, many of which have sought to understand the major and minor genetic divisions within and among sea duck species, and most of which have been conducted with the understanding that the maintenance of genetic variation in wild sea duck populations is fundamental to the group’s long-term persistence.

  16. Survelliance for Avian Influenza in Wood Ducks at Coldwater and Tallahatchie NWRs in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains sampling effort and results of Avian Influenza testing in live wood ducks at Coldwater, Walker Tract, and Tallahatchie in 2009. All samples were...

  17. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (Pbiomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Monte Vista Refuge : Instructions for conducting the waterfowl production survey based on duck nesting transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the protocol for conducting waterfowl production surveys based on duck nest transects for the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. The basic approach, field...

  19. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  20. Duck cerebellum participates in regulation of food intake via the neurotransmitters serotonin and neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua Z; Li, Xin Y; Tong, Jing J; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhan, Han C; Sha, Jun N; Peng, Ke M

    2008-10-01

    Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum. Moreover, the expression level of 5-HT in fasted (4 h) and tryptophan (100-200 mg/kg)-treated ducks was significantly higher than that in control animals (Pfood intake respectively increased and decreased cerebellar 5-HT and NPY in the duck.

  1. Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge : Ducks Unlimited Pond A6 Draft Design : October 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ducks Unlimited (DU) received a grant from the North American Wetlands Conservation Council to design and implement the proposed restoration on Pond A6. This grant...

  2. Dioxins and furans in wood duck eggs from the Lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the springs of 1992 and 1993 ten clutches of wood duck eggs were collected from the lower Roanoke River below a kraft process pulp paper mill that had...

  3. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  4. Wood duck population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Burger, George V.; Havera, Stephen P.; Graber, David A.; Kirby, Ronald E.; Taylor, T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been conducted yearly since 1966, and can be used to describe relative population density and trends of birds in North America north of Mexico. Wood ducks (Air sponsa) are difficult to survey using conventional waterfowl monitoring techniques, but a large portion of their range is surveyed by the BBS. Wood ducks are detected at low densities on many BBS routes, and population trends can be estimated for most regions. Populations have been increasing throughout North America since 1966, but statistically significant increases generally occurred only in the early (1966-78) part of the period. Roadside survey methodology used in the BBS has limitations that make it inefficient as a survey technique for wood ducks, and we recommend using modified methodologies that specifically survey wood duck habitat.

  5. Interpreting evidence of depredation of duck nests in the prairie pothole region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined patterns of depredation of duck nests by 9 species and 2 congeneric species-groups of predators in the Prairie Pothole Region: coyote (Canis latrans),...

  6. Analysis of the wood duck nesting box program on Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge: 1977 - 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wood duck nesting box program on Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge has undergone transition and expansion throughout the years. These changes have occurred as a...

  7. The Independence of the Junior Scientist's Mind: At What Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Giacinto

    2016-05-01

    When I was facing the daunting task of recounting my approximately 70 years of scientific career and some aspects of my personal life, I decided to write this autobiographical piece in a "different" way. After a section on the almost bare facts of my life (Section 1), I include several other parts, loosely connected in time, in each of which I make an almost self-contained point, decreasing in this way the need for consistency and coherence in the whole article. I discuss, for example, the importance of original ideas, the independence of junior colleagues, and my work with molecular beams and in nanomedicine. I end by acknowledging those I was lucky enough to learn from in my intellectual development as a research scientist and with a couple of recommendations that may be useful to my junior and not-so-junior colleagues.

  8. Internal Grant Review to Increase Grant Funding for Junior Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather S; Brodsky, Martin B; Ewen, Joshua B; Bergey, Gregory K; Lloyd, Thomas E; Haughey, Norman J; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-09-04

    Decreasing biomedical research support over the past decade has driven many talented young scientists to seek careers outside academia. In 2011, the Department of Neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine developed an internal grant review program (IGRP) to systematically review career development awards (CDAs) and research grants (e.g., R01s) for junior investigators prior to NIH submission. With IGRP implementation, we observed significant increases in the number of CDAs and R-grants awarded to junior investigators. Thus, internal grant review is an effective means for supporting junior faculty and help them retain their research roles within academia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  9. A Study of Junior Students’ Cross-Culture Obstacles in English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅琴

    2015-01-01

    This paper will research Junior students’ cross cultural obstacles in English reading from the perspective o culture background,Eliminating Junior students’ cross-cultura barriers can improve intercultural communication competent.

