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Sample records for juices asa interference

  1. Toward a facile method to remove ascorbate interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay of "total phenolic content"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-established Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices this interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Approaches to eliminating the AsA interference are brie...

  2. Improved removal of ascorbate interference in the folin-ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can substantially exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...

  3. Improved removal of ascorbate interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...

  4. Low-interferences Determination of the Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits Juices Based on Xanthine Oxidase and Mediated Amperometric Measurements in the Reduction Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2016-01-01

    A low-interferences enzymatic sensor for evaluating the antioxidant capacity was developed. Xanthine oxidase was used to produce superoxide radicals that spontaneously dismutate to hydrogen peroxide. Low xanthine concentrations were used to minimize the rapid dismutation of the superoxide radical before its fast reaction with antioxidants. The sensor operates in the reduction mode, and evaluations with low interferences of the antioxidant capacity are based on the detection of remaining hydrogen peroxide using Prussian blue electrodes at low potentials. The linear calibration graph is between 2 - 10 μM ascorbic acid. No interferences were observed from easily oxidisable substances including uric acid, which is produced in the enzymatic reaction or other substances usually found in foods. The method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in different real juice samples.

  5. ASA education outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Uwe J.; Everbach, E. Carr

    2003-04-01

    A number of very successful Hands-on demo sessions for high school students have been a part of regular ASA meetings for some time. In addition, the Education Committee has organized a series of teacher workshops. These workshops are designed to give high school teachers relatively sophisticated tools to enhance their laboratory content. Workshops for teachers in the elementary grades prepare teachers to use music as a vehicle to introduce additional science concepts. Content and methods associated with both workshops will be discussed. Cyberspace outreach by the ASA was accelerated by the establishment of a Home Page Committee, and more recently by the On-Line Education committee, which is creating an educational website. The website provides a fun way for users to access information including acoustics information, history, demos, and links to the Technical Committee's webpages. The ASA has joined other AIP member societies in developing additional mechanisms, including road shows and nightly news spots.

  6. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  7. ASA (ALT) Design, Develop, Deliver, Dominate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Technology (ASA(ALT)) and the Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) ASA(ALT) Credo ASA(ALT) Overview Deputy for Acquisition and Systems...the people we serve and the communities we depend upon for support. ASA(ALT) Credo Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and

  8. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low Km (8.4mM), high Imax (77.2μAcm(-2)), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm(-2)mM(-1)). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  10. ASA klientide vara sulas peenrahaks / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Sajad ASA Kindlustuse kliendid saavad pankrotist vähem raha kui kulub pangaülekandeks, summad jäävad 2 ja 30 krooni vahele. Vt. samas: Klientide saadav raha ASA Kindlustuse pankrotipesast; Apananski süüst priiks

  11. 5-ASA Suppositories in Hemorrhoidal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gionchetti

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with active hemorrhoidal disease were entered into this double-blind trial, 20 of whom were randomized to treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA (500 mg suppositories. Clinical and sigmoidoscopic assessment was carried out before the start of the trial and after two weeks of treatment. At the end of the study, 5-ASA suppositories showed results superior to those of placebo for all parameters evaluated (P<0.01. There were no adverse events reported related to the use of suppositories. 5-ASA suppositories are a valid therapeutic approach for hemorrhoidal disease as it reduces the intensity of all symptoms and significantly decreases congestion of the hemorrhoidal plexus.

  12. Asa Wright Nature Center, Like Another World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimm, Wayne

    1983-01-01

    The Asa Wright Nature Center, on the Caribbean island of Trinidad, offers a diversity of wildlife species: 108 mammals, 400 birds, 55 reptiles, 25 amphibians, and over 600 butterflies. Learning opportunities include art and photography instruction, lectures, interpretive nature walks, annual resident seminars, and a two-day trip to Tobago. (MH)

  13. Asa Grant Hilliard III: Scholar Supreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, William H.

    2008-01-01

    This integrative review uses two of Asa Grant Hilliard's books, "SBA: The Reawakening of the African Mind" and "The Maroon Within Us: Selected Essays on African American Community Socialization", to discuss aspects of his scholarly legacy in teaching, history, and psychology. His scholarship is provocative. Hilliard rejected the supremacy of the…

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  15. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Hatton, Grace B; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of fused-deposition 3-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) to produce modified-release drug loaded tablets. Two aminosalicylate isomers used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), were selected as model drugs. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were loaded with the drugs in an ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.06% w/w and 0.25% w/w was achieved for the 5-ASA and 4-ASA strands, respectively. 10.5mm diameter tablets of both PVA/4-ASA and PVA/5-ASA were subsequently printed using an FDM 3D printer, and varying the weight and densities of the printed tablets was achieved by selecting the infill percentage in the printer software. The tablets were mechanically strong, and the FDM 3D printing was shown to be an effective process for the manufacture of the drug, 5-ASA. Significant thermal degradation of the active 4-ASA (50%) occurred during printing, however, indicating that the method may not be appropriate for drugs when printing at high temperatures exceeding those of the degradation point. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the formulated blends confirmed these findings while highlighting the potential of thermal analytical techniques to anticipate drug degradation issues in the 3D printing process. The results of the dissolution tests conducted in modified Hank's bicarbonate buffer showed that release profiles for both drugs were dependent on both the drug itself and on the infill percentage of the tablet. Our work here demonstrates the potential role of FDM 3DP as an efficient and low-cost alternative method of manufacturing individually tailored oral drug dosage, and also for production of modified-release formulations.

  16. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  17. ASAS = NASA's Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer: 1988 -2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) data collection contains data collected by the ASAS sensor flown aboard NASA aircraft. A fundamental use of...

  18. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    , even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...

  19. ASAS KEBEBASAN BERKONTRAK DAN ASAS KEPRIBADIAN DALAM KONTRAK-KONTRAK OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq El Rahman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of contract applies for parties n outsourcing contracts, even though it is not applicable for outsourcing worker. There are violation in personality principle where the outsourcing contract is applicable for third party. The legal protection for outsourcing worker is also weak. Asas kebebasan berkontrak berlaku bagi para pihak dalam perjanjian outsourcing tetapi tidak berlaku bagi tenaga kerja outsourcing. Terdapat penyimpangan terhadap asas kepribadian, dimana perjanjian outsourcing berlaku bagi tenaga kerja outsourcing yang berkedudukan sebagai pihak ketiga. Perlindungan hukum bagi tenaga kerja outsourcing relatif lemah.

  20. Photometric Solutions of Some Contact ASAS Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gezer, I

    2015-01-01

    We present the first light curve solution of 6 contact binary systems which are chosen from the ASAS catalog. The photometric elements and the estimated absolute parameters of all systems are obtained with the light curve analyses. We calculated the values of degree of contact for the systems. The location of the targets on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the mass-radius plane is compared to the other well-known contact binaries and the evolutionary status of the systems are also discussed.

  1. Photometric solutions of some contact ASAS binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, İ.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We present the first light curve solution of 6 contact binary systems which are chosen from the ASAS catalog. The photometric elements and the estimated absolute parameters of all systems are obtained with the light curve analyses. We calculated the values of degree of contact for the systems. The location of the targets on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the mass-radius plane is compared to the other well-known contact binaries and the evolutionary status of the systems are also discussed.

  2. Continuing Support of the ASA Standards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-20

    0 U, U,~ ~ U) ZGc Zw S31368 COMMITTEE CORRESPONDENCE ATTACHMENT C-1 Tom Frank, Ph.D. 5-A Moore Building Department of Communication Disorders Penn...Chair ’s Circulated-by: A. Brenig, ASA Standard na igkf Reference Document(s): ATTACHMEN rvision of ANSI S1.1-1960 (R 1976) DOC/Lb ýNj’ P8 cou ical...the following address. Tomasz R. Letowski, Ph.D. 5-B Moore Building Department of Communication Disorders Penn State University University Park, PA 16802 Phone: 814/863-2018; FAX: 814/863-3759

  3. Coronal activity from the ASAS eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M; Paczynski, B; Pojmanski, G; Pilecki, B

    2008-01-01

    We combine the catalogue of eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) with the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The combination results in 836 eclipsing binaries that display coronal activity and is the largest sample of active binary stars assembled to date. By using the (V-I) colors of the ASAS eclipsing binary catalogue, we are able to determine the distances and thus bolometric luminosities for the majority of eclipsing binaries that display significant stellar activity. A typical value for the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric luminosity is L_X/L_bol ~ a few x 10^-4, similar to the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric flux F_X/F_bol in the most active regions of the Sun. Unlike rapidly rotating isolated late-type dwarfs -- stars with significant outer convection zones -- a tight correlation between Rossby number and activity of eclipsing binaries is absent. We find evidence for the saturation effect and marginal evidence for the so-called "super-saturation" phenomena. Our work shows that wide-...

  4. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time.

  5. PENERAPAN NORMA DAN ASAS-ASAS HUKUM ADAT DALAM PRAKTIK PERADILAN PERDATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sulastriyono

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was descriptive research. Secondary and primary data were analysed qualitatively. The result of the research shows that mostly, the application of adat law norm and principles appear in the domain of private, contract, marital, and inheritance law. The adat law norms which are frequently used as judge considerations are the right of spouse on the matrimonial property, the guardian of a child under his mother, and the status of ex-wife as the heir of her former husband. We also identify a number of adat law principles, which include the clear (terang, cash (tunai, real (konkret and familiarity (kekeluargaan. Application of adat law is necessary owing to the normative legislative obligation. In practice, judges need to ensure that adat law norms are consistent with the applicable civil procedure. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif, yaitu melukiskan fakta obyek penelitian. Data primer dan sekunder dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa norma hukum adat yang dijadikan dasar pertimbangan putusan hakim adalah istri berhak atas harta bersama, anak kecil diasuh ibu yang bercerai, dan istri adalah ahli waris mendiang suaminya. Asas hukum adat yang mendasari putusan hakim mencakup asas terang, tunai, konkrit dan kekeluargaan. Alasan hakim menerapkan norma dan asas hukum adat dikarenakan kewajiban normatif dari undang-undang dan dalam upaya membentuk yurisprudensi. Namun, praktiknya tidak mudah sehingga hakim harus melakukan harmonisasi ke dalam hukum acara positif.

  6. AKD AND ASA MODEL SURFACES: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Laine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Model surfaces of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD and alkenyl succinic anhyd-ride (ASA were prepared by casting and spin-coating methods. The surface chemical composition and surface topography were investigated by XPS, ellipsometry, AFM and contact angle studies. Spin-coating resulted in layered structure of AKD and ASA surfaces; the molecular layer thickness of both AKD and ASA was found to be ca. 2.5 nm. To achieve a covering surface layer, an average thickness of ca. 35 nm was required. The rms roughness of the created surfaces was 1 - 6 nm. Colloidal probe adhesion measurements were performed to verify that the roughness was in a range suitable for these measurements. The high reactivity of ASA with water generated stability problems with the ASA layers and it has to be recognized that surface force measurements with ASA in aqueous environment are very difficult, if not impossible. How-ever, surfaces created in this way were found to be useful in providing explanations of earlier ASA adhesion studies. The contact angle measurements on ASA layers also indicated that it might be possible to asses the hydrolysis rate issues through a set of similar measurements.

  7. Livro "Sou Asas", de Marta Morgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available "Sou Asas" é um livro infantil de Marta Morgado que nos remete a uma situação muito comum em salas de aula com pessoas surdas, que são naturalmente batizadas por seus colegas com um sinal a partir de suas características físicas ou de personalidade. Ele narra a história de Joana, uma menina surda, que cresceu numa escola de ouvintes e, portanto, não conhecia a Língua de Sinais. Pela primeira vez numa escola de Surdos descobre que no Mundo dos Surdos, todos têm um nome gestual - e ela também terá. Apesar de sua autora ser estrangeira e utilizar a Língua Gestual Portuguesa - LGP, o livro é de fácil entendimento, pois possui ilustração cheia de detalhes onde as diversas características de pessoas surdas são pontuadas, como por exemplo, a presença de um amigo da escola que possui a Síndrome de Wanderburg e assim é identificado. O DVD que acompanha o material apresenta a mesma história em LGP possibilitando inúmeras atividades em sala de aula, como também o conhecimento de outra Língua de Sinais. Maiores informações e outras obras da mesma autora no site www.surduniverso.pt

  8. Predictive validity of the ASAS classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis after follow-up in the ASAS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepriano, Alexandre; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish the predictive validity of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) spondyloarthritis (SpA) classification criteria. Methods 22 centres (N=909 patients) from the initial 29 ASAS centres (N=975) participated in the ASAScohort follow-up study. Patients...

  9. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) use among Polish adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewoski, Jozef; Sawer-Szewczyk, Joanna; Stepień, Anna; Olszewski, Andrzej; Liniarski, Marek

    2005-09-01

    People with diabetes mellitus have higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality from thrombo-vascular complications than non-diabetics and it is recommended that they should use acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as anitiplatelet agent regularly. The aim of this study was to examine current physician counseling about ASA therapy and the use of ASA by Polish patients with diabetes. The study involved 464 randomly selected Caucasian diabetic individuals, mainly with type 2 (>98%), who were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions while visiting out-patient medical centres for periodical examination or during hospitalization. We collected data on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), frequency of risk factors among diabetic patients and on ASA physician counseling, and on the rate of regular ASA users among the patients. The most self-reported conditions were angina pectoris or prior myocardial infarction (63,6%). Current cigarette smoking was declared by 7,1% of the patients, elevated serum cholesterol levels by 58%, and hypertension by 62,9%. Majority of the patients were overweight, and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) was reported by 30,2% of the patients. ASA was taken by 67,2% of all the patients and 72,1% of them had taken ASA regularly. The highest percentage (>80%) of regular ASA users was found among diabetic patients with CAD. A minority of the patients who reported stroke (43,9%) or claudication (15,8%) were taking ASA regularly. Number of the patients (32,8%) with CVD risk factor(s) but without diagnosed CVD did not use ASA at all. The majority of the patients (78%) were counseled by their physicians why they should use ASA regularly. the number of regular users of ASA among diabetic patients in Poland with CVD others than CAD or among patients with at least two CAD risk factors is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, while it seems that there is a remarkable growing of ASA therapy world-wide more effort is needed

  10. 5-ASA in ulcerative colitis: Improving treatment compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosimo Prantera; Marina Rizzi

    2009-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds are a highly effective treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). While UC patient compliance in clinical studies is over 90%, only 40% of patients in every day life take their prescribed therapy. Adherence to medication has been emphasized recently by a Cochrane meta-analysis that has suggested that future trials of 5-ASA in UC should look at patient compliance rather than drug efficacy. Better compliance can be obtained by reducing the number of tablets and times of administration. Given that the 5-ASA formulations have different delivery systems that split the active moiety in various regions of the intestine, it is particularly important that an adequate dose of the drug arrives at the inflamed part of the colon. 5-ASA Multi matrix (MMx) is a novel, high strength (1.2 g), oral formulation designed for once-daily dosing. It releases the active moiety throughout the colon. Different studies with this compound have shown that it is as effective as 5-ASA enema in the treatment of mild-to-moderate, left-sided UC, and is comparable to a pH-dependent, delayed release 5-ASA (Asacol(R)), even if given once daily. Recently, the effectiveness in the acute phase of UC has been confirmed also in maintenance. In conclusion, at present, 5-ASA MMx seems theoretically the best agent for maintaining patient compliance, and consequently, treatment effectiveness.

  11. Overview of 5-ASA in Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CN Williams

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two forms of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA drug delivery. First, a pro-drug form in which 5-ASA, the active principal, is attached to a c.arrier molecule and released in the intestine by bacterial cleavage. An example of this is sulfasalazine, originally developed in the 1940s and found to be effective, cheap, but limited by side effects due to the sulfapyridine component. The second drug delivery system depends on an enteric coating for delayed pH-dependent release or for a timed-released mechanism. 5-ASA inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, modulates leukocyte function and inhibits soluble mediator release, and is an effective scavenger action of free oxygen radicals, the relative importance of which is unknown. The multiplicity of action is probably its strength because drugs that have only one of these actions are relatively ineffective in inflammatory bowel disease. 5-ASA compounds are effective in treating mild to moderate acute ulcerative colitis and in maintaining remission, and are equivalent to sulfasalazine in this regard. 5-ASA used topically in enema or suppository form is highly efficient in both acute disease and in maintaining remission. 5-ASA is also effective in active Crohn’s disease, but not as effective as in maintenance therapy compared with ulcerative colitis. The pro-drugs tend to have more side effects. Slow release compounds are well tolerated with few side effects, allowing increases to effective dosage. In patients intolerant of sulfasalazine, switching to a 5-ASA preparation usually results in tolerance and therapeutic benefit, with an occasional allergic reaction to the 5-ASA molecule limiting its use.

  12. REKONSEPTUALISASI ASAS DEMOKRASI EKONOMI DALAM KONSTITUSI INDONESIA

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    Reka Dewantara

    2015-06-01

    perumusan regulasi di bidang perekonomian nasional berperan dalam penguatan pemerintahan demokratis yang menjadi pengatur dan pengarah berjalannya ekonomi nasional. Pemerintahan yang belum stabil, dalam artian mampu mendistribusikan hak dan kewajiban ekonomi masing-masing ekonomi secara adil, maka ekonomi yang benar-benar demokratis tidak akan dapat terwujud. Di Negara Indonesia saat ini menunjukkan proses demokratisasi yang berlangsung setengah hati dan belum  menunjukkan arah yang positif bagi penguatan pemerintahan. Reformasi di bidang ekonomi yang diperlukan Indonesia adalah reformasi dalam sistem ekonominya, yaitu pembaharuan aturan main yang cenderung mencari kesejahteraan semata menjadi aturan main yang lebih menjamin keadilan ekonomi melalui peningkatan pemerataan hasil-hasil pembangunan sesuai konsep ekonomi sosial. Hasil interpretasi dari para ahli ekonomi dan hukum sebagai perekonomian yang bersifat kerakyatan, maka pelaksanaan sistem atau best practices dalam sistem ekonomi harus lebih demokratis dengan partisipasi penuh dari rakyat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  konsep asas demokrasi ekonomi di dalam Pasal 33 ayat (4 UUD NRI Tahu 1945 secara eksplisit dapat dianalisis bahwa adanya kewajiban dalam operasional struktur kelembagaan ekonomi dilihat dari kepemilikan usaha diatur secara adil berdasarkan konstitusi. Negara yang diwakili Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN maupun Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (BUMD merupakan actor pelaksana utama  yang diberikan kewenangan untuk mengelola sektor-sektor vital dalam perekonomian yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak sesuai Pasal 33 konstitusi. Hal ini mengindikasikan pentingnya penguatan institusi negara dalam mengelola sumber-sumber  kekayaan alam terutama yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak, sehingga tidak tergantung pada modal asing.   Kata kunci: rekonseptualisasi, azas demokrasi ekonomi, konstitusi

  13. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  14. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  15. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  16. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  17. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog $-$ II. 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J; Bishop, D W; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Godoy-Rivera, D; Goss, N; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Skowron, D M; Thompson, Todd A; Woźniak, P R; Avíla, C G; Bock, G; Carballo, J -L G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; andújar, J M F; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E Y; Kiyota, S; Koff, R A; Krannich, G; Madore, B F; Marples, P; Masi, G; Morrell, N; Monard, L A G; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wagner, R M; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  18. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog - II. 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J.; Bishop, D. W.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A. B.; Falco, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Goss, N.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G. V.; Skowron, D. M.; Thompson, Todd A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Bock, G.; Carballo, J.-L. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Andújar, J. M. F.; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Madore, B. F.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Morrell, N.; Monard, L. A. G.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wagner, R. M.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  19. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  20. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  1. Multiperiodic Galactic field RR Lyrae stars in the ASAS catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M

    2007-01-01

    The All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) monitors bright stars (8 mag < V < 14 mag) south of declination +28 deg. The ASAS Catalogue of Variable Stars (ACVS) presently contains 50,099 objects; among them are 2212 objects classified as RR Lyrae pulsating variables. We use ASAS photometric V band data to search for multiperiodicity in those stars. We find that 73 of 1435 RRab stars and 49 of 756 RRc stars exhibit the Blazhko effect. We observe a deficiency of RRab Blazhko variables with main pulsation periods greater than 0.65 days. The Blazhko periods of RRc stars exhibit a strongly bimodal distribution. During our study we discovered the Blazhko effect with multiple periods in object ASAS 050747-3351.9 = SU Col. Blazhko periods of 89.3 d and 65.8 d and a candidate of 29.5 d were identified with periodogram peaks near the first three harmonics of the main pulsation. These observations may inspire new models of the Blazhko effect, which has eluded a consistent theory since its discovery about one hundred years...

  2. ASAS classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis: time to modify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Nurullah; Khan, Muhammad A

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between ankylosing spondylitis and the recently proposed entity called axial spondyloarthritis with its radiographic and non-radiographic forms that have been defined by the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), is currently being debated. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) had criticized the ASAS criteria and the studies which used these criteria to enroll patients in a clinical trial of certolizumab and adalimumab for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. The primary aim of classification criteria is to create homogenous patient populations for basic and clinical research. But the multi-arm construct of the ASAS criteria is a potential source of heterogeneity reducing their utility. Criteria sets should be regarded as dynamic concepts open to modifications or updates as our knowledge advances. We provide evidence to conclude that it is time to modify the ASAS Criteria for axSpA, and we propose some of the steps that can be taken to start moving forward in improving the validity of these criteria.

  3. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  4. Assessing the Photometric Calibration of the ASAS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Dambis, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    We compare bona fide calibrated mean VIC magnitudes of several hundred stars found in the CCD frames taken in 2012 during our photometric observations of 109 Cepheids and RR Lyrae type stars made at the South African Astronomical Observatory to the corresponding mean VIC magnitudes measured in the course of the ASAS survey to assess the quality of ASAS photometry and derive the appropriate transformation equations. We conclude that as far as the only serious caveat due to photometric errors, which range from ˜ 0.05m for relatively bright stars to about ˜ 0.15m for ˜ 14m stars and translates into extra fractional distance error of 0.025-0.07.

  5. Multiples among detached eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Ratajczak, M; Jordán, A; Espinoza, N; Brahm, R; Kambe, E; Ukita, N

    2015-01-01

    For more than three years now we have been conducting a spectroscopic survey of detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database. Thousands of high-resolution spectra of over 300 systems were secured, and used for radial velocity measurements and spectral analysis. In our sample we found a zoo of multiple systems, such as spectroscopic triples and quadruples, visual binaries with eclipsing components, and circumbinary low-mass companions, including sub-stellar-mass candidates

  6. Period Change of Eclipsing Binaries from the ASAS Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Poleski, R; Poleski, Radoslaw; Pilecki, Bogumil

    2006-01-01

    We present a preliminary statistical analysis of a period change of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. For each contact and semidetached system brighter than 13.3$mag$ (in V) with a period shorter than 0.4 days and at least 300 observation points we have found an angular velocity $\\omega$ and its time derivative $\\frac{d\\omega}{dt}$. According to our accuracy there is no evidence that average $\\frac{d\\omega}{dt}$ differs from 0. Light curves for selected stars are presented.

  7. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  8. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  9. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the

  10. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  11. Identification of Misclassified Rotational Variables in the ASAS Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine; Johnson, Jessica M.; Hoover, Corwin

    2017-01-01

    Rotating variables are a subset of extrinsic variable stars in which variations in the apparent brightness of a star are tied to its rotation. Among these are BY Draconis stars, K or M dwarfs that feature transient spots. The light curves of these stars have similarities to those of pulsating variables, leading to misclassification by automated programs. Likewise, the transient and unpredictable nature of the spots can lead automated programs to miss the period of the star’s rotation and lead to both misclassification of these stars as “miscellaneous” as well as erroneous period determinations. A survey by P. Wils of a random sample of stars classified as either Cepheids or Beta Cepheid pulsating variables in the ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) catalog demonstrated that BY Draconis stars were an important polluter of this data set. Work by J. Johnson and K. Larsen on this data set analyzed light curves using the AAVSO’s VStar program as well as used proper motion and color indices to find additional BY Draconis stars that had been classified as either Cepheids or Beta Cepheids, as well as a number of Ellipsoidal variables. These are non-eclipsing binaries in which the shape of each star is distorted by their mutual gravitational pull. As the stars orbit each other, the elongated stars rotate, yielding two maximum and two minimum magnitudes per cycle with a period equal to the orbital period. Thus these stars can be misclassified as “miscellaneous” type and with periods that are only half of the true period. C. Hoover and K. Larsen investigated stars from the ASAS catalogue with periods up to 15 days that were included in the Variable Star Index (VSX) under the classification “miscellaneous.” Light curve analysis using VStar, as well as color indices and other physical properties, were used to identify both Ellipsoidal variables and spotted stars of the RS Canum Venaticorum type (binary systems that include a spotted star) in this data set. Taken

  12. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ASAS Health Index and ASAS Environmental Factors Item Set into European Portuguese Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Eduardo B; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Sousa, Sandra; Aguiar, Renata; Sepriano, Alexandre; Manica, Santiago Rodrigues; Kiltz, Uta; Branco, Jaime C; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of outcome measures to assess the impact of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) on health, function and quality of life. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) group developed the ASAS Health Index (ASAS-HI) and the ASAS Environmental Factors Item Set (ASAS-EF) to measure functioning and health across all aspects of health that are typically affected and relevant for patients with axSpA, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The aim of this paper was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of both questionnaires into European Portuguese among patients with radiographic and non-radiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA) and test the conceptual equivalence of the translated version in the Portuguese context. The ASAS-HI and ASAS-EF were firstly translated into European Portuguese and then back-translated into English, following forward-backward procedure. After the review of the Portuguese version by an expert committee, the field test with cognitive debriefing involved a sample of 10 axSpA patients with different gender, age, disease duration, and educational background. Minor difficulties arose from the translation process of the ASAS-HI. The EF Item Set offered more difficulties indicating that concepts underlying the contextual factors may be more culture-dependent. A total of 10 patients with axSpA [8 males, mean age of 41.4 (±13.7)] participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS-HI and EF Item Set of the Portuguese version are clear, relevant, understandable and easy to complete. As a result of cognitive debriefing, the wording of four items had to be changed to avoid misunderstandings or unintended interpretations, and a new response option "not applicable" was added to two items of the ASAS-HI to improve appropriateness. The resulting Portuguese version of the ASAS-HI and ASAS-EF showed acceptable linguistic validity and has

  13. The ASAS Health Index (ASAS HI) - a new tool to assess the health status of patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Braun, J

    2014-01-01

    Within the variable course of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and involvement of other organs can add to the burden of the disease. The primary complaints of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) are pain, stiffness, fatigue, and limitation in activities and social participation. Instruments currently available for the assessment of patients with SpA focus predominantly on specific aspects of health such as pain, disease activity, and physical function and measure specific concepts like physical function and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). However, the overall picture of impairments, limitations and restrictions in activities or social participation of patients with AS is not adequately assessed in SpA-specific questionnaires. Most of the existing questionnaires are not conceptualised with regard to their underlying construct. The International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) Core Set for AS may serve as an appropriate model and underlying construct to develop a health index, since the whole range of functioning and disability of patients with AS is captured. Based on these assumptions, ASAS developed for patients with SpA an instrument assessing health as operationalised by the ICF. The questionnaire was developed by preparing an item pool, linkage of the items to the comprehensive ICF core set for AS and test of the item pool in two cross-sectional studies. The analysis of the questionnaire and the response scale were done with Rasch analysis. Emphasis was on optimal targeting, the capacity of items to differentiate between different levels of health, and optimal coverage of items to the spectrum of ICF categories, so that the final questionnaire could represent as much of the entire range of difficulty levels as possible. The ASAS HI is a linear composite measure and includes 17 items which cover most of the ICF core set. Preliminary validity has been confirmed in a field test in 4 English

  14. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  15. 78 FR 32477 - ASA Gold and Precious Metals Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... diversification outside of South Africa. Applicant asserts that with the requested relief ASA will be able to... ASA to achieve its desired international portfolio diversification. \\13\\ Rule 17f-5 permits a U.S..., or its agent, to furnish the fund or its investment adviser with an analysis of the custody risks of...

  16. Nutrient and Food Group Analysis in the 2016 ASA24® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, clinicians, and educators can use the ASA24 system to analyze 65 nutrients and 37 food groups (U.S. and Canadian versions) from food recall or record data. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.

  17. Toponymic interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ilie Oros

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of linguistic interferences has been greatly extended lately. It comprises all language sections. In onomastics great attention was paid to to the study of macrotoponyms of foreign origin. I would like to mention in this respect the research concerning the toponyms of Slavic origin in Romania and Greece, the toponyms of Romance origin in Yugoslavia etc. The studies referring to the interferences in microtoponymy are more rare. These call for the collecting of all microtoponyms through inquiries made in plaees inhabited by mixed populetion from the ethnic point of view. The microtoponymy of these places off ers a very interesting material as far as the interactiong the reciprocal in.fluences of two or more toponymic systems is concerned.

  18. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  19. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  20. ASAS Eclipsing Binaries with Observed High Period Change Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pilecki, B; Poleski, R

    2007-01-01

    We present 31 bright eclipsing contact and semi-detached binaries that showed high period change rates in a 5 year interval in observations by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The time-scales of these changes range from only 50 up to 400 kyr. The orbital periods of 10 binaries are increasing and of 21 are decreasing, and even a larger excess is seen in contact binaries, where the numbers are 5 and 17, respectively. Period change has previously been noticed for only two of these binaries; our observations confirmed a secular period drift for SV Cen and period oscillations for VY Cet. The spectroscopic quadruple system V1084 Sco shows both period change and brightness modulation. All investigated binaries were selected from a sample of 1711 (1135 contact and 576 semi-detached) that fulfilled all criteria of data quality. We also introduce a "branch" test to check if luminosity changes on part of the binary's photosphere has led to a spurious or poorly characterized period change detection.

  1. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  2. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  3. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  4. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog I: 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalog of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centers of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.

  5. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - I. 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalogue of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centres of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.

  6. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - V. Investigation of subgiants and giants: the case of ASAS J010538-8003.7, ASAS J182510-2435.5, and V1980 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Ratajczak, M; Konacki, M; Jordan, A

    2013-01-01

    We present absolute physical and orbital parameters for three double-lined detached eclipsing binary systems from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue with subgiant and giant components. These parameters were derived from archival V-band ASAS photometry and new radial velocities. The radial velocities were calculated from high quality optical spectra we obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR) and synthetic template spectra chosen for every system separately as references. The physical and orbital parameters of the systems were derived with the PHOEBE and JKTEBOP codes. We checked the evolutionary status of the systems with several sets of isochrones and determined distances for each system. The derived uncertainties for individual masses of ASAS J010538-8003.7, ASAS J182510-2435.5, and V1980 Sgr components vary from 0.7% to 3.6% while the radii are in the ran...

  7. ASA Kindlustus loodab lepingud kahe nädalaga Tšiili firmale anda / Margus Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson, Margus

    1999-01-01

    ASA Kindlustus ja AB Elukindlustus loodavad, et seltside tegevuslitsentside tühistamine lükatakse edasi veel kahe nädala võrra, kindlustusportfellide üleandmine Tšiili firmale Pacific Overseas Group

  8. ASA Kindlustus loodab lepingud kahe nädalaga Tšiili firmale anda / Margus Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson, Margus

    1999-01-01

    ASA Kindlustus ja AB Elukindlustus loodavad, et seltside tegevuslitsentside tühistamine lükatakse edasi veel kahe nädala võrra, kindlustusportfellide üleandmine Tšiili firmale Pacific Overseas Group

  9. Quantitative analysis of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit juices by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Wei, Ke-yi; Wang, Jia; Ma, Hui-xin; Li, Ji; Xu, Yan-jun; Li, Qing X

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive ELISAs have been applied to analyze imidacloprid and thiamethoxam residues in apple, grape, orange, and peach juices after simple dilution of the samples without any extraction and cleanup. The matrix interference of the fruit juices was eliminated after 100-fold dilution, and the ELISAs gave method LODs of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit juices down to 20 and 5 ng/g, respectively. Average recoveries of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked fruit juices were in the range of 92-115% and 87-118%, respectively. The CVs of the recoveries ranged from 3 to 19% and from 6 to 19% for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. The ELISA results were comparable to those obtained by a reference HPLC/MS method using pesticide-spiked samples, with reasonable correlation coefficients between 0.89 and 0.93 and regression coefficients (slopes) between 0.75 and 0.94.

  10. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  11. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  12. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  14. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  15. Do NSAIDs and ASA Cause More Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Elderly than Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoglu, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Dogan, Hakan; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Altuntas, Yuksel; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. NSAIDs and ASA may cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) both in adults and in elderly. There is no study that compares this increased bleeding risk between adult and elderly subjects. Methods. A total of 524 patients with UGIB were included in this study. The data of patients were, respectively, analyzed. Results. NSAIDs and ASA-associated UGIB rates were similar between <65 years (345 patients) (group 1) and ≥65 years (179 patients) (group 2) (28.4% versus 23.5%, p = 0.225 and 13% versus 19%, p = 0.071, resp.). Warfarin-associated UGIB was found significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Elderly patients with NSAID-associated UGIB had significantly higher length of stay (LoS) and CoH than adult patients with NSAID-associated UGIB (p = 0.002 and 0.001, resp.). Elderly patients with ASA-associated UGIB had significantly higher CoH than adult patients with NSAID-associated UGIB. Conclusions. Using NSAIDs without gastroprotective drugs or using ASA with gastroprotective drugs in elderly patients is as safe as in adult patients. Not only should adding gastroprotective drugs to ASA or NSAID be based on their risk of UGIB, but the cost of hospitalization of ASA or NSAID-associated UGIB should be considered. PMID:26880898

  16. Do NSAIDs and ASA Cause More Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Elderly than Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. NSAIDs and ASA may cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB both in adults and in elderly. There is no study that compares this increased bleeding risk between adult and elderly subjects. Methods. A total of 524 patients with UGIB were included in this study. The data of patients were, respectively, analyzed. Results. NSAIDs and ASA-associated UGIB rates were similar between <65 years (345 patients (group 1 and ≥65 years (179 patients (group 2 (28.4% versus 23.5%, p=0.225 and 13% versus 19%, p=0.071, resp.. Warfarin-associated UGIB was found significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Elderly patients with NSAID-associated UGIB had significantly higher length of stay (LoS and CoH than adult patients with NSAID-associated UGIB (p=0.002 and 0.001, resp.. Elderly patients with ASA-associated UGIB had significantly higher CoH than adult patients with NSAID-associated UGIB. Conclusions. Using NSAIDs without gastroprotective drugs or using ASA with gastroprotective drugs in elderly patients is as safe as in adult patients. Not only should adding gastroprotective drugs to ASA or NSAID be based on their risk of UGIB, but the cost of hospitalization of ASA or NSAID-associated UGIB should be considered.

  17. Comparison of intraoperative and postoperative complications based on ASA risks in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Hüseyin Buğra; Çiçekbilek, İzzet; Tok, Adem; Alışkan, Tamer; Akduman, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications which developed according to pre-operative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) risk criteria in patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Material and methods Five hundred and sixty patients who had undergone PNL between 2002 and 2014 were included in the study. Patients operated on the ipsilateral kidney, those with solitary kidney or the cases who had previously undergone more than one access were excluded from this study. Preoperative anesthesia risks were determined according to preoperative classification developed by ASA. Postoperative complications were evaluated using Clavien Complication Grading Scale. Results The mean age of the cases was 47±14 years. The 57% (n=319) of the cases were male, 241 (43%) of them were female. The average indwell time of nephrostomy catheter was 2.88±1.00 (1–8), and length of hospital stay was 4.91±1.54 (2–17) days. When the cases were assessed according to ASA risk groups, intraoperative complications were observed in 9 (5.5%) ASA I, 27 (8.6%) ASA II, and 18 (22%) ASA III patients and and distribution of the patients was statistically significant (pPNL operations in terms of intraoperative complications. PMID:27635291

  18. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  19. The mosaic architecture of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida pAsa4 plasmid and its consequences on antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine H. Tanaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids, is an issue especially because many isolates of this bacterium display antibiotic resistances, which limit treatments against the disease. Recent results suggested the possible existence of alternative forms of pAsa4, a large plasmid found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and bearing multiple antibiotic resistance genes. The present study reveals the existence of two newly detected pAsa4 variants, pAsa4b and pAsa4c. We present the extensive characterization of the genomic architecture, the mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes of these plasmids in addition to the reference pAsa4 from the strain A449. The analysis showed differences between the three architectures with consequences on the content of resistance genes. The genomic plasticity of the three pAsa4 variants could be partially explained by the action of mobile genetic elements like insertion sequences. Eight additional isolates from Canada and Europe that bore similar antibiotic resistance patterns as pAsa4-bearing strains were genotyped and specific pAsa4 variants could be attributed to phenotypic profiles. pAsa4 and pAsa4c were found in Europe, while pAsa4b was found in Canada. In accordance with their content in conjugative transfer genes, only pAsa4b and pAsa4c can be transferred by conjugation in Escherichia coli. The plasticity of pAsa4 variants related to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance indicates that these plasmids may pose a threat in terms of the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida bacteria.

  20. The mosaic architecture of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida pAsa4 plasmid and its consequences on antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katherine H.; Vincent, Antony T.; Trudel, Mélanie V.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Frenette, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids, is an issue especially because many isolates of this bacterium display antibiotic resistances, which limit treatments against the disease. Recent results suggested the possible existence of alternative forms of pAsa4, a large plasmid found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and bearing multiple antibiotic resistance genes. The present study reveals the existence of two newly detected pAsa4 variants, pAsa4b and pAsa4c. We present the extensive characterization of the genomic architecture, the mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes of these plasmids in addition to the reference pAsa4 from the strain A449. The analysis showed differences between the three architectures with consequences on the content of resistance genes. The genomic plasticity of the three pAsa4 variants could be partially explained by the action of mobile genetic elements like insertion sequences. Eight additional isolates from Canada and Europe that bore similar antibiotic resistance patterns as pAsa4-bearing strains were genotyped and specific pAsa4 variants could be attributed to phenotypic profiles. pAsa4 and pAsa4c were found in Europe, while pAsa4b was found in Canada. In accordance with their content in conjugative transfer genes, only pAsa4b and pAsa4c can be transferred by conjugation in Escherichia coli. The plasticity of pAsa4 variants related to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance indicates that these plasmids may pose a threat in terms of the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida bacteria. PMID:27812409

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  2. Defining functioning categories in axial Spondyloarthritis: the role of the ASAS Health Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Marco; Lato, Valentina; Di Matteo, Andrea; Carotti, Marina; Salaffi, Fausto

    2017-01-06

    The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society Health Index (ASAS HI) is an inclusive questionnaire, able to describe the total impairments and restrictions due to axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Considering the relationship between ASAS HI and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)-CRP, the aim of this study is to establish the ASAS HI cut-off values for functioning categories employing the ASDAS-CRP disease activity states in axSpA patients. ASAS HI and ASDAS-CPR were obtained from 140 consecutive axSpA patients, divided in the four ASDAS-CRP disease activity categories. High and very high disease activity were considered together. The ASAS HI cut-offs were obtained from the arithmetic mean, rounded off to the closest whole number, of the 75th percentile mean value of a lower rank and the 25th percentile mean value of the adjacent higher rank. This approach was applied in the transition from inactive disease and moderate disease activity, and in the transition from moderate disease activity and high/very high disease activity. Twenty-three patients were classified as having inactive disease, 36 were classified as having moderate disease activity, and 81 were in a high/very high disease activity state. Using the approach of the 75th-25th percentile mean values of adjacent disease activity states, the ASAS HI cut-offs resulted: ≤4 to dinstinguish a normal functioning, >4 and ≤8 to distinguish a moderate impairment of functioning, and >8 to distinguish a severe impairment of functioning. ASAS HI seems a reliable tool to define functioning categories in patients with axSpA.

  3. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog I: 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Brimacombe, J; Bersier, D; Bishop, D W; Dong, Subo; Brown, J S; Danilet, A B; Simonian, G V; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Falco, E; Pojmanski, G; Skowron, D M; Wozniak, P R; Avila, C G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; Fernandez, J M; Koff, R A; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G J; Hissong, J; Hsiao, E Y; Jose, J; Kiyota, S; Long, Feng; Monard, L A G; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalog of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses most previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds supernovae closer to the centers of host galaxies than either other...

  4. Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji M; Ajayi, Kolawole T; Olayemi, Albert B; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-11-01

    Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

  5. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  7. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  8. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  9. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  10. Dextran and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) conjugates: synthesis, characterisation and enzymic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shavej; Tester, Richard F; Corbett, Alistair; Karkalas, John

    2006-11-27

    Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Crohn's disease. A scheme for the synthesis of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) conjugates of dextrans was developed with a focus on Crohn's disease applications. Dextrans were oxidised using sodium periodate (NaIO(4)), where the aldehyde groups formed were coupled with the alpha-amino (-NH(2)) group of 5-ASA. The resulting imine bonds were unstable in water and were consequently reduced to secondary amine groups. The effects of different aspects of the conjugation reaction were studied. These included the following: the molecular weight of the dextrans, the molar proportion of NaIO(4) to the dextrans (for periodate oxidation), the pH of the conjugation solutions, the ratio 5-ASA to oxidised polysaccharide and the relationship between the degree of conjugation and the amount of enzyme hydrolysis. Conjugates incubated in HCl were stable in 0.5 and 1.0M HCl, but they underwent degradation in 2.0 and 4.0M HCl. Dextrans (MW 20,000) with various degrees of oxidation (12%, 26%, 46%, 65%, 90% and 93%) were also prepared. Each oxidised dextran sample was conjugated with 5-ASA, and the product was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dextrans with a maximum degree of oxidation (93%) unsurprisingly gave maximum conjugation of 5-ASA (49.1mg per 100mg of product) but were resistant to dextranase hydrolysis. Less oxidised dextrans (12%) conjugated proportionally less 5-ASA (15.1mg per 100mg of product) but were successfully hydrolysed by dextranase, suggesting their potential applications for the treatment of Crohn's disease in the distal ileum and proximal colon.

  11. All Source Analysis System (ASAS): Migration from VAX to Alpha AXP computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoholm-Sierchio, Michael J.; Friedman, Steven Z. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) experience migrating existing VAX applications to Digital Equipment Corporation's new Alpha AXP processor is covered. The rapid development approach used during the 10-month period required to migrate the All Source Analysis System (ASAS), 1.5 million lines of FORTRAN, C, and Ada code, is also covered. ASAS, an automated tactical intelligence system, was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U. S. Army. Other benefits achieved as a result of the significant performance improvements provided by Alpha AXP platform are also described.

  12. NO-ASA and tumor chemoprevention%NO-ASA与肿瘤防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽丽; 王中堂; 宋现让

    2010-01-01

    NO-ASA(nitric-oxide-donating acetylsalicylic acid)是一种新的肿瘤防护药物,由ASA和-ONO2过空间臂相连而成.NO-ASA克服了ASA的低剂量耐受和毒副作用.研究显示NO-ASA抑制多种癌细胞的生长,抑制作用明显强于传统的ASA.NO-ASA极可能是一种预防和治疗肿瘤的有效药物.

  13. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  14. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  15. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  16. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  17. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  18. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  19. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  20. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  1. The ASAS Criteria for Axial Spondyloarthritis: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Proposals for a Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sjef; Akkoc, Nurullah; Brown, Matthew A; Robinson, Philip C; Khan, Muhammad A

    2015-09-01

    Classification criteria should facilitate selection of similar patients for clinical and epidemiologic studies, therapeutic trials, and research on etiopathogenesis to enable comparison of results across studies from different centers. We critically appraise the validity and performance of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). It is still debatable whether all patients fulfilling these criteria should be considered as having true axSpA. Patients with radiographically evident disease by the ASAS criteria are not necessarily identical with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as classified by the modified New York criteria. The complex multi-arm selection design of the ASAS criteria induces considerable heterogeneity among patients so classified, and applying them in settings with a low prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) greatly increases the proportion of subjects falsely classified as suffering from axial SpA. One of the unmet needs in non-radiographic form of axial SpA is to have reliable markers that can identify individuals at risk for progression to AS and thereby facilitate early intervention trials designed to prevent such progression. We suggest needed improvements of the ASAS criteria for axSpA, as all criteria sets should be regarded as dynamic concepts open to modifications or updates as our knowledge advances.

  2. Water-soluble nitric-oxide-releasing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Barbara; Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Marini, Elisabetta; Joseph, Sony; Morini, Giuseppina; Pozzoli, Cristina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    A series of water-soluble (benzoyloxy)methyl esters of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), commonly known as aspirin, are described. The new derivatives each have alkyl chains containing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nitrooxy group and a solubilizing moiety bonded to the benzoyl ring. The compounds were synthesized and evaluated as ASA prodrugs. After conversion to the appropriate salt, most of the derivatives are solid at room temperature and all possess good water solubility. They are quite stable in acid solution (pH 1) and less stable at physiological pH. In human serum, these compounds are immediately metabolized by esterases, producing a mixture of ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and of the related NO-donor benzoic acids, along with other minor products. Due to ASA release, the prodrugs are capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Simple NO-donor benzoic acids 3-hydroxy-4-(3-nitrooxypropoxy)benzoic acid (28) and 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoic acid (48) were also studied as representative models of the whole class of benzoic acids formed following metabolism of the prodrugs in serum. These simplified derivatives did not trigger antiaggregatory activity when tested at 300 μM. Only 28 displays quite potent NO-dependent vasodilatatory action. Further in vivo evaluation of two selected prodrugs, {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl-3-[(3-[aminopropanoyl)oxy]-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate⋅HCl (38) and {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate oxalate (49), revealed that their anti-inflammatory activities are similar to that of ASA when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. The gastrotoxicity of the two prodrugs was also determined to be lower than that of ASA in a lesion model in rats. Taken together, these results indicated that these NO-donor ASA prodrugs warrant further investigation for clinical application.

  3. Opportunistic Interference Alignment in MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, Samir Medina; Lasaulce, Samson; Chaufray, Jean Marie

    2008-01-01

    We present two interference alignment techniques such that an opportunistic point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO) link can reuse, without generating any additional interference, the same frequency band of a similar pre-existing primary link. In this scenario, we exploit the fact that under power constraints, although each radio maximizes independently its rate by water-filling on their channel transfer matrix singular values, frequently, not all of them are used. Therefore, by aligning the interference of the opportunistic radio it is possible to transmit at a significant rate while insuring zero-interference on the pre-existing link. We propose a linear pre-coder for a perfect interference alignment and a power allocation scheme which maximizes the individual data rate of the secondary link. Our numerical results show that significant data rates are achieved even for a reduced number of antennas.

  4. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) - How much, how often, and when? A clinical-pharmacological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Dieter; Belz, Gustav G

    2016-08-01

    The dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) commonly used in the prevention and treatment of arteriosclerotic angiopathies is equal to or less than 100 mg daily. This choice of dose is predominantly based on molecular-pharmacological findings showing an inhibition in synthesis of the prothrombotic thromboxane (TXB2) and an irreversible inhibition in blood platelet aggregation. However, an analysis of ASA dose-effect relationships for doses of 50 - 500 mg (PO and IV) shows that doses of ASA up to 100 mg daily produce only a small or moderate inhibition in collagen/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and have no significant effect on the important platelet factors, PF3 and PF4. Doses of ASA 300 - 500 mg, on the other hand, inhibit platelet aggregation almost completely and, in addition, produce a 50 - 70% inhibition in PF3 and PF4 lasting at least 24 hours. There is also evidence that doses of ASA above 100 mg daily markedly inhibit thromboxane synthesis for up to 24 hours and that doses of 500 mg daily produce a clinically relevant inhibition in platelet adhesion to vessel walls for up 72 hours and prevent procoagulatory shape changes for up to 12 hours. These findings suggest that a dose of ≥ 300 mg at intervals of 2 - 3 days would be more appropriate for primary and secondary prophylaxis of arteriosclerotic angiopathies and that the benefit-risk ratio would be greater because of the increased availability of mucoprotective prostaglandins, PGI2 (prostacyclin) and the gastroprotective, PGE2. Our viewpoint, predominantly based on findings with biomarkers, could serve as a basis for further randomized controlled studies.

  5. Improved Folin-Ciocalteu assay of “total phenolic content” by removal of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The venerable and operationally simple Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been...

  6. Development of a health index in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (ASAS HI): final result of a global initiative based on the ICF guided by ASAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Cieza, A; Stucki, G; Khan, M A; Maksymowych, W P; Marzo-Ortega, H; Reveille, J; Stebbings, S; Bostan, C; Braun, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The burden of disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can be considerable. However, no agreement has been reached among expert members of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) to define severity of AS. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a core set of items for AS has been selected to represent the entire spectrum of possible problems in functioning. Based on this, the objective of this study was to develop a tool to quantify health in AS, the ASAS Health Index. Methods First, based on a literature search, experts’ and patients’ opinion, a large item pool covering the categories of the ICF core set was generated. In several steps this item pool was reduced based on reliability, Rasch analysis and consensus building after two cross-sectional surveys to come up with the best fitting items representing most categories of the ICF core set for AS. Results After the first survey with 1754 patients, the item pool of 251 items was reduced to 82. After selection by an expert committee, 50 items remained which were tested in a second cross-sectional survey. The results were used to reduce the number of items to a final set of 17 items. This selection showed the best reliability and fit to the Rasch model, no residual correlation, and absence of consistent differential item function and a Person Separation Index of 0.82. Conclusions In this long sequential study, 17 items which cover most of the ICF core set were identified that showed the best representation of the health status of patients with AS. The ASAS Health Index is a linear composite measure which differs from other measures in the public domain. PMID:24399232

  7. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  8. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  9. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  10. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  11. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  12. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  13. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  14. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  15. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  17. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  18. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication.

  19. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404 and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dušan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography imaging. Methods U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg, ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg, or taxol (10 mg/kg plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. Results The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights

  20. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  1. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  2. Controlled Release of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA from New Biodegradable Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmented polyurethanes containing azo aromatic groups in the main chain were synthesized by reaction of 3,3'-azobis(6-hydroxybenzoic acid (ABHB, 5-[4-(hydroxyphenylazo] salicylic acid (HPAS, and 5-[1-hydroxynaphthylazo] salicylic acid (HNAS with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI. All synthesized monomers and polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR spectra, TGA and DSC analysis. All the synthesized azo polymers showed good thermal stability and the onset decomposition temperature of all these polymers was found to be above 195 ºC under nitrogen atmosphere.The release of 5-ASA under physiological conditions (pH = 7.8 and pH = 1.5 was investigated at body temperature (37 ºC. The release rate of 5-ASA increased with increasing pH (i.e., 7.8 > 1.5.

  3. The diagnosis of Asperger syndrome: a pilot study of Czech version ASSQ and ASAS

    OpenAIRE

    Krejčířová, Helena

    2006-01-01

    In a theoretical part of the present study we describe history, epidemiology, ethiology, diagnostic classification, diagnostic criteria and clinical features of Asperger syndrome, comorbidity, theory of autism, differential diagnosis and diagnostic methods for the Asperger syndrome. A practical part of this study examines the validity and reliability of two diagnostic schedule - ASSQ - High-functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire/Asperger Syndrome Screening Questionnaire - and ASA...

  4. Variability in the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status (PS) Classification Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-03

    of preoperative preparation, nature and duration of the illness, nutritional status, and other concurrent illnesses), but also by risk inherent to the...approximately 90% of predicted for age and weight (before the onset of the dysphagia ). The range in this scenario was three (ASA II to IV) with more...Major surgery 2 Nutritional status 1 Hypertension 1 Not enough information 1 Potential anesthetic problems 1 Risk for aspiration rv 3 Angina 1

  5. Variability in the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status (PS) Classifcation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    joint dysfunction . She has never previously had a general anesthetic. The range of scores in this scenario was two (ASA I and II). Of the 70...her physician that she may be left with some temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction . She has never previously had a general anesthetic...found, but it was felt by her physician that she may be left with some temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction . She has never previously had a general

  6. The Curious Case of ASAS J174600-2321.3: an Eclipsing Symbiotic Nova in Outburst?

    CERN Document Server

    Huemmerich, Stefan; Tisserand, Patrick; Bernhard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The star ASAS J174600-2321.3 was found to exhibit peculiar photometric variability (conspicuous brightening of about 4 magnitudes (V), fast luminosity declines, intrinsic pulsations). It was rejected as an RCB candidate in recent investigations on spectroscopic grounds. We have collected and present all available data from public sky surveys, photometric catalogues, and the literature. From an analysis of these data, we have identified ASAS J174600-2321.3 as a long-period eclipsing binary (Porb = 1011.5 days). The primary star, which is probably a white dwarf, is currently in outburst and exhibits the spectral characteristics of a reddened, early F-type supergiant; the secondary star is a giant of spectral type late M. We discuss the possible origin of the observed brightening, which is related to the primary component. ASAS J174600-2321.3 is most certainly an eclipsing symbiotic binary - probably a symbiotic nova of GCVS type NC - that is currently in outburst. However, further photometric and spectroscopic ...

  7. Human brucellosis mimicking axial spondyloarthritis: a challenge for rheumatologists when applying the 2009 ASAS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cong; Shen, Gui-Fen; Li, Shou-Xin; Dong, Ling-Li; Yu, Yi-Kai; Tu, Wei; Zhu, Ying-Zi; Hu, Shao-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Although the development of the 2009 SpA classification criteria by Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) represents an important step towards a better definition of the early disease stage particularly in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), the specificity of the criteria has been criticized these days. As the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide, human brucellosis can mimic a large number of diseases, including SpA. This study was performed to determine the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with brucellosis and the chance of misdiagnosing them as having axSpA in central China. The results showed that clinical manifestations of axSpA could be observed in brucellosis. Over half of patients had back pain, and one fifth of the patients with back pain were less than 45 years old at onset and had the symptom for more than 3 months. Two young males were falsely classified as suffering from axSpA according to the ASAS criteria, and one with MRI proved sacroiliitis was once given Etanercept for treatment. Therefore, differential diagnosis including human brucellosis should always be kept in mind when applying the ASAS criteria, even in traditionally non-endemic areas.

  8. Identification of ASAS Ellipsoidal Variables Misclassified as Miscellaneous in VSX (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Hoover, C.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Over 25,000 variable stars found in VSX were classified as miscellaneous by the automated analysis program for ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) light curve data. As has been demonstrated by other authors, many of these stars can be classified as one of a number of standard variable classes through human analysis. Among the types of variable stars mislabeled as miscellaneous are ellipsoidal variable stars (ELL's). These are close binary systems in which the stars do not eclipse; the changes in brightness are due to the nonspherical shape of the stars. This project identified and then analyzed ELL candidates in the spreadsheet of ASAS "miscellaneous stars," specifically concentrating on early spectral class variables with periods of less than 15 days. ASAS data of the candidates was analyzed using vstar in order to generate phase plots and determine periods. The goal of this project has been to identify ELL's from this sample in order to update the VSX (Variable Star Index). This poster will describe the process used to identify and analyze 540 candidates as well as preliminary results.

  9. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  10. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  11. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  12. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  13. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... vegetable juices includes steps like extraction, clarification, and stabilization .... given by INRAB. Methods. Juice extraction: The collected cashew fruits were ...... Clarification, Preservation and Shelf Life. Evaluation of Cashew ...

  14. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  15. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  16. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  18. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  20. Reducing AsA leads to leaf lesion and defence response in knock-down of the AsA biosynthetic enzyme GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene in tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Ouyang, Bo; Yang, Changxian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-01-01

    As a vital antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (AsA) affects diverse biological processes in higher plants. Lack of AsA in cell impairs plant development. In the present study, we manipulated a gene of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase which catalyzes the conversion of D-mannose-1-P to GDP-D-mannose in AsA biosynthetic pathway and found out the phenotype alteration of tomato. In the tomato genome, there are four members of GMP gene family and they constitutively expressed in various tissues in distinct expression patterns. As expected, over-expression of SlGMP3 increased total AsA contents and enhanced the tolerance to oxidative stress in tomato. On the contrary, knock-down of SlGMP3 significantly decreased AsA contents below the threshold level and altered the phenotype of tomato plants with lesions and further senescence. Further analysis indicated the causes for this symptom could result from failing to instantly deplete the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as decline of free radical scavenging activity. More ROS accumulated in the leaves and then triggered expressions of defence-related genes and mimic symptom occurred on the leaves similar to hypersensitive responses against pathogens. Consequently, the photosynthesis of leaves was dramatically fallen. These results suggested the vital roles of AsA as an antioxidant in leaf function and defence response of tomato.

  1. Reducing AsA leads to leaf lesion and defence response in knock-down of the AsA biosynthetic enzyme GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene in tomato plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available As a vital antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (AsA affects diverse biological processes in higher plants. Lack of AsA in cell impairs plant development. In the present study, we manipulated a gene of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase which catalyzes the conversion of D-mannose-1-P to GDP-D-mannose in AsA biosynthetic pathway and found out the phenotype alteration of tomato. In the tomato genome, there are four members of GMP gene family and they constitutively expressed in various tissues in distinct expression patterns. As expected, over-expression of SlGMP3 increased total AsA contents and enhanced the tolerance to oxidative stress in tomato. On the contrary, knock-down of SlGMP3 significantly decreased AsA contents below the threshold level and altered the phenotype of tomato plants with lesions and further senescence. Further analysis indicated the causes for this symptom could result from failing to instantly deplete the reactive oxygen species (ROS as decline of free radical scavenging activity. More ROS accumulated in the leaves and then triggered expressions of defence-related genes and mimic symptom occurred on the leaves similar to hypersensitive responses against pathogens. Consequently, the photosynthesis of leaves was dramatically fallen. These results suggested the vital roles of AsA as an antioxidant in leaf function and defence response of tomato.

  2. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N......Ideficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 productionwas...... inhibited by synthetic QS inhibitors (N- (propylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; N-(pentylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; and N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone) at concentrations that did not affect bacterial growth. It is a new finding that the AHL synthase of Aeromonas affects...

  3. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  4. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  5. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  6. Conducted interference, challenges and interference cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Conducted interference has become increasingly problematic in the past few years, especially within the 2-150 kHz band. The high penetration of non-linear loads, combined with distributed generation, will influence the voltage profile, i.e. the power quality. New technologies will introduce new type

  7. Conducted interference, challenges and interference cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Conducted interference has become increasingly problematic in the past few years, especially within the 2-150 kHz band. The high penetration of non-linear loads, combined with distributed generation, will influence the voltage profile, i.e. the power quality. New technologies will introduce new

  8. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  9. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  10. Dark Matter Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study different patterns of interference in WIMP-nuclei elastic scattering that can accommodate the DAMA and CoGeNT experiments via an isospin violating ratio $f_n/f_p=-0.71$. We study interference between the following pairs of mediators: Z and Z', Z' and Higgs, and two Higgs fields. We show ...

  11. How does interference fall?

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Patrick J; Modi, Kavan

    2016-01-01

    We study how single- and double-slit interference patterns fall in the presence of gravity. First, we demonstrate that universality of free fall still holds in this case, i.e., interference patterns fall just like classical objects. Next, we explore lowest order relativistic effects in the Newtonian regime by employing a recent quantum formalism which treats mass as an operator. This leads to interactions between non-degenerate internal degrees of freedom (like spin in an external magnetic field) and external degrees of freedom (like position). Based on these effects, we present an unusual phenomenon, in which a falling double slit interference pattern periodically decoheres and recoheres. The oscillations in the visibility of this interference occur due to correlations built up between spin and position. Finally, we connect the interference visibility revivals with non-Markovian quantum dynamics.

  12. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  13. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  14. Deriving albedo maps for HAPEX-Sahel from ASAS data using kernel-driven BRDF models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lewis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application and testing of a method for deriving spatial estimates of albedo from multi-angle remote sensing data. Linear kernel-driven models of surface bi-directional reflectance have been inverted against high spatial resolution multi-angular, multi- spectral airborne data of the principal cover types within the HAPEX-Sahel study site in Niger, West Africa. The airborne data are obtained from the NASA Airborne Solid-state Imaging Spectrometer (ASAS instrument, flown in Niger in September and October 1992. The maps of model parameters produced are used to estimate integrated reflectance properties related to spectral albedo. Broadband albedo has been estimated from this by weighting the spectral albedo for each pixel within the map as a function of the appropriate spectral solar irradiance and proportion of direct and diffuse illumination. Partial validation of the results was performed by comparing ASAS reflectance and derived directional-hemispherical reflectance with simulations of a millet canopy made with a complex geometric canopy reflectance model, the Botanical Plant Modelling System (BPMS. Both were found to agree well in magnitude. Broadband albedo values derived from the ASAS data were compared with ground-based (point sample albedo measurements and found to agree extremely well. These results indicate that the linear kernel-driven modelling approach, which is to be used operationally to produce global 16 day, 1 km albedo maps from forthcoming NASA Earth Observing System spaceborne data, is both sound and practical for the estimation of angle-integrated spectral reflectance quantities related to albedo. Results for broadband albedo are dependent on spectral sampling and on obtaining the correct spectral weigthings.

  15. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  16. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  17. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  18. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  19. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  1. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  2. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. The food may contain one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. Recovery of dynamic interference

    CERN Document Server

    Baghery, Mehrdad; Rost, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    We develop general quantitative criteria for dynamic interference, a manifestation of double-slit interference in time which should be realizable with brilliant state-of-the-art high-frequency laser sources. Our analysis reveals that the observation of dynamic interference hinges upon maximizing the difference between the dynamic polarization of the initial bound and the final continuum state of the electron during the light pulse, while keeping depletion of the initial state small. Confirmed by numerical results, we predict that this is impossible for the hydrogen ground-state but feasible with excited states explicitly exemplified with the hydrogen 2p-state.

  4. Group Based Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui; Yao, Junliang

    2010-01-01

    in $K$-user single-input single-output (SISO) frequency selective fading interference channels, it is shown that the achievable multiplexing gain is almost surely $K/2$ by using interference alignment (IA). However when the signaling dimensions is limited, allocating all the resource to all the users simultaneously is not optimal. According to this problem, a group based interference alignment (GIA) scheme is proposed and a search algorithm is designed to get the group patterns and the resource allocation among them. Analysis results show that our proposed scheme achieves a higher multiplexing gain when the resource is limited.

  5. The profitability analysis of artisanal fishing in Asa River of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Adewumi,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profitability of artisanal fishing in river Asa in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected by the use of structured set of questionnaires. Three research questions guided the study. Results of profitability analysis showed that an average fisherman makes a Gross Margin of ₦52883.99/fisherman/month. The problems of artisanal fishing included lack of storages facilities, lack of government support and seasonal change in the volume of the river. The study recommends among others; fishermen should be given adequate training and the required assistance on modern fishing techniques and use of modern fishing equipment to ensure sustainability. There is also the need to organise the farmers into cooperatives to enable them have better access to government programmes and credits. It is also recommended that the government should build mini cold rooms with good storage facilities to help the fishermen overcome the problem of fish spoilage which reduces the quality of their products.

  6. A CCD photometric study of the newly discovered contact binary ASAS 134738+0410.1

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Sukanta; Seshadri, T R; Gupta, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    We present a CCD photometric study of the star with ASAS ID 134738 + 0410.1 using V band observations obtained from the $IUCAA$ Girawali Observatory (IGO) 2-metre telescope, India. The star was selected from the $\\delta$ Scuti database of All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) (Pojmanski 2002). Our analysis reveals that the star is not a $\\delta$ Scuti variable but is in fact a W UMa type contact binary with an orbital period of 0.2853067 day. Two new times of primary and secondary minima were determined from the observed data. A preliminary solution obtained using the Wilson-Devinney light curve modelling technique indicates that the star is more likely a partially-eclipsing W UMa type contact binary. However, the determination of actual subtype of this binary is quite impossible from the photometry alone, as the observed light curve can fitted for both A- and W-type solutions. The exact classification of this binary needs to be determined from high resolution spectroscopy.

  7. The ongoing pursuit of R Coronae Borealis stars: ASAS-3 survey strikes again

    CERN Document Server

    Tisserand, P; Welch, D L; Pilecki, B; Wyrzykowski, L; Kilkenny, D

    2012-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variable stars that are likely the evolved merger products of pairs of CO and He white dwarfs. Only 55 RCB stars are known in our galaxy and their distribution on the sky is weighted heavily by microlensing survey field positions. A less-biased wide-area survey would provide the ability to test competing evolutionary scenarios, understand the population or populations that produce RCBs and constraint their formation rate. The ASAS-3 survey monitored the sky south of declination +28 deg since 2000 to a limiting magnitude of V=14. We searched ASAS-3 for RCB variables using a number of different methods to ensure that the probability of RCB detection was as high as possible and to reduce selection biases based on luminosity, temperature, dust production activity and shell brightness. Candidates whose light curves were visually inspected were pre-selected based on their infrared excesses due to warm dust in their circumstellar sh...

  8. Recent ASA Presidents and 'Top' Journals: Observed Publication Patterns, Alleged Cartels and Varying Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    It has been common for studies presented as about American sociology as a whole to rely on data compiled from leading journals (American Sociological Review [ASR] and American Journal of Sociology [AJS]), or about presidents of the American Sociological Association [ASA], to represent it. Clearly those are important, but neither can be regarded as providing a representative sample of American sociology. Recently, Stephen Turner has suggested that dominance in the ASA rests with a 'cartel' initially formed in graduate school, and that it favors work in a style associated with the leading journals. The adequacy of these ideas is examined in the light of available data on the last 20 years, which show that very few of the presidents were in the same graduate schools at the same time. All presidents have had distinguished academic records, but it is shown that their publication strategies have varied considerably. Some have had no ASR publications except their presidential addresses, while books and large numbers of other journals not normally mentioned in this context have figured in their contributions, as well as being more prominent in citations. It seems clear that articles in the leading journals have not been as closely tied to prestigious careers as has sometimes been suggested, and that if there is a cartel it has not included all the presidents.

  9. Interference and Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charas, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a demonstration of interference phenomena using three sheets of polaroid material, a light source, and a light meter. Describes instructional procedures with mathematical expressions and a diagram. (YP)

  10. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  11. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  12. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  13. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  14. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of Punica granatum juice and punicalagin on NFκB modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tanmay A; Parikh, Mihir; Patel, Kirti V; Patel, Kalpana G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2016-08-01

    Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the modulation of cellular transcription factors and signaling proteins. No pharmacological work is reported on the effects of P. granatum juice on the cellular signaling pathways involved in initiation and progression of inflammation. The present investigation evaluates the effect of P. granatum juice (PJ) and purified punicalagin (PW) on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the signaling pathways leading to its expression in colon inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: positive and negative control, vehicle (50 % ethanol), standard (5-ASA 100 mg/kg, p.o.), PJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.), PW (4 mg/kg, p.o.). Colitis was induced with 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and animals were euthanized on 18th day. Colon samples collected were subjected to various histological assessment (CMDI, DAI), and biochemical parameters (MPO, MDA, SOD, NO). Gene expression study was carried out using RT-PCR for cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and NF-κβ). Pretreatment with PJ and PW significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the disease extent and severity as indicated by reduction in CMDI (2 ± 0.31) and DAI (1.83(#) ± 0.22) when compared with DNBS-treated rats (3.83* ± 0.17). Gene expression studies showed decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-1β in PJ and PW-treated groups. NF-κβ mRNA levels were found to be reduced 84 and 64 % by PJ and PW, respectively. These results suggest that P. granatum juice is more biologically active over punicalagin alone and can be potentially used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. ASAS J083241+2332.4: A NEW EXTREME LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Vivekananda Rao, P. [Department of Astronomy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Choi, C. S., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the R- and V-band CCD photometry and Hα line studies of an overcontact binary ASAS J083241+2332.4. The light curves exhibit totality along with a trace of the O’Connell effect. The photometric solution indicates that this system falls into the category of extreme low-mass ratio overcontact binaries with a mass ratio, q ∼ 0.06. Although a trace of the O’ Connell effect is observed, constancy of the Hα line along various phases suggest that a relatively higher magnetic activity is needed for it to show a prominent fill-in effect. The study of O–C variations reveals that the period of the binary shows a secular increase at the rate of dP/dt ∼ 0.0765 s years{sup −1}, which is superimposed by a low, but significant, sinusoidal modulation with a period of ∼8.25 years. Assuming that the sinusoidal variation is due to the presence of a third body, orbital elements have been derived. There exist three other similar systems, SX Crv, V857 Her, and E53, which have extremely low mass ratios and we conclude that ASAS J083241+2332.4 resembles SX Crv in many respects. Theoretical studies indicate that at a critical mass ratio range, q{sub critical} = 0.07–0.09, overcontact binaries should merge and form a fast rotating star, but it has been suggested that q{sub critical} can continue to fall up to 0.05 depending on the primary's mass and structure. Moreover, the obtained fill-out factors (50%–70%) indicate that mass loss is considerable and hydrodynamical simulations advocate that mass loss from L{sub 2} is mandatory for a successful merging process. Comprehensively, the results indicate that ASAS J083241+2332.4 is at a stage of merger. The pivotal role played by the subtle nature of the derived mass ratio in forming a rapidly rotating star has been discussed.

  17. Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Robert G W; Bakker, Pauline A C; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial SpA should continue to primarily depend on the imaging features of 'active sacroiliitis' until more data are available regarding MRI features of structural damage in the sacroiliac joint and MRI features in the spine and their utility......OBJECTIVES: To review and update the existing definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: The Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) MRI working group conducted a consensus exercise to review the definition of a positive MRI...... for inclusion in the ASAS classification criteria of axial SpA. Existing definitions and new data relevant to the MRI diagnosis and classification of sacroiliitis and spondylitis in axial SpA, published since the ASAS definition first appeared in print in 2009, were reviewed and discussed. The precise wording...

  18. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  19. Cricothyrotomy training increases adherence to the ASA difficult airway algorithm in a simulated crisis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You-Ten, Kong Eric; Bould, M Dylan; Friedman, Zeev; Riem, Nicole; Sydor, Devin; Boet, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    Non-adherence to airway guidelines in a 'cannot intubate-cannot oxygenate' (CICO) crisis situation is associated with adverse patient outcomes. This study investigated the effects of hands-on training in cricothyrotomy on adherence to the American Society of Anesthesiologists difficult airway algorithm (ASA-DAA) during a simulated CICO scenario. A total of 21 postgraduate second-year anesthesia residents completed a pre-test teaching session during which they reviewed the ASA-DAA, became familiarized with the Melker cricothyrotomy kit, and watched a video on cricothyrotomy. Participants were randomized to either the intervention 'Trained' group (n = 10) (taught and practiced cricothyrotomy) or the control 'Non-Trained' group (n = 11) (no extra training). After two to three weeks, performances of the groups were assessed in a simulated CICO scenario. The primary outcome measure was major deviation from the ASA-DAA. Secondary outcome measures were (1) performance of the four categories of non-technical behaviours using the validated Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills scale (ANTS) and (2) time to perform specific tasks. Significantly more non-trained than trained participants (6/11 vs 0/10, P = 0.012) committed at least one major ASA-DAA deviation, including failure to insert an oral airway, failure to call for help, bypassing the laryngeal mask airway, and attempting fibreoptic intubation. ANTS scores for all four categories of behaviours, however, were similar between the groups. Trained participants called for help faster [26 (2) vs 63 (48) sec, P = 0.012] but delayed opening of the cricothyrotomy kit [130 (50) vs 74 (36) sec, P = 0.014]. Hands-on training in cricothyrotomy resulted in fewer major ASA-DAA deviations in a simulated CICO scenario. Training in cricothyrotomy may play an important role in complying with the ASA-DAA in a CICO situation but does not appear to affect non-technical behaviours such as decision-making.

  20. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  1. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver advice in relation to „toothkind‟ juice drinks. The Panel was requested to consider whether conclusions for the substantiation of the beneficial effect, i.e. reduction...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...

  2. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    ). In addition, we identified a number of proteins that have not been previously described in pancreatic juice (e.g., tumor rejection antigen (pg96) and azurocidin). Interestingly, a novel protein that is 85% identical to HIP/PAP was identified, which we have designated as PAP-2. The proteins identified...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  3. Removing the need of empty spheres in the LMTO-ASA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, C.; Andersen, O. K.; Tank, R. W.; Krier, G.; Jepsen, O.

    1998-03-01

    By applying the new LMTO method to the test case of diamond-structured Si, we show that the valence band structure can be accurately calculated by using only a set of large overlapping atom-centred spheres, without resorting to the introduction of empty spheres. This is possible because the new LMTO method is completely equivalent to the linearised KKR method. Therefore, as for the KKR method, the energy error introduced by the use of overlapping muffin tin wells is merely of second order in the overlap volume. We also show that with the inclusion of correction terms for the energy error the band structure may be accurately described even at extremely large overlaps. These results represent a first step towards performing ab-inito molecular dynamics with the LMTO-ASA method.

  4. ASA, NSAIDs, Coxibs and Colorectal Cancer Prevention — How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fishman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described a nested case-control study on all Quebec patients over 65 years of age who underwent total colonic imaging or surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC during a specified six-month period without similar testing in the preceding year. Information from the provincial government database was collected for each subject to estimate the consumption of prescription acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, standard nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2- specific inhibitors (coxibs during the previous year. Of 2568 subjects, 730 were found to have at least one adenoma (but not carcinoma and 129 were found to have CRC (with or without adenoma. Patients with and without adenoma or carcinoma were compared for type, amount and duration of drug exposure to determine if there was a protective effect. Rofecoxib and NSAIDs were associated with reduced incidence of colorectal adenoma (CRA, and these drugs and celecoxib protected against CRA and CRC.

  5. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  6. Does fasting influence preload responsiveness in ASA 1 and 2 volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniel Rodrigues; Ribeiras, Regina

    Preoperative fasting was long regarded as an important cause of fluid depletion, leading to hemodynamic instability during surgery should replenishment is not promptly instituted. Lately, this traditional point of view has been progressively challenged, and a growing number of authors now propose a more restrictive approach to fluid management, although doubt remains as to the true hemodynamic influence of preoperative fasting. We designed an observational, analytic, prospective, longitudinal study in which 31 ASA 1 and ASA 2 volunteers underwent an echocardiographic examination both before and after a fasting period of at least 6hours (h). Data from both static and dynamic preload indices were obtained on both periods, and subsequently compared. Static preload indices exhibited a markedly variable behaviour with fasting. Dynamic indices, however, were far more consistent with one another, all pointing in the same direction, i.e., evidencing no statistically significant change with the fasting period. We also analysed the reliability of dynamic indices to respond to known, intentional preload changes. Aortic velocity time integral (VTI) variation with the passive leg raise manoeuvre was the only variable that proved to be sensitive enough to consistently signal the presence of preload variation. Fasting does not appear to cause a change in preload of conscious volunteers nor does it significantly alter their position in the Frank-Starling curve, even with longer fasting times than usually recommended. Transaortic VTI variation with the passive leg raise manoeuvre is the most robust dynamic index (of those studied) to evaluate preload responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. New Photometrically Variable Magnetic Chemically Peculiar Stars in the ASAS-3 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmerich, Stefan; Paunzen, Ernst; Bernhard, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic Ap or CP2 stars are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. Strictly periodic changes are observed in the spectra and brightness of these stars, which allow the derivation of rotational periods. Related to this group of objects are the He-weak (CP4) and He-rich stars, some of which also undergo brightness changes due to rotational modulation. Increasing the sample size of known rotational periods among CP2/4 stars is important and will contribute to our understanding of these objects and their evolution in time. We have compiled an extensive target list of CP2/4 stars from the General Catalog of Ap, HgMn, and Am stars, including several early-type (spectral types B/A) variables of undetermined type from the International Variable Star Index. We investigated our sample stars using publicly available observations from the ASAS-3 archive. Our previous efforts in this respect led to the discovery of 323 variable stars. Using a refined analysis approach, we were able to identify another 360 stars exhibiting photometric variability in ASAS-3 data. Summary data, folded light curves and, if available, information from the literature are presented for our final sample, which is composed of 334 bona-fide {α }2 Canum Venaticorum (ACV) variables, 23 ACV candidates, and 3 eclipsing binary systems. Interesting and unusual objects are discussed in detail. In particular, we call attention to HD 66051 (V414 Pup), which is an eclipsing binary system showing obvious rotational modulation of the light curve due to the presence of an ACV variable in the system.

  8. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  9. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  10. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  11. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  12. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  13. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  14. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  15. Understanding ghost interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish; Chingangbam, Pravabati; Shafaq, Sheeba

    2016-08-01

    The ghost interference observed for entangled photons is theoretically analyzed using wave-packet dynamics. It is shown that ghost interference is a combined effect of virtual double-slit creation due to entanglement, and quantum erasure of which-path information for the interfering photon. For the case where the two photons are of different color, it is shown that fringe width of the interfering photon depends not only on its own wavelength, but also on the wavelength of the other photon which it is entangled with.

  16. Retