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Sample records for jungian type psychology

  1. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  2. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  3. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

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    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  4. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

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    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  5. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  6. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  7. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

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    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  8. [Artistic creativity in the light of Jungian analytical psychology].

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    Trixler, Mátyás; Gáti, Agnes; Tényi, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    C.G. Jung's analytical psychology points at important issues in the psychological understanding of creativity. The theories of the Collective Unconscious and the Archetypes contributed to important discoveries in the interpretation of artistic creativity. Jung was concerned to show the relevance of Analytical Psychology to the understanding of European Modernism. Our paper deals with a short Jungian interpretation of Csontvary's art, too.

  9. Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York

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    Jay Sherry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As the leading proponent of psychoanalysis, Jung made trips to New York in 1912 and 1913. The first was to give his Fordham lectures, the second has escaped notice but was crucial in the early dissemination of Jungian psychology in the U.S. This paper will elaborate on this development by highlighting the career and influence of Beatrice Hinkle, the country’s first Jungian psychoanalyst. She was an M.D. and ardent feminist who introduced Jung to her Greenwich Village circle, translated his magnum opus Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, and helped establish the institutional basis of Jungian psychology in America.

  10. Reflections on the Jungian nature of psychology as the discipline of interiority: a response to Saban's 'Misunderstandings'.

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    Hoedl, John

    2015-11-01

    Psychology as the discipline of interiority is the name of the psychology that has developed from Wolfgang Giegerich's work in the field of analytical psychology. This article offers a counterview to that of Mark Saban's claim that Giegerich's psychology is 'irrelevant' to Jungians today and is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of Jungian psychology. It will be shown that, in fact, it is a fundamental misunderstanding of Giegerich's work that has led Saban to form erroneous conclusions. Links between Jung's and Giegerich's conceptions of the 'objective psyche' will be highlighted, along with other examples of how, contrary to Saban's conclusions, psychology as the discipline of interiority has obvious connections to, and grounding in, Jungian psychology. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Performance in College Chemistry: a Statistical Comparison Using Gender and Jungian Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan V.; Wheeler, Henry R.; Riley, Wayne D.

    This study sorted college introductory chemistry students by gender and Jungian personality type. It recognized differences from the general population distribution and statistically compared the students' grades with their Jungian personality types. Data from 577 female students indicated that ESFP (extroverted, sensory, feeling, perceiving) and ENFP (extroverted, intuitive, feeling, perceiving) profiles performed poorly at statistically significant levels when compared with the distribution of females enrolled in introductory chemistry. The comparable analysis using data from 422 male students indicated that the poorly performing male profiles were ISTP (introverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving) and ESTP (extroverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving). ESTJ (extroverted, sensory, thinking, judging) female students withdrew from the course at a statistically significant level. For both genders, INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) students were the best performers. By examining the documented characteristics of Jungian profiles that correspond with poorly performing students in chemistry, one may more effectively assist the learning process and the retention of these individuals in the fields of natural science, engineering, and technology.

  12. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia

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    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. Method: This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. Results: The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient’s dreams. Conclusion: Dreams can reflect a patient’s aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting. PMID:22135511

  13. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  14. Advances in functional brain imaging technology and developmental neuro-psychology: their applications in the Jungian analytic domain.

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    Petchkovsky, Leon

    2017-06-01

    Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection. This independent perspective is useful for developing new psychodynamic hypotheses, testing current ones, providing diagnostic markers, and monitoring treatment progress. Jung, with the Word Association Test, grasped these principles 100 years ago. Brain imaging techniques have contributed to powerful recent advances in our understanding of neurodevelopmental processes in the first three years of life. If adequate nurturance is compromised, a range of difficulties may emerge. This has important implications for how we understand and treat our psychotherapy clients. The paper provides an overview of functional brain imaging and advances in developmental neuropsychology, and looks at applications of some of these findings (including neurofeedback) in the Jungian psychotherapy domain. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Alternative Measures of Jungian Personality Constructs.

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    Arnau, Randolph C.; Thompson, Bruce; Rosen, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the psychometric properties of two alternative Jungian personality measures, the Singer-Loomis Type Deployment Inventory and the Personal Preferences Self-Description Questionnaire. Evidence suggests that both the measures of Jungian constructs yielded reasonably reliable and valid scores. Asserts that both measures have potential…

  16. The emergence of the ecological mind in Hua-Yen/Kegon Buddhism and Jungian psychology.

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    Cambray, Joe

    2017-02-01

    The complexity associated with deep interconnectedness in nature is beginning to be articulated and elaborated in the field of ecological studies. While some parallels to the psyche have been made and the field of Eco-psychology has been developing, Jung's explicit contribution by way of the image of rhizomes has not been considered in detail. Philosopher Gilles Deleuze acknowledges borrowing the term from Jung, though he disagreed with Jung's Empedoclean use of the term. The paper presents some fundamental properties of rhizomes along with contemporary scientific research on mycorrhizal (fungal) networks. Comparisons are made, first with classical symbolic forms, demonstrating some overlap but also some differences. Then comparison of rhizomal networks is made to those found both in mammalian brains and in recent images of the 'cosmic web'. While no hard conclusions can be drawn from these images, their remarkable similarities are suggestive of a need to reconsider what is meant by 'intelligence'. The cosmic web is one of the largest structures in the known universe (clusters of galaxies which form into filaments and walls) with empty spaces in between. Exploration of the structure of this web leads to a discussion of dark matter and dark energy, current hot topics in science, probing into the mysteries of our 'Big-Bang' cosmology. An additional comparison of the emerging image of the universe as a whole with the ancient Chinese Buddhist cosmological vision from the Hua-Yen School (Kegon in Japan) again reveals profound parallels. The potential convergence of aspects of subjective, or meditative, explorations with objective scientific constructions is striking and offers links between East and West, as well as potential confirmation of the objective aspects of empathy. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

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    Girelli, S A; Stake, J E

    1993-04-01

    The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.

  18. On integrating Jungian and other theories.

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    Sedgwick, David

    2015-09-01

    This paper consists of reflections on some of the processes, subtleties, and 'eros' involved in attempting to integrate Jungian and other analytic perspectives. Assimilation of other theoretical viewpoints has a long history in analytical psychology, beginning when Jung met Freud. Since its inception, the Journal of Analytical Psychology has provided a forum for theoretical syntheses and comparative psychoanalysis. Such attempts at synthesizing other theories represent analytical psychology itself trying to individuate. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. Congregational bonding social capital and psychological type : an empirical enquiry among Australian churchgoers

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    Robbins, Mandy; FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the variation in levels of bonding social capital experienced by individual churchgoers, drawing on data generated by the Australian National Church Life Survey, and employing a five-item measure of church-related bonding social capital. Data provided by 2065 Australian churchgoers are used to test the thesis that individual differences in bonding social capital are related to a psychological model of psychological types (employing the Jungian distinctions). The data demon...

  20. The Connection between Success in a Freshman Chemistry Class and a Student's Jungian Personality Type

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    Clark, Gale J.; Riley, Wayne D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores the connection between a student's performance in a freshman chemistry class and his or her personality type. Performance was gauged by the final percentage grade earned in class and personality type was based on Carl G. Jung's personality typology as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Performance and personality type were correlated using ANOVA statistics. The results show that only one of the 16 personality types had a class average that was significantly higher than 14 of the other 15 types. The lowest-scoring type was also significantly lower than 3 other personality types. This research shows that characteristics of personality types may be a basis for assisting or deterring success in a general chemistry class. Data on the personality types of 23 chemistry professors suggest that a success bias may be amplified by similar personality traits in the instructors.

  1. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Jungian Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Correlation of Extraversion-Introversion

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    Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…

  2. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

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    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.

  3. Seeking a Utopia in the Past to Endure the Present: A Jungian Reading of The Realms of Gold

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    Shahram R. Sistani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts a Jungian approach to Margaret Drabble’s novel The Realms of Gold. Jungian reading has been taken up to unravel the distinctive characteristics which make this novel so unique and popular. The focus of the paper is to classify the main characters of the novel in terms of their psychological types.  In this novel from the beginning the reader is introduced to an atmosphere which is related to the personality of the main character Frances Wingate. Her thoughts are introduced to the readers in form of monologues. By the usage of these monologues and the narrator’s judgments on the characters their psychological types can be implied. The protagonist is compared with the other major characters to illuminate to what extent different types can get along with each other. In Jungian psychology knowing about our psychological type is a crucial issue in the process of individuation. It gets more significance when it comes to opposite sex relationships or generally any kinds of interaction.

  4. Jungian metapsychology and neurobiological theory.

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    Tresan, D I

    1996-07-01

    This paper deals with brain research and depth psychology. Because brain research is becoming significantly more sophisticated and increasingly able to assay the neurobiology of subjective (i.e., mental) events in vivo, it is suggested that any school of depth psychology will probably not survive as a mainstream treatment modality if its theory and practice is found to be in frank variance with the findings of the modern neurosciences. Jung's psychology is compared to Freud's and shown to be reasonably consonant with such findings. Historical highlights of Jung's non-reductive way of conceptualizing and working are presented and put in the context of more recent scientifically defensible concepts (emergence, supervenience, complexity theory) from the fields of both philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. These concepts postulate a hierarchical model of reality which permits an exploration of the mind/brain relationship without resorting to reductionism or dualism. A sense of the present struggle is conveyed between the proponents of these and more traditional scientific concepts. Finally, the nature of mind/brain confluence is elucidated by examples from the areas of learning, memory and the capacity to symbolize in order to illustrate how clinical practices and observations familiar to experience depth therapists and also in agreement with Jungian theory are compatible with neuroscientific findings. A research suggestion is offered.

  5. The Myth and Magic of "Star Wars": A Jungian Interpretation.

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    Phipps, Maurice

    The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…

  6. The future of Jungian analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats ('SWOT').

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    Samuels, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Using a methodology derived from management and organizational studies, the author reviews the future of Jungian analysis. The methodology is termed SWOT - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. A selected list in each of these categories is presented. The author is transparent in allowing for the fact that the paper not only derives from a public lecture on the topic, but also retains the immediacy and the contrarian and opinionated style of such a lecture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context.

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    Brown, Robin S

    2017-04-01

    Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. The spirit of Jungian group psychotherapy: from taboo to totem.

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    Ettin, M F

    1995-10-01

    Practitioners of analytical psychology were late in coming to the practice of group psychotherapy because Carl Jung effectively forbade the treatment of individuals in stranger groups. This article explores Jung's objections to group therapy and, by way of a conceptual review of the literature, expands on the practice that grew up proximate to his death. It is argued that Jungian theory is especially conducive to collective treatment because it is concerned with the relationship between oppositions (whether in persons or between people) and uses synthetic and symbolic processes to bring about an integration of the one with the many. For Jungians who espouse a theory of symbolic transformation, archetype, and myth, the group is embodied in individuals and can be accessed by working with individuals in groups.

  9. A New Analysis of Salaamaan and Absaal\\'s Story by Honein-e Ibn-e Iss-haq Based on the Archetypes of Jungian Psychology

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    Seyyedeh Maryam Rozatian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Salaamaan and Absaal is a mysterious story that has been being passed around with several narratives and versions. Jaami has composed a poem based on one of these narratives by the Hanin-e Ibn-e Iss-haq, translated from Greek to Arabic in the third Hijri century ( 9th century A.D.. His interpretations of the story’s mystical secrets had occupied the minds of so many commentators such as “Khajeh Nassir-e Toosi”. Jaami, based on this philosophical interpretation by Khajeh Nassir, offered a rather mystical but short interpretation of the mysteries of this story at the end of his poem. In this article, we intend to provide a different analysis of the mysteries of this story based on the ancient frameworks discussed in Jung’s psychology. Karl Gustav Jung was the founder of the Psychoanalysis and archetypal criticism who combined his psychological perspectives with Hermetic, Gnostic, and the Indian notions. Since the original story is Greek, an Indian influence on the story is conceivable and the ancient frameworks of Jung in analyzing the mysteries will be very revealing .

  10. Influences on my clinical practice and identity. Jungian analysis on the couch-what and where is the truth of it?

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    Schmidt, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The author considers the various influences that have shaped his clinical practice and particular identity as a Jungian analyst. It is hoped that the sharing of these observations will, like a shard of a hologram, reflect aspects of the Jungian community as a whole. The author also attempts to put Jungian analysis 'on the couch' by looking at the current debate in the Journal between traditional and relational psychoanalysis. This is compared to the discourse that philosophy has been struggling with for centuries concerning the nature of truth. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

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    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  12. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

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    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  13. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  14. Two types of psychological hedonism.

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    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Life Cycle of a British Islamist: A Jungian Perspective

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    Lawrence Alschuler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edward Edinger, in 'Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function of the psyche,' designates as "unconscious religion" the psychological role played by political movements when religious institutions cease to provide containers for the spiritual strivings of individuals. I include Islamism as a political movement. Edinger's description of unconscious religion closely resembles the experience of a young British-born Muslim, Ed Husain, in 'The Islamist: Why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left.' Husain follows a path from being a traditional Muslim to a fanatical Islamist to a spiritual Muslim. Edinger applies Jungian psychology to describe four alternative consequences for persons whose religious institutions respond inadequately to their "religious instinct." These alternatives are: Adherence to an unconscious religion, psychological inflation, alienation, and individuation. In the case study, surprisingly, Ed Husain experiences all four of these alternatives in sequence, constituting a life cycle. The article concludes, optimistically, that this may be a natural sequence for those who embrace fanatical Islamism.

  16. Holland Code Type and Psychological Reactance.

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    Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Woller, Kevin M. P.; Pepper, Harry

    1999-01-01

    The Self-Directed Search and two measures of psychological reactance (motivation to restore loss or threatened loss of behavioral freedoms) were completed by 186 participants. Three of Holland's types (Social, Investigative, Enterprising) significantly predicted reactance for both tests. (SK)

  17. Networks of Life: A Jungian reading about aging and death

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    Gilzete Passos Magalhães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at proposing an approach of the stages of aging and dying within the individuation process, starting from the symbolic amplification of images of these phases of life in light of Analytical Psychology.  For the purpose of correlating these images with the stages of human development, particularly with the phases of the end of maturity and closing of the life cycle, a study on imagery and bibliography of aging and dying was conducted based on the theoretical framework of Analytical Psychology and of Post-Jungian authors. To that effect, the symbolic amplification of images taken from the plastic arts, literature, religion and mythology was made. The results of the study indicated that the death-related images bear a relationship with the individuation process, which points out to the need to explore this topic – which is a taboo in contemporary society – in a creative and significant manner; something that was synthesized by Jung himself in the expression “to die with life”.  

  18. Accessing Creativity: Jungian Night Sea Journeys, Wandering Minds, and Chaos.

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    Rosen, Diane

    2016-01-01

    NDS theory has been meaningfully applied to the dynamics of creativity and psychology. These complex systems have much in common, including a broad definition of "product" as new order emerging from disorder, a new whole (etymologically, 'health') out of disintegration or destabilization. From a nonlinear dynamical systems perspective, this paper explores the far-from-equilibrium zone of creative incubation: first in the Jungian night sea journey, a primordial myth of psychological and creative transformation; then in the neuroscience of mind wandering, the well-spring of creative ideation within the larger neural matrix. Finally, chaos theory grounds the elusive subject of creativity, modeling chaotic generation of idea elements that tend toward strange attractors, combine unpredictably, and produce change by means of tension between opposites, particularly notes consciousness (light) and the poetic unconscious (darkness). Examples from my own artwork illustrate this dialectical process. Considered together, the unconscious mythic sea journey, the unknowing wandering mind, and the generative paradigm of deterministic chaos suggest conditions that facilitate creativity across disciplines, providing fresh indications that the darkness of the unknown or irrational is, paradoxically, the illuminative source and strength of creativity.

  19. The five functions of psychological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology.

  20. Jungian personality typology and the recall of everyday and archetypal dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, D R; Donderi, D C

    1986-05-01

    Hypotheses concerning the relations among personality types, neuroticism, and the recall of archetypal dreams were derived from Jungian theory. Dream records were obtained from a nonclinical population in two stages: first, recall of the most recent, most vivid, and earliest remembered dreams (N = 146), and then dream recall on awakening, over an average of 23 nights, from 30 of the first-sample subjects. A total of 697 dreams was recorded. Subjects also completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory, and a Dreaming Questionnaire. Dream archetypality was rated in accordance with procedures of H. Y. Kluger. The distribution of archetypal dreams across earliest (n = 106), most vivid (n = 105), and most recent (n = 102) dream types matched Kluger's earlier results. The dream diary recall data showed that Jungian intuitives, as measured via Myers-Briggs continuous scores, recalled more archetypal dreams; introverts, as measured via Myers-Briggs continuous scores, recalled more everyday dreams; high EPI neuroticism scorers recalled fewer archetypal dreams. The results support several propositions of Jungian personality theory.

  1. Types of Generalization: Introduction to Special Section of Perspectives on Psychological Science on Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Cultural psychology represents one of the broadest types of generalization of psychological findings. We all need to pay attention to cultural findings because many of our most treasured "truisms" fail to generalize when looked at across cultural contexts.

  2. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  3. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  4. The Application of Jung's Analytical Psychology to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the application of Jungian analytical psychology to education. The author outlines Jung's concepts which relate to the foundations of education, personality development, cognitive processes, motivation, and curriculum theory. (AM)

  5. Multiple types of psychological contracts : a six-cluster solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Brande, I; Janssens, Maddy; Sels, Luc; Overlaet, Robrecht

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the existence of particular types of psychological contracts. We take a feature-oriented approach towards psychological contracts, which allows more generalizability across settings than content-oriented assessments. In defining the types of psychological contracts, we rely on 10 dimensions that indicate the employees' expected entitlements as well as their expected obligations towards their employer. We assess the existence of types of psyc...

  6. A Jungian approach to dreams reported by soldiers in a modern combat zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Rob; Goodwyn, Erik; Ignatowski, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Treating combat deployed soldiers is becoming more prevalent and needed in psychiatry. Modern combat produces unique psychological challenges, including those without criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article will attempt to share the primary author's experience with psychotherapy in a combat zone, along with understanding the general themes of dreams the author encountered while being deployed. Toward that end, the primary author [RW] discusses his personal experiences in Iraq working with soldiers whom he saw and treated while in theatre, with a particular focus on the dreams they reported. The co-authors [EG and MI] afterward collaborated with the primary author to formulate and provide insight into the dreams from a Jungian perspective.

  7. Psychological Type and Asynchronous Written Dialogue in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cranton, Patricia; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences. We asked participants to discover their dominant and auxiliary psychological preferences using the Personal Empowerment through Type inventory. Participants then completed an open-ended survey in which they described their…

  8. Psychological Type and the Matching of Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Robert R.; Hoover, Randy L.

    1984-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological type is explored and related to education in this article. A model of the interaction between teacher, student, subject matter, and instructional alternatives is examined and the educational implications are discussed. This theory is used to illustrate how psychological-type influences teaching and learning…

  9. Jungian constructivism and the value of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Eisendrath, P

    1997-10-01

    Introducing the basic assumptions of constructivism as a philosophical position, this paper illustrates how Jung's psychology-especially complex, archetype and transcendent function-is consonant with constructivism. Further, the paper explores some clinical implications of constructivism by reviewing the problems of chronic projective-identification in a stalemated analytic case, drawing on the contributions of Winnicott, Ogden and Modell in expanding our understanding of, and facility with, the transcendent function.

  10. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  11. Women Priests in the Church of England: Psychological Type Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Robbins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed psychological type theory and measurement to explore the psychological profile of women priests ordained in the Church of England. A sample of 83 Anglican clergywomen in England completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The data demonstrated clear preferences for introversion (63% over extraversion (37%, for intuition (60% over sensing (40%, for feeling (76% over thinking (24%, and for judging (55% over perceiving (45%. In terms of dominant types, 37% were dominant feelers, 31% dominant intuitives, 23% dominant sensers, and 8% dominant thinkers. These findings are discussed to illuminate the preferred ministry styles of Anglican clergywomen in England and to highlight the significant differences between the psychological type profile of clergywomen and the UK female population norms.

  12. Dental students' personality: a Jungian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, S L; Cain, M J; Mahan, J M

    1982-11-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was employed to measure the nature and strength of dental students' various basic preference in perceiving and making judgments. The MBTI yields four sets of scores--extrovert-introvert (E-l), sensing-intuitive (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perceptive (J-P)--and represents 16 personality types that define these preferences. The sample consisted of five classes at the University of Mississippi School of Dentistry (n = 217). The data indicated that the largest group (32 students) was ESFJ, while the next largest (30) was ESTJ. The least frequently represented groups were the INTP (3), the INFP (7), the INTP (7), and the ENTP (7). Dental students exhibited characteristics different from those of students in business, engineering, social work, medicine, and other fields. These findings have implications for admissions committee decisions as well as for the organization and curriculum of the dental school.

  13. A Systems Approach to Creativity Based on Jungian Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Two dimensions of Carl Jung's psychological system (preference for information and choice of decision making processes) are applied to creativity research. Examples of four personality types (sensing- thinking, sensing-feeling, intuition-feeling, and intuition-thinking) are represented by prominent social scientists. A systems model of science is…

  14. Examination of Psychological Type and Preferred Negotiation Tactics and Strategies of Contract Negotiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    strategies. The next section will discuss the theory of psychological type which was developed by the noted psychologist Carl G. Jung in the early 1900’s...noted psychologist Carl G. Jung published the book Psychological Types. Within this publication, Jung detailed his theory of personality types which...psychological types. These psychological types are 16 increased twofold when Jung suggests that one’s interests are either subject oriented ( introversion

  15. Psychological aspects of diet therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    E G Starostina

    2008-01-01

    The importance of studying the psychological aspects of nutrition diet is, perhaps, the most commonly used words in the lexicon of Endocrinology and Diabetology and most unpleasant - for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Any restrictions on certain aspects of nutrition in patients with diabetes create a negative attitude to the disease, since they require non-established habits and tastes, a significant change in lifestyle, often - constant "struggle" with gusto. And if type 1 diabetes de...

  16. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c < 7% from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ≥ 7. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R. Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P<0.013 was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P<0.030, as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P<0.047 in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM.

  17. Three types of skills for effective forensic psychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sageman, Marc

    2003-12-01

    This article examines three types of skills required for effective assessments in the forensic arena. Forensic psychology is the application of scientific psychology to the resolution of legal conflicts. The first skill is knowledge of the legal issues to be addressed. Examples of such issues are criminal responsibility, legal competencies, and linking mental states to legal issues in question. The second set of skills comprises those skills often required by the demands of the legal system--specifically, gathering complete information about the case at hand, striving for neutrality, reconstructing the past, and predicting the future. The last set of skills includes practical ones required during the process of litigation--that is, supporting the retaining attorney's overall strategy, addressing the testimony to the appropriate audience, and deferring to the prerogative of the fact finder.

  18. A four-fold humanity: Margaret Mead and psychological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in 1933, while working in New Guinea, Margaret Mead developed her so-called squares hypothesis. Mead never published its terms, though she made a brief comment on it in her autobiography, Blackberry Winter (1972), and the arguments found in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) and the research leading to Balinese Character (Bateson & Mead, 1942) bore its imprint. Beginning with William McDougall's distinction between temperament (innate predispositions) and character (learned organization of habit), Mead articulated a morphological approach to the interplay between biology and culture that yielded four primary and four intermediary personality types. Under specified but not inevitable circumstances, the conscious choices of a given people could render one or another of these types characteristic or predominantly stable within their population, giving each of the other types a definite relation to the dominant type and thereby the cultural ethos of its society. Persons of each type followed a developmental path specific to their type different both from that of other types and in its manifestations given the various relations of the individual's type to the dominant type. Mead's hypothesis was, therefore, a vision of the unity and diversity of a single human species as well as an approach to the differing psychological positioning of individuals in cultures. In examining Mead's hypothesis, this essay also takes up Mead's debts to several leading psychologists (McDougall, C. G. Jung, and Erik Erikson), and (provisionally) how her vision differed from that of Ruth Benedict.

  19. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may...

  20. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may...

  1. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  2. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  3. Do different psychological types look for different things in sermons? A research note

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Stone, Christopher; Robbins, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 76 Evangelical Anglican churchgoers completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales and rated the importance that they attribute to a sermon speaking to their imagination. The data demonstrated that sermons speaking to the imagination were rated more highly by intuitive types, feeling types, and perceiving types than by sensing types, thinking types, and judging types. Different psychological types look for different things in sermons.

  4. Do different psychological types look for different things in sermons? A research note

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Stone, Christopher; Robbins, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 76 Evangelical Anglican churchgoers completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales and rated the importance that they attribute to a sermon speaking to their imagination. The data demonstrated that sermons speaking to the imagination were rated more highly by intuitive types, feeling types, and perceiving types than by sensing types, thinking types, and judging types. Different psychological types look for different things in sermons.

  5. Psychological reactions before the diagnoses of diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelina Y. Domínguez-Reyes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has the objective to determine the psychological reactions that characterize the subjects of recent diagnosis of Mellitus Diabetes, type II, that’s why a descriptive study followed by a quantitative methodology and a quality analysis was made. It was developed during the period September 2010-2011, using 25 patients as sample, which were attended in the “Atención Integral al Diabético” (Integral Attention to Diabetic Patients consult in the Policlinic “Juan M. Martínez Puentes” in Sancti Spiritus Municipality, the diagnostic was determined in a shorter time inferior than 6 months. For collecting data, different psychological techniques like questionnaire and Rotter’s Incomplete Phrases Test were applied. The most relevant result was that the instant reaction to the diagnosis of the disease in studied patients was characterized by fear and expectancy of changing in the way of living, with bigger repercussion in the relations with family and themselves. In these subjects prevails a negative image of the disease, with a pessimistic and fatalistic vision of their evolution, where family´s help is quite important. It is registered the relevant conflicts in the personal area, mainly, in relation with the disease.

  6. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  7. Natural resource management at four social scales: psychological type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales-local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  8. Assessing Psychological Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Pouwer, F; Speight, Jane

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. RECENT FINDINGS: PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about...... insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably...... between measures. Assessment of PIR should focus on the identification of negative and positive attitudes towards insulin use. Actual or hypothetical insulin refusal may be better conceptualised as a potential consequence of PIR, as its assessment overlooks the attitudes that may prevent insulin use...

  9. 荣格心理类型理论与量表的历史发展研究%Study on Jungian Psychological Type Theory and Inventory of Historical Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凌飞

    2009-01-01

    目的 对荣格心理类型理论及在此基础上发展起来的人格量表进行梳理性的总结,为心理咨询与治疗、职业指导、教育工作提供1个文献索引和概念框架.方法 采用文献研究法.结果 ①在荣格心理类型基础上发展起来的5种人格量表中,梅彼类型指标人格量表(MBTI)在国外有着广泛的应用,其测试结果将人格看作是动态的、整体的、发展的;②国内已引入MBTI的G、M版并得到初步应用.结论 国内对荣格心理类型理论与MBTI的研究与应用还有待进一步深入与拓宽,而其它4种人格量表的研究则有待关注.

  10. Socio-psychological climate in organizations with various types of corporate culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Natalia Viktorovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes interrelation of socio-psychological climate and corporate culture in organization. The paper demonstrates that there is a meaningful relation between the type of corporate culture and socio-psychological climate, thus the most favorable psychological climate is observed in organization with clan-type culture, while prevalence of hierarchical and market-type cultures is associated with reduction of favorable features of socio-psychological climate. Results of this study may be applied in management, organizational consulting, coaching.

  11. Psychological Type Profile of Canadian Baptist Youth Leaders: Implications for Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Fawcett, Bruce; Linkletter, Jody; Robbins, Mandy; Stairs, Dale

    2016-01-01

    A recent study of the psychological type profile of Christian youth workers in the UK drew attention to differences between the profiles of youth workers and clergy, and highlighted distinctive strengths and weaknesses that may be experienced by youth workers in Christian ministry. The present study, employing the Francis Psychological Type Scales…

  12. Mental Self-Exploration in Samuel Beckett’s Molloy: A Jungian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamalinesari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Beckett is categorized as an absurdist dramatist. Martin Esslin in his book The Theatre of Absurd, states that absurdist writers dealt with the theme of man’s sense of anguish and torture caused by living without any purpose. All characters of Beckett’s dramas are deformed just like Molloy who deteriorates as the novel comes to an end. Actually, Beckett’s characters are wanderers who try to establish a sense of meaning for their existence; they are in search of self. As his works represent, Beckett uses Jungian archetypes in order to show the aspect of self. This article tries to demonstrate the lack of identity in Molloy’s Characters in the light of Jungian archetypes throughout the story. Keywords: Molloy, Identity, Archetype, Jung, Self, Deterioration

  13. 'To Paint the Portrait of a Bird': analytic work from the perspective of a 'developmental' Jungian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Jungians who are trained in the so-called 'Developmental School' straddle the two worlds of psychoanalysis and classical Jungian thinking. This is not always an easy position in which to be, but if the tensions can be held it is potentially a rich and creative way of working. In this paper I attempt to explore this position using the poem, 'To Paint the Portrait of a Bird' by Jacques Prévert as a metaphor for the analytic endeavour. From this perspective I hope to illustrate the importance of being able on the one hand to hold and maintain a clear frame for the careful and detailed exploration of the transference within which the more malign aspects of the psyche might be expressed, and, on the other, to allow the alchemical process of mutual transformation that lies outside the conscious understanding of the analytic couple.

  14. The Fall of Emily Grierson: A Jungian Analysis of A Rose for Emily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghsun Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the tragic life of Faulkner’s Emily Grierson, a life dominated by patriarchy and traditional Southern social values, which concludes with her living as a lonely recluse in her family’s decaying aristocratic house for more than forty years until her death. The key of the tragedy is her father, who isolates Emily from the outside world and tortures her with traditional patriarchal rules and Southern family duty. Emily is expected to lead a life like other girls; however, under the burden of old-fashioned, patriarchal responsibilities, her inner world collapses. This study uses the Jungian concepts of archetypes, persona and shadow, anima and animus to interpret Emily’s transitions and her fall. By examining the process through the lens of Jungian theories, the aspects that affect her fall in the patriarchal, aristocratic society, as well as the inherited social values, can be revealed and specified

  15. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction evalua

  16. Who Is Called to Be a Bishop? A Study in Psychological Type Profiling of Bishops in the Church of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Whinney, Michael; Robbins, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 168 bishops, serving or retired, in the Church of England completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The psychological type profile of these bishops was compared with that of 626 Anglican clergymen. The bishops differed significantly from the clergymen on three of the four aspects of psychological type. The bishops were more…

  17. Who Is Called to Be a Bishop? A Study in Psychological Type Profiling of Bishops in the Church of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Whinney, Michael; Robbins, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 168 bishops, serving or retired, in the Church of England completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The psychological type profile of these bishops was compared with that of 626 Anglican clergymen. The bishops differed significantly from the clergymen on three of the four aspects of psychological type. The bishops were more…

  18. Comparing the Psychological Type Profile of Churchgoers and Non-Churchgoers in Italy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francis, Leslie J; Crea, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A series of recent studies in the U.K. and in Australia has drawn attention to the distinctive psychological type profile of churchgoers compared with non-churchgoers or with the general population...

  19. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  20. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  1. The lives of Mary Foote: painter and Jungian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousdell, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Mary Foote (1872-1968) was a successful early twentieth century American artist who suddenly closed her New York studio in 1926 to go to Zurich to study with Jung. There she joined his 'Interpretation of Visions' seminars (1930-1934), which she recorded and edited. This work won Jung's praise and his friendship, but all too often Foote was seen merely as a secretary or background figure. Deirdre Bair's biography of Jung suggested that Foote's life and work deserved fuller study, if only to rebalance our view of Jung's early women followers. This paper takes up that work to ask how Foote's early life and career led to her important work in preserving and describing Jung's earliest attempts to apply his theories to clinical practice. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Psychometric Properties of Scores on a New Measure of Psychological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts. The most popular measure of types has been the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (K. Briggs and I. Myers). This measure has been criticized for dichotomous scoring, forced-choice response formats, and differential gender…

  3. Nurture becomes nature: the evolving place of psychology in the theory of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    TARDITI SPAGNOLI,

    2014-01-01

    The thesis here presented establishes a triple parallelism between biology and psychology. First, through Haeckel's recapitulation theory as the source of freudian and jungian psychology. Second, from the reductionist view of science to the new phenomenology of evolutionary developmental biology. Third, by overcoming the reductionist paradigm in biology through the Extended Synthesis and in psychology though the revisited archetype theory. By establishing these parallelisms, the thesis faces ...

  4. Gender and Psychological Type: Implications for Serving Nontraditional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Christine K.; Robinson, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    When adult students in off-campus classes (n=192) completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, females were closer to the feeling type, males to the thinking type. Among these nontraditional students, females had distinct personality differences compared to a sample of traditional-age female students; male nontraditional students were relatively…

  5. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  6. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  7. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  8. Psychological Type: An Assessment and Applications for Senior Air Force Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    psychological typo espoused by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung in 1921 and was developed by the mother-daughter team of Katherine Briggs and Isabell Briggs...quantified on four preference scales: Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I), Sensing (S) or Intuition (N), Thinking MT or Feeling (F, and Perception~ (P...Temperament Using the theory of psychological type from Jung and Myers, David Kiersey and Marilyn Bates developed the concept of temperament which

  9. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, C; Ismail, M F; Doherty, K; Bowler, A; Mohammad, M M; Cassidy, E M

    2017-06-09

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (?2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  10. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C

    2017-06-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  11. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Amber; Raja, Usman; Darr, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence.

  12. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  13. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  14. Using Psychological Type as a Guide for Successful Online Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the instructor's role in moving courses to an online environment and uses the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for describing instructional strategies and how to select them based on an instructor's MBTI preferences. Includes an instrument for determining your instructional type, suggestions for appropriate instructional…

  15. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  16. Psychological Type Preferences of Roman Catholic Priests in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Charlotte L.; Duncan, Bruce; Francis, Leslie J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the psychological type profile of Roman Catholic priests. A sample of 79 priests completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G). The study shows that Roman Catholic priests tend to prefer introversion over extraversion, feeling over thinking and judging over perceiving. Near equal preferences are shown for sensing and…

  17. Psychological Type Preferences of Roman Catholic Priests in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Charlotte L.; Duncan, Bruce; Francis, Leslie J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the psychological type profile of Roman Catholic priests. A sample of 79 priests completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G). The study shows that Roman Catholic priests tend to prefer introversion over extraversion, feeling over thinking and judging over perceiving. Near equal preferences are shown for sensing and…

  18. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  19. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  1. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  2. Psychological Type and Sex Differences among Church Leaders in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Charlotte L.; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2004-01-01

    A sample of 135 female and 164 male church leaders of mixed denominations completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The female church leaders demonstrated clear preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The male church leaders demonstrated clear…

  3. The psychological profile of bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Smith, Evelyn; Lund, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some bariatric patients are referred for surgery with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes while others are referred without co-morbid diabetes, but psychological differences between patients with and without type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery have not yet been investigated....... The objective of this study was to present the baseline results of the longitudinal GASMITO-PSYC study, and to evaluate the psychological differences between bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 129 Roux-en- Y gastric bypass patients were recruited from the bariatric clinic....... The total study sample differed significantly from Danish test norms reporting higher neuroticism (P = .000), more mental symptoms (P = .000), lower HRQOL (P = .000), and less positive weight-related body image (P = .000). CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 diabetes had better physical HRQOL than nondiabetic...

  4. Sexual dysfunctions and psychological disorders associated with type IIIa chronic prostatitis: a clinical survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Mu-Qiong; Long, Ling-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Luo, Can-Qiao; Deng, Li-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a frequent prostate-related complaint, impacts negatively on quality of life and is mostly of unclear etiology. Increasing attention has been paid to the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in CP patients; however, the impact of specific types of CP and the correlation of sexual dysfunctions with psychological disorders associated with CP are not well understood. Type IIIa CP is characterized by chronic pelvic pain, urination symptoms and white blood cells in expressed prostatic secretion, but free of bacterial infection. A population of 600 type IIIa CP patients were randomly selected and 40 normal man were included as the control group. Queries were conducted by urologists. The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Symptom Checklist 90-R were used to evaluate the symptoms and severity of prostatitis, erectile dysfunctions and psychological problems, respectively. Scores of ejaculatory pain and premature ejaculation were also collected. Our study revealed that sexual dysfunctions are frequently associated with this specific type of CP. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain was 19, 30 and 30 %, respectively. A variety of psychological problems exist among type IIIa CP patients, including depression, anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive and interpersonal sensitivity. In particular, the severity of erectile dysfunctions, but not premature ejaculation and ejaculatory pain, correlated significantly with depression and anxiety. Our data indicate that a moderate level of sexual dysfunctions exists among the type IIIa CP patients, and highlight the association of depression and anxiety with erectile dysfunction in CP patients, suggestting that special attention should be paid to these psychological issues in clinical treatments of the prostatitis symptoms and the associated erectile dysfunctions.

  5. Types of Rural Extensionists' Expectations of Psychology and Their Implications on Psychologists' Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Psychology has great potential for contributing to rural development, particularly through supporting rural extension (RE). In this paper, the types of expectations extensionists have of psychology are identified, as well as possible ways of integrating psychosocial knowledge into the RE context. Rural extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed (n = 654). Of them, 89.4 % considered psychology could contribute to rural extension and commented on how this would be possible. Expectations were categorised and the nine mentioned by more than 20 % of them were utilized to conduct a two-steps cluster analysis. Three types of extensionists' expectations were identified: one wherein working with extensionists was highlighted; another characterised by a focus on working with farmers; and a third featuring a traditional, diffusionist extension approach, which views farmers as objects of psychologists' interventions. With the first type, psychologists should not neglect working with farmers and with the second, with extensionists. With the third type, reflecting on the expectations themselves and their underlying assumptions seems essential.

  6. Preceptors and new graduate nurse orientees: implications of psychological type compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradzisz, Michele; Kostovich, Carol T; O'Connell, Debbie; Lefaiver, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between preceptor and new graduate nurse (NGN) orientee can be a critical factor in NGNs' satisfaction with choice of profession and place of employment. A research study was conducted with NGN orientees (n = 218) and preceptors (n = 159) to investigate characteristics of psychological type as determined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Preliminary descriptive data regarding participants' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator characteristics is presented, and suggestions are offered for working with orientees during orientation in both classroom sessions and clinical units.

  7. Gender differences in victims of war torture: Types of torture and psychological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špirić Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Torture for political reasons is an extreme violence in interpersonal relations resulting in not only acute psychiatric disorders but also very often in very severe and far reaching negative consequences for the overall psychosocial functioning of a victim. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in types of torture and psychological consequences in subjects who experienced war torture. Methods. A sample (410 men and 76 women included clients of 'Centre for rehabilitation of torture victims - IAN, Belgrade' who experienced torture in prisons and concentration camps during civil wars in ex-Yugoslavia 1991-1995 and 1999. Types of Torture Questionnaire with 81 items was used for collecting data about forms of torture. Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90- R was used for assessing type and intensity of psychological symptoms, and Impact of Event Scale (IES was used to estimate posttraumatic complaints. Results. A gender difference was found for 33 types of torture: 28 more frequent in men, and 5 in women. Factor analysis of torture types revealed three factors explaining 29% of variance: 'common torture', 'sadistic torture', and 'sexual torture'. Discriminant analysis revealed significant gender difference concerning the factors. 'Common torture' and 'sadistic torture' were more prominent in men, and 'sexual torture' was more present in women. Higher scores on depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive dimensions on SCL-90-R were found in women. General score and scores of subscales (intrusion and avoidance on IES were significantly higher in women. Conclusion. Women exposed to war torture experienced less torture techniques and shorter imprisonment than men, but had more frequent and severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms. Gender differences in posttraumatic symptomatology can not be explained exclusively by gender differences

  8. [Gender differences in victims of war torture: types of torture and psychological consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirić, Zeljko; Opacić, Goran; Jović, Vladimir; Samardzić, Radomir; Knezević, Goran; Mandić-Gajić, Gordana; Todorović, Milorad

    2010-05-01

    Torture for political reasons is an extreme violence in interpersonal relations resulting in not only acute psychiatric disorders but also very often in very severe and far reaching negative consequences for the overall psychosocial functioning of a victim. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in types of torture and psychological consequences in subjects who experienced war torture. A sample (410 men and 76 women) included clients of "Centre for rehabilitation of torture victims--IAN, Belgrade" who experienced torture in prisons and concentration camps during civil wars in ex-Yugoslavia 1991-1995 and 1999. Types of Torture Questionnaire with 81 items was used for collecting data about forms of torture. Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used for assessing type and intensity of psychological symptoms, and Impact of Event Scale (IES) was used to estimate posttraumatic complaints. A gender difference was found for 33 types of torture: 28 more frequent in men, and 5 in women. Factor analysis of torture types revealed three factors explaining 29% of variance: "common torture", "sadistic torture", and "sexual torture". Discriminant analysis revealed significant gender difference concerning the factors. "Common torture" and "sadistic torture" were more prominent in men, and "sexual torture" was more present in women. Higher scores on depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive dimensions on SCL-90-R were found in women. General score and scores of subscales (intrusion and avoidance) on IES were significantly higher in women. Women exposed to war torture experienced less torture techniques and shorter inprisonment than men, but had more frequent and severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms. Gender differences in posttraumatic symptomatology can not be explained exclusively by gender differences in types of torture found in this study.

  9. Singer-Loomis TDI : the next generation of psychological type instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, S.; Wilson, K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper described the Singer-Loomis Type Development Instrument (TDI), a psychological type tool for personal and professional advancement. The key feature of the TDI is that it allows people to develop a better understanding of the challenges they face in interpersonal relationships and in teams. The TDI is also a tool to help learn competencies that will enable people to better align their skills and capacities with future challenges. Two applications of the S-L TDI were presented. Both applications have proven successful with hundreds of MBA and EMBA students. 6 refs.

  10. Types of Professional Interactions in Modern Russian Nannies: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobysheva T.V.,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of the crowd proposed by a Russian lawyer and public The article presents results of a social psychological study of professional interactions in modern Russian nannies. It provides the first ever descriptions of significant interactions between nannies, employers and children. Four types of professional interactions are identified empirically depending on work motivation of nannies. Nannies with an attitude of "the child's older friend" are focused on establishing a close psychological relationship with the child. Their professional interaction with the child can be defined as overprotective. "Nannies-intermediaries" are more aware of their employee status and avoid breaking the psychological distance both with the child and the parents. The choice of interaction strategies in nannies with a "neighbor babysitter" attitude is determined mostly by their desire to gain work experience in their free time. They generally prefer not to establish close relationships with the child. The most professional of all are nannies with an attitude of "servants". They know how to resolve conflicts between children, how to arrange game activities for children, and conform to the requirements set by the parents. However, nannies of this type are more likely to physically suppress the will of the child.

  11. Types of psychological reactions in patients with lower-extremity amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platiša Nedeljko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish types of psychological reactions and conditions in patients with lower-extremity amputations. Apart from using psychological interviews, detection was performed using psychometric tests: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psychometric parameters were analyzed in a group of 20 examinees treated at the Medical Rehabilitation Clinic in Novi Sad. Out of the whole sample. 45% of patients presented with adaptive reactions to amputation and consequent disability, whereas 55% presented with maladaptive responses. The registered psychopathological symptoms included nosologic categories: reaction to stressful events and adjustment disorder (predominantly affecting other emotions: mixed disorder of conduct and emotions: prolonged depressive reaction and dysthymia. When working with lower-extremity amputees, apart from adaptive, nonpathological forms of behavior, one also encounters maladaptive responses with predomination of mood disorders due to severe somatic stress. .

  12. The role played by Gerhard Adler in the development of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The Jungian analyst Gerhard Adler left Berlin and re-settled in London in 1936. He was closely involved with the professionalization of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK, including the formation of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) and The Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP).The tensions that arose within the latter organization led to a split that ended in the formation of the Association of Jungian Analysts (AJA). A further split at AJA resulted in the creation of another organization, the Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists (IGAP). Adler's extensive publications include his role as an editor of Jung's Collected Works and as editor of the C.G. Jung Letters.

  13. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  14. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  15. Jung in education: a review of historical and contemporary contributions from analytical psychology to the field of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The available literature on the influence of Jungian thought on the theory and practice of education leaves the impression that although the work of Carl Jung and analytical psychology have much to offer the field of education, the Jungian influence has so far been slight. While this has certainly been true, the last decade or so has nevertheless witnessed an increased scholarly interest in exploring how analytical psychology may inform and inspire the field of education. As an explanation for this burgeoning interest in Jung, several of the contemporary contributors mention that analytical psychology has the potential of functioning as a counterbalance to the tendencies in Western societies to focus on measurable learning targets and increasingly standardized measures of teaching and assessment. It seems pertinent then to gain an overview of how analytical psychology has so far inspired the field of education and how it may fruitfully continue do so in the future. To this end this paper is structured chronologically, starting with the different phases of Jung's own engagement with the field of education and ending with later post-Jungian applications of his concepts and ideas to education. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. What makes men and women identify with Judith? A Jungian mythological perspective on the feminist value of Judith today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Efthimiadis-Keith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by her student’s overwhelmingly positive interpretation of Judith as a model for women’s liberation in diverse African contexts – despite the debate around the feminist value of Judith-Judith – the author deals with what could possibly allow men and women, particularly the latter, to interpret Judith positively today. Given her interest in Jungian individuation theory and Ancient Near Eastern (ANE mythology, the author investigates the subject matter by exploring Judith’s relation to male and female individuation patterns, the myths of the hero’s quest and Demeter-Kore, and ANE warrior-goddess myths.

  17. Understanding the content of the psychological contract types in the context of relationship marketing and determining their dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza rajabipoor meybodi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify the nature of the types of psychological contracts between customers and public banks. In this regard, by using the phenomenological approach, data from structured interviews, in-depth individual and with the number of customers, one of the public banks in Yazd province, the purposeful sampling, were collected. For data analysis, coding model, "Colaizzi" was used. The findings suggest that there are three kinds of psychological contract involve the transactional, relational and communal in the mutual commitment customers and the bank. From the perspective of customers in selected state banks, dominance of Psychological contracts in the Iran's public banks, mostly in the form of relational and then the transactional and communal. Dominance of relational Psychological contracts increased and dominance of transactional Psychological contracts Reduced by increasing of experiences in customer relationships.

  18. Myers-Briggs psychological type and achievement in anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Juschka, B B; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1995-06-01

    Results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 259 nursing students were compared with their achievement on examinations in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. Factor analysis demonstrated that no relationship existed between any of the eight individual personality traits purported to be measured by MBTI (i.e., E, Extrovert; I, Introvert; S, Sensing; N, Intuition; T, Thinking; F, Feeling; J, Judging; P, Perceiving) and examination scores in this course. The analysis also showed that the bipolar scales S vs. N and J vs. P collapsed into a single bipolar scale (S/J vs. N/P). This means that the MBTI is only capable of measuring three bipolar scales of personality traits instead of four scales as currently claimed. Contrary to other findings, results from an analysis of variance revealed no meaningful relationship between course achievement and psychological types.

  19. Psychological Interventions for the Management of Glycemic and Psychological Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna; Liu, Shuo; Merkouris, Stephanie; Enticott, Joanne C; Yang, Hui; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    China has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases globally, and T2DM management has become a critical public health issue in China. Individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, psychological disturbances, and functional problems associated with living with their condition. Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that, generally, psychological interventions are effective in the management of T2DM-related outcomes; however, these reviews have predominantly included studies conducted within English-speaking countries and have not determined the efficacy of the varying types of psychological interventions. As such, this paper aims to synthesize evidence and quantify the efficacy of psychological therapies for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of T2DM in China, relative to control conditions. A systematic search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wangfang Data) for all years to December 2014 identified all available literature. Eligibility criteria included: peer-reviewed journal articles, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of a psychological therapy for the management of T2DM, adult participants (≥18 years) diagnosed with T2DM or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and Chinese speaking participants only (in mainland China). Outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose concentration, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Negative effect sizes corresponded to positive outcomes favoring the intervention. Forty-five RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) were more effective than the control condition in the reduction of glycated hemoglobin [CBT: -0.97 (95% CI -1.37 to -0.57); MI: -0.71 (95% CI -1.00 to -0.43)]. CBT and client

  20. Psychological interventions for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eChapman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChina has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM cases globally and T2DM management has become a critical public health issue in China. Individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, psychological disturbances and functional problems associated with living with their condition. Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that, generally, psychological interventions are effective in the management of T2DM related outcomes; however these reviews have predominantly included studies conducted within English speaking countries, and have not determined the efficacy of the varying types of psychological interventions. As such, this paper aims to synthesize evidence and quantify the efficacy of psychological therapies for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of T2DM in China, relative to control conditions. MethodsA systematic search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, Wangfang Data for all years to December 2014 identified all available literature. Eligibility criteria included: Peer reviewed journal articles; RCTs assessing the efficacy of a psychological therapy for the management of T2DM; adults diagnosed with T2DM or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; Chinese speaking participants (in mainland China. Outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose concentration, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Negative effect sizes corresponded to positive outcomes favoring the intervention. Results45 RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and motivational interviewing (MI were more effective than the control condition in the reduction of glycated hemoglobin (CBT: -0·97 [95% CI -1·37 to -0·57]; MI -0·71 [95% CI -1·00 to -0·43]. CBT and client-centered therapy (CCT were also associated with reductions in depression and

  1. Psychological assessment and biofeedback mitigation of tension-type headaches in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, N; Zorcec, T

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The research concerned a group of 59 children, 22 girls and 37 boys, mean age 12.5 +/- 1.24 years, with tension type headaches. Their clinical results (neurological, neuropsychological, radiological and laboratory) were normal, suggesting psychosomatic etiology. The characteristics of the headache correspond to a nosologic entity known as tension-type headache. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological characteristics of these children and their families, especially the profile of the mothers. The psychological assessment, consecutively applied, comprised: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Emotions Profile Index (EPI), General Anxiety State (GAS) and Human Values Rank (HVR). The mothers were examined by Family Inventory Life Events (FILE) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and also checked with the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). The results obtained showed a non-negligible level of actual anxiety in all the children, who were mostly the first-born and lived in families with accentuated stress. The emotional profile of the children was characterized by impulsiveness, a feeling of fear, moderate aggression, but still with a great level of acceptability. The EPQ confirmed their extroversion, moderate neurotic manifestations and a need for social acceptance. These results suggest that in preadolescents emotional stress, combined with a "model" for somatization, could provoke specific involuntary contraction of the head and neck muscles causing local ischaemia, which may be the pathophysiologic cause of a tension-type headache. The therapy comprised EDR and EMG biofeedback, applied once per week, of 50-minute duration. The results obtained after 20 sessions are very satisfactory. In addition, some response-measures involving a change and adjustment of family relations and school environment are recommended. Key words: headache, children, biofeedback, psychophysiology.

  2. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…

  3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] and Mainstream Psychology: Analysis and Evaluation of an Unresolved Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI[R]) is widely used as a staff-development tool in the business and voluntary sectors. Its Psychological Type approach is found to be a valuable aid to understanding self and others and thus to enhancing effective team-working. This continuing and growing popularity is surprising in view of the disdain with…

  4. [Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: brief review of the main associated psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, I; Pérez-Marín, M; Montoya-Castilla, I

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a widespread chronic disease among children and adolescents. Diagnosis and evolution usually involves a significant burden on the patient, and their families must change various aspects of their lifestyle to fulfill the demands of treatment. This study aims to identify the main psychological, family, and adjustment to illness features of children and adolescents diagnosed with DM1 and, in particular to highlight the associated psychopathological factors. The methodology involved a systematic literature search in the main scientific databases. Due to the biopsychosocial impact of DM1 usually assumed in the life of the child and family, and how it may compromise the quality of life and emotional well-being of both, different studies have agreed on the importance of identifying the set of psychological factors involved in healthy adjustment to illness in the child and adolescent with DM1. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Types of social participation and psychological distress in Japanese older adults: A five-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagasa, Shiho; Fukushima, Noritoshi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Oka, Koichiro; Takamiya, Tomoko; Odagiri, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The most effective type of social participation against psychological distress in older adults is not well documented. The aim of this study was to examine whether different types of social participation are associated with changes in psychological distress level in older men and women in Japan. Two thousand seven hundred community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% women) were randomly selected from the resident registry of three cities. Of these, participants who reported social participation and psychological distress level in the baseline survey in 2010 were followed up. Psychological distress was evaluated based on K6 scales at baseline and follow-up (in 2015). Social participation level was examined using question items from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive the underlying factor structure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between social participation and changes in psychological distress level after adjusting for covariates stratified by both gender and age group or living arrangement. Data from 825 community-dwelling older adults (45.3% women) were analyzed. Social participation was categorized into two types using factor analysis: community involvement (volunteer activities, community events, clubs for the elderly) and individual relationship (friendship, communication with family and friends, hobbies). During the 5-year follow-up, 29.5% of participants reported a deterioration in psychological distress. Higher community involvement was independently associated with lower risk of psychological distress for older women (β = 0.099, p = 0.047), whereas there were no associations with individual relationship for either gender. Furthermore, in older women living with others, higher community involvement was also associated with lower risk of psychological distress (β = 0.110, p = 0.048). Community involvement provides older women with mental health

  6. Advances in psychological interventions for lifestyle disorders: overview of interventions in cardiovascular disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Paulomi M

    2017-09-01

    The present review examines the recent advances in psychological interventions for two major lifestyle disorders in adults namely, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. The review summarizes findings from studies carried out between the years 2015 and 2017. The effectiveness of psychological interventions in the management of lifestyle disorders has been examined with respect to adaptation, self-care, adherence, negative emotions and improving quality of life. There is an increasing recognition that psychological interventions are important for prevention of lifestyle disorders and promotion of health. Key psychological interventions include self-management and educational interventions based on learning and motivational principles, patient empowerment, cognitive behaviour therapy, behavioural skills and coaching. Recent developments also include the use of information technology to deliver these interventions through internet, mobile applications and text messages. Another significant development is that of mindfulness-based interventions within the third-generation behaviour therapy approaches to reduce distress and increase acceptance. In addition, family and couples interventions have also been emphasised as necessary in maintenance of healthy behaviours. Studies examining psychological interventions in cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes mellitus support the efficacy of these interventions in bringing about changes in biochemical / physiological parameters and in psychological outcomes such as self-efficacy, knowledge, quality of life and a sense of empowerment.

  7. Jung's mediatory science as a psychology beyond objectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsch, W E

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Jung's non-objectivist--yet scientific--epistemology and his empirical/hermeneatic methods of inquiry situate him within a psychological tradition that, in many respects, began with William James and, today, is finding expression in the work of many non-Jungian cognitive scientists. In an effort to encourage dialogue between Jungians and scholars within related intellectual traditions, the author presents evidence from the corpus of Jung's work that demonstrates that, like William James, Jung intentionally rejected the absolutist claims of objectivism and the opposite position on 'anything goes' relativism, emotivism, or subjectivism. Instead, Jung forged a path that led to the meta-psychological position similar to internal realism (Putnam 1981) or experientialism (Lakoff 1987) and to a theoretical psychology that gave a central place both to unconscious cognitive structure and to imagination. This he labelled a 'mediatory science'. The psychological theories developed within this mediatory science framework represent an early articulation of key constructs that are currently used by a number of cognitive scientists seeking to understand how we make sense of experience.

  8. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  9. A Technical Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Thomas J.

    This paper describes the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by I. Myers and K. Briggs (1940s) to assess personality type. Based on Jungian theory, the MBTI has become a tool for identifying the 16 different patterns of action into which every person fits. The 16 personality types are based on patterns of: (1) extraversion-introversion;…

  10. Jesus, psychological type and conflict: A study in biblical hermeneutics applying the reader perspective and SIFT approach to Mark 11:11–21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie J. Francis; Tania ap Siôn

    2016-01-01

    ... (sensing, intuition, feeling and thinking) approach to biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching, this study tests the theory that different psychological types will interpret this classic passage differently...

  11. Different types of exposure to the 2004 tsunami are associated with different levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2008-10-01

    The impact of traumatic exposure on psychological distress and posttraumatic stress was investigated at 14 months through self-report in 1,505 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Exposure, differentiated in single and multiple types, was associated with different levels of impaired mental health measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, having sole exposure to subjective life threat brought about specific psychological effects. Some demographic factors are associated with outcome on either the GHQ or the IES-R. Identifying specific types of exposure of disaster survivors may be a way to identify individuals who could be screened for psychological ill health at a later point in time.

  12. The Impact of Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Trauma on Psychological Symptoms in Refugees: The Moderating Role of Gender and Trauma Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Joanne; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal) or as a function of gender. We found a significant relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .77) and anxiety symptoms (β = .32) in women, and a significant association between noninterpersonal trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms (β = .59), anxiety (β =.49), and depression symptoms (β = .32) in men. For men, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = 0.14 to 1.01; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.53 to 0.43. For women, the effect sizes of the relationship between exposure to specific types of noninterpersonal trauma and psychological symptoms ranged from d = -0.79 to 0.67; for exposure to interpersonal trauma, they ranged from d = -0.09 to 1.46. These results suggested supporting refugees in their efforts to overcome the psychological impact of trauma, including the allocation of resources in clinical services to support the psychological recovery of refugees. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological Distress Mediates the Association between Food Insecurity and Suboptimal Sleep Quality in Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P diabetes mellitus distress (adjusted R(2): 0.60, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.32) each mediated the relation between HFI and worse sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and

  15. A detailed profile of cognitive dysfunction and its relation to psychological distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Augustina M. A.; Van den Berg, Esther; Manschot, Sanne M.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; De Haan, Edward H. F.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a common metabolic disorder. DM2 is associated with cognitive impairments, and with depressive symptoms, which occur in about one third of patients. In the current study we compared the cognitive profile and psychological well-being of 119 patients with DM2 (mean ag

  16. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Based Therapy on Disease Perception and Psychological Capital in Patients with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baghban Baghestan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a prevalent metabolic disease, diabetes can be followed by severe mental outcomes leading to problems affecting the daily life. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of acceptance and commitment-based intervention on illness perception and psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 34 patients with type II diabetes were studied in the Diabetes Clinic of Chamran Hospital of Ferdows City in 2015. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control (n=17 persons and experimental (n=17 persons groups. Data was collected by short illness perception questionnaire (IPQ and Luthans’ psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ. Eight 60-minute acceptance and commitment-base intervention sessions were weekly conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using descriptive statistics and covariance analysis test. Findings: The pretest score having been adjusted, the acceptance and commitment-based intervention significantly increases the scores of illness perception and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 except the personal control sub-scale. In addition, it significantly increases the scores of the psychological capital and its sub-scales (p=0.0001 in patients with type II diabetes. Conclusion: The acceptance and commitment-based intervention can considerably improve the illness perception and the psychological capital in persons with type II diabetes.

  18. The Impact of Service-Learning-Type Experiences on Preservice Teachers' Integration of Principles of Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Beverly; He, Ye; Higgins, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this study, members (n = 48) of 2 sections of a required educational psychology course conducted 3 service-learning-type field experiences and wrote reflections on the experiences in relationship to the theories and principles addressed in the course. Participants also described their vision for teaching at the beginning and the end of the…

  19. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  20. [Psychological resistance to use insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rivas, Juan Pablo; Paoli, Mariela; García Santiago, Raúl; Verónica Avendaño, María; Lobo Santiago, Merlys; Avendaño, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    The psychological resistance to use insulin (PIR) is a condition where the patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) refuses to use insulin. Our objective was to determine the frequency of PIR in a Venezuelan population and their beliefs regarding insulin and current medication. In several states of Venezuela, from January to March 2013, 254 patients with T2DM, over 18 years old and naive to insulin treatment were interviewed. We applied an interview to evaluate the disposition of the patients to use insulin if their doctor prescribes it and to determine their beliefs about insulin and their current medication. The patients were categorized in: not willing (PIR group), ambivalent and willing to use insulin. The beliefs about insulin and their current medication were grouped into positive or negative. The mean age was 56.2 years, with 7.1 years of duration of the T2DM; 58.6% were females. One third (32.7%) had PIR, 20.9% were ambivalent and 46.4% were willing to use insulin. PIR patients showed lower frequency of positive beliefs and more frequency of negative beliefs to insulin and to their current treatment (p Venezuela; they showed low frequency of positive beliefs and high frequency of negative beliefs about insulin use. It is necessary to improve T2DM patient education on this issue.

  1. Initial psychological reaction and social support in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugal Kishore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM is a progressive chronic disease which places a significant burden of self-management on the individuals and their families. Negative attitude and lack of social support, particularly from friends and family, are considered the barriers to adherence and self-care. Objective: To assess the initial psychological reaction, attitude and social support in patients of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Materials and Methods: A community based prospective follow up study was conducted in rural and urban areas of Delhi. A total of 98 patients, either known diabetics or those after testing positive with blood-test during screening for diabetes, were selected after systematic random sampling and interviewed using pretested pre-designed questionnaire after 4 months of initial screening survey for diabetes. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 16. Chi-square and fisher's exact tests were used and accepted statistically significant if P value was less than 0.05. Results: It was found that more rural patients (56, 88.9% felt disappointed compared to those residing in urban areas (13, 61.9%, when their families denied them from eating prohibited diet (χ2 =13.82, P=0.001. Rural families were reported to be more supportive for food and exercise issue (χ2 =12.51, P=0.001. A higher proportion of patients in urban area (13, 41.9% compared to rural patients (3, 4.5% perceived that disease would affect their married life (χ2 =22.15, P=0.001. However, no significant difference in negative attitude and social support was found during the gender, occupation and education status assessment. Conclusion: Psycho-social management of diabetes need to be targeted and addressed. Diabetes management programs should find ways to build and improvise social support for patients.

  2. Evaluation of glycemic control, quality of life and psychological characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Andreevna Shishkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify psychological characteristics associated with better glycemic control and higher quality of life (QoL in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and Methods. The study included 140 T1DM patients (47 males aged 18 to 28 years. Assessment of the QoL and associated emotional state (ES was performed by validated localized questionnaires, supplemented with the inventories for evaluation of psychological characteristics. Based on the acquired data we performed a trilateral analysis of glycemic control, QoL and ES, followed by testing of these parameters for correlation with certain psychological characteristics, including disease attitude, mindfulness, self-attitude and self-assessment, coping strategies, autoregulation parameters and the locus of control.Results. In the studied sample, better glycemic control was associated with higher QoL and more favourable ES. We also identified several psychological characteristics associated with an improvement in all three primary parameters, namely: higher level of mindfulness, internal locus of control and ergopathic attitude.Conclusion. The diagnostic inventory for QoL and ES evaluation used in the present study may be helpful for psychological testing in patients with T1DM.

  3. The perceiving process and mystical orientation : an empirical study in psychological type theory among participants at the parliament of the world's religions

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Cargas, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 580 participants attending the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Barcelona 2004 completed the Francis-Louden Mystical Orientation Scale together with a measure of psychological type (the Francis Psychological Type Scales) in order to test the thesis based on Christopher Ross’ work that intuitive types would record significantly higher scores of mystical orientation in comparison with sensing types. The data supported Ross’ theory, and also added to the growing body of evidenc...

  4. Psychological themes that influence self-management of type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shaban, Clare

    2015-01-01

    It has long been accepted that psychological factors adversely influence efforts to optimise glycaemic control. These are often unrecognised in terms of clinical assessment and therefore under reported. This essay presents an introduction to psychological issues that interact with psychiatric co-morbidities and diabetes-specific distress, and a case scenario illustrating the interconnectedness of presenting problems and themes. In the way that we cannot separate carbohydrate counting, blood g...

  5. Social and psychological climate of educational institution as a measure of consistency of leadership style and type of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kotlyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe process and results of a study conducted on the basis of state educational institutions of Moscow (a secondary school and a school with advanced study of foreign languages. We demonstrate the possibility of using the analysis of social and psychological environment as an indicator of leadership style consistency and type of organizational culture of educational institution. We revealed an educational trend that the real organizational culture with a predominance of one type of its elements, the desired profile will tend to the mixed type. We mapped out a plan for further research on the topic.

  6. Types of dizziness and its relationship with psychological symptoms in patients with chronic dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chitsaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dizziness could be categorized as one of the most common medical complaints of patients referred to the neurology clinics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of dizziness and its relationship with psychological disorders in patients with chronic complaints. 179 patients with a range of 18 to 65 years were studied. Patients were asked to complete the revised questionnaire form that contained 90 questions related to the signs based on severity scale vertigo tool. Subsequently to detect organic or non-organic vertigo, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients were asked to complete the given questionnaire form. For psychiatric disorders screening questions of international standard for testing SCL-90-R were used. Vertigo severity scale was used for the evaluation of dizziness severity. To compare quantitative variables between the two groups independent t-Test was used and p value of ≤0.05 was considered as significant. Of the total population 70.9% were females. 74% of patients have had dizziness due to organic causes and 26% have had dizziness due to non-organic causes. Dimension scores related to somatic complaints, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, paranoid ideation and global severity index in individuals with non-organic vertigo was significantly higher than other groups. There was a significant direct relationship between the overall score related to intensity of dizziness and all of the questionnaire dimensions'. There was significant correlation between the extent of physical complaints and the fear for morbid (p<0.001. The score of extent related to dizziness/balance in patient with vertigo due to organic causes and score of extent related to autonomic/anxiety in patient with vertigo due to non-organic causes was significantly higher than other groups.

  7. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Elizabeth M

    2016-10-01

    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Editing as a psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, John

    2006-06-01

    The experience of the Jungian analyst in the role of editor of manuscripts by creative colleagues is examined. Historical precedents include Michael Fordham's editorial correspondence with Jung around the latter's synchronicity essay; Jung's handling of manuscripts submitted by Sabina Spielrein to the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen and various authors to the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie und ihre Grenzgebiete, and the author's close editing of a paper submitted by Andrew Samuels to the Journal of Analytical Psychology. In addition to mustering an adequate amount of generosity, erudition, and availability, the analytic editor must know how to clarify a psychological argument and to gauge the psychological impact of the written text. Notwithstanding transference/countertransference phenomena that can emerge around issues of competition, envy, and territoriality when author and editor are also fellow-authors working in the same field, the editor needs to be comfortable about serving as the author's selfobject and midwife. From an analytic perspective, although communicating decisions about the best way to put ideas into words can sometimes attract transference to the editor, the more profound transference that analysts experience in the editing situation is toward the text being edited, which helps to motivate donated time spent caring for journal manuscripts.

  9. The Impact of Psychological Defense Strategies in Communication on the Type of Behavior in Conflict Situations with Teenage Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar S. Kikava

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is viewed as one of the fundamental and leading types of activity a person can master. A modern teenager lives in a new information reality. And it is teenagers who deal with perhaps different characteristics and difficulties of communication than representatives of older generations. So what are the characteristics of teenage communication? What psychological defense strategies does a modern teenager adopt in communication when one gets in a conflict situation?

  10. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  11. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  12. Analytical psychology and its relation to psychoanalysis. A personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, James

    2002-10-01

    Jungian analysis is a process based on analytical psychology; it shows local variations giving emphasis to different aspects of Jung's work within the various societies which make up the IAAP. I describe the orientation of the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP). I have emphasized the different origins of psychoanalysis and analytical psychology and described how, because we encounter the same clinical phenomena, our differences centre on technique and interpretation in the context of our theoretical differences (see Astor 1998, p. 697 & 2001). In the main the link to psychoanalysis has come from the connection forged by Fordham, who recognized that Jung and Klein shared a similar perception of the significance of unconscious phantasy. For Klein unconscious phantasy was the primary unconscious content, and this is different, as Spillius has recently pointed out, from Freud for whom, 'the prime mover, so to speak, is the unconscious wish.

  13. THE WAY TO THE SELF: THE NOVEL «STEPPENWOLF» THROUGH THE LENS OF JUNGIAN PROCESS OF INDIVIDUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze the life journey of Harry Haller, protagonist of H. Hesse’s novel «Steppenwolf», in the context of Jungian process of individuation. Methodology. The author has used C.G. Jung’s theory of archetypes, along with hermeneutical methodology. Theoretical basis and results. «Steppenwolf» is the story of a man who is dogged by controversy: he feels himself to be a human and a wolf at the same time. Harry Haller learns from the «Treatise on the Steppenwolf» that he has more than two natures. Actually, he consists of hundreds and thousands of them. This idea is based on Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious. And the very novel «Steppenwolf» brightly illustrates Jung’s individuation process. Harry Haller’s mission is to overcome opposition between his social cultural «I» and Shadow (Steppenwolf, to recognize and accept his Anima (Hermine, to understand the mystery of the identity of Pablo, who embodies chthonic depths, and Mozart, who represents sublime spirituality, that is, to comprehend his own Self. Scientific novelty. In the novel, the human nature is depicted as the eternal struggle and eternal unity of two polarities. Individuals have to realize this unity on their way to the Self. Recognizing, confronting and assimilating the Ego, Anima/Animus, Shadow into the larger realm of the Self, one achieves a new level of consciousness. However, this is a never-ending process, unattainable ideal. At the end of the novel, Harry Haller failed to cope with this challenge. It seems that he has remained at the same point, where we had met him. However, nothing was impossible − everything was just beginning. Conclusions. The questions raised by Jungian analysis push us beyond our limits to the great alchemical mystery − the wholeness of our own souls. For the salvation of humankind as a whole and every single human in our world full of conflicts and violence, we all need to

  14. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  15. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  16. Effects of Onset and Type of Fathers' Absence on Children's Levels of Psychological Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershansky, Ira S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The portable rod-and-frame test was used to measure the level of psychological differentation for 100 behavior-problem, father-absent children, ages 8-16. A significant interaction was noted between the reason for the father's absence (death vs divorce/desertion) and the child's age when the father left home. (Author/SJL)

  17. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  18. Effects of restless legs syndrome on quality of life and psychological status in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Valente, Mariarosaria; Serafini, Anna; Fratticci, Lara; Del Giudice, Angela; Piani, Antonella; Noacco, Claudio; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of restless legs syndrome (RLS) on quality of life (QoL), anxiety, and depression in people with type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty-four patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. RLS was diagnosed by a neurologist masked on psychological evaluation. Data on severity, frequency, and duration of the sleep disorder were collected. The Italian version of the SF-36 was used to assess QoL. Psychological status was investigated by a neuropsychologist masked on RLS diagnosis. Patients with a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were considered affected by anxiety and depression, respectively. A modified version of the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales (HARS and HDRS) was also administered. RLS was an independent predictor for several mental domains of the SF-36 and for the mental component summary. Multivariate analysis showed that RLS was an independent predictor of anxiety and depression. RLS severity correlated with HARS and HDRS scores, whereas frequency per week of RLS had a significant correlation only with HARS score. Among individuals with diabetes, RLS can impair mental health, increasing the risk for anxiety and depression. Since RLS consequences on nocturnal rest and psychological status may impair glycemic control in this population, diabetologists and diabetes educators should investigate for the presence of RLS in their patients and treat them.

  19. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-03-01

    Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents' homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden's yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007-2011 and child supplements with children 10-18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Clinical Observation on Physiological and Psychological Effects of Eight-Section Brocade on Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fang; Tufiutitakuya; Kosikawafusako; Kisitaiti; Havukiyutaka; Suzukiakio; Wang Weidong; Zhang Rongrui; Lin Yingna; Hong Lan; Zhao Yang; Ni Qing; Zhang Lin; Isiiyasutomo

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe the physiological and psychological changing of type 2 diabetic patients after practicing Eight-Section Brocade,to evaluate the clinical curative effect,and to provide a safe and effective self-regulating method for type 2 diabetic Patients.Methods:This study is a random controlled trial,the 54 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group.The intervention group was given a 2-month period of Eight-Section Brocade practice,then a comparison between groups was made.The intervention group continued to do Eight-Section Brocade practice for 2 months,so it was 4 months' intervention all together for this group.and then a comparison within the intervention group was made.Results:There was significant difierence 4 months later on HbAlc in the intervention group (P<0.05).There was significant difference between the intervention and control groups on obsessive-compulsive,depression,anxiety and hostility scores after 2 months' practice(P<0.05).There was significant difference between 2 and 4 months' practice on hostilities scores within the intervention group P<0.05).Conclusions:As an important part of the traditional Chinese medicine,Eight-section Brocade has physiological and psychological effects on type 2 Diabetic Patients.

  1. A proven case of false confession: psychological aspects of the coerced-compliant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H; Mackeith, J A

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the case of a 17-year-old youth who falsely confessed to two murders during police interrogation while not legally represented. He again confessed during a second interview in the presence of a duty solicitor, and later made further misleading admissions to prison staff and another inmate while at the beginning of his remand. The confession elicited by the police appeared very detailed and apparently convincing. The confession subsequently by chance proved to be false. It appears to have resulted from persistent pressure and psychological manipulation of a man who was at the time distressed and susceptible to interrogative pressure. Following the withdrawal of the charges by the prosecution and the conviction of somebody else for the offense, a detailed psychological assessment indicated a clear improvement in the man's ability to assert himself and to cope with interrogative pressure. The youth was of average intelligence, suffered from no mental illness and his personality was not obviously abnormal.

  2. Comparison of four types of diet using clinical, laboratory and psychological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, A H; Carlson, E; Kipps, M; Thomson, J

    1985-07-01

    Thirty-seven people of different dietary habits-vegans, ovolactovegetarians, whole-food omnivores and average omnivores-were studied using nine-day weighed food intakes, clinical and laboratory assessments, standard psychology questionnaires, measurements of urinary cortisol and catecholamine levels and questionnaires on life-style and health factors. The vegan diet most clearly approximated current thinking on diet, as expressed in the NACNE Report, but was deficient in vitamin D, riboflavin, and vitamin B12. Cholesterol levels were significantly higher in both diet and serum in all groups compared with the vegans. There was no significant difference in social background, money spent on food, exercise, smoking, stress levels or psychological parameters between groups.

  3. Diabetes miles youth Australia : Methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 diabetes in Australian youth and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, V.; Trawley, S.; Hendrieckx, C.; Browne, J.L.; Cameron, F.; Pouwer, F.; Skinner, T.; Speight, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also at in

  4. Diabetes miles youth Australia : Methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 diabetes in Australian youth and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, V.; Trawley, S.; Hendrieckx, C.; Browne, J.L.; Cameron, F.; Pouwer, F.; Skinner, T.; Speight, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also at

  5. Wolfgang Pauli 1900 to 1930: His Early Physics in Jungian Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, John R

    2010-01-01

    Wolfgang Pauli's philosophy and physics were intertwined. His philosophy was a variety of Platonism, in which Pauli's affiliation with Carl Jung formed an integral part, but Pauli's philosophical explorations in physics appeared before he met Jung. Jung validated Pauli's psycho-philosophical perspective. Thus, the roots of Pauli's physics and philosophy are important in the history of modern physics. In his early physics, Pauli attempted to ground his theoretical physics in positivism. He then began instead to trust his intuitive visualizations of entities that formed an underlying reality to the sensible physical world. These visualizations included holistic kernels of mathematical-physical entities that later became for him synonymous with Jung's mandalas. I have connected Pauli's visualization patterns in physics during the period 1900 to 1930 to the psychological philosophy of Jung and displayed some examples of Pauli's creativity in the development of quantum mechanics. By looking at Pauli's early physic...

  6. The mind beyond our immediate awareness: Freudian, Jungian, and cognitive models of the unconscious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Soren R

    2004-11-01

    Several branches of cognitive science now focus on the nature of the unconscious. This paper explores some of the findings and models from this research. By introducing formulations based on non-clinical data, the cognitive scientists--in neural linguistics, computational modelling, and neuroscience--may depart from the older psychoanalytic formulations. An understanding of unconscious neural processes is nevertheless emerging showing how synapses are modified by experience and how learning, conscious and unconscious, is due to this important aspect of brain plasticity. Freud and Jung's formulations about the unconscious psyche, representing the main tenets of depth psychology, are also based on a conception of the mind as extending beyond immediate awareness. However, their models are more hypothetical in that their data, almost exclusively, come from treatments of psychotherapy patients and their verbal accounts. So how do these two conceptions of the unconscious match, where do they differ? And how does the neural understanding in the present research support theories and practices of analytic treatments?

  7. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  8. Explaining psychological insulin resistance in adults with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Skinner, Timothy Chas; Pouwer, F

    2016-01-01

    participants whose primary diabetes treatment was oral hypoglycaemic agents (N=313; 49% women; mean±SD age: 57±9 years; diabetes duration: 7±6 years). They completed validated measures of beliefs about the 'harm' and 'overuse' of medications in general (BMQ General); 'concerns' about and 'necessity' of current...... Negative scores (52±10), was explained by: number of complications (β=-.15, p=.005), DDS-17 subscale 'emotional burden' (β=.23, pcurrent diabetes treatment (β=.29, p... to the model. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological insulin resistance may reflect broader distress about diabetes and concerns about its treatment but not general beliefs about medicines, depression or anxiety. Reducing diabetes distress and current treatment concerns may improve attitudes towards insulin as a potential...

  9. The relationships among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being in Norwegian adults with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Ragnhild B; Graue, Marit; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Peyrot, Mark; Wahl, Astrid K; Rokne, Berit

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data. Mediation analysis was used to determine whether diabetes-related quality of life mediated the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being. Fear of hypoglycaemia was significantly associated with diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being. The behaviour and worry components of fear of hypoglycaemia were significantly associated with diabetes-related quality of life (behaviour component: unstandardised coefficient=-0.04, pFear of hypoglycaemia worry had a significant independent association with psychological well-being (unstandardised coefficient=-0.28, p=0.009, standardised coefficient=-0.25), whereas fear of hypoglycaemia behaviour did not. Diabetes-related quality of life mediated approximately half of the association between fear of hypoglycaemia worry and psychological well-being. Hypoglycaemic episodes can have serious consequences, and assessing fear of hypoglycaemia might help health care providers offer suitable care strategies to individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Type and Undergraduate Student Achievement in Pharmacy Course in Military Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…

  11. Psychological risk factors of micro- and macrovascular outcomes in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, François; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-01

    to contribute to the current understanding of the course of depression in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and will also test whether depressed patients or those with Type D personality are at increased risk for (further) development of micro- and cardiovascular disease. More knowledge about......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric complication of diabetes, but little is known about the natural course and the consequences of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. While depression has been related to poor glycemic control and increased risk....... METHODS/DESIGN: This prospective cohort study will examine: (1) the course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes; (2) whether depressive symptoms and Type D personality are associated with the development of microvascular and/or macrovascular complications and with the risk...

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND People with diabetes experience higher rates of psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, eating disorders, phobias, adjustment disorders, substance use, psychotic and bipolar disorders and sexual dysfunction. The most common diagnoses among them being depression and anxiety. The aim of the study is to compare the level of anxiety and depression among diabetic and nondiabetic healthy population and to assess the level of distress and functional level in terms of self-care among the diabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS A semi-structured pretested questionnaire was used to assess the socio-demographic profile, Morisky Medication Adherence Questionnaire to assess the level of treatment adherence of the diabetic population, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS for comparing the level of anxiety and depression between the diabetic and normal subjects and the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS and the Diabetic Self-Care Activities questionnaire (SDSCA-Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities to assess the level of distress and functional level in terms of Self-Care among the diabetic population were used respectively. RESULTS The diabetic population had increased levels of depression than anxiety, which was found to be statistically significant. Based on the Diabetes Distress Scale, most of them had emotional distress of clinical attention and emotional distress. Based on the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale, most of the diabetics did not opt for a strict diet or exercise plan, blood sugar testing or foot care.

  13. Psychological distress and tension-type headache among health professional senior students in a historically black university in south africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amosun

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies in well-defined populations contribute to the body ofevidence that the psychosocial aspects of people’s environment can have a substantial effect on their physical health. Senior students in health professional education programs were interviewed using structured instruments to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and tension-type headaches in a young adult university population.  Almost 70%of the study sample was either at risk of becoming distressed, or already distressed with somatic or depressive symptoms. About two-thirds of thestudents reported symptoms of either tension-type headache or other typesof headache, while over 30% of all the students complained of tension-type headache. Almost 20% of the students whoreported symptoms of tension-type headache were also distressed, while another 47% were at risk of being distressed.The possible impact on the academic performance of the students and their future role as health care professionalsis discussed.

  14. The interdependence between learning styles and and types of intelligence in students of Psychology specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Jelescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles and types of intelligence are essential features of effective learning. Discovering and creative approach could be more appropriate form of learning to the current conditions of society.

  15. Jesus, psychological type and conflict: A study in biblical hermeneutics applying the reader perspective and SIFT approach to Mark 11:11–21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Francis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Marcan account of Jesus riding into Jerusalem on a donkey, cursing the fig tree and overturning the tables of the money changers in the temple provides a classic scriptural reference point for a Christian discussion of conflict. Drawing on psychological type theory and on the reader perspective proposed by the SIFT (sensing, intuition, feeling and thinking approach to biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching, this study tests the theory that different psychological types will interpret this classic passage differently. Data collected in two residential programmes concerned with Christianity and conflict from type-aware participants confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.

  16. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A.; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E.; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications. PMID:27672634

  17. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    type was the strongest factor predicting dropout from campus residence. Chronotype significantly moderated the effects of campus residence on participants' physical and psychological quality of life. Although morning-type off-campus-living students have better well-being than their evening-type peers living off campus, morning-type campus residents had worse well-being than other campus residents and they were more likely to discontinue living on campus after one semester. Our findings bear practical significance to college management that morning-type campus residents are shown to be experiencing deteriorating well-being. The authorities may need to review and revise the room-allocation policy in campus residence in improving the well-being among campus residents.

  18. The Relationship between Psychological Type and Professional Orientation among Technology Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Robert C.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    1995-01-01

    Of secondary school teachers who completed the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter, 136 were in technology education, 110 in industrial arts. Two types were prevalent among industrial arts teachers: Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging and Introvert Sensing Feeling Judging. Technology education teachers were more Extrovert Intuitive Thinking Judging,…

  19. Psychological Type, Decision-Making Style, and Reactions to Structured Career Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.; Rushing, James

    2002-01-01

    An intervention for 50 career-undecided women helped them identify decision-making barriers, consider vocational interests, and formulate provisional major and career choices. Women who were introverted and whose decision-making style was rational reported greater benefits from the intervention than those whose personality type was perceiving and…

  20. Myers-Briggs Psychological Type and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for 259 nursing students were compared with achievement on examinations in an anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis demonstrated no relationship between examination scores and any of the individual personality traits purported to be measured by MBTI. Analysis of variance revealed no…

  1. Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenk, Naomi L.

    This book provides step-by-step guidance on the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI). The book also contains assessment of the test's strengths and weaknesses, advice on its clinical applications, and several case reports. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2) "How To Administer…

  2. Psychological and weight-related characteristics of patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type who later develop bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Katsutaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R sometimes develop accompanying bulimic symptoms or the full syndrome of bulimia nervosa (BN. If clinicians could predict who might change into the bulimic sub-type or BN, preventative steps could be taken. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric and psychological factors possibly associated with such changes. Method All participants were from a study by the Japanese Genetic Research Group for Eating Disorders. Of 80 patients initially diagnosed with AN-R, 22 changed to the AN-Binge Eating/Purging Type (AN-BP and 14 to BN for some period of time. The remaining 44 patients remained AN-R only from the onset to the investigation period. Variables compared by ANOVA included anthropometric measures, personality traits such as Multiple Perfectionism Scale scores and Temperament and Character Inventory scores, and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores. Results In comparison with AN-R only patients, those who developed BN had significantly higher current BMI (p Conclusion The present findings suggest a tendency toward obesity among patients who cross over from AN-R to BN. Low self-directedness and high parental criticism may be associated with the development of BN by patients with AN-R, although the differences may also be associated with depression.

  3. The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung

    CERN Document Server

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    "The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...

  4. Psychological distress, cardiovascular complications and mortality among people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens; Skriver, Mette V

    2014-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger, om psykisk belastning øger risikoen for kardiovaskulær sygdom og død blandt personer med type 2-diabetes. Forfatterne ser også nærmere på, om forskelle i metabolisk kontrol og indtag af ordineret medicin kan forklare dele af en eventuel sammenhæng. Studiet fandt, at 18% af...

  5. Sociological Theory or Psychological Types: A Case Study of Attitudes to-wards Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Laura; Elliot, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Sociological theories can be viewed as models of (sub)-populations. In this paper we explore the possibility of representing social theories as attitudinal types rather than as descriptions of society at large. To test this idea we investigate the relevance of four different theories of couple relationships to the attitudes of 18 to 30 year olds. Rather than testing these theories via aggregate social trends, we investigate the plausibility of treating the four social theories as attitudinal ...

  6. Cognitive, behavioural and psychological barriers to the prevention of severe hypoglycaemia: A qualitative study of adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Speight

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Severe hypoglycaemia affects approximately one in three people with type 1 diabetes and is the most serious side effect of insulin therapy. Our aim was to explore individualistic drivers of severe hypoglycaemia events. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 17 adults with type 1 diabetes and a history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia, to elicit experiences of hypoglycaemia (symptoms/awareness, progression from mild to severe and strategies for prevention/treatment. Interviews were analysed using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results: Three main themes emerged: hypoglycaemia-induced cognitive impairment, behavioural factors and psychological factors. Despite experiencing early hypoglycaemic symptoms, individuals often delayed intervention due to impaired/distracted attention, inaccurate risk assessment, embarrassment, worry about rebound hyperglycaemia or unavailability of preferred glucose source. Delay coupled with use of a slow-acting glucose source compromised prevention of severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusion: Our qualitative data highlight the multifaceted, idiosyncratic nature of severe hypoglycaemia and confirm that individuals with a history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia may have specific thought and behaviour risk profiles. Individualised prevention plans are required, emphasising both the need to attend actively to mild hypoglycaemic symptoms and to intervene promptly with an appropriate, patient-preferred glucose source to prevent progression to severe hypoglycaemia.

  7. Can differences in the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among psychologically distressed people who inject drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; McIlwraith, Fairlie; Dietze, Paul; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Burns, Lucy; Cogger, Shelley; Alati, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates whether the type, nature or amount of polysubstance use can explain the increased risk of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs with severe psychological distress. Data came from three years (2011-2013) of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS), an annual sentinel sample of injecting drug users across Australia (n=2673). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used on 14 drug types to construct five latent factors, each representing a type of polysubstance use. Tests of measurement invariance were carried out to determine if polysubstance use profiles differed between those with and without severe psychological distress. Next, we regressed non-fatal overdose on the polysubstance use factors with differences in the relationships tested between groups. Among those with severe psychological distress a polysubstance use profile characterised by heroin, oxycodone, crystal methamphetamine and cocaine use was associated with greater risk of non-fatal overdose. Among those without severe psychological distress, two polysubstance use profiles, largely characterised by opioid substitution therapies and prescription drugs, were protective against non-fatal overdose. The types of polysubstance use profiles did not differ between people who inject drugs with and without severe psychological distress. However, the nature of use of one particular polysubstance profile placed the former group at a strongly increased risk of non-fatal overdose, while the nature of polysubstance use involving opioid substitution therapies was protective only among the latter group. The findings identify polysubstance use profiles of importance to drug-related harms among individuals with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Description of Psychological Type at the Defense Systems Management College. 1993 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    temperament includes INFJ, ENFJ, INFP , and ENFP. The NF’s quest is for becoming. "The NF’s truest self is the self in search of itself or, in other words...Distribution of Myers-Briggs Types (N = 3775) ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ 1147 89 67 407 30.4% 2.4% 1.8% 10.8% ISTP ISFP INFP INTP 176 29 56 250 4.7% .8% 1.5...ISFP INFP INTP 54 3 8 70 5.0% .3% .7% 6.5% ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP 38 5 15 48 3.5% .5% 1.4% 4.7% ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 217 22 13 88 20.1% 2.0% 1.2% 8.1% 11

  9. Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Behaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

  10. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrisos, S.; Eccles, M.P.; Francis, J.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Dijkstra, R.F.; Johnston, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kaner, E.F.; Steen, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theori

  11. Psychological Types of Female Primary School Teachers in Anglican State-Maintained Schools in England and Wales: Implications for Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Lankshear, David W.; Robbins, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 female primary school teachers in Anglican state-maintained schools in England and Wales completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). The data demonstrated clear preferences for Extraversion (E) over Introversion (I), for Sensing (S) over Intuition (N), for Feeling (F) over Thinking (T) and for Judging (J) over…

  12. Effect of personal characteristics, victimization types, and family- and school-related factors on psychological distress in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents with intellectual disabilities and the influence of victimization experience on their mental health in Taiwan. Data on 706 adolescents from the 2011 Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to variables comprising 7 items of psychological distress, 4 types of bullying victimization, and family-, school-, and peer-related factors. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents had experienced at least one type of victimization, and 44% of them had experienced at least two types of victimization. Exclusion (50%) and verbal bullying (70%) were the most commonly reported types. In addition, exclusion and verbal bullying were found to be significantly associated with psychological distress in these adolescents. Our findings suggest that victimization is a common experience among adolescents with disabilities, and a notable risk factor for the psychological well-being of adolescents with intellectual disabilities. However, a good relationship with parents and peers can relieve psychological distress and its effect on mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrisos, S.; Eccles, M.P.; Francis, J.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Dijkstra, R.F.; Johnston, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kaner, E.F.; Steen, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological

  14. Psychological and physiological response of students to different types of stress management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Silvia L; Azzara, Sergio; Argibay, Juan Carlos; Arnaiz, María Lores; de Valle Carpineta, María; Granchetti, Hugo; Lagomarsino, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To design, implement, and examine the psychoneuroendocrine responses of three different types of stress management programs. Randomly assigned. A pre/post experimental design comparing variables between three different programs and a control group. The first program included training in deep breathing, relaxation response, meditation, and guided imagery techniques (RRGI). The second program included training in cognitive behavioral techniques (CB). The third program included both RRGI and CB (RRGICB). The study was conducted at Buenos Aires University. Participants (N  = 52) were undergraduate students. Anxiety, anger, hopelessness, neuroticism, respiration rate, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to investigate differences in pre and post variables. Subjects in the RRGI group showed significantly lower levels of anxiety (p < .011), anger (p < .012), neuroticism (p < .01), respiratory rate (p < .002), hopelessness (p < .01), and salivary cortisol (p < .002) after the treatment. Subjects in the CB group showed significantly lower levels of anxiety (p < .018), anger (p < .037), and neuroticism (p < .03) after the treatment. Subjects in the RRGICB group showed significantly lower levels of anxiety (p < .001), anger (p < .001), neuroticism (p < .008), hopelessness (p < .01), respiratory rate (p < .001), and salivary cortisol (p < .002) after the treatment. Subjects in the control group showed only one variable modification, a significant increase in cortisol levels (p < .004). The combination of deep breathing, relaxation response, meditation, and guided imagery techniques with CB seems to be effective at helping people to deal with stress.

  15. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF CIVIC IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Grabovska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The civic identity of an individual is seen as a dynamic system of citizen's perceptions of himself / herself and related emotions and value-semantic elements derived from the awareness of the fact that he / she is a citizen of a state and at the same time a member of the community of citizens. The results of the study support the notion that awareness of being a citizen of the state does not already mean having civic identity. Only 34% of interviewed students have a well-formed positive civic identity; 37% are showing some uncertainty, vagueness, ambiguity in their perception of themselves as citizens; 15% reject their Ukrainian civic identity, have a well-formed negative civic identity, and, more than other types, exhibit passive-indifferent civil position; 14% make a group of "potential emigrants" who are ready to change the Ukrainian civic identity for another. The differences in worldview and value-motivational sphere of students with the formed positive ("reached", undefined ("indistinct" / "diffuse", formed negative ("negative-passive" and "protest" ("potential immigrants" civic identity have been discovered.

  16. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  17. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  18. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  19. Self-perception of psychological functioning and coping ability of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas-van Schaaijk, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to learn how pediatric psychological care for (Dutch) adolescents and their parents may be optimized. Psychological functioning in adolescents (specifically depression and behavior problems) and their parents (general and diabetes specific parenting stress) is studied while

  20. Self-perception of psychological functioning and coping ability of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas-van Schaaijk, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to learn how pediatric psychological care for (Dutch) adolescents and their parents may be optimized. Psychological functioning in adolescents (specifically depression and behavior problems) and their parents (general and diabetes specific parenting stress) is studied while

  1. The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in relationships between types of passion for sport and athlete burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Thomas; Appleton, Paul R; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout.

  2. Psychological, clinical and social characteristics of patients implementing different types of aggression in the hospital (gender aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the comparative analysis of clinical, social and psycho-pathological predictors of violations of the regime requirements, physical and verbal aggression among mentally ill women and men during the compulsory treatment are presented. It is revealed that the type of aggression in women sample significantly more frequently associated with clinical and social and pathopsychological characteristics: emotional unstable stew, learned in childhood and adolescence behavioral model of aggression and the severity of hostility and suspicion; the inertia of mental processes combined with low level of the cognitive functioning and a violation of insight in a broad sense. Among men – with the emotional and personal deformation, which were revealed before the beginning of illness, the decline in cognitive functioning and undeveloped links in the regulation of behavior, high level of aggressiveness in communication, internal conflict combined with the rigidity of self-concept. The authors concluded that assessment of risk factors from hospital-acquired aggression is an independent psycho-diagnostic work that needs to be provided with special tools, aimed whilst on the study of individual psychological characteristics of the regulation of behavior, strategies coping, communication installations and the treats of the aggression, as well as subjective ratings of social functioning in the hospital.

  3. Factors That Can Undermine the Psychological Benefits of Coastal Environments: Exploring the Effect of Tidal State, Presence, and Type of Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, Kayleigh J; Pahl, Sabine; Thomas, Katrina; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-01

    The beneficial effects of blue environments have been well documented; however, we do not know how marine litter might modify these effects. Three studies adopted a picture-rating task to examine the influence of litter on preference, perceived restorative quality, and psychological impacts. Photographs varied the presence of marine litter (Study 1) and the type of litter (Studies 2 and 3). The influence of tide and the role of connectedness were also explored. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, it was shown that litter can undermine the psychological benefits that the coast ordinarily provides, thus demonstrating that, in addition to environmental costs of marine litter, there are also costs to people. Litter stemming from the public had the most negative impact. This research extends our understanding of the psychological benefits from natural coastal environments and the threats to these benefits from abundant and increasing marine litter.

  4. Distinct work-related, clinical and psychological factors predict return to work following treatment in four different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alethea F; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Many factors influence return to work (RTW) following cancer treatment. However specific factors affecting RTW across different cancer types are unclear. This study examined the role of clinical, sociodemographic, work and psychological factors in RTW following treatment for breast, gynaecological, head and neck, and urological cancer. A 12-month prospective questionnaire study was conducted with 290 patients. Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for time to RTW. Between 89-94% of cancer survivors returned to work. Breast cancer survivors took the longest to return (median 30 weeks), and urology cancer survivors returned the soonest (median 5 weeks). Earlier return among breast cancer survivors was predicted by a greater sense of control over their cancer at work (HR 1.2; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37) and by full-time work (HR 2.1; CI: 1.24-3.4). Predictive of a longer return among gynaecological cancer survivors was a belief that cancer treatment may impair ability to work (HR 0.75; CI: 0.62-0.91). Among urological cancer survivors constipation was predictive of longer RTW (HR 0.99; CI: 0.97-1.00), whereas undertaking flexible working was predictive of returning sooner (HR 1.70; CI: 1.07-2.7). Head and neck cancer survivors who perceived greater negative consequences of their cancer took longer to return (HR 0.27; CI: 0.11-0.68). Those reporting better physical functioning returned sooner (HR1.04; CI: 1.01-1.08). A different profile of predictive factors emerged for the four cancer types. In addition to optimal symptom management and workplace adaptations, the findings suggest that eliciting and challenging specific cancer and treatment-related perceptions may facilitate RTW. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  6. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Young Moon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2014-11-30

    We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Self-perception of psychological functioning and coping ability of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Maas-van Schaaijk, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to learn how pediatric psychological care for (Dutch) adolescents and their parents may be optimized. Psychological functioning in adolescents (specifically depression and behavior problems) and their parents (general and diabetes specific parenting stress) is studied while taking into account biological (gender, age, HbA1c) characteristics. How the adolescents internalize their experiences is studied by explicitly asking them to provide their representations about t...

  9. Michael Fordham and the Journal of Analytical Psychology: the view from Hangman's Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    This short paper was presented to a conference in honour of the 60(th) year of the JAP and was one of others that acknowledged the contribution of Michael Fordham. The subtitle refers to the paper's overview of Fordham's published oeuvre and the particular place of the Journal of Analytical Psychology, for which he was the founding editor. Fordham's contribution to a Jungian-based model of development is discussed, with reference to his papers in the British Journal of Medical Psychology. The paper notes miscellaneous pieces from Fordham's commentaries, obituaries, papers and reviews which capture not only the development of Fordham as a thinker but also his character. There is discussion of his reviews of Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude and manuscripts by Erich Neumann. A reminiscence of Fordham as supervisor is recounted.

  10. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  11. 荣格分析心理学中的"人"及其发展%People and Their Development in Jungian Analytical Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范红霞; 高岚; 申荷永

    2006-01-01

    在荣格的分析心理学中,人除了意识自我这个主人格之外,还有不同的次级人格与主人格并存着,它们各自有一定的自主性.荣格用自性化来说明心灵的发展.他对心灵发展的定义是,成为一个颇具特色的个人,一个不可分割的整合的人.人生命的前半段,主要是形成人格和发展自我的阶段;在生命的后半段,主要的任务是自性化.而 自性化的人才是一个真正"和谐的人".

  12. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  13. A collective unconscious reconsidered: Jung's archetypal imagination in the light of contemporary psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harry T

    2012-02-01

    A needed rapprochement between Jung and the contemporary human sciences may rest less on the much debated relevance of a biologistic collective unconscious than on a re-inscribing of an archetypal imagination, as the phenomenological and empirical core of Jungian psychology. The most promising approaches in this regard in terms of theory and research in psychology come from combining the cognitive psychology of metaphor and synaesthesia, individual differences in imaginative absorption and openness to numinous experience and spirituality as a form of symbolic intelligence. On the socio-cultural side, this cognitive psychology of archetypal imagination is also congruent with Lévi-Strauss on the metaphoric roots of mythological thinking, and Durkheim on a sociology of collective consciousness. This conjoined perspective, while validating the cross cultural commonality of physical metaphor intuited by Jung and Hillman on alchemy, also shows Jung's Red Book, considered as the expressive source for his more formal psychology, to be far closer in spirit to a socio-cultural collective consciousness, based on metaphoric imagination, than to a phylogenetic or evolutionary unconscious. A mutual re-inscribing of Jung into congruent areas of contemporary psychology, anthropology, sociology, and vice versa, can help to further validate Jung's key observations and is fully consistent with Jung's own early efforts at synthesis within the human sciences. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  15. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  16. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  17. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  18. Psychological testing of the psychiatrically injured worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, E S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the occupational health worker with an overview of psychological testing, including the rationale for utilizing psychological testing, the psychometric foundations of psychological tests, the types of psychological tests, and the issues related to the psychological assessment of work-related psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Disability rates for cardiovascular and psychological disorders among autoworkers by job category, facility type, and facility overtime hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergis, Paul A; Janevic, Teresa; Rothenberg, Laura; Adamu, Mohammed T; Johnson, Sylvia; Mirer, Franklin E

    2013-07-01

    We examined the association between long work hours, assembly line work and stress-related diseases utilizing objective health and employment data from an employer's administrative databases. A North American automobile manufacturing company provided data for claims for sickness, accident and disability insurance (work absence of at least 4 days) for cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension and psychological disorders, employee demographics, and facility hours worked per year for 1996-2001. Age-adjusted claim rates and age-adjusted rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression, except for comparisons between production and skilled trades workers owing to lack of age denominator data by job category. Associations between overtime hours and claim rates by facility were examined by Poisson regression and multi-level Poisson regression. Claims for hypertension, coronary heart disease, CVD, and psychological disorders were associated with facility overtime hours. We estimate that a facility with 10 more overtime hours per week than another facility would have 4.36 more claims for psychological disorders, 2.33 more claims for CVD, and 3.29 more claims for hypertension per 1,000 employees per year. Assembly plants had the highest rates of claims for most conditions. Production workers tended to have higher rates of claims than skilled trades workers. Data from an auto manufacturer's administrative databases suggest that autoworkers working long hours, and assembly-line workers relative to skilled trades workers or workers in non-assembly facilities, have a higher risk of hypertension, CVD, and psychological disorders. Occupational disease surveillance and disease prevention programs need to fully utilize such administrative data. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chinese Migrant Adolescents' Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools. Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination's negative effects on collective well-being.

  1. Chinese Migrant Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem) in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools). Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB) was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination’s negative effects on collective well-being. PMID:26731529

  2. An empowerment-based educational program improves psychological well-being and health-related quality of life in Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, G; Zannoni, C; Tarrini, G; Melchionda, N; Marchesini, G

    2006-05-01

    Educational programs are reported to improve metabolic control and well-being in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the effects of newly- structured interventions, aimed at promoting empowerment in educated patients in active selfcare, have received little attention. Ninety patients with Type 1 DM in intensive insulin treatment were invited to an empowerment-based educational intervention. Changes in quality of life and psychological well-being in the 54 patients participating in the program (median age, 44 yr) were compared with those measured in patients who refused. The following questionnaires were administered at baseline and 12 months later: Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), Medical Outcome Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and Well-Being Enquiry for Diabetics (WED). Baseline values were indicative of moderate, but significant, psychological distress in the whole cohort. At follow-up, the experimental group had a better metabolic control {glycosylated hemoglobin, -0.4% [time x treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA), p = 0.005 vs controls]}, and a general improvement in comprehensive indices and most scales of PGWB and SF-36. Vitality (p = 0.042) and Social Functioning (p = 0.039) were no longer different from population norm. Similarly, the Symptoms (p = 0.005), Discomfort (p = 0.043) and Impact scales (p = 0.032) of WED, reflecting physical functioning, diabetes-related worries and familial relationships, role functioning and social network, improved significantly in treated patients. An educational empowerment-based intervention significantly improves the psychosocial aspects of diabetes and quality of life also in patients in active and effective self-care. Repeated educational interventions are the way towards a normal life with Type 1 DM.

  3. The learning type makes the difference - the interrelation of Kolb's learning styles and psychological status of preclinical medical students at the University of Erlangen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pascal H; Scholz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1(st) to 4(th) semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students.

  4. The learning type makes the difference – the interrelation of Kolb's learning styles and psychological status of preclinical medical students at the University of Erlangen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pascal H.; Scholz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1st to 4th semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students. PMID:25489342

  5. Cognitive performance, psychological well-being, and brain magnetic resonance imaging in older patients with type 1 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, A.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Hoogma, R.P.L.M.; Henselmans, J.M.L.; Beek-Boter, J.W. van der; Kappelle, L.J.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Biessels, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Modest cognitive impairment has been reported in young-adult patients with type 1 diabetes. In older patients with type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairments are more pronounced, which might be due to age but also to differential effects of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes on the brain. This study th

  6. The Martin Buber-Carl Jung disputations: protecting the sacred in the battle for the boundaries of analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, B D

    2001-07-01

    The Martin Buber-C.G. Jung disputations rather than the Freud-Jung split or Samuels's post-Jungian categories is considered the more significant paradigm for understanding the conflicts erupting within the Jungian community surrounding clinical practice and candidate training. Looking through the lens of the Freud-Jung split keeps the conflicts focused on the theoretical and technical differences concerning such concepts as object-relations, transference-countertransference, neutrality, clinical boundaries. The Buber-Jung disputations move the discussion into a different and more foundational arena, namely the vertical and horizontal psychological considerations of the experience of the Sacred and how that dimension is supported or thwarted in clinical practice and candidate training by the respective allegiances of the 'warriors' in the 'Holy Wars'. Experiencing the texture of the Buber-Jung disputations as well as grappling with their content suggests that a more dialogical approach to actual clinical material may be a more fruitful way to understand the work of analysis and the business of candidate training.

  7. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  8. Nervous function and manifestations of mental psychology in patients with post-stroke depression of different syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Dong; Bo Yang; Jingling Song; Lihua Yu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poly-criteria pathogenesis of patients with stroke causes diversity of syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); meanwhile, complexity and diversity of pathological mechanism also play a key role in determining severity so as to induce effects on nervous function and manifestation of mental psychology in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD).OBJECTIVE: To analyze the syndrome types of TCM with nervous function and manifestations of mental psychology in PSD patients so as to provide evidence for the treatment based on the syndrome differentiation.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neurology and Traditional Chinese Medicine, General Hospital of Fuxin Mining Industry Group.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 469 outpatients or inpatients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Fuxin Mining Industry Group from April 2002 to July 2005. All subjects met the diagnostic criteria of stroke established by the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting in 1995 and were finally diagnosed with CT and MRI. Totally, 177 PSD patients were involved in the final analysis and provided the confirmed consent. There were 121 males and 56 females aged from 46 to 79 years.physicians within 1 week before discharge based on Diagnostics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which was classified into 5 types, including sputum-stasis stagnation syndrome, qi stagnation and blood stasis,kidney-essence deficiency, deficiency of the spleen and stomach and phlegm-fire disturbing the heart. In addition, they were also assessed by neurologic deficit scale (NDS; 45 points in total; the higher the scores were, the severer the deficit was), Fugl-Meyer assessment, (FMA; 100 points in total, including 66 points of upper limbs and 34 points of lower limbs; the higher the scores were, the stronger the motor function was),modified Barthel index [BI; 100 points in total; the higher the scores were, the better the activity of

  9. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  10. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... simultaneous item bias test and logistic discriminant function analysis for detecting ... Types of examination malpractice as perceived by teachers of secondary schools in ...

  11. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  12. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  13. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  14. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    levels and Type D personality. In multivariable linear regression analyses, Type D personality accounted for 25-29% of the variance in anxiety and 23-46% of the variance in depression, while remembered parenting was no longer significantly associated with these domains. Sobel tests and bootstrapping......Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...

  15. 心理学中两种话语分析方法研究%Research on Two Types of Discourse Analysis Approaches ;in Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉娟

    2015-01-01

    心理学中两种话语分析方法主要是指:批判性话语分析和非批判性话语分析。批判性话语分析更多关注自我、身份认同、权力关系以及社会变化等主题。非批判性话语分析则主要研究人们运用话语建构心理现实的方式,话语对于说话人的影响等。本文针对批判性话语分析和非批判性话语分析两种研究方法进行了比较。%The two types of discourse analysis approaches in psy-chology are mainly critical discourse analysis and non-critical discourse analysis. Critical discourse analysis concerns more with such themes as self, identity, power relationship and social changes. Non-critical discourse analysis mainly studies people's styles of using discourses to construct psychological reality and the influences of discourses on people. This paper makes a com-parison between critical discourse analysis and non-critical dis-course analysis.

  16. Ferramentas para uma psicologia social Herramientas para una psicología social Tools for a type of social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Diehl

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se propõe apresentar e discutir ferramentas de intervenção para o trabalho do psicólogo social engendradas em um espaço de intervenção e supervisão em estágio acadêmico de Psicologia Social. Para isso, busca problematizar a política e a ética das ações dessa psicologia, considerando sua constituição dentro de um contexto histórico e político, além de relacioná-las com as ferramentas elaboradas na prática e no espaço de supervisão. O escrever, o olhar e o percorrer são as ferramentas discutidas neste artigo, as quais se apresentam como constitutivas de uma posição autoral perante os desafios encontrados na experiência do estágio, através da assunção das condições políticas e éticas que possibilitam tal lugar.Este texto propone presentar y discutir herramientas de intervención para el trabajo del psicólogo social engendradas en un espacio de intervención y supervisión en práctica académica de Psicología Social. Para eso, busca problematizar la política y la ética de las acciones de esa psicología, considerando su constitución dentro de un contexto histórico y político, además de relacionarlas a las herramientas elaboradas en la práctica y en el espacio de supervisión. El escribir, el mirar y el recorrer son las herramientas discutidas en este artículo, las cuales se presentan como constitutivas de una posición relativa al autor ante los desafíos encontrados en la práctica, a través de la premisa que las condiciones políticas y éticas hacen eso posible.This paper presents and discusses intervention tools for working as a social psychologist, which are engendered in a space of intervention and supervision, in Social Psychology training or internships. Bearing that in mind, it raises questions on the policies and ethics of the actions concerning such psychology, considering its constitution within a historical and political context, besides relating them with the tools elaborated in

  17. Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetes – Education for Self-efficacy (BITES: Protocol for a randomised control trial to assess biophysical and psychological effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dromgoole Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self management is the cornerstone of effective preventive care in diabetes. Educational interventions that provide self-management skills for people with diabetes have been shown to reduce blood glucose concentrations. This in turn has the potential to reduce rates of complications. However, evidence to support type, quantity, setting and mode of delivery of self-management education is sparse. Objectives: To study the biophysical and psychological effectiveness of a brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes in adults. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting: Multidisciplinary specialist diabetes centre. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that the brief (2.5-day intervention would be biophysically and psychologically effective for people with type 1 diabetes. Intervention: A brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes developed by a multi-professional team comprising of a consultant diabetologist, a diabetes specialist nurse, a specialist diabetes dietician and a clinical health psychologist and delivered in 20 hours over 2.5 days. Primary outcomes: HbA1c and severe hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes: Blood pressure, weight, height, lipid profile and composite psychometric scales. Participants: We shall consent and recruit 120 subjects with postal invitations sent to eligible participants. Volunteers are to be seen at randomisation clinics where independent researcher verify eligibility and obtain consent. We shall randomise 60 to BITES and 60 to standard care. Eligibility Criteria: Type 1 diabetes for longer than 12 months, multiple injection therapy for at least two months, minimum age of 18 and ability to read and write. Randomisation: An independent evaluator to block randomise (block-size = 6, to intervention or control groups using sealed envelopes in strict ascendant order. Control group will receive standard care. Assessment: Participants in both groups would

  18. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among other things, to be able to listen and to welcome spontaneously anyone in the school community seeking for support in case of emergency. In so doing, the author reflects on the condition of psychological emergency service as service and as a type of treatment at school, and school psychology as an area of expertise inserted in this complex environment different of views and perspectives.

  19. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  20. Psychological Type and Analysis of Preferred Negotiation Strategies and Tactics of United States Air Force Contract Negotiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    progressively to the discovery of new facts and empirical relationships (18:203-205). Darwin is an example of the normal extraverted thinking type (18:240). 123...Publishing Co., 1981. 12. French, J. R. P. and Bertram H. Raven. "The Bases of Social Power," Studies in Social Power, edited by D. Cartwright . Ann

  1. The Educational Implications of Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Research and Recommendations for School Psychological Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miranda; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to…

  2. The Educational Implications of Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Research and Recommendations for School Psychological Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Miranda; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to…

  3. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  4. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  5. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  6. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  7. Education and psychological issues Diabetes nutrition therapy and dietary intake among individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, L. M.; Liu, W.; Ji, L.; Mendez, M.; Du, S.; Crandell, J.; Rosamond, W.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe the contribution of diabetes nutrition therapy to disease self-management among individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in China and to estimate the association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake. Methods The 3C Study was an epidemiological study of the coverage, cost and care of Type 1 diabetes in China. The data reported in the present study are from the 3C Nutrition Ancillary Study, a follow-up study conducted 1.6±0.2 years later. Diabetes nutrition therapy was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-h recalls. The association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake was estimated using ANCOVA. Results Participants (n=100; 54% male) had a mean ± SD age of 41.7±16.3 years old and a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 11.8±9.7 years. Fewer than half of the participants reported that they had ‘ever’ met with a dietician. While 64% of participants were taught carbohydrate counting, only 12% ‘ever’ use this tool. Participants on insulin pumps and those testing ≥1 time/day reported greater dietary flexibility and higher fruit intakes compared with participants on other insulin regimens and testing less frequently. After adjustment for confounding by age and occupation, there were no consistent differences in dietary intake across subgroups of diabetes nutrition therapy. Conclusions In this sample of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China there is little dietician involvement or carbohydrate counting. Increased frequency of nutrition education in conjunction with intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose is needed to improve care. PMID:25407093

  8. Factors associated with psychological distress, behavioral impact and health-related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle Ang; Tan, Luor Shyuan Maudrene; Tai, E Shyong; Griva, Konstadina; Amir, Mohamed; Chong, Kok Joon; Lee, Yung Seng; Lee, Jeannette; Khoo, Eric Yin-Hao; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Data on psychological distress (DIS), behavioral impact (BI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important yet lacking among Asian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aim to identify factors associated with DIS, BI and HRQoL among T2DM to better understand patient needs. DIS was measured with Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) Psychological Distress (DHP-PD) subscale, Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) and Kessler-10 (K10), BI with DHP-18 Barriers to Activity and Disinhibited Eating subscales and HRQoL with Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between these outcomes and patient demographic, socioeconomic status, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and comorbidities. 213 T2DM patients (mean (SD) age: 45.0 (12.1) years, mean (SD) HbA1C: 8.3% (1.9%) and 70.0% reported at least one comorbidity) were evaluated. Poorer glycemic control was significantly associated with higher DHP-PD, PAID and worse HRQoL. Taking oral hypoglycemic agents plus insulin was independently associated with Barrier to Activity and Disinhibited Eating. Poorer glycemic control was only associated with diabetes-related distress (measured by DHP-PD and PAID) but not major depressive disorder (measured by K10). It may be more appropriate to screen for diabetes-related distress rather than major depressive disorder for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological risk factors of micro- and macrovascular outcomes in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes: rationale and design of the DiaDDZoB Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Victor JM

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common psychiatric complication of diabetes, but little is known about the natural course and the consequences of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. While depression has been related to poor glycemic control and increased risk for macrovascular disease, its association with microvascular complications remains understudied. The predictive role of other psychological risk factors such as Type D (distressed personality and the mechanisms that possibly link depression and Type D personality with poor vascular outcomes are also still unclear. Methods/Design This prospective cohort study will examine: (1 the course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes; (2 whether depressive symptoms and Type D personality are associated with the development of microvascular and/or macrovascular complications and with the risk of all-cause or vascular mortality; and (3 the behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may mediate these associations. The DiaDDZoB Study is embedded within the larger DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study, which covers a comprehensive cohort of type 2 diabetes patients treated by over 200 primary care physicians in South-East Brabant, The Netherlands. These patients will be followed during their lifetime and are assessed annually for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Measurements include an interviewer-administered and self-report questionnaire, regular care laboratory tests and physical examinations, and pharmacy medication records. The DiaDDZoB Study uses data that have been collected during the original baseline assessment in 2005 (M0; N = 2,460 and the 2007 (M1; N = 2,225 and 2008 (M2; N = 2,032 follow-up assessments. Discussion The DiaDDZoB Study is expected to contribute to the current understanding of the course of depression in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and will also test whether depressed

  10. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  11. Chronic disease in child’s life. social and psychological aspects in the context of type i diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Sochocka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Disease is one of the most undesirable phenomena in life and child’s development. Chronic disease makes very difficult to meet the needs of a child. Chronic failure affects not only the child himself but the child and the whole family. This is often difficult and sometimes even impossible to explain and accept. Lengthiness of type I diabetes often causes the child to stay in hospital where he comes across pain (insulin injections, diagnostic puncture, hospital rigor, impediment in learning.For school-age child is not enough „to be sick”, especially if the disease is associated with sensations such as pain and malaise. In situations like that it is necessary and important to inform the child about the disease. Supply him with basic information of the need for testing, the rules of diet and adverse symptoms such as acidosis, hypoglycemia. Lack of knowledge about the disease exacerbated by stress cause forced isolation of the child. Type I diabetes may be perceived by young people as a disease which limits social contacts. Furthermore may affect sense of otherness in relation to their contemporaries. Peer support is very important. It helps not only in adjusting to the environment but also in overcoming daily duties associated with chronic disease – testing of glucose level, insulin, diet and exercise plan. Treatment of diabetes may not focus solely on achievement of metabolic balance. It also aims at creation of good relationship within therapeutic team (patient, parent, doctor, nurse, laboratory technician, physical therapist, health trainer, psychologist as well as between friends, colleagues and school mates.

  12. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  13. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  14. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  15. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  16. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  17. Barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna; Yang, Hui; Thomas, Shane A; Searle, Kendall; Browning, Colette

    2016-03-29

    China has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases globally and individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders and functional problems. Despite guidelines recommending that psychological care be delivered in conjunction with standard T2DM care; psychological care is not routinely delivered in China. Community Health Centre (CHC) doctors play a key role in the management of patients with T2DM in China. Understanding the behavioural determinants of CHC doctors in the implementation of psychological care recommendations allows for the design of targeted and culturally appropriate interventions. As such, this study aimed to examine barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care to patients with T2DM from the perspective of CHC doctors in China. Two focus groups were conducted with 23 CHC doctors from Shenzhen, China. The discussion guide applied the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) that examines current practice and identifies key barriers and enablers perceived to influence practice. Focus groups were conducted with an interpreter, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Two researchers independently coded transcripts into pre-defined themes using deductive thematic analysis. Barriers and enablers perceived by doctors as being relevant to the delivery of psychological care for patients with T2DM were primarily categorised within eight TDF domains. Key barriers included: CHC doctors' knowledge and skills; time constraints; and absence of financial incentives. Other barriers included: societal perception that treating psychological aspects of health is less important than physical health; lack of opinion leaders; doctors' intentional disregard of psychological care; and doubts regarding the efficacy of psychological care. In contrast, perceived enablers included: training of CHC doctors in psychological skills; identification of afternoon/evening clinic times when recommendations could be

  18. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  19. The Analysis and Prospects of Psychology As an Independent Discipline Class and Academic Degree Type%建立心理学学科门类及学位类别的分析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永积

    2011-01-01

    , the systematic nature in a new disciplinary system after psychology becomes an independent discipline classification, the social need for psychology to become a independent discipline classification. Especially in view of the deficiencies the author pointed out that Chinese psychology belongs to natural science and pedagogy in professional programs, and this subordinate relationship will restrict its development and discipline maturity. The author arrived at the important conclusion that it is necessary and feasible to make psychology an independent discipline classification and academic degree type. Finally the author put forward four suggestions and prospects to promote Chinese indigenous psychology development, to improve the current psychology discipline and profession program, increase the professional quantity and expand the ways of psychology talents training, expand the subject range of psychology and deepen the edge discipline research of psychology. Eastablishing a system model of subject category relationship based on a platform, including 13 discipline classes at present and psychology discipline classification or degree type. According to the logical relationship of disciplines in this model picture, how to deal with and use the systematicness for psychology as an independent discipline in the whole discipline system is a new issue for the research of systematic indigenous psychology and theoretical psychology. If psychologists study it from the view of social constructivism, the psychological perspective on the subject knowledge is the result of the construction in the particular cultural history of the environment, because it is different from the knowledge system which has been constructed in different branches of science background. When the social construction of the psychology subject takes up in a more open and large discipline background, the knowledge formation of the indigenous psychology system will be more open, multiple and rich.%为了促

  20. 1型糖尿病病人心理特点及护理研究进展%Psychological characteristics of type 1 diabetes patients and nursing research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菊英; 王欣

    2014-01-01

    对1型糖尿病病人的发病原因、心理特点及护理对策进行综述,建议对病人开展针对性的心理干预,对促进病人的康复和提高病人生存质量具有重要意义。%It reviewed the etiology,psychological characteristics and nursing countermeasures of type 1 diabetes patients.It suggested that it was important to carry out targeted psychological characteristics for promoting patients’rehabilitation and improving their quality of life.

  1. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  2. Self-Care Adherence and Psychological Functioning of Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of Persuasion, Social Pressure, and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Pang, Joyce S; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of family members' use of persuasion versus pressure as distinct forms of social control by which family members attempt to encourage better diabetes management among older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study also examined how self-efficacy might moderate the relationship between persuasion/pressure, psychological functioning, and self-care adherence. Participants were 96 men and 103 women with T2DM, with a mean age of 63.3 years. Regression results show that neither persuasion nor pressure was significantly related to self-care adherence, but persuasion and pressure were associated in complex ways with diabetes-related emotional distress and depressive symptoms for which significant interaction effects were found. Patients with lower self-efficacy benefited from persuasion, but were adversely affected by pressure. In contrast, patients with higher self-efficacy were adversely affected by persuasion, but were less negatively affected by pressure. Findings highlight the importance of reducing pressure-based social control, considering patients' self-efficacy when family members seek to influence patients' self-care behaviors, and targeting patient-family interactions in future interventions.

  3. Mathematical modeling in psychological researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zyolko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the nature of mathematical modeling and its significance in psychological researches. The author distinguishes the types of mathematical models: deterministic, stochastic models and synergetic models. The system approach is proposed as an instrument of implementation of mathematical modelling in psychological research.

  4. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. Methods A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB investigated health professionals' (HPs' cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet. General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. Results In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p 2 = .40, p Conclusion Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two clinical behaviours, providing a rationale for the development of targeted interventions. However, we did not observe a relationship

  5. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and

  6. A dimensão ética da psicologia analítica: individuação como "realização moral" The ethical dimension of analytical psychology: individuation as "moral achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heleno Barreto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo expõe a centralidade da dimensão ética inerente à Psicologia Analítica de Carl Gustav Jung através de uma minuciosa referência a passagens fundamentais do texto junguiano, frequentemente não percebidas na importância que têm para uma correta compreensão da natureza da praxis psicoterapêutica formulada por Jung. O autor sustenta ainda que a (inatualidade da clínica junguiana no cenário contemporâneo deve ser pensada à luz da (incompatibilidade entre esta dimensão ética específica e as tendências que organizam hoje o modo humano de ser-no-mundo.The article exposes the centrality of the ethical dimension in Carl Gustav Jung's Analytical Psychology, through a careful reference to fundamental moments in the Jungian text, which are often ignored as to the importance they have to a correct understanding of the nature of the psychotherapeutic praxis proposed by Jung. The author also claims that the validity of Jungian clinics nowadays must be thought in the light of the (incompatibility between this specific ethical dimension and the major trends which mold today the human way of being-in-the-world.

  7. Psychological impacts from expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning are affected by glycemic control, self-reported symptoms, and drug therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hara, Yoriko; Ishihara, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    It is important to reduce psychological stresses for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the factors affecting psychological impact, which was involved in the disease conditions in 378 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients' self-assessed symptoms and four subscales of psychological impacts on diabetes - impact from diabetes (S1), anxiety from having a chronic disease (S2), expectation of worsening conditions (S3) and obstacles to life planning (S4) - were analyzed. Significant odds ratios (ORs) were found for sex and age in S1, age and glycemic control in S2, glycemic control in S3, disease duration and glycemic control in S4, and number of symptoms in S1-S4. Scores of S1 and S2 in women were lower than those in men, and decreased age-dependently. Significant ORs for the number of symptoms in S3 and S4 were greater than in S1 and S2. ORs increased markedly for patients under oral hypoglycemic agent therapy in S4 and insulin therapy in S1-S4 when compared with ORs for lifestyle therapy alone. The psychological impact of type 2 diabetes involved a priori factors dependent on sex and aging in the subscales of current anxieties and impact, and a posteriori factors, such as disease duration, glycemic control and treatment methods, in the subscales of expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning.

  8. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  9. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  10. Jung in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the influence of analytical psychology within the field of education. The influence of analytical psychology on the mainstream of educational thought and practice has never been great. However, Jung himself gave a number of lectures on education and post-Jungians have...... further explored the relevance of analytical thought in education. The article first outlines Jung’s own thoughts about education and their reception in primarily North-America and England. The second half of the article discusses the post-Jungian contributions. Six different strands of post......-Jungian inspiration are identified: Mytho-historical education, holistic education, archetypal pedagogy, educating imagination, educating different personality types, and transformative education. Finally it is suggested, that while analytical psychology may never occupy a place in the mainstream of educational...

  11. Jung in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of the influence of analytical psychology within the field of education. The influence of analytical psychology on the mainstream of educational thought and practice has never been great. However, Jung himself gave a number of lectures on education and post-Jungians have......-Jungian inspiration are identified: Mytho-historical education, holistic education, archetypal pedagogy, educating imagination, educating different personality types, and transformative education. Finally it is suggested, that while analytical psychology may never occupy a place in the mainstream of educational...... further explored the relevance of analytical thought in education. The article first outlines Jung’s own thoughts about education and their reception in primarily North-America and England. The second half of the article discusses the post-Jungian contributions. Six different strands of post...

  12. 腐败心理的类型和结构--基于“贪官忏悔录”的研究%The Types and Structures of Corruption Psychology-a Research based on“Confessions of Corrupt Officials”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙太江; 韦焱良; 李艳

    2016-01-01

    This paper selects 365 copies of“Confessions of Corrupt Officials”from the Justice Network as a research sample. This paper combines the paradigm of quantitative research and qualitative analysis by taking a combination of theoretical and empirical research. The paper analyzes the corruption psychology of 365 corrupt offi-cials, and then theoretically elaborates the structures and the types of corruption psychology. Corruption psychology contains two kinds of first-level psychology which is consisted of several kinds of low-level psychology. Corruption psychology consists of dynamic structure,adjusting structure and characteristic structure.%本文选取正义网365份“贪官忏悔录”作为研究样本,采取理论与实证相结合、定量的数量统计与定性分析相结合的研究范式,对365名落马官员的腐败心理进行分析,在此基础上对腐败心理的结构和类型进行理论化阐述:腐败心理由主动型腐败心理和被动型腐败心理两个一级心理类别所构成,一级心理类别之下还分别包括若干次级心理类别。腐败心理由动力结构、调节结构和特征结构等三大结构所组成。

  13. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  14. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  15. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  16. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  17. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  18. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  19. Rediscovering the ritual technology of the placebo effect in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Technology, viewed more generally, is a collection of skills and methods that are used to accomplish an objective of some kind. Modernity has produced many kinds of ever-expanding new technologies, but it is also evident that technologies can be lost or fall out of use. A cross-cultural survey of ritual reveals a rather startling observation: that while developed nations often exceed other cultures in terms of material technology, they often pale by comparison in their use of ritual technology. In this essay we will see how ritual is a powerful sort of technology that developed nations have mostly allowed to drift out of regular, vigorous use, despite its numerous psychological and biological effects. This tendency has left one of the rituals we still have - psychotherapy itself - to be bereft of some of the typical tools for concretizing the symbolic in recurrent patterns around the world. Jung himself could be accused of being somewhat anti-ritual himself, enmeshed as he was in the post-Protestant, post-Enlightenment cultural environment that defines the West in many ways. But these under-utilized elements of ritual technology may be a natural fit for Jungian therapy due to its use of symbols. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Genetics and educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.

  1. The Mediating Influence of Organizational Characteristics in the Relationship between Organizational Type and Relational Power: An Extension of Psychological Empowerment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Lindsay A.; Speer, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Processes of psychological empowerment for members of community-based organizations may be strongly influenced by organizational factors. Using survey data from a random sample of urban residents (n = 974), the present study examines how individual perceptions of empowering features of organizations (group-based belief system, role opportunity,…

  2. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact of Pressure Source and Pressure Level on Psychological Health of Undergraduates with Type D Personality%压力源与压力强度对D型人格大学生心理健康的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立; 贾斐; 吉峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨压力源、压力强度与D型人格大学生心理健康之间的关系.方法 采用14条目版本D型人格量表(DS14)、Beck-Srivastava压力量表(BSSI)对800名大学生的人格特征、压力源、压力强度进行检测,同时结合症状自评量表(SCL-90)对其心理健康情况进行相关评定.结果 D型人格大学生的检出率为23.38%,女生数量明显多于男生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);D型人格大学生BSSI平均得分(81.34±11.24)分,明显高于非D型人格大学生BSSI平均得分(76.41±12.33)分,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);D型人格大学生SCL-90量表的9个因子得分均高于非D型人格大学生,但仅在人际关系和抑郁两个因子上得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 虽然在同样的学习、生活环境下D型人格大学生的压力强度大于非D型人格大学生,但造成的心理负担差异不大,通过积极心理干预和疏导措施,可以有效缓解其心理压力,减轻压力造成的各种心理问题.%To investigate the relation of psychological health of college students with type D personality with pressure source and pressure level. Methods The type D personality scale - 14 items ( DS14 ) and Beck - Srivastava stress scale ( BSSI ) were taken to test the personalistic features, pressure source and pressure level of 800 college students, and the symptom check list - 90 ( SCL - 90 ) was used to evaluate psychological health of them. Results The detection rate of type D personality among the college students was 23. 38% , and the rate in females was higher than that in males ( P<0. 01 ). The average BSSI score in the students of type D personality ( 81. 34 ± 11. 24 ) was higher than that in the students of non - type D personality (76. 41 ±12. 33 ) ( P <0. 01 ). The SCL -90 scores in 9 factors in the students of type D personality were higher than those in the students of non - type D personality, however only the differences in the scores of two

  4. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  5. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  6. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  7. A Case-control Study of the Relationship between Psychological Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%2型糖尿病与心理因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传峰; 白智勇; 刘家彬; 李立明; 陆美琪

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between psychological factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: A frequency matched case control study based on hospital involving 185 new diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus cases, 201 control hospitalized cases without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 197 healthy people was carried out in Xuzhou, using the consolidated questionnaire and the type A behavior questionnaire. Nonconditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression on SPSS 8.0 was used in data analysis. Result: Type A behavior (OR=2.68, 95% CI:1.59~4.49), easy to stir (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.19~3.27) were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjustment of occupation, degree of education, family history of diabetes mellitus, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), smoking, drinking, dietary factors, leisure time physical activity and hypertension. Conclusion: Psychological factors, such as type A behavior and easy to stir might be risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Healthy life style intervention and psychological training might provide an effective program for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.%目的:探讨心理因素与2型糖尿病患病的关系。方法:采用频数匹配病例对照研究设计,随机选择徐州市2型糖尿病新诊断病例185例、医院对照201例和人群对照197例,使用统一的调查表和“A型行为类型问卷”调查并进行单因素和多因素非条件logistic回归分析。结果:在控制有关因素的基础上,A型行为类型(OR=2.68,95%CI为1.59-4.49)、容易激动(OR=1.97,95%CI为1.19-3.27 )与2型糖尿病患病存在显著性关联。结论:A型行为类型和容易激动等心理因素可能是2型糖尿病的危险因素。倡导健康合理的生活方式,培养良好的心理状态,是2型糖尿病防治工作的一项措施。

  8. What types of social interactions reduce the risk of psychological distress? Fixed effects longitudinal analysis of a cohort of 30,271 middle-to-older aged Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Research on the impact of social interactions on psychological distress tends to be limited to particular forms of support, cross-sectional designs and by the spectre of omitted variables bias. A baseline sample with 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Change in the risk of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) was assessed using fixed effects logistic regressions in relation to the number of times in the past week a participant: i) spent time with friends or family they did not live with; ii) talked to friends, relatives or others on the telephone; iii) attended meetings at social clubs or religious groups; and the count of people outside their home, but within one hour travel-time, participants felt close to. Separate models were fitted for men and women, adjusting for age, income, economic and couple status. An increase in the number of social interactions was associated with a reduction in the risk of psychological distress, with some gender differences. Interactions with friends or family were important for women (adjusted OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.74, 0.98, p=0.024), whereas telephone calls were effective among men (adjusted OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.72, 0.96, p=0.011). Strong effects for the number of people that can be relied on were observed for men and women, but attendance at clubs and groups was not. No age-specific effects were observed. No indicator of positive mental health. Policies targeting greater social interactions in middle-to-older age may help protect mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 网络心理咨询:含义、类型及其发展%The Definition, Types and Development of Internet Psychological Counseling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊敏秀; 黄渊基

    2014-01-01

    网络心理咨询是心理咨询的一种新形式,是咨询师运用心理咨询理论与方法,以网络技术为媒介,解决来访者的心理问题,帮助其成长和发展的过程。根据不同的分类方式,网络心理咨询可分为即时性咨询和非即时性咨询,也可分为电子邮件咨询、BBS咨询、QQ咨询、MSN咨询、微信咨询、博客咨询、聊天室咨询、网络电话咨询、网络语音咨询、网络视频咨询等,也可分为文本互动咨询、语音互动咨询和视频互动咨询,还可分为自助咨询、个体咨询和团体咨询,其中即时文本互动咨询和电子邮件咨询是最主要的形式。%Internet counseling is a new form of psychological counseling. It is a process that counselors use the theories and methods of psychological counseling to solve the clients’ psychological problems for their healthy growth and development, with the network technology as a medium. There are 4 ways to classify the internet psychological counseling. The first one is to classify it into real-time counseling and non-concurrent counseling; the second classification is based on different means of counseling such as E-mail, BBS, QQ, MSN, micro letter consulting, blogs, chat rooms, network tele-phone, network voice, network video counseling, etc.; the third one is the classification on various forms of counseling such as text, voice and video interactive counseling;the last one is to classify it into self-help, individual and group counseling. Real-time text interactive counseling and E-mail counseling are the main ones among all of the forms above. Internet psychological counseling appeared officially nearly in the early 1990s, when online services of mental health counseling arose in the United States of America. At present, it has been made great development around the world and has been widely applied.

  10. Social Psychological Support of Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aismontas B.B.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the main goals, objectives, functions and mechanisms of social psychological support of students with disabilities and special needs in higher education. We describe the experience in providing such support at the Department of Distance Learning of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. We show that social psychological support of students with disabilities is a specially organized process involving the creation of an optimally accessible and nurturing environment which contributes to the development of general cultural, professional competencies as well as to healthy personality development in individuals. Macro social, psychological and pedagogical features of the environment play a key role in social psychological support. Psychological and educational support of students with disabilities involves several types of assistance, each with its own tasks and features, however only the optimal combination of these forms embodies social psychological support as a whole.

  11. Different Strokes for Different Folks: Jung's Typology and Structured Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Russell Alan

    1980-01-01

    Examined and compared the evaluations of students differentiated by Carl Jung's psychotypology when they were involved in either a session of nonverbal communication experiences or a session of fantasy experiences. Some of the Jungian psychological types preferred different structured experiences. (Author)

  12. The Difference of Personality Types Between Male and Female Psychological Tutors%男女心理委员人格类型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2012-01-01

    We used the Cattell- 16PF Questionnaire to better understand the personality traits of male and female psychological tutors. All the 519 subjects are qualified psychological tutors from different departments at Huanghuai University. The results show that there is significant difference between male and female psychological tutors in some of the personality factors. Female tutors got higher scores in factors smart ( A), sensitivity (I) and fantasy (M), while male tutors got higher scores in selfreliance(Q2) and vigilance(L). Moreover, compared to the norm of 1996, there is significant difference in other factors except smart(B).%目的对心理委员进行调查与研究,了解心理委员的人格特质。工具运用卡特尔16PF人格量表对黄淮学院理工科、文科合格心理委员共519名进行测试。结果男女心理委员在人格结构上存在差异。其中,女心理委员在乐群性(A)、敏感性(1)、幻想性(M)三个因素上的得分高于男心理委员,而男心理委员在独立性(Q2)以及怀疑性(L)两个因子上的得分高于女心理委员。另外,与1996年的常模相比,男女心理委员都在聪慧性(B)上没有差异,其他各个因子与常模存在显著差异。

  13. Psychological Needs as the Predictor of Teachers' Perceived Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ahmet; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels. First of all, the differentiation status of teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels in terms of gender, type of institution and type of the school variables was examined. Then, the psychological need's level…

  14. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  15. Psychological characteristics and subjective intolerance for xenobiotic agents of normal young adults with trait shyness and defensiveness. A parkinsonian-like personality type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Kaszniak, A W; Miller, C S

    1994-07-01

    The present study examines the psychological characteristics and self-reported responses to xenobiotic agents such as tobacco smoke and pesticide of normal young adults with personality traits similar to those claimed for Parkinsonian patients. Previous research, though controversial, has suggested that persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have premorbid personality traits that may include shyness and repressive defensiveness. Other epidemiological evidence indicates that PD patients may have premorbidly increased prevalence of anxiety, affective, and/or somatoform disorders; decreased rates of smoking and alcohol consumption; and elevated exposure to herbicides or pesticides. A total of 783 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed the Cheek-Buss Scale (shyness), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (defensiveness), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised), the Mastery Scale, a health history checklist, and rating scales for frequency of illness from alcohol and 10 common environmental chemicals. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of above- versus below-median scores on the Cheek-Buss and Marlowe-Crowne scales (persons high in shyness and defensiveness, those high only in shyness, those high only in defensiveness, and those low in both shyness and defensiveness). The group high in shyness but low in defensiveness had the highest, whereas the group low in shyness but high in defensiveness had the lowest, total scores on the SCL-90-R; the two shyest groups were lowest in sense of mastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  17. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  18. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  19. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gidlow, Christopher J; Martínez, David; de Bont, Jeroen; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Jones, Marc V; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0

  20. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J.; Martínez, David; de Bont, Jeroen; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Jones, Marc V.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. Material and methods People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. Results When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points

  1. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  2. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Style on the Learning Preferences of Graduate School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Jungian Theory. Carl Jung published his theory of psychological types in 1921 (Portable, 1971:xx). His theory is based on individual cognitive style...Organizations (Seventh Edition). Homewood IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1991. Jung , Carl G. "Psychological Types," The Portable Jung , edited by Joseph Campbell...Instructional and Learning Preference.......... 26 Relating MBTI Types to Learning Preferences.. 27 The Extraversion- Introversion Scale ..... 28 The

  4. Can Industrial-Organizational Psychology Survive the Advancement of Professional Psychology? Speciality Standards for Providers of I/O Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Thomas E.

    The Revised Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, developed by a committee of the American Psychological Association, have an important impact on industrial/organizational psychologists. Currently, four types of controls exist as assurances to the public that appropriate psychological services are being provided. They are: graduate…

  5. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  6. Psychological Aspects of Civic Protests in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Stoyanova Pachkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some aspects of the role of the political psychology in the sphere of civil society. Civic activism requires adequate psychological motivation and qualities of the participants and leaders of civic events. Their absence is a factor for ineffectiveness of different types of civic activities, including the protest activity.

  7. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals...

  8. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  9. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  10. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  11. EVALUATION OF TYPES OF STRESS COPING MECHANISMS OF INDIVIDUALS PARTICIPATING IN PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE CONSULTANCY TRAINING ON FOOTBALL BASED ON VARIOUS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriç

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the individualways of coping with stress based on various variables. The study group is comprised of people who attended Training for Psychological Performance Counselling in Football held by the Turkish Football Federation. There were 114 participants in total. The “Ways of Coping Scale”, developed by Folkman and Lazarus (1980 and revised and recreated by Şahin and Durak (1995, was employed in this study. Statistical analyses of the data were performed through frequency analysis, Mann-Whitney U analysis, and Kruskal Wallis H analysis via SPSS 15.0. It was seen at the end of the study that the most frequently preferred way of coping with stress is “self-confidence”. It was also seen that the ways of coping with stress significantly differ by gender. The female participants resorted statistically more to the “submissiveness” compared to the male participants while coping with stress (p<0.05. However, no significant difference was detected between the participants in terms of coping with stress by age, profession, and whether they engage in licensed sport activities.

  12. Psychological Conditions in Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill; Wagner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represent a demanding set of biopsychosocial challenges for patients and their families, whether the age of disease onset occurs in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Psychological conditions, defined as syndromes, disorders, and diabetes-specific psychological issues affect a larger proportion of individuals with T1D and T2D compared to the general population. In this review, we summarize the prevalence, impact and psychological treatments associated with the primary categories of psychological conditions that affect adults with T1D and T2D: depressive symptoms and syndromes, anxiety disorders, eating behaviors and disorders and serious mental illness. The implications of the literature for psychologists are discussed, and priorities for future research to advance the science of psychological conditions for adults with T1D and T2D are identified. PMID:27690484

  13. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  14. Characteristics of Programs That Maximize Psychology Major Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…

  15. Characteristics of Programs That Maximize Psychology Major Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…

  16. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  17. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  18. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. Palavras-chave Psicologia analítica; Teorias da personalidade; Tipos psi...

  19. Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology, 1972-2014: subjectivity, equality and diversity-inside and outside the consulting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing Jung's idea of theory as a 'personal confession', the author charts his own development as a theorist, establishing links between his personal history and his ideas. Such links include his relationship with both parents, his sexuality, his cultural heritage, and his fascination with Tricksters and with Hermes. There follows a substantial critical interrogation of what the author discerns as the two main lines of clinical theorizing in contemporary analytical psychotherapy: interpretation of transference-countertransference, and the relational approach. His conclusion is that neither is superior to the other and neither is in fact adequate as a basis for clinical work. The focus then shifts to explore a range of political and social aspects of the clinical project of analytical psychology: economic inequality, diversity within the professional field, and Jung's controversial ideas about Jews and Africans. The author calls for an apology from the 'Jungian community' for remarks about Africans analogous to the apology already issued for remarks about Jews. The paper is dedicated to the author's friend Fred Plaut (1913-2009). © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  1. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  2. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  3. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  4. Analysis of Author Affiliation across Four School Psychology Journals from 2000 to 2008: Where Is the Practitioner Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Erin E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCleary, Daniel F.; von Mizener, Briana Hautau; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    Articles published between 2000 and 2008 in four major school psychology journals--"School Psychology Review," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Quarterly"--were classified based on type (empirical or narrative) and on the primary and secondary authors' affiliations. Results showed that more than…

  5. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  6. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  7. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  8. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  9. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  10. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  11. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  12. Psychological health in adults with morquio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadia; Cagle, S

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPSIV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive genetic condition which predominantly affects skeletal development. Research thus far has focused on physical manifestations, with little attention to psychological characteristics. As a first step in determining the natural occurrence of psychological symptoms in this population, we administered Achenbach measures of psychological functioning (ASEBA ASR and OASR), quality of life (SF-36), and pain severity (BPI) questionnaires to 20 adults with Morquio syndrome. 11/20 subjects (55%) scored within the symptomatic range on at least one or more ASEBA problem scales. These subjects also had higher pain severity scores (p = 0.051) and pain interference scores (p = 0.03) on the BPI. However, subjects with psychological symptoms did not differ significantly on QOL measures from those without psychological symptoms. Overall, subjects scored below the US mean only in physical health QOL (p Morquio syndrome, including regular assessment for psychological symptoms in addition to the quality of life measures typically used, as the latter may miss important information. Greater attention to psychological symptoms may help maximize overall health in adults with Morquio syndrome. Comparison with psychological studies on other lysosomal storage diseases suggests these results may be disease specific, rather than the result of living with chronic pain or having an LSD in general.

  13. Interdisciplinary Connections and Academic Performance in Psychology-English Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…

  14. Interdisciplinary Connections and Academic Performance in Psychology-English Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose-Fifer, Jillian; Helmer, Kimberly A.; Zottoli, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether students in psychology-based learning communities (LCs; i.e., cohorts who took introductory psychology and English together) performed better on psychology tests than those in standard classes. There were two types of LC; in one (connected LC), we created links between English and psychology by using English class readings…

  15. Psychological approach to the problem of personality tipology

    OpenAIRE

    Nemtsow A.

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the traditional approaches to the problem of construction of a psychological personality typology. Discussed the main advantages and disadvantages of typological approach and the limits of its use in psychology as such. The original allocation system of psychological types based on four fundamental, from the point of view of the author, the aspirations of man. The characteristic allocated on this basis, the 24 theoretically possible personality types. They are aligned to ...

  16. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  17. 团体心理干预对2型糖尿病患者的影响%Group Psychological Intervention on Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林庆; 田凌; 杨云山; 张静; 冷梅; 尹杰

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨团体心理干预对2型糖尿病患者的空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白水平、心理状况及生活质量的影响。方法根据研究的入组和排除标准,选择66例糖尿病患者,将他们随机分为实验组33人和对照组33人,由心理治疗师及其助手对实验组被试进行团体心理干预及社区慢病管理,对照组仅进行社区慢病管理。团体心理干预前后,对全部被试者进行生物学指标(空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白)、心理状况(焦虑、抑郁量表)和生活质量(糖尿病患者生活质量量表)的测量。结果实验组被试的后测空腹血糖水平明显低于对照组(t=-3.763,P<0.01)。实验组被试的生活质量、生理因素、社会关系及治疗因素的后测值均低于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01)。结论团体心理干预可以有效降低老年糖尿病患者的空腹血糖水平,改善糖尿病患者的生活质量。%Objective To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive psychotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in fasting blood-glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin,psychological conditions and quality of life.Methods According to the inclusion and exclusion criterias,we got 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.The patients were divided into treatment group and control group randomly.Each group had 33 patients.The psychological therapist and his assistant would conduct comprehensive psychotherapy and community management of chronic diseases to the patients in the treatment group.Patients in the control group only got community management of chronic diseases.To measure the biological indicators (fasting blood glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin),psychological conditions (anxiety,depression) and quality of life (life quality of patients with diabetes mellitus) of the patients in both groups pre-post the comprehensive psychotherapy. Results There was a significant difference between the treatment group and control

  18. Psychological Mobility and Career Success in the "New" Career Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of two types of psychological mobility, i.e. boundaryless mindset and organizational mobility preference, on career success. We hypothesized that this relationship would be partially mediated by physical mobility. In addition, we expected the direction of the influence to depend on the type of psychological mobility. We…

  19. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  20. 1型糖尿病青少年儿童心理行为问题研究进展%Psychological problems in adolescents and children with type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 刘超

    2015-01-01

    For youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM),the transition into adolescence is often associated with poorer adherence to treatment,deterioration of metabolic control,and increased risk for psychological disorders.Depression,eating disorder,family conflict and fear of hypoglycemia are often presented,which will further deteriorate the adherence to treatment and glycemic control.Early screening and intervention should be taken into consideration.%逐步走向青春期的1型糖尿病青少年儿童,容易出现治疗依从性差、代谢控制不良等问题,更是心理障碍的高危人群.其常常表现出抑郁、进食行为问题、家庭冲突、恐惧低血糖等心理问题,这些问题会进一步恶化糖尿病治疗的依从性以及血糖控制,故需要尽早筛查和干预.

  1. The Art of Teaching Jungian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Chapin, Lori A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Teaching Carl Jung's constructs such as individuation can serve as a blueprint for counselor development. Also discussed are mandalas, masks, active imagination, dreams and poetry. Suggestions and examples of teaching methods are described as they apply to counselor education. (KW)

  2. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  3. The Psychology of Curriculum Theorizing: A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankowski, Janek; Reid, William

    1982-01-01

    A conversation about the "psychology of curriculum theorizing" is presented. Janek Wankowski and William Reid discuss four types of curriculum theorists: systemic, radical, existential, and deliberative. Works representative of these types, by Mauritz Johnson, Michael Apple, William Pinar, and Joseph Schwab, are also discussed. (CJ)

  4. Expertise in Psychological Inquiry: A Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert

    The ways in which experience and academic training influence the types of questions therapists ask of their clients were studied. Psychologists and psychology students of varying degrees of expertise (n=138) were provided an artificial intelligence program that simulated a date rape client's responses to typed questions and were asked to conduct a…

  5. Physique-Personality Relationships: Classroom Demonstration of Sheldon's "Constitutional" Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents method for introducing William Sheldon's approach to psychology through a classroom demonstration using student observations. Sheldon contends that three general body types relate to three types of personality. (KC)

  6. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  7. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  8. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  9. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  10. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  12. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  13. Psychological aspects of nutrition and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, G V

    1986-12-01

    Cancer and the various treatments employed to combat this disease have an impact on food intake that is psychologic in nature. These psychologic consequences include behavioral responses such as learned food aversions, changes in food preferences, and anticipatory nausea and vomiting. In a second cluster of psychologic consequences are the emotional responses of anxiety and depression. A third type of psychologic consequence is perceptual in nature and is most commonly represented by changes in palatability of foods. A fourth psychologic aspect of food intake and cancer includes attitudinal responses, wherein social, religious, cultural, and other values related to food may change as a consequence of the disease. Studies are needed in this area. Approaches to nutritional care that address the psychologic impact of cancer are described. As a means of maintaining adequate nutritional status, artificial feeding routes may create psychologic problems. In general, cancer and its treatment can exert a negative impact on quality of life. Finally, the ethics of feeding are discussed in terms of care giving versus alimentation.

  14. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  15. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  16. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  17. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  18. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  19. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  20. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  1. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  2. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  3. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  4. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  5. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  6. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  7. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  8. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  9. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  10. Doing psychology, doing inequality: rethinking the role of psychology in creating and maintaining social inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi-Nakar, Merav

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.

  11. Psychological strains and suicide intent: Results from a psychological autopsy study with Chinese rural young suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Li, Han; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have examined the prevalence of psychological strains among various suicide populations. However, it is still unexamined whether psychological strains can predict suicide intent directly. We planned to explore the prevalence of psychological strains and analyze the relationship between psychological strains and suicide intent among Chinese rural young suicides. Psychological autopsy method was used to investigate the environmental and other factors of rural young suicides. Psychological strains were identified from in-depth interviews by the proxy informants of each suicide. The first 8 items of Beck's Suicidal Intention Scale (SIS) were used to estimate the suicide intent. Results showed that 96.6% of the suicides had at least one type of strain, and those suicides who had more strains tended to score higher on the suicide intent scale. The study further supports that suicide intent can be predicted by psychological strains in Chinese rural young suicides. The scanning of psychological strains can be used for suicide prevention in Chinese rural young suicides. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  13. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  14. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  15. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  16. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  17. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  18. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  19. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  20. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  1. Attitudes Toward the Psychologically Disabled, Physically Disabled, and Nondisabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Carol A.; and Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes on nondisabled persons toward physically disabled, psychologically disabled and nondisabled persons. The type of impairment, physical, psychological or normal, degree of impairment, mild, severe, sex of stimulus person male, female and the sex of the subjects were the independent variables.…

  2. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Kugelmann, R.

    2009-01-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian

  3. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  4. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  5. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  7. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  8. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space...

  9. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  10. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Deconstructivism and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In last ten, fifteen years, variety of disciplines literary throng the conceptualizations of identity. This plurality of discourses blurs the boundaries between disciplines and at the same time deepens them. The deconstruction positions in psychology, referring to Althusser's concept of interpellation, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Foucault's theorization of discourse and power relations do not try to define the boundaries and connections between the disciplines. However, in the analyses of the birth of psychological knowledge and their consequences the deconstruction position points out that psychological knowledge fatally reduces the factors constructing identity and subjectivity by limiting itself on individual and interpersonal. This article discusses two consequences of this reduction: this reduction leads to the conclusion that social differentiation is the effect of the individual differences in capacities and personal characteristics and at the same time this reduction impedes psychological knowledge in the analyses of its own role in the power relations.

  13. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  14. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  15. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  16. Psychological.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ..... inactivity and the avoidance of physical exercise in .... Mood and anxiety ... individuals with chronic pain: the moderating role of pain duration. Pain 2004 ...

  17. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  18. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  19. A REVIEW OF RELATIONS BETWEEN DYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Flórez-Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relations between dynamical systems and de-velopment theories. To do this, mentioned some background of the emergence of complex systems in psychology is mentioned, which result in their inclusion in developmental psychology, especially with the synergetic and its application to the problem of the motion of Bernstein. Explain Esther Thelen and Paul van Geert developmental psychology is eplained, which describes various properties of non-linear dynamical systems and some types of methods for studying psychological change. The paper concludes by pointing out some consequences of the implemen-tation of this approach and potential challenges for a science of change.

  20. Eating, Psychology of

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to provide the reader with a brief guide to the psychology of eating. Biological, developmental, cognitive, social, eating disorders and obesity were all discussed and their relative contribution to the psychology of eating was described. This paper has also described how eating behaviourists have conceptualised hunger and fullness in order to understand human motivations to feed. It is hoped that interested readers will continue beyond this article to gain a...

  1. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  2. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  3. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  4. Headache among medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-de-Barros, João Eliezer; Alencar, Mauricio José de; Berchielli, Luis Felipe; Castelhano Junior, Luis Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

  5. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  6. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  7. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  8. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  9. Diferencias psicológicas en pacientes con cáncer de mama según el tipo de cirugía mamaria Psychological differences of breast cancer patients according to the type of breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Rincón Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las pacientes con cáncer de mama pueden experimentar importantes secuelas psicológicas producidas por la mastectomía, considerándose la reconstrucción mamaria como un procedimiento reversivo de las mismas. Para conocer si la sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, las estrategias de afrontamiento empleadas o la calidad de vida manifestada por las pacientes, difiere de unas a otras según el tipo de cirugía realizada (mastectomía unilateral o reconstrucción mamaria se estudiaron 2 grupos. Un primer grupo formado por 36 pacientes sometidas a mastectomía unilateral (simple o radical modificada y un segundo grupo constituido por 36 mujeres con reconstrucción mamaria postmastectomía (inmediata o diferida. Para la evaluación psicológica se empleó una Encuesta Psicosocial, junto a la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión en Hospital (HAD, la Escala de Afrontamiento del Cáncer (MAC y el Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida para Cáncer de la EORTC (QLQ-C30. En general, las pacientes mastectomizadas presentaron una mayor presencia de sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva que las pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria postmastectomía. Igualmente, las pacientes con reconstrucción mamaria emplearon estrategias de afrontamiento más eficaces y gozaron de una mayor calidad de vida que las mujeres mastectomizadas.Breast cancer patients could experiment an important reduction in psychological adjustment due to mastectomy. So, breast reconstruction is considered a procedure to reverse the sequels of breast mastectomy. Two groups were evaluated in order to determine if anxiety and depression symptoms, coping style and quality of life in breast cancer patients are different for each kind of patient, according to the type of surgery (mastectomy or breast reconstruction. A first group was made up of 36 patients with breast cancer who had undergone unilateral mastectomy (simple or modified radical and the second group was formed by 36 patients with breast

  10. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  11. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  12. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  13. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  14. Cultural And Societal Influence On The Psychological Feelings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... Descriptive research design of survey type was used for the study. ... Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics to test the four research hypotheses postulated in ...

  15. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  16. Identifying Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in Childhood that Jeopardize Mental Health in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…

  17. Psychological Trauma as a Reason for Computer Game Addiction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskenbay, Fariza; Tolegenova, Aliya; Kalymbetova, Elmira; Chung, Man Cheung; Faizullina, Aida; Jakupov, Maksat

    2016-01-01

    This study explores psychological trauma as a reason for computer game addiction among adolescents. The findings of this study show that there is a connection between psychological trauma and computer game addiction. Some psychologists note that the main cause of any type of addiction derives from psychological trauma, and that finding such…

  18. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  19. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  20. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  1. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...... its role as a scientific discipline that contributes to making transparent the political, social, and interpersonal relations that define how our lives are shaped, if we want a discipline that provides value beyond the scientific realm....

  2. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  3. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  4. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  5. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  6. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  7. Misrepresentations of evolutionary psychology in sex and gender textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegard, Benjamin M; Winegard, Bo M; Deaner, Robert O

    2014-05-20

    Evolutionary psychology has provoked controversy, especially when applied to human sex differences. We hypothesize that this is partly due to misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology that are perpetuated by undergraduate sex and gender textbooks. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we develop a catalog of eight types of errors and document their occurrence in 15 widely used sex and gender textbooks. Consistent with our hypothesis, of the 12 textbooks that discussed evolutionary psychology, all contained at least one error, and the median number of errors was five. The most common types of errors were "Straw Man," "Biological Determinism," and "Species Selection." We conclude by suggesting improvements to undergraduate sex and gender textbooks.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTANT FRAUDSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrupted professional accountants are vital for planning, creating and hiding financial fraud. No financial fraud can be made without help from an expert in Accounting. Through this paper we try to raise awareness of the necessity of having ethical professional accountants and we promote rigorous psychological testing for candidates to the Accounting profession. The purpose of this paper is to present a psychological profile of a fraudster in the field of Accounting and recommended profiles for the candidates to the profession. We presented the fraud triangle of opportunity, motivation and rationalization so we can begin to enter the mind of the accountant fraudster. Then we presented the profile of the character prone to financial fraud as shown in Accounting literature. Further, we presented psychological tests backed by specialty literature that could be useful to select candidates fit for the Accounting profession. The literature presents us with recommended psychological profiles for the professional accountants. A great psychological test used for hiring in the Accounting profession is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II, used by the government, military, universities, non profit organizations and religious organizations in the USA. The recommended personality types for Accounting are the supervisors and inspectors from the guardians branch for low ranking accountants and the fieldmarshals and masterminds from the rationals branch for high ranking accountants.

  9. Psychological interactions with infertility among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, J; Gidron, Y; Sheiner, E

    2004-12-01

    Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the importance of the mind-body connection and fertility, the psychosocial aspects of infertility have not been adequately addressed. Fertility treatments, ranging from medical monitoring, to hormonal remedies and in vitro fertilization (IVF), are both a physical and emotional burden on women and their partners. Psychological factors such as depression, state-anxiety, and stress-induced changes in heart rate and cortisol are predictive of a decreased probability of achieving a viable pregnancy. A couple that is trying to conceive will undoubtedly experience feelings of frustration and disappointment if a pregnancy is not easily achieved. However, if the difficulties progress and the man and or woman are labelled as having fertility problems, then this may result in a severe insult to self-esteem, body image, and self-assessed masculinity or femininity. Three types of relationships have been hypothesized between psychological factors and infertility. These include: (1) psychological factors are risk factors of subsequent infertility; (2) the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility causes subsequent psychological distress; (3) a reciprocal relationship exists between psychological factors and infertility. The evidence for these three relationships is reviewed and an alternative approach to the treatment of infertility including stress evaluation that precedes or is concurrent to fertility treatment is suggested.

  10. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  11. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  12. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  13. The psychology of doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2017-08-01

    Doping is increasingly becoming a problem in both elite and recreational sports. It is therefore important to understand the psychological factors which can explain doping behavior in order to prevent it. The present paper briefly presents evidence on the prevalence of doping use in competitive sports and the measurement approaches to assess doping behavior and doping-related variables. Furthermore, the integrative theoretical approaches used to describe the psychological processes underlying doping use are discussed. Finally, the paper provides suggestions for appropriate measurement of doping behavior and doping-related variables, key preventive efforts against doping as well as avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mindfulness and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David

    2011-09-01

    Does mindfulness offer more to psychology than a useful therapeutic technique? This paper argues that it can also establish a state of presence which is understood in relation to the practice of phenomenology. Mindfulness is then both linked to a Western intellectual tradition and offers that tradition a systematic method. This is an opening for psychological investigation of the non-conceptual basis of everyday experience. The combination of this theoretical stance with the increasingly widespread practical training of clinical psychologists in mindfulness has broad implications for clinical practice; this is illustrated in relation to the descriptive approach to clinical problems, qualitative research, and reflective practice.

  15. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  16. The psychological costs of social support imbalance: Variation across relationship context and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Diana; Gruenewald, Tara

    2017-02-01

    Psychological well-being benefits of receiving social support are well-established. Growing evidence also suggests parallel benefits of giving support. However, much less attention has been given to understanding the psychological correlates of imbalance in giving and receiving social support. We examined associations between social support (given, received, and imbalance) and psychological well-being in multiple relationship types (friends, family, and spouse). Greater levels of both receiving and giving social support were independently associated with more favorable psychological well-being, while imbalance in the ratio of support given and received was associated with poorer psychological well-being. Findings varied between relationship types and across age.

  17. On College Students' Psychological Crisis Type and the Role of Counselors in Crisis Intervention%论大学生心理危机的类型及辅导员在危机干预中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛薇; 郝秀娟

    2014-01-01

    近年来,随着高等教育从精英教育向大众化教育转化步伐的加快,大学中因心理危机引发的校园事件越来越多,因此,大学生心理危机预防与干预成为各高校心理健康教育的重要工作,而辅导员作为大学生日常学习生活的重要咨询者,在大学生心理危机干预中担任重要角色。%In recent years, with the popularization of education to accelerate the pace of transformation of higher education from elite education, university campus due to psychological crisis triggered by events more and more, so students' psychol-ogical crisis prevention and intervention become an important work of the mental health education, and as a college counselor to learn important consultant daily life, play an important role in students' psychological crisis intervention.

  18. History of the development of forensic psychological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of forensic psychological and comprehensive examinations with her, isolated and analyzed three stages. The first stage - the emergence of forensic psychological examination as an independent branch of the forensic identification of the main subject of species introduction into the proceedings (the end of the 70s of the twentieth century - early 80s. The second stage - the emergence of forensic psychological examination and development of theoretical, methodological, organizational and legal problems, including - the criteria of forensic psychological expert assessment of legally significant abilities of the accused, victims and witnesses in criminal proceedings (the beginning of the 80s - 1997. The third phase - the development of forensic psychological examination in the new legislation of the Russian Federation, the emergence of forensic psychological expertology, the allocation of new types of forensic psychological examination in criminal proceedings, the introduction of this type of expertise in civil proceedings (from 1997 to the present. Designated urgent problems to be solved to improve the theory and practice of forensic psychological examination.

  19. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  20. From Aesthetics to Psychology: Notes on Vygotsky's "Psychology of Art."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes Lima, Marcelo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Vygotsky's ideas in art psychology on the role of emotion in art, the nature of the aesthetic experience, the semiotic nature of psychological processes, and the foundation of a Marxist psychology and a Marxist aesthetics. Central to all of his ideas was his critique of Russian formalism. (MMU)

  1. The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

  2. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  3. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  4. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  5. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  6. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  7. Confronting Psychology's Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky (this issue, pp. 116-136) seeks to make community psychology a more effective force for social justice. His discussion of psychopolitical validity raises a number of questions: How perfect must the theoretical framework be to usefully oppose unjust power? In what way is the notion of "psychopolitical validity" most useful? How…

  8. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  9. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...

  10. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  11. Paediatric psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Allan; Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2014-04-01

    A 2011 BEACH-based study showed that over the past 40 years there has been increasing general practitioner (GP) involvement in the management of paediatric mental health in Australia. There has also been a changing mix of psychological conditions managed, including increased management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

  12. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  13. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  14. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  15. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  16. Advances in Environmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  17. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANT IN ETHICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the psychological profile of the professional accountant in an ethical context through the speciality literature. The starting point of this paper was Carl Gustav Jung’s book, Psychological Types. In the book, Jung presented the idea of personality type. As methodology, relevant articles of speciality literature from international databases have been used. According to literature, the most used methods for realizing a psychological profile are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test (MBTI test and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS test. The MBTI test focuses on way of thinking and perception while focuses on behaviour. Through this article we propose the improvement of the speciality literature regarding the multidisciplinary aspect or research in Accounting-Psychology. We also highlight the need to improve ethical behaviour in the Accounting profession. Currently the general public perceives a lack of transparency regarding the professional accountants’ activity worldwide.

  19. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  20. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  1. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  2. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... ... behaviour, relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics.

  3. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Health psychology: status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, A L; Murphy, K J; Reilley, R R

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated the present status and suggested trends in health psychology as reported by American Psychological Association Division 38 (Health Psychology) members. A 25-item mail-in survey was developed to obtain these data from a randomly selected sample of 300. Information includes a demographic description of the respondents, their selection of influential books, journals, and individuals, and their opinions regarding the current status and desirable future trends in the field of health psychology.

  5. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  6. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  7. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  8. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  9. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  10. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  11. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  12. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  13. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  14. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  15. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  16. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  17. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  18. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  19. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  20. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  1. Subjective Quality of Life in the Psychology of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval I.A.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical introduction to the discussion of the subjective quality of life for carriers of psychology of poverty. We revealed the socio-cultural determinants of subjective quality of life, systematize its psychological components and factors of its high level. We describe a set of characteristics of psychology of poverty, including the sense of displacement from normal life, hopelessness, fatalism, deprivation, social envy, metapathology of personality, lack of subjectivity, responsibility, an outsider position, survivor guilt complex, and so on. On the criterion of the relationship to own life we revealed types of carriers of psychology of poverty: a passive-contemplative, passive-aggressive, pseudocompensatory-devalued, infantile, anomic. We analyzed the specificity of reflection and benchmarking of carriers of psychology of poverty as a cognitive and affective strategies to assess the quality of own lives, focused on the maintenance of self-esteem

  2. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    of morality • Confronts the “naturalistic fallacy” in contemporary psychology. • Explains why moral science need not be separated from social science. • Addresses challenges and critiques to the author’s work from both formalist and relativist theories of morality. With its bold call to reason, Psychology......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  3. THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL NURSING INTERVENTION BASED ON THE TEMPER-AMENT TYPE ON THE WEIGHT OF CHILDREN OBESITY%基于气质类型的心理护理干预对单纯性肥胖症儿童体重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽辉; 潘继红; 颜斐斐; 王馨; 吴春艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨基于气质类型的心理护理干预对单纯性肥胖症儿童体重的影响。方法选取50例确诊为单纯性肥胖症的儿童,随机分为对照组和试验组2组,每组25例,对照组实施常规护理措施包括营养、运动、健康教育,试验组除常规护理外,采用基于儿童的气质类型和心理行为特征的心理护理干预。进行随访1年,比较两组儿童体重的变化。结果两组患儿经护理干预后总有效率86%。试验组患儿经个体化心理护理干预后,心理状态改善明显,干预总有效率达96%,明显优于对照组患儿的总有效率68%,差异有统计学意义(p<0.05)。其中,试验组中重度肥胖患儿的心理干预效果最为明显,显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(p<0.05)。结论不同护理干预可以不同程度的改善儿童肥胖症状态,辅以有效的心理护理可改善肥胖儿童心理状态,对体重和肥胖度降低具有更为显著效果。%Objective To explore the effect of psychological nursing intervention which based on the temper -ament type on the weight of childhood simple obesity .Methods 50 cases who were diagnosed as children simple o-besity were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups, including observation group and control nursing group , 25 cases in each group.Control group was treated with routine nursing intervention including nutrition , exercise, health education;Observation group was treated with psychological nursing interventions based on the children 's temperament type and the characteristic of psychological behavior beside routine nursing intervention .After 1 follow -up, the effect of weight between different nursing measures was compared .Results The total effective rate of the 2 groups was 86%.On the observation group , the psychological state of children was significantly improved and the effective rate was 96%, while that of the control group was 68%.The

  4. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi.

  5. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  6. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  7. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...

  8. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analys...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation......This paper investigates intergenerational care in family life in Denmark. It compares different patterns of care between three groups of families: 1) Monoethnic Danish Families (n=701), 2) Monoethnic South Asian Families (n =5) and 3) Multiethnic Families (n=15). Through the use of network analysis...... institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults...

  10. Faint voices from Greenwich Village: Jung's impact on the first American avant-garde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Jay

    2011-11-01

    In 1913 Jung made a trip to New York which was to have an important impact on the creation of modern American culture. At the invitation of Beatrice Hinkle, the first Jungian analyst in the country, he spoke to the Liberal Club, a forum for discussing progressive topics. Jung was the leading spokesman for psychoanalysis and his ideas about creative fantasy resonated with popular interest in the ideas of William James and Henri Bergson. This paper will document that visit and the influence that Hinkle had on the young people who had gravitated to Greenwich Village. She promoted Jungian psychology through her analytical practice and her translation of Jung's Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido as Psychology of the Unconscious. Her influence is evident in four key neighbourhood institutions: The Masses, a socialist magazine, The Seven Arts, an avant-garde literary magazine, the Provincetown Players theatre ensemble, and the Heterodoxy Club, America's first feminist group. Her influence is also evident at The New School where several pioneering anthropologists employed the theory of psychological types as a tool for understanding social behaviour. This paper will demonstrate that a cultural moment usually seen through a Freudian lens had, in fact, a remarkably Jungian character.

  11. Types of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a spontaneous mutation. Spontaneous mutations are common. Biochemical tests on cultured skin fibroblasts show a lower-than-normal amount of type I collagen. Collagen structure is normal. People with OI Type I experience the psychological burden of appearing normal and healthy to the ...

  12. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    1969) theory of the “conflict of generations,” which is based on a Freudian interpretation of terrorism as a psychological reaction of sons against...still rooted in psychodynamic theory (with less emphasis on stricter Freudians notions). -In a helpful review, Silke (1998) argued that ‘most serious...of social issues. This work is based on social language theory , on the behavioral analysis of cognition and language, on rule-government behavior

  13. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in trauma therapy is highlighted. 181 Chapter 8 follows on the previous chapter, as Loubsher emphasises the body in the context of trauma, providing the reader with insight into the importance of instinctual bodily responses to the process of healing... influence on the effectiveness of the military as well as the psychological consequences of the disease on factors like combat readiness. An explanation of African traditional approaches to healing provides valuable insight into how African individuals...

  14. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... and extensions" of BARTLETT's experiments, demonstrating how his methodology was progressively changed and misunderstood over time. An argument is made for re-introducing an open, qualitative and idiographic experimental method similar to the one BARTLETT practiced....

  15. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  16. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  17. Impacts of Physical and Psychological Abuse of Children on Family Demographic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lama M. Al-Qaisy

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study was to show relationship between physical and psychological abuse of children and family demographical variables. A random sample of study representing TTU students has been selected for that purpose; it was consisted of (279), of whom were (127) females and (170) males. The findings show that there are various types of abuse but psychological abuse is the most common type. Also, females are more exposed to psychological abuse than males. In addition, the findings prove...

  18. Self-Assessments of Five Types of Typing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ronald A.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the usefulness of self-assessments of typing ability. Self-assessment of straight copy typing ability emerged as the best predictor of tested typing ability. Minority group members were generally less accurate in self-assessment of their typing ability. Presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto,…

  19. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  20. Psychology's epistemological identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Černigoj

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is first to present three different, mutually irreducible approaches to the study of human psyche, and then to offer a conceptual model that allows their meaningful integration. I begin the article with the common knowledge about three main determinants of human behavior: genetic inheritance, social environment, and one's own activity, which I then link with Stevens' (1998 conceptualization of three appropriate epistemologies in psychology. Nomothetic epistemology is adequate for the study of behavior rooted in our biological dispositions, hermeneutic epistemology for the study of behavior founded on symbolic meanings, and transformative epistemology for the study of behavior steaming from our capacity for reflexive awareness. I then interrelate these epistemologies using Gergen's (1973 idea about the continuum of temporal stability of events supplemented with the dimension of the abstractness of their treatment. I presuppose that nomothetic treatment of temporally less stable events demands a higher level of abstraction and vice versa. This is very important for psychology, because it acknowledges the possibility of psychology being a nomothetic science, but at the same time warns for the necessity of complementing its findings with the interpretive and phenomenological realizations.