  10. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A

    2007-09-01

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  11. IFN-γ increases efficiency of DNA vaccine in protecting ducks against infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Er Long; Li-Na Huang; Zhi-Qiang Qin; Wen-Yi Wang; Di Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of DNA vaccines in combination with duck IFN-γ gene on the protection of ducks against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection.METHODS: DuIFN-γ cDNA was cloned and expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antiviral activity of DuIFN-γ was detected and neutralized by specific antibodies. Ducks were vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone or coimmunized with plasmid expressing DuIFN-γ. DuIFN-γmRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized ducks was detected by semi-quantitative competitive RT-PCR. Anti-DHBpreS was titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DHBV DNA in sera and liver was detected by Southern blot hybridization, after ducks were challenged with high doses of DHBV.RESULTS: DuIFN-γ expressed by COS-7 was able to protect duck fibroblasts against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in a dose-dependent fashion, and antiDuIFN-γ antibodies neutralized the antiviral effects. DuIFN-γin the supernatant also inhibited the release of DHBV DNA from LMH-D2 cells. When ducks were co-immunized with DNA vaccine expressing DHBpreS/S and DuIFN-γ gene as an adjuvant, the level of DuIFN-γ mRNA in PBMCs was higher than that in ducks vaccinated with DHBpreS/S DNA alone. However, the titer of anti-DHBpreS elicited by DHBpreS/S DNA alone was higher than that co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA. After being challenged with DHBV at high doses, the load of DHBV in sera dropped faster, and the amount of total DNA and cccDNA in the liver decreased more significantly in the group of ducks co-immunized with DuIFN-γ gene and DHBpreS/S DNA than in other groups.CONCLUSION: DHBV preS/S DNA vaccine can protect ducks against DHBV infection, DuIFN-γ gene as an immune adjuvant enhances its efficacy.

  12. Evaluating Junior Secondary Science Textbook Usage in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine V.

    2016-08-01

    A large body of research has drawn attention to the importance of providing engaging learning experiences in junior secondary science classes, in an attempt to attract more students into post-compulsory science courses. The reality of time and resource constraints, and the high proportion of non-specialist science teachers teaching science, has resulted in an overreliance on more transmissive pedagogical tools, such as textbooks. This study sought to evaluate the usage of junior secondary science textbooks in Australian schools. Data were collected via surveys from 486 schools teaching junior secondary (years 7-10), representing all Australian states and territories. Results indicated that most Australian schools use a science textbook in the junior secondary years, and textbooks are used in the majority of science lessons. The most highly cited reason influencing choice of textbook was layout/colour/illustrations, and electronic technologies were found to be the dominant curricula material utilised, in addition to textbooks, in junior secondary science classes. Interestingly, the majority of respondents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their textbooks, although many were keen to stress the subsidiary role of textbooks in the classroom, emphasising the textbook was `one' component of their teaching repertoire. Importantly, respondents were also keen to stress the benefits of textbooks in supporting substitute teachers, beginning teachers, and non-specialist science teachers; in addition to facilitating continuity of programming and staff support in schools with high staff turnover. Implications from this study highlight the need for high quality textbooks to support teaching and learning in Australian junior secondary science classes.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas.

  14. Duck hepatitis B virus replication in primary bile duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Culvenor, J G; Angus, P; Smallwood, R; Nicoll, A; Locarnini, S

    2001-08-01

    Primary cultures of intrahepatic bile duct epithelial (IBDE) cells isolated from duckling livers were successfully grown for studies of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The primary IBDE cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry using CAM 5.2, a cytokeratin marker which was shown to react specifically to IBDE cells in duck liver tissue sections and in primary cultures of total duck liver cells. Immunofluorescence assay using anti-duck albumin, a marker for hepatocytes, revealed that these IBDE cultures did not appear to contain hepatocytes. A striking feature of these cultures was the duct-like structures present within each cell colony of multilayered IBDE cells. Normal duck serum in the growth medium was found to be essential for the development of these cells into duct-like structures. When the primary cultures of duck IBDE cells were acutely infected with DHBV, dual-labeled confocal microscopy using a combination of anti-DHBV core proteins and CAM 5.2 or a combination of anti-pre-S1 proteins and CAM 5.2 revealed that the IBDE cell colonies contained DHBV proteins. Immunoblot analysis of these cells showed that the DHBV pre-S1 and core proteins were similar to their counterparts in infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures. Southern blot analysis of infected IBDE preparations using a digoxigenin-labeled positive-sense DHBV riboprobe revealed the presence of hepadnavirus covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, minus-sense single-stranded (SS) DNA, double-stranded linear DNA, and relaxed circular DNA. The presence of minus-sense SS DNA in the acutely infected IBDE cultures is indicative of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity, while the establishment of a pool of viral CCC DNA reveals the ability of these cells to maintain persistent infection. Taken collectively, the results from this study demonstrated that primary duck IBDE cells supported hepadnavirus replication as shown by the de novo synthesis of DHBV proteins and DNA replicative intermediates.

  15. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  16. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Huang

    Full Text Available Wild birds, including waterfowl such as ducks, are reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses. Despite the increased number of avian influenza virus (AIV genome sequences available, our understanding of AIV genetic structure and transmission through space and time in waterfowl in North America is still limited. In particular, AIVs in ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 109 AIV genome sequences from ducks in the Atlantic flyway to determine their genetic structure and to document the extent of gene flow in the context of sequences from other locations and other avian and mammalian host groups. The analyses included 25 AIVs from ducks from Newfoundland, Canada, from 2008-2011 and 84 available reference duck AIVs from the Atlantic flyway from 2006-2011. A vast diversity of viral genes and genomes was identified in the 109 viruses. The genetic structure differed amongst the 8 viral segments with predominant single lineages found for the PB2, PB1 and M segments, increased diversity found for the PA, NP and NS segments (2, 3 and 3 lineages, respectively, and the highest diversity found for the HA and NA segments (12 and 9 lineages, respectively. Identification of inter-hemispheric transmissions was rare with only 2% of the genes of Eurasian origin. Virus transmission between ducks and other bird groups was investigated, with 57.3% of the genes having highly similar (≥99% nucleotide identity genes detected in birds other than ducks. Transmission between North American flyways has been frequent and 75.8% of the genes were highly similar to genes found in other North American flyways. However, the duck AIV genes did display spatial distribution bias, which was demonstrated by the different population sizes of specific viral genes in one or two neighbouring flyways compared to more distant flyways.

  17. Influence of grand-mother diet on offspring performances through the male line in Muscovy duck

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Jean- Michel; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Cornuez, Alexis; Leroux, Sophie; Bodin, Loys; Basso, Benjamin; Davail, Stéphane; Jaglin, Mathilde; LESSIRE, Michel; Martin, Xavier; Sellier, Nadine; Morisson, Mireille; Pitel, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Background In mammals, multigenerational environmental effects have been documented by either epidemiological studies in human or animal experiments in rodents. Whether such phenomena also occur in birds for more than one generation is still an open question. The objective of this study was to investigate if a methionine deficiency experienced by a mother (G0) could affect her grand-offspring phenotypes (G2 hybrid mule ducks and G2 purebred Muscovy ducks), through their Muscovy sons (G1). Mus...

  18. Improving Oral English in Break Time in Junior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小丹

    2013-01-01

      Teachers have been paying more attention to oral English teaching in junior high school than ever before. Generally, teachers focus on teaching oral English in class, where they give preeminence to creating an environment in the classroom which approximates to the“real-life”communicative use of language (Yang Chaochun&Cheng Lian 2005). However, there are some limits teaching oral English in class. This essay puts forwards to provide input during the break time for students to acquire oral English unconsciously in junior high school to make up for the insufficiency.

  19. Poor interpretation of chest X-rays by junior doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...... diagnosis, the participant's confidence in the diagnosis was assessed on a five-point Likert scale. The diagnoses were divided into four groups: normal findings, chronic diseases, acute diseases and hyperacute diseases or conditions. RESULTS: A total of 22 doctors receiving basic clinical education (BCE...

  20. About English Listening Teaching of Junior College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童心; 李雪

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1、The listening current situation by junior college students Listening is a significant and essential area of development in the native language and in a second language.But nowadays, most of junior college students listening level are very poor.They lack a sense of the importance of learning English and lack confidence to study English well.Class time is limited, and sometimes students listen without a clear aim, therefore, we attain low effect.Teachers always ignore explaining listening skills and fostering general ana- lyzing ability, so in the course of time, it is harm to cultivate stu- dents' communicative capacity.

  1. The Application of Inquiring Teaching to the Junior English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Xin-yue

    2014-01-01

    As a teaching method against the giving-and-accepting pattern, the inquiring teaching in junior high school pays more attention to learners’understanding, feeling and experience in the course and emphasizes the cooperation and communica-tion among students and teachers. In this paper, it explores the advantages of inquiring teaching, which cultivate students ’interest in learning and ability of analyses, induction and application, compared with the traditional teaching.Besides, some suggestions are provided in English teaching of Junior high school.

  2. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partha Sarathi Mandal; Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay; Saktipada Pradhan; Samiran Mondal; Chandrakanta Jana; Nimai Chandra Patra; Rabindra Nath Hansda

    2017-01-01

    ...) infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  3. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered.

  4. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  5. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas alysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasitea??s potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  6. Cherry Valley ducks mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS mediated signaling pathway and antiviral activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLRs-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly up-regulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus. Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8 in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What’s more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (duck Tembusu virus, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  7. Ben Franklin, America’s Postage Stamp Star — on the Wane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of Ben Franklin’s evolving figure in U.S. postage stamps, focusing especially on the contrast between the 2006 tercentennial Franklin 4-stamp panel, a rather high-brow representation of Franklin as an intellectual, and his traditional image as a homely, common face. The singular history of U.S. postage stamps, with their innovative choice of historical figures as subject matter and their broader emphasis on commemoration, is briefly summarized. The evolution of the Franklin figure — the most common postal image, along with George Washington — is then detailed, showing how the traditional image prevailed until the 1950s, before being progressively displaced by a more cultural and, lately, intellectual image of the nation’s “electrizer”.Cet article vise à interpréter l’évolution de la figure de Benjamin Franklin dans les timbres-poste des Etats-Unis, en se fondant notamment sur le contraste entre le bloc de quatre timbres émis lors du tricentenaire en 2006, qui représente Franklin dans les différents métiers d’un intellectuel des Lumières, et son image traditionnelle d’Américain simple et moyen. On retrace tout d’abord l’histoire singulière des timbres américains, caractérisée par le choix innovant de figures historiques comme sujets et plus généralement par la prééminence de la fonction commémorative. Puis on étudie en détail l’évolution de la figure de Franklin — sujet le plus fréquent des timbres américains avec George Washington — en montrant que l’image traditionnelle s’est perpétuée jusqu’aux années 1950, avant de céder progressivement à une image plus culturelle et, récemment, plus intellectuelle.

  8. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  9. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    We describe a process for the fabrication of a Ni stamp that is applied to the microstructuring of polymers by hot embossing. The target devices are microcontainers that have a potential application in oral drug delivery. Each container is a 3D, cylindrical, high aspect ratio microstructure...

  10. The Effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education on the Food Insecurity of Low-Income Women Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Mason, April C.; Abbott, Angela R.; McCabe, George P.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) in Indiana on participants' food insecurity and food insufficiency. Design: A single-blind randomized design. A randomized experimental group completed 5 FSNE lessons as an intervention between a pre- and posttest, whereas a control group completed a pre- and posttest…

  11. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations that ...

  12. Bioinformatics Analysis of the Duck Enteritis Virus UL54 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV UL54 gene, which has been isolated and identified in our lab (GenBank accession NO EU071033, to help deeply research on DEV. DNA sequence analysis showed that the identified ORF which composed of 1377 bp nucleotides encoded 458 amino acids with a predicted Mr. of 51.75 kDa. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL54 gene was highly conserved in Alphaherpesvirinae and was similar to the other herpesviral UL54 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the DEV UL54 gene revealed that DEV had a close evolutionary relationship with Gallid, Herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, Gallid Herpesvirus 3 (GaHV-3, Meleagrid Herpesvirus1 (MeHV-1 and should belong to a single cluster within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily.

  13. Bone development in black ducks as affected by dietary toxaphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.

  14. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    CERN Document Server

    Peaudecerf, Francois J

    2015-01-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the `ideal free' distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a p...

  15. Embryotoxicity of Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Finch, Bryson E; Smith, Philip N

    2012-04-01

    Embryotoxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9500 was examined using fertilized mallard duck eggs. Corexit 9500 was topically applied below the air cell to eggs in volumes ranging from 0 to 100 μL on day 3 of incubation. The highest incidence of mortality occurred at developmental stage 4, one day post-Corexit 9500 application. Hatching success was significantly decreased among eggs treated with ≥ 20 μL of Corexit 9500 as compared to controls (P ≤ 0.047). No egg treated with ≥ 40 μL successfully hatched. The application volume resulting in 50% mortality (corrected for control survival) was determined to be 15.5 μL. Developmental stage at embryo death was also significantly decreased compared to controls in eggs exposed to 40 μL (P = 0.0042) and above.

  16. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  17. Damage and Failure Analysis of AZ31 Alloy Sheet in Warm Stamping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a combined experimental-numerical investigation on the failure of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet in the warm stamping process was carried out based on modified GTN damage model which integrated Yld2000 anisotropic yield criterion. The constitutive equations of material were implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for solver ABAQUS/Explicit and applied to the formability analysis of mobile phone shell. The morphology near the crack area was observed using SEM, and the anisotropic damage evolution at various temperatures was simulated. The distributions of plastic strain, damage evolution, thickness, and fracture initiation obtained from FE simulation were analyzed. The corresponding forming limit diagrams were worked out, and the comparison with the experimental data showed a good agreement.

  18. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  19. Development and testing of neutron pulse time stamping data acquisition system for neutron noise experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeev [Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Yakub Ali, M [Radio Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Degweker, S.B. [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Vishwasrao, S.C. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Jadhav, R.T. [Radio Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2015-01-11

    Statistical correlation techniques find applications in the analysis of zero power reactor noise and in passive neutron assay (PNA). A large number of apparently different techniques have been in use in these application areas and traditionally the electronics modules used for data acquisition and analysis is specific to the method used. In this paper we describe a data acquisition scheme developed by us, which is independent of the specific analysis method and can therefore be used for all of them. This is a neutron time stamping data acquisition system based on a timer card and an interface software to acquire and store the data in the required format. The system has been successfully tested with two statistically different types of neutron sources, namely a random Poisson source (Pu–Be) and a correlated source (a nuclear reactor)

  20. DNA microarray synthesis by using PDMS molecular stamps (Ⅲ)-- Optimization for the reaction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization for the technological processes of fabricating oligonucleotide microarray by the molecular stamping method is studied in this note. Three factors that affect the pressing coupling reactions of the nucleosides are focused on: the stability of the chemical activities of the reaction solutions, the contamination of the remain of the reactive nucleotides among the different spots on the chip, and the influence of the capping reaction on the hybridization result. The experiments show that the acetonitrile solution of tetrazole and nucleoside monomer could maintain sufficient reactive activity for more than 10 h. An effective method has been used and proved to eliminate the residual reactive nucleosides on chip with small molecules containing hydroxyl group. Finally, the capping step-- a regular step in the conventional DNA chemical synthesis can be neglected in our on-chip DNA synthetic process, which would not affect its hybridization results.