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Sample records for junco junco hyemalis

  1. Intraspecific preen oil odor preferences in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle J. Whittaker; Kaitlin M. Richmond; Allison K. Miller; Ryan Kiley; Christine Bergeon Burns; Jonathan W. Atwell; Ellen D. Ketterson

    2011-01-01

    Most birds possess a uropygial gland that produces a secretion, preen oil, that contains volatile compounds that may transmit information about individual attributes. However, the ability of passerine songbirds to discriminate among the odors of different individuals has not yet been demonstrated. We tested whether dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) could discriminate among preen oil odors from 1) conspecifics and heterospecifics; 2) male and female conspecifics; 3) conspecifics from same or d...

  2. Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Maria; Swanson, David L; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2015-03-01

    Small temperate birds reversibly modify their aerobic performance to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis under seasonally changing environmental conditions and these physiological adjustments may be attributable to changes in the expression of genes in the underlying regulatory networks. Here, we report the results of an experimental procedure designed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We combined genomic transcriptional profiles with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and whole-animal thermogenic performance from juncos exposed to four 6-week acclimation treatments that varied in temperature (cold, 3°C; warm, 24°C) and photoperiod (short day, 8 h light:16 h dark; long day, 16 h light:8 h dark). Cold-acclimated birds increased thermogenic capacity compared with warm-acclimated birds, and this enhanced performance was associated with upregulation of genes involved in muscle hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and lipid transport and oxidation, as well as with catabolic enzyme activities. These physiological changes occurred over ecologically relevant timescales, suggesting that birds make regulatory adjustments to interacting, hierarchical pathways in order to seasonally enhance thermogenic capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Seed selection by dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): optimal foraging with nutrient constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D B; Tomback, D F; Cunningham, M A; Baker, M C

    1987-11-01

    Observations of the foraging behavior of six captive dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) are used to test the assumptions and predictions of optimal diet choice models (Pyke et al. 1977) that include nutrients (Pulliam 1975). The birds sequentially encountered single seeds of niger thistle (Guizotia abyssinica) and of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) on an artificial substrate in the laboratory. Niger thistle seeds were preferred by all birds although their profitability in terms of energy intake (J/s) was less than the profitability of canary grass seeds. Of four nutritional components used to calculate profitabilities (mg/s) lipid content was the only characteristic that could explain the junco's seed preference. As predicted by optimal diet theory the probability of consuming niger thistle seeds was independent of seed abundance. However, the consumption of 71-84% rather than 100% of the seeds encountered is not consistent with the prediction of all-or-nothing selection. Canary grass seeds were consumed at a constant rate (no./s) independent of the number of seeds encountered. This consumption pattern invalidates a model that assumes strict maximization. However, it is consistent with the assumption that canary grass seeds contain a nutrient which is required in minimum amounts to meet physiological demands (Pulliam 1975). These experiments emphasize the importance of incorporating nutrients into optimal foraging models and of combining seed preference studies with studies of the metabolic requirements of consumers.

  4. Snowpack and variation in reproductive ecology of a montane ground-nesting passerine, Junco hyemalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of snow depth and rate of snowmelt on reproduction of a montane ground-nesting passerine were examined in a 5-year study of Dark-eyed Juncos Junco hyemalis in northern Utah, USA. Distribution of clucth sizes differed significantly among years. Although most clutches contained four eggs, 3-egg clutches, due primarily to second nestings, were more common during a year of early snowmelt and 5-egg clutches were most common during two years of late snowmelt. Average clutch size was lowest in an early snowmelt year and average clutch size and date at which meadows became snow-free were significantly positively correlated. Average hatching date of 4-egg clutches was also significantly positively correlated with date at which meadows became snow-free demonstrating that most birds tracked the pattern of snowmelt. Early snowmelt may allow more pairs to attempt second nesting, but late-lying snow causes breeding to be delayed, allowing time for only one nesting attempt. During this delay, female juncos continue to feed and some may gain enough reserves to produce larger clutches, accounting for the increase in average clutch size in years of late snowmelt. Three female juncos examined in June 1982, a period of late snowmelt, had significantly more lipid reserves than did six males collected at the same time, suggesting that females are not physiologically stressed while awaiting snowmelt. By tracking snowmelt patterns, juncos synchronize production of young with peak summer insect abundance and potentially decrease risk of predation. Snow depth and rate of snowmelt are thus proximate environmental factors that may influence the reproductive ecology of ground-nesting passerines.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is not elevated in a songbird (Junco hyemalis) preparing for migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Needham, Katie B; Le, Chuong N; Stewart, Emily C; Graham, Jessica L; Ketterson, Ellen D; Greives, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    During spring, increasing daylengths stimulate gonadal development in migratory birds. However, late-stage reproductive development is typically postponed until migration has been completed. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which have been associated with pre-migratory hyperphagia and fattening. The HPA-axis is also known to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, suggesting the possibility that final transition into the breeding life history stage may be slowed by glucocorticoids. We hypothesized that greater HPA-axis activity in individuals preparing for migration may foster preparation for migration while simultaneously acting as a "brake" on the development of the HPG-axis. To test this hypothesis, we sampled baseline corticosterone (CORT), stress-induced CORT, and negative feedback efficacy of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) in an overwintering population that included both migratory (J.h. hyemalis) and resident (J.h. carolinensis) individuals. We predicted that compared to residents, migrants would have higher baseline CORT, higher stress-induced CORT, and weaker negative feedback. Juncos were sampled in western Virginia in early March, which was about 2-4wk before migratory departure for migrants and 4-5wk before first clutch initiation for residents. Contrary to our predictions, we found that migrants had lower baseline and stress-induced CORT and similar negative feedback efficacy compared with residents, which suggests that delayed breeding in migrants is influenced by other physiological mechanisms. Our findings also suggest that baseline CORT is not elevated during pre-migratory fattening, as migrants had lower baseline CORT and were fatter than residents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

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    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  7. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  8. Predation, scramble competition, and the vigilance group size effect in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Lima; Patrick A. Zollner; Peter A. Bednekoff

    1999-01-01

    In socially feeding birds and mammals, as group size increases, individuals devote less time to scanning their environment and more time to feeding. This vigilance "group size effect" has long been attributed to the anti-predatory benefits of group living, but many investigators have suggested that this effect may be driven by scramble competition for limited...

  9. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

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    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  10. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  11. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN; Granulometria de argila caulim primario dos pegmatitos nas regioes do Junco do Serido - PB e Equador - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D., E-mail: mauro.meyer@ifrn.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  12. Mineralogical characterization and beneficiation study of kaolin from Equador (RN) and Junco do Serido (PB) to increase the brightness index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, V.M.J.S.; Bertolino, L.C.; Alves, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    Kaolin is a rock composed mainly of kaolinite. It is used in many industrial segments, such as paper and ceramics. However, for these uses it is necessary to submit the ore to appropriate beneficiation, which generally involves magnetic separation and chemical bleaching, aiming to remove iron oxide and hydroxide, raising brightness index. This work reports the mineralogical characterization and analysis of the beneficiation of three samples of kaolin, two from Equador (Rio Grande do Norte - RN) and the third from Junco do Serido (Paraiba - PB). The samples were submitted to granulometric classification in sieve of 44 μm, magnetic separation in a magnetic induction of 14000 gauss, and chemical bleaching with sodium dithionite during 240 min. The processes were divided into two beneficiation routes. X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were used for mineralogical characterization of the ore and measurement of the brightness index, while electron paramagnetic resonance was applied to study the variation of iron oxides and hydroxides during beneficiation. The results indicate that just 30 min of chemical bleaching without magnetic separation was sufficient to increase the brightness index from 78.2 to 90.2% and from 91.3 to 95.7% in the two samples from Equador (RN) and from 86.9 to 90.4% in the sample from Junco do Serido (PB). The magnetic separation, although causing a small increase in the brightness index, was inefficient for removal of iron oxides and hydroxides. The results indicated no need for using magnetic separation in plants for beneficiation of kaolin from these two locations, providing the reduction of production costs allowing better exploitation of the ore. (author)

  13. The Spanish Exile Put to the Test: Polemics in the Pres between Indalecio Prieto and the Mexican Alfonso Junco regarding the gold aboard the yacht “Vita”

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    Carlos Sola Ayape

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In November, 1946, just a few days before Miguel Alemán took charge as new president of Mexico, the Mexican press –concretely, the newspaper Novedades– would become an ink-and-paper stage for an important dialectic dispute between Alfonso Junco, a Mexican Catholic hispanicist, and Indalecio Prieto, a Spanish Socialist exile and undoubtedly, one of the most important political references of the Second Spanish Republic. Among the many questions left unanswered, there appeared the edges of one of the major issues that haunted the Spanish pilgrimage during its diaspora: the treasures removed before the end of the Civil War. This was so because the legitimation of Franco's regime was also built from the constant pages of accusations towards the “reds” in exile.

  14. Mineralogical characterization and beneficiation study of kaolin from Equador (RN and Junco do Seridó (PB to increase the brightness index

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    V. M. J. S. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Kaolin is a rock composed mainly of kaolinite. It is used in many industrial segments, such as paper and ceramics. However, for these uses it is necessary to submit the ore to appropriate beneficiation, which generally involves magnetic separation and chemical bleaching, aiming to remove iron oxide and hydroxide, raising brightness index. This work reports the mineralogical characterization and analysis of the beneficiation of three samples of kaolin, two from Equador (Rio Grande do Norte - RN and the third from Junco do Seridó (Paraíba - PB. The samples were submitted to granulometric classification in sieve of 44 μm, magnetic separation in a magnetic induction of 14000 gauss, and chemical bleaching with sodium dithionite during 240 min. The processes were divided into two beneficiation routes. X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were used for mineralogical characterization of the ore and measurement of the brightness index, while electron paramagnetic resonance was applied to study the variation of iron oxides and hydroxides during beneficiation. The results indicate that just 30 min of chemical bleaching without magnetic separation was sufficient to increase the brightness index from 78.2 to 90.2% and from 91.3 to 95.7% in the two samples from Equador (RN and from 86.9 to 90.4% in the sample from Junco do Seridó (PB. The magnetic separation, although causing a small increase in the brightness index, was inefficient for removal of iron oxides and hydroxides. The results indicated no need for using magnetic separation in plants for beneficiation of kaolin from these two locations, providing the reduction of production costs allowing better exploitation of the ore.

  15. Mineralogical characterization and beneficiation study of kaolin from Equador (RN) and Junco do Serido (PB) to increase the brightness index; Caracterizacao mineralogica e estudo do beneficiamento do caulim de Equador (RN) e Junco do Serido (PB) para elevacao do indice de alvura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, V.M.J.S.; Bertolino, L.C., E-mail: vcampos@cetem.gov.br, E-mail: lcbertolino@cetem.gov.br [Centro de Tecnologia Minearal (CETEM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Caracterizacao Tecnologica; Alves, O.C., E-mail: odivaldocambraia@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2017-07-15

    Kaolin is a rock composed mainly of kaolinite. It is used in many industrial segments, such as paper and ceramics. However, for these uses it is necessary to submit the ore to appropriate beneficiation, which generally involves magnetic separation and chemical bleaching, aiming to remove iron oxide and hydroxide, raising brightness index. This work reports the mineralogical characterization and analysis of the beneficiation of three samples of kaolin, two from Equador (Rio Grande do Norte - RN) and the third from Junco do Serido (Paraiba - PB). The samples were submitted to granulometric classification in sieve of 44 μm, magnetic separation in a magnetic induction of 14000 gauss, and chemical bleaching with sodium dithionite during 240 min. The processes were divided into two beneficiation routes. X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were used for mineralogical characterization of the ore and measurement of the brightness index, while electron paramagnetic resonance was applied to study the variation of iron oxides and hydroxides during beneficiation. The results indicate that just 30 min of chemical bleaching without magnetic separation was sufficient to increase the brightness index from 78.2 to 90.2% and from 91.3 to 95.7% in the two samples from Equador (RN) and from 86.9 to 90.4% in the sample from Junco do Serido (PB). The magnetic separation, although causing a small increase in the brightness index, was inefficient for removal of iron oxides and hydroxides. The results indicated no need for using magnetic separation in plants for beneficiation of kaolin from these two locations, providing the reduction of production costs allowing better exploitation of the ore. (author)

  16. Variation in candidate genes CLOCK and ADCYAP1 does not consistently predict differences in migratory behavior in the songbird genus Junco [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/11p

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    Mark P Peterson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies exploring the molecular genetic basis for migratory variation in animals have identified polymorphisms in two genes (CLOCK and ADCYAP1 that are linked to circadian rhythms and correlate with migratory propensity and phenology among individuals and populations. Results from these initial studies are mixed, however, and additional data are needed to assess the generality and diversity of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of migration. We sequenced CLOCK and ADCYAP1 in 15 populations across the two species of the avian genus Junco, a North American lineage in which multiple recently diverged subspecies and populations range from sedentary to long-distance migrants. We found no consistent associations between allele length and migratory status across the genus for either CLOCK or ADCYAP1. However, within two subspecies groups, populations that migrate longer distances have longer CLOCK alleles on average. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between ADCYAP1 allele length and migratory restlessness (zugunruhe among individuals within one of two captive populations studied—a result similar to those reported previously within captive blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla. We conclude that, while both ADCYAP1 and CLOCK may correlate with migratory propensity within or among certain populations or species, previously identified relationships between migratory behavior and sequence variants cannot be easily generalized across taxa.

  17. ESI-PR39 Juncos, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

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    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  19. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  20. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  1. Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis Lectin as a cytotoxic effector in the lifecycle of Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Marie-Therese McConnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The lectin found in the tubers of the Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis plant is an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP; Type II RIPs have shown anti-cancer properties, and hence have potential as therapeutic agents. Here we present a modified protocol for the extraction and purification of the E. hyemalis lectin (EHL using affinity chromatography. De novo amino acid sequencing of EHL confirms its classification as a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. The biocidal properties of EHL have been investigated against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Arrested first stage larvae treated with EHL have shown some direct mortality, with surviving larvae subsequently showing a range of phenotypes including food avoidance, reduced fecundity, developmental delay and constitutive dauer larvae formation. Both inappropriate dauer larvae development and failure to locate to bacterial food source are consistent with the disruption of chemosensory function and the ablation of amphid neurons. Further investigation indicates that mutations that disrupt normal amphid formation can block the EHL-induced dauer larvae formation. In combination, these phenotypes indicate that EHL is cytotoxic and suggest a cell specific activity against the amphid neurons of C. elegans.

  2. The biology of flowering of winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis (L. Salisb.

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    Krystyna Rysiak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eranthis hyemalis belongs to the Ranunculaceae family whose representatives enrich early spring pollen flow and nectar for pollinating insects. Flowering biology and morphological characteristics flowers of winter aconite were studied. The forage value was estimated as the rate of nectar production. Observations were carried out between 2008 and 2011 in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University located in the Lublin area. In the conditions of Lublin, flowering of winter aconite plants started at the beginning of February and lasted until the end of March. The seasonal bloom dynamics was strongly affected by maximum temperatures, which intensified flower blooming, and snowfalls which hampered this process. During the day, flowers opened between 8.00 am and 3.00 pm, but the highest intensity was between 10.00 am and 12.00 am. The process of pollen release, with the average number of 29 stamens shedding pollen in the flowers, lasted from 2 to 3 days. During the day the largest number of anthers opened at noon hours, between 11.00 am and 1.00 pm, though a certain rise in this number was also observed in the morning hours between 8.00 and 9.00 am. Eranthis hyemalis flowers develop funnel-shaped nectaries, on average 3-6 per flower. The determined amount of nectar per flower was 1.23 mg, while the concentration of sugars in it averaged 72.11%. The weight of nectar sugar per flower was 0.88 mg.

  3. Social environment has a primary influence on the microbial and odor profiles of a chemically signaling songbird

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    Danielle June Whittaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical signaling is an underappreciated means of communication among birds, as may be the potential contributions of symbiotic microbes to animal chemical communication in general. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis produces and detects volatile compounds that may be important in reproductive behavior. These compounds are found in preen oil secreted by the uropygial gland, and this gland supports diverse bacterial communities including genera known to produce some of these volatile compounds. We investigated the relative contributions of shared environments and genetic relatedness in shaping juncos’ symbiotic bacterial communities, and investigated whether these bacterial communities underlie juncos’ chemical signaling behavior. We sampled parents and nestlings at 9 junco nests during one breeding season at Mountain Lake Biological Station in Virginia, USA. From each individual, we collected swabs of the uropygial gland and the cloaca, preen oil, and a small blood sample for paternity testing. We characterized junco bacterial communities through 16S rRNA gene surveys and preen oil volatile compounds via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nest membership and age class had the strongest influence on the structure of bacterial and volatile profiles. We compared father-offspring similarity based on paternity, and nestling similarity in nests containing full siblings and half siblings, and found that relatedness did not noticeably affect bacterial or volatile profiles. While we cannot rule out an influence of genetic relatedness on these profiles, it is clear that shared environments are more influential in shaping bacterial and volatile profiles among juncos.We did not find significant covariation between individual bacterial and volatile profiles. Possible explanations for this result include: 1 bacteria do not underlie volatile production; 2 ample redundancy in volatile production among bacterial types obscures covariation; or 3 the

  4. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  5. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  6. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  7. Behavioral effects of social challenges and genomic mechanisms of social priming: What's testosterone got to do with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Peterson, Mark P

    2014-12-01

    Social challenges from rival conspecifics are common in the lives of animals, and changes in an animal's social environment can influence physiology and behavior in ways that appear to be adaptive in the face of continued social instability (i.e. social priming). Recently, it has become clear that testosterone, long thought to be the primary mediator of these effects, may not always change in response to social challenges, an observation that highlights gaps in our understanding of the proximate mechanisms by which animals respond to their social environment. Here, our goal is to address the degree to which testosterone mediates organismal responses to social cues. To this end, we review the behavioral and physiological consequences of social challenges, as well as their underlying hormonal and gene regulatory mechanisms. We also present a new case study from a wild songbird, the dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyemalis ), in which we find largely divergent genome-wide transcriptional changes induced by social challenges and testosterone, respectively, in muscle and liver tissue. Our review underscores the diversity of mechanisms that link the dynamic social environment with an organisms' genomic, hormonal, and behavioral state. This diversity among species, and even among tissues within an organism, reveals new insights into the pattern and process by which evolution may alter proximate mechanisms of social priming.

  8. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  9. Compilation of 1985 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs H-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Buckley B. (1975) The Feen% P. (1970) Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannin processing of conifer and hardwood leaves in two and nutrients as a cause...Zonotrichia aIbicollis 35 51 34 77 -Drk-.yed Junco Junco hvermlis I I I I Red- wineed Blackbird Amelaius ohoeniceus 1 5 15 0 Comnon Grackle Ouiscalus cuiscula

  10. Spatial genetic structure of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) among Alaskan, Canadian, and Russian breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J R; Petersen, Margaret; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an unprecedented rate. How Arctic species are able to respond to such environmental change is partially dependent on the connections between local and broadly distributed populations. For species like the Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), we have limited telemetry and band-recovery information from which to infer population structure and migratory connectivity; however, genetic analyses can offer additional insights. To examine population structure in the Long-tailed Duck, we characterized variation at mtDNA control region and microsatellite loci among four breeding areas in Alaska, Canada, and Russia. We observed significant differences in the variance of mtDNA haplotype frequencies between the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) and the three Arctic locations (Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska, eastern Siberia, and central Canadian Arctic). However, like most sea duck genetic assessments, our study found no evidence of population structure based on autosomal microsatellite loci. Long-tailed Ducks use multiple wintering areas where pair formation occurs with some populations using both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This situation provides a greater opportunity for admixture across breeding locales, which would likely homogenize the nuclear genome even in the presence of female philopatry. The observed mtDNA differentiation was largely due to the presence of two divergent clades: (A) a clade showing signs of admixture among all breeding locales and (B) a clade primarily composed of YKD samples. We hypothesize that the pattern of mtDNA differentiation reflects some degree of philopatry to the YKD and isolation of two refugial populations with subsequent expansion and admixture. We recommend additional genetic assessments throughout the circumpolar range of Long-tailed Ducks to further quantify aspects of genetic diversity and migratory connectivity in this species.

  11. Heavy metals in tissues of water fowl from the Chesapeake Bay, USA. [Clangula hyemalis; Melanitta deglandi; Anas platyrhynchos; Anas rubripes; Anas strepera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R; Scanlon, P F

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc were measured in 774 livers, 266 kidneys and 271 ulnar bones from 15 species of ducks obtained from the Chesapeake Bay region. A major purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between food habits and tissue accumulations of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay water fowl. Liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium were highest among two carnivorous seaduck species, Clangula hyemalis and Melanitta deglandi. In contrast, lead concentrations in tissues were generally highest in largely herbivorous species, such as Anas platyrhynchos, Anas rubripes and Anas strepera. Spent shot may be an important source for tissue burdens of lead in these ducks. No marked trends were observed between food habits and tissue concentrations of the nutrient elements, copper and zinc.

  12. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (M sum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in M sum , we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  13. Seasonal Variation in Group Size Is Related to Seasonal Variation in Neuropeptide Receptor Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2016-01-01

    In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, C K; Granstrom, D E; Gajadhar, A A; Williams, N M; McCrillis, S A; Stamper, S; Langemeier, J L; Dubey, J P

    1997-02-01

    Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts developing in the leg muscles. Sparrows were euthanized 13 and 17 wpi and their carcasses were fed to four laboratory raised opossums. Sporocysts were detected in the feces of two opossums on 15 days post inoculation (dpi) and in a third opossum on 40 dpi. Fecal samples from the fourth opossum remained negative; however, sporocysts were found in intestinal digests from all four opossums. Sporocysts were not found in feces or intestinal digest of an additional opossum that was fed three uninoculated sparrows. Five foals were fed sporocysts (Foals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) and two foals were maintained as uninoculated controls (Foals 1 and 6). Sporocysts from two additional feral opossums also were fed to foals. Foal 5 was given 0.05 mg kg-1 dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily beginning 2 days before inoculation for a total of 2 weeks. Horse sera were tested three times per week, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested biweekly for anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies by Western blot analysis. No foals had any S. neurona-specific antibodies by Western blot analysis prior to sporocysts ingestion. Seroconversion occurred in Foals 3, 5, and 7 by 24 dpi, followed by positive CSF tests on 28 dpi. Foals 2 and 4 seroconverted by 40 dpi. Cerebrospinal fluid from Foal 2 tested positive by 42 dpi, but Foal 4 remained seronegative throughout the study. Sera and CSF from control Foals 1 and 6 remained seronegative. All foals with positive CSF developed neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic disease

  16. Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Zlonis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species' breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis, Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus, Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris, Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis, Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum, and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis. Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56-96% of

  17. Potential Sensitivity of Québec's Breeding Birds to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc DesGranges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between climatic factors and the distribution of breeding birds in southern Québec, Canada to identify the species whose distribution renders them potentially sensitive to climate change in the study area. We determined the degree of association between the distribution of 65 breeding bird species (601 presence-absence squares of the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Québec and climate variables (212 climatological stations in operation for at least 20 years over the period 1953-1984 by statistically correcting for the effects of several factors that are correlated with bird distribution. Factors considered were the nature and scale of land cover patterns that included vegetation types and landscape characterization, geographical coordinates, and elevation. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to investigate the effect of climatic variables on breeding bird distribution. Independent variables accounted for a total of 29.1% of the variation in the species matrix. A very large portion of the variance explained by climate variables was shared with spatial variables, reflecting the relationships among latitude, longitude, elevation, and climate. After correcting for the effect of land cover variables, climatic variables still explained 11.4% of the variation in the species matrix, with temperature, i.e., warmer summers and milder winters, having a greater influence than precipitation, i.e., wetter summers. Of the 65 species, 14 appeared to be particularly climate-sensitive. Eight are insectivorous neotropical migrants and six species are at the northern limit of their range in the study area. The opposite is largely true for the eight others; they are practically absent from the southern part of the study area, except for the Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis, which is widespread there. The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis is the only resident species that seemed responsive to climatic variables, i

  18. Educación en valores. Ideología y religión en la escuela pública. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, M. (Marta)

    2009-01-01

    Reseña de: Antonio LÓPEZ CASTILLO (ed.). Educación en valores. Ideología y religión en la escuela pública. Estudio introductorío de José Alvarez Junco, Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, Cuademos y Debates, n. 176, Madríd, 2007, 316 pp.

  19. On the statistical analysis of vegetation change: a wetland affected by water extraction and soil acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Wiertz, J.

    1994-01-01

    A case study is presented on the statistical analysis and interpretation of vegetation change without precise information on environmental change. The changes in a vegetation of a Junco-Molinion grassland are evaluated on the basis of relevés of 1977 and 1988 (20 plots) from a small nature reserve

  20. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    OpenAIRE

    Hall ME; Jordan JH; Juncos LA; Hundley WG; Hall JE

    2018-01-01

    Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides ana...

  1. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance...

  2. Evaluation of wheat genotypes for performance and adaptability under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaq, A.; Munir, M.

    2002-01-01

    In four wheat varieties/genotypes were evaluated under rainfed areas of northern Punjab on farmer's fields at 47 locations from 1982-83 to 1986-87. The two wheat varieties Pak-81 and S-19 (Junco S) out yielded the check variety Lyp-73 in all four years. On an average, these two varieties out yielded the check variety by more than 16%. The newly developed variety Barani-83 yielded slightly more than Lyp-73 but significantly less than the Pak-81 and S-19. These two varieties/genotypes performed well in drought also. The relative performance of all the four varieties was same with no difference under two tillage treatments (deep vs. shallow) during 1985-86.(author)

  3. Using of sawing quartzite fine residual for obtaining ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is consisting mainly of quartz. In Paraiba there is a mining activity of this rock, in the region of Varzea and Junco do Serido especially where many wastes are created, including the sawing residue. The objective is to use the waste cited as the ceramic component coating mass, thereby replacing the quartz. Initially, the raw materials samples were taken and the chemical analysis was done of them. This passed the comminution process to achieve the required minimum particle size. After this, a formulation which added the residue in ceramic mass was made. The specimens were subjected to sintering and it was later made physical tests according to NBR 13818. The results show that the residue can replace the quartz ceramic mass successfully, but not as good as the original raw material. (author)

  4. Al rescate de Franco y del franquismo: el hispanismo mexicano en la encrucijada de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sola Ayape

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En 1945, y una vez terminada la segunda guerra mundial, los países vencedores –México, entre ellos– identificaron al régimen franquista como un saldo de guerra y, entre otras medidas en contra, se prohibió el ingreso de España en las Naciones Unidas. En defensa propia, y con un Franco acorralado, los arquitectos del franquismo diseñaron un plan estratégico para aguantar los embates del exterior, contando para ello con la ayuda de hispanistas mexicanos como Alfonso Junco o Jesús Guisa y Azevedo. Así, y teniendo en cuenta los perfiles de esta encrucijada histórica, el objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el discurso del hispanismo mexicano, concebido instrumentalmente para salir en defensa de Franco y del franquismo.

  5. Using of sawing quartzite fine residual for obtaining ceramic coating; Utilizacao do residuo fino da serragem de quartzito para obtencao de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M., E-mail: junior.luiz09@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DIAREN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Laboratorio de Processamento Mineral e Residuo

    2016-07-01

    Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is consisting mainly of quartz. In Paraiba there is a mining activity of this rock, in the region of Varzea and Junco do Serido especially where many wastes are created, including the sawing residue. The objective is to use the waste cited as the ceramic component coating mass, thereby replacing the quartz. Initially, the raw materials samples were taken and the chemical analysis was done of them. This passed the comminution process to achieve the required minimum particle size. After this, a formulation which added the residue in ceramic mass was made. The specimens were subjected to sintering and it was later made physical tests according to NBR 13818. The results show that the residue can replace the quartz ceramic mass successfully, but not as good as the original raw material. (author)

  6. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M; DeLap, Jack H; Oleyar, M David; Whittaker, Kara A; Gardner, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal-the annual movement of territorial adults-of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000-2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study) landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson's Thrush and Pacific wren), which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick's wren) dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape) to 83% (Bewick's wren in forest reserve). Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco) to 100% (Bewick's wren). Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them to maintain

  7. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Marzluff

    Full Text Available Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal-the annual movement of territorial adults-of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000-2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson's Thrush and Pacific wren, which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick's wren dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape to 83% (Bewick's wren in forest reserve. Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco to 100% (Bewick's wren. Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them

  8. Rapid ecological assessment of benthic indicators of water quality: a successful capacity-building experience for Brazilian postgraduate students in ecology

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    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available Rapid Ecological Assessment protocols are important tools for the training of postgraduate students, as well as the collection of data on poorly-known and protected areas with the potential for the preservation of water supplies for urban areas. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of water quality and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in two sub-basins at the Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. The collection of data in the field, laboratory processing, and the interpretation and discussion of data were conducted in groups by students from two postgraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation (UFMG and UFS, personnel of the state environment agency (SEMARH, school teachers from the local town of Capela, and members of the reserve's voluntary fire brigade. The results of the assessment were organised, analysed, and presented at the reserve headquarters in the form of posters, for the development of environmental education activities with pupils from local schools, as well as contributing to a SEMARH seminar. Samples were characterised by distinct taxonomic compositions and diversity, as confirmed by MDS and additive partitioning of diversity analyses. The gravel substrate presented the lower mean taxonomic richness in each sampling unit (a1 = 28%, while the average difference among samples (b1 diversity was elevated for both substrates (39% for leaf litter, 41% for gravel, reflecting the pronounced variation among samples, even adjacent ones within the same stream. Diversity between streams was lower in the case of leaf litter in comparison with gravel (b2 = 21 and 31%, respectively. A total of 57 fish specimens were collected with a predominance of individuals of the orders Characiformes (62% and Perciformes (21%. This rapid ecological assessment confirmed the importance of the conservation unit and emphasised the need for its continuation, given its importance for the maintenance of water

  9. Valoración del cambio ambiental según los “junqueros” y “leñateros” en el sector sur de la región rioplatense (Argentina

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    Pablo C. Stampella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un abordaje etnoecológico, se realizaron 24 entrevistas a informantes calificados de los partidos de Magdalena y Punta Indio, en el litoral rioplatense, con el objetivo de recopilar y evaluar las narrativas de junqueros y leñateros locales respecto del cambio ambiental y su impacto en sus vidas cotidianas. Estas actividades extractivas (obtención de leña y recolección de juncos fueron muy importantes en esta zona, aunque en la actualidad sufren una merma, sobre todo en la actividad junquera, debido principalmente a dos acontecimientos que marcaron el rumbo de la actividad: derrame de petróleo y cambios en los sistemas productivos. En la actividad leñera se registraron cambios principalmente como producto de la creación de la Reserva de Biosfera “Parque Costero del Sur”, sin embargo, a diferencia de los junqueros, la abundancia del recurso leñatero y la reformulación en las prácticas y estrategias de selección hizo posible la permanencia de la actividad a pesar de los cambios sufridos en el área de estudio. Las actividades ejercidas por los informantes influyeron en las narrativas sobre su valoración del cambio ambiental, dado que se reconocieron pocos cambios en común, principalmente, en relación con el clima y la fauna.

  10. Beneficios de la cobertura muerta para el cultivo del tomate (Solanumlycopersicum L. en Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la utilización de biomasa vegetal como cobertura muerta del suelo en el cultivo del tomate. Se realizaron dos experimentos en dos agroecosistemas y se utilizó como cobertura biomasa vegetal de ambas fincas. Los experimentos fueron montados en bloque al azar con tres y cuatro repeticiones. El experimento 1 constó de tres tratamientos, uno cubierto con guinea (PanicummaximaPers., otro con junco de laguna (ScirpuslacustrisL. y un Control. En el 2 se aplicaron cuatro tratamientos, uno cubierto con restos de cosecha de arroz (Oryza sativa L. otro con guinea (Panicum máxima, otro con hojas de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. y un Control. Se realizaron mediciones de temperatura de suelo durante 8 semanas, a las 8:00 horas a las 11:00 horas a las 14:00 horas y 17:00 horas. Además se evaluaron las características morfoagronómicas del cultivo (número de frutos por planta, diámetro y masa de los mismos y el rendimiento productivo. Las características morfoagronómicas mostraron los mejores resultados en los tratamientos cubiertos. Los rendimientos en ambos experimentos fueron estadísticamente superiores donde se utilizó la cobertura del suelo.

  11. Metastatic gastric cancer – focus on targeted therapies

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    Meza-Junco J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B SawyerDepartment of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gastric cancer (GC is currently the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide; unfortunately, most patients will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Despite recent progress in diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, prognosis remains poor. A better understanding of GC biology and signaling pathways is expected to improve GC therapy, and the integration of targeted therapies has recently become possible and appears to be promising. This article focuses on anti-Her-2 therapy, specifically trastuzumab, as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists such as cetuximab, panitumub, matuzumab, nimotzumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib. Additionally, drugs that target angiogenesis pathways are also under investigation, particulary bevacizumab, ramucirumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib. Other targeted agents in preclinical or early clinical development include mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, anti-insulin-like growth factor, anti-heat shock proteins, and small molecules targeting Hedgehog signaling.Keywords: gastric cancer, targeted therapy, antiangiogenesis drugs, anti-EGFR drugs

  12. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

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    Hall ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. Keywords: functional MRI, kidney, oxygenation, chronic kidney disease 

  13. Textile production in the Bronze Age: an assemblage of splindes or bobbins of yarn from the site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante

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    Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The archeological field work on the Bronze Age site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante has given an exceptional sample of spindles or bobbins of rush fibre of yarn in a room destroyed by a violent fire. A meticulous study of these special objects and their process of analysis and restoration yields new perspectives on knowledge in first stages of textile production during Bronze Age in Eastern Spain.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos que se llevan a cabo en el yacimiento de la Edad del Bronce de Terlinques (Villena, Alicante han proporcionado un excepcional conjunto de husos o bobinas de hilo de junco. Éstos se hallaban almacenados en el interior de una habitación destruida por un violento incendio. El detenido estudio de estos singulares objetos y su proceso de análisis y restauración nos permite aproximamos, desde nuevas perspectivas, al conocimiento de la producción textil en las etapas iniciales de la Edad del Bronce en el Levante de la Península Ibérica.

  14. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  15. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

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    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  16. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  17. Comparación de la calidad del humus de material vegetal con el de residuos orgánicos domésticos, resultado del compostaje mediante el sistema de pilas

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    Juan Pablo Rodriguez Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se fundamentó en el compostaje del material vegetal de humedales artificiales, puestos en marcha en un proyecto piloto de tratamiento de aguas residuales para la Quebrada Mi Padre de Jesús ubicada a los alrededores de la Facultad de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, realizado en el año 2010. Teniendo en cuenta que estos residuos vegetales, terminan su vida útil en los humedales y no tienen algún uso específico, se generó una alternativa de aprovechamiento de estos residuos, en la producción de compost o abono orgánico. Surge entonces la necesidad de encontrar un método que haga posible su notable reducción, transformación y aprovechamiento de tal manera que se genere un impacto positivo en el ámbito ambiental, económico, social y sanitario. En este caso el compostaje se empleó como técnica para la biodegradación de los residuos vegetales de las especies Buchón de Agua (Eichhornia crassipes, Buchón Cucharita (Limnobium laevigatum. y Junco (Schoenoplectus californicus, transformándolos en un abono orgánico; de igual forma se biodegradaron residuos vegetales de plaza de mercado, que fueron recolectados de la Plaza de mercado de Paloquemao ubicada en la ciudad de Bogotá, empleando la misma técnica con el propósito de tener un punto comparativo en la calidad final de los abonos, con respecto a lo estipulado en la norma NTC 5167 cuarta actualización, referente a parámetros químicos, físicos, microbiológicos con los que deben cumplir los abonos generados a partir de residuos orgánicos de origen animal y vegetal.

  18. Pabellón del club náutico de Sevilla

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    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available This lightweight pavillion is a provisional design, until the permanent Social Headquarters of the Nautical Club of Seville is built. Its plan layout is L shaped, and it faces south and west, so that its main frontage has maximum sunshine during the colder months. As it was anticipated that this building should have multiple uses, so that it could serve as dining room, meeting, and lecture hall, etc., it was decided to suspend from the ceiling a kind of reed woven curtains, which due to their lightness and flexibility, make it easy to subdivide in various ways the building, according to particular requirements. An ondulated canopy and screens, which gyrate about a vertical axis, have been fitted on the outside. These are covered with cane material. Inside, the walls are white, except for a number of lines made with tiles. There is also a picture, and a stand with the sporting trophies; this being the only ornamentation. The furniture is mostly made of cloth and cane, and a number of plants is also distributed about the building, thereby contributing to create a «winter garden» atmosphere, which is highly compatible with the general layout.Este pabellón Iigero se ha construido, como solución de emergencia, basta edificar el Local Social definitivo del Club Nautico de Sevilla, Su planta en forma de ángulo y la orientación sur y oeste de las «fachadas principales» aseguran el aprovechamiento al máximo del soleamiento en los meses fríos. Como se pensó que este local tuviera múltiples utilizaciones —sirviendo de comedor, local de reunión, banquetes, conferencias, etc.— se han empleado unas esterillas de junco, colgadas del techo, que, dada su ligereza y movilidad, permiten efectuar las subdivisiones y variaciones oportunas con un esfuerzo mínimo. Exteriormente existen una visera ondulada y unas pantallas giratorias, en sentido vertical, cubiertas de cañas, e, interiormente, las paredes blancas interrumpidas por unas líneas de cer

  19. Un registro de 6 000 años de manifestaciones intensas del fenómeno de El Niño en sedimentos de lagunas de las islas Galápagos

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    1998-01-01

    ’enregistrement de Bainbridge, nous disposons d’autres carottes susceptibles de retracer l’histoire du phénomène El Niño. Une carotte du lac de cratère de Genovesa (6 000 ± 50 ans montre des fluctuations dans la teneur en phosphore (provenant du Guano de fous aux pattes rouges qui nichent autour du cratère et de pollen de Bursea (plante qui ne fleurit que quand il pleut. Les sédiments du lac de El Junco dans l’île de San Cristobal montrent des fluctuations des espèces de diatomées qui indiquent des variations du niveau de ce lac au cours des derniers 550 ans (daté à l’aide de Pb 210. Des carottes prélevées dans deux lagons côtiers des îles Isabela et Santiago montrent, grâce à la présence de diatomées marines et d’espèces foraminifères, des fluctuations du niveau de l’océan. Muchos de los modelos que se están desarrollando con el propósito de obtener un pronóstico efectivo del fenómeno de El Niño requieren datos históricos sobre el comportamiento del clima, y es especialmente importante para climatólogos el obtener datos de gran antigüedad. En los sedimentos de lagunas de las Islas Galápagos encontramos uno de los registros más antiguos y completos de la frecuencia con la que los eventos de más intensidad de El Niño han ocurrido. Las lluvias torrenciales que El Niño trae causan que la salinidad del agua en lagunas salobres de las islas baje considerablemente. Es posible detectar estos cambios en los sedimentos de las lagunas mediante análisis de mineralogía y geoquímica. Además una capa de agua dulce que se forma en la superficie de estas lagunas durante épocas de lluvia, causa que la composición de especies de algas microscópicas (diatomeas cambie. Las diatomeas tienen paredes celulares de silicio que permiten que la comunidad entera se preserve como fósil en los sedimentos. Un núcleo de sedimentos de 4,17 m, obtenido en la laguna salobre del cráter de Bainbridge al sureste de la Isla Santiago, nos proporciona una historia

  20. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  1. Práticas territoriais indígenas entre a flexibilidade e a fixação

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    Michael Kent

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em sua busca pelo reconhecimento de seus territórios costumeiros, as populações indígenas das Américas têm progressivamente lançado mão de técnicas modernas para a definição precisa de territórios. Isto resultou em tensões entre suas práticas muitas vezes altamente flexíveis e as modalidades mais fixas de territorialidade produzidas por tais técnicas. O objetivo deste artigo é explorar essas tensões e suas consequências sociais por meio da análise das práticas territoriais dos Uros, um grupo indígena que habita ilhas flutuantes nos juncais do lago andino Titicaca. Tais práticas serão analisadas tanto no nível da comunidade quanto em suas relações conflitantes com as comunidades vizinhas na costa do lago e com uma área protegida administrada pelo Estado peruano. As práticas territoriais internas dos Uros revelam elevados níveis de mobilidade física e flexibilidade social, resultantes do constante fundir e separar das ilhas artificiais de junco. No entanto, seu envolvimento com o Estado e suas práticas territoriais têm resultado em profundas transformações em seus arranjos com as comunidades ribeirinhas. Em especial, redundou numa transformação dos territórios flexíveis, vagamente definidos e compartilhados, em territórios fixos, claramente definidos e exclusivos. Por fim, analisarei conflitos que emergiram entre os Uros quando seus líderes tentaram aplicar mecanismos de fixação territorial, de forma a controlar a constante fusão e separação das ilhas flutuantes.In their quest for the recognition of their customary territories, indigenous populations of the Americas have increasingly made use of modern techniques for the precise definition of territories. This has resulted in tensions between their often highly flexible territorial practices and the more fixed modalities of territoriality produced through such techniques. The objective of this article is to explore such tensions and their social

  2. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

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    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  3. [New species of the Rhinonyssid mites (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from birds of Russia and neighboring countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, O M; Staniukovich, M K

    2001-01-01

    Four new species of the nasal mite family Rhinonyssidae collected in different regions of the former USSR are described: Neonyssus (Otocorinyssus) alaudae sp. n. from Alauda arvensis L. (Alaudidae, Passeriformes) from Turkmenistan; Rhinonyssus clangulae sp. n. from Clangula hyemalis (L.) (Anatidae, Anseriformes) from Yakutia; R. marilae sp. n. from Aythya marilae L. (Anatidae, Anseriformes) from the Russian Far East; Locustellonyssus sibiricus sp. n. from Locustella certhiola (Pall.) (Sylviidae, Passeriformes) from Siberia.

  4. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    , Gracias a estos fracasos debió enrolarse en la expedición de Don Pedro Fernández de Lugo- como Teniente y Justicia Mayor, para dirigirse al enigmático Nuevo Mundo.

    Vendrá en su mente el recuerdo del vistoso desembarco de las tropas en Santa Martha, en gra contraste con los harapos que vestirían esas mismas tropas más tarde al enfrentarse al territorio americano. Recordará vivamente Don Gonzalo cómo su idea de seguir adelante para conquistar el corazón de América dio muchos ánimos a la gente y fue así como para su empresa logró reunir ochocientos soldados, de a pie y a caballo, acompañados por muchos indios. También dotó una pequeña flotilla que debía subir por el Río Grande de la Magdalena.

    Aquí vendría una parte negra de los ensueños del Mariscal, una pesadilla de fracasos y sufrimientos que comenzó el6 de abril de 1536. Su flota zozobró quedando tan sólo dos naves. Su tropa, que iba por tierra, guiada por expertos Capitanes: Suárez Rendón, Juan del Junco, Antón de Olaya, Juan de Céspedes, etc., sufre todas las inclemencias del tiempo, debe atravesar pantanos, cruzar selvas, hacer caminos al aundar. Las fieras, no menos terribles que las flechas de algunas tribus indígenas, van terminando con la soldadesca. El hambre les lleva a comer de todo. Fiebres desconocidas los asaltaban. Porque, pensaría Don Gonzalo, que en este enfrentamiento de dos mundos, que se desconocen, se causan admiración, se temen, no sólo van a intercambiar disparos y dardos, espejos por esmeraldas, religión por agüeros, sino también a intercambiar enfermedades, que destruyeron a los unos y a los otros.

    Volverá a la mente del adelantado, quien en el fondo estimaba a los indios, la variada conducta de las distintas tribus, los unos los atacan, ocultándose entre el follaje, otros muchos les huyen como a bestias salvajes, otros los reciben como a los dioses blancos prometidos. Pero quizás el recuerdo más impresionante sea el episodio que sucedi

  5. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  6. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  7. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  8. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  9. Habitat use and foraging patterns of molting male Long-tailed Ducks in lagoons of the central Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Reed, John; Deborah Lacroix,; Richard Lanctot,

    2016-01-01

    From mid-July through September, 10 000 to 30 000 Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) use the lagoon systems of the central Beaufort Sea for remigial molt. Little is known about their foraging behavior and patterns of habitat use during this flightless period. We used radio transmitters to track male Long-tailed Ducks through the molt period from 2000 to 2002 in three lagoons: one adjacent to industrial oil field development and activity and two in areas without industrial activity. We found that an index to time spent foraging generally increased through the molt period. Foraging, habitat use, and home range size showed similar patterns, but those patterns were highly variable among lagoons and across years. Even with continuous daylight during the study period, birds tended to use offshore areas during the day for feeding and roosted in protected nearshore waters at night. We suspect that variability in behaviors associated with foraging, habitat use, and home range size are likely influenced by availability of invertebrate prey. Proximity to oil field activity did not appear to affect foraging behaviors of molting Long-tailed Ducks.

  10. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  11. Bioaccumulation of uranium 234U and 238U in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borylo, A.; Skwarzec, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper was presented results of our study about uranium 234 U and 238 U radioactivity in the marine birds samples, collected in the Polish area of the southern Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated that uranium is very irregularly distributed in organs and tissues of marine birds. The highest uranium content is characterized in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The uranium concentration was higher for carnivorous species (long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis), common eider (S. mollissima), lower for species eating fish (great cormorant (P. carbo), common guillemot (U. aalge), red-throated diver (G. stellata) and razorbill (A. tarda)), but the biggest amounts for herbivorous species [tufted duck (A. fuligula) and eurasian coot (F. atra)]. About 63-67% of uranium, which was located in feathers of two species of marine birds: razorbill (A. tarda) and long-tailed duck (C. hymealis), was apparently adsorbed, which suggests that uranium adsorption on the feathers may be an important transfer from air to water. (author)

  12. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  13. Avian botulism type E in waterbirds of Lake Michigan, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Blehert, David S.; Jennings, Susan K.; Strom, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    During 2010 to 2013, waterbird mortality surveillance programs used a shared protocol for shoreline walking surveys performed June to November at three areas in northern Lake Michigan. In 2010 and 2012, 1244 total carcasses (0.8 dead bird/km walked) and 2399 total carcasses (1.2 dead birds/km walked), respectively, were detected. Fewer carcasses were detected in 2011 (353 total carcasses, 0.2 dead bird/km walked) and 2013 (451 total carcasses, 0.3 dead bird/km walked). During 3 years, peak detection of carcasses occurred in October and involved primarily migratory diving and fish-eating birds, including long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; 2010), common loons (Gavia immer; 2012), and red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator; 2013). In 2011, peak detection of carcasses occurred in August and consisted primarily of summer residents such as gulls (Larus spp.) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). A subset of fresh carcasses was collected throughout each year of the study and tested for botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). Sixty-one percent of carcasses (57/94) and 10 of 11 species collected throughout the sampling season tested positive for BoNT/E, suggesting avian botulism type E was a major cause of death for both resident and migratory birds in Lake Michigan. The variety of avian species affected by botulism type E throughout the summer and fall during all 4 years of coordinated surveillance also suggests multiple routes for bird exposure to BoNT/E in Lake Michigan.

  14. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  15. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  16. Monitoring Beaufort Sea waterfowl and marine birds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design and implement a monitoring protocol for marine waterbirds in the Jones-Return Islands area of the central Alaska Beaufort Sea. Because of its overwhelming and widespread abundance, relatively sedentary behavior, ease in counting, and the extensive historical database, the oldsquaw duck (Clangula hyemalis) was selected as the focal species for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated concerning potential changes in the numbers and distribution of oldsquaws in relation to OCS development in the industrial area, compared to a control area (Stockton-Maguire-Flaxman Islands area) located about 50 km to the east. A 9-year historical database (1977 through 1984, and 1989) was analyzed using multivariate techniques to determine which of several predictor variables recorded during past aerial surveys significantly influenced oldsquaw density in the central Alaska Beaufort Sea. Separate analyses were conducted for the complete open-water period, and for the molt period of oldsquaws, when they are flightless and relatively sedentary in the study areas. The results of the two multiple regression analyses indicated that only about 57% and 68%, respectively, of the total amount of variation in oldsquaw density during the two periods could be explained by predictor variables recorded during aerial surveys. Candidate predictor variables were year of study, day of year, time of day, wind speed and direction, habitat, east-west position (study area) of the transect, distance of the transect from a barrier island, water depth beneath the transect, wave height and amount of ice recorded on the transect. Predictor variables associated with habitat, day of the year, time of day of the survey, amount of ice, and wave height recorded on transect during the survey had the most significant effect on oldsquaw density

  17. Results of the January 2017 waterbird census in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božič Luka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the International Waterbird Census (IWC was carried out in Slovenia on January 14 and 15. Waterbirds were counted on all larger rivers, along the entire Slovenian Coastland and on most of the major standing waters in the country. During the census, in which 235 observers took part, 413 sections of the rivers and coastal sea with a total length of 1,427 km and 200 other localities (164 standing waters and 36 streams were surveyed. The census was characterized by harsh winter conditions and high proportion of frozen water bodies. Altogether, 51,790 waterbirds of 61 species were counted. Thus, the number of waterbirds and the number of species recorded were close to the 21-year average. The highest numbers of waterbirds were counted in the Drava count area, i.e. 20,064 individuals (38.7% of all waterbirds in Slovenia. By far the most numerous species was Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (46.1% of all waterbirds, followed by Coot Fulica atra (6.8% of all waterbirds, Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (5.9% of all waterbirds, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (5.7% of all waterbirds and Mute Swan Cygnus olor (3.9% of all waterbirds. The number of 1,000 counted individuals was also surpassed by Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis, Teal An. crecca, Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula, White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons, Pygmy Cormorant P. pygmeus and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. Among the rarer recorded species, the Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis (registered for the first time during the January Waterbird Censuses and only for the third time ever in Slovenia and Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis (the first probable A category individual for IWC and Slovenia deserve special mention. Numbers of the following species were the highest so far recorded during the IWC: Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (together with 2006 and 2012, Pintail An. acuta, Ferruginous Duck Ay. nyroca, Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis (together with 2003, Goosander Mergus

  18. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  19. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  20. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  1. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Koneff

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini. Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits, and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana and surf scoter (M. perspicillata, and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis. We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax, and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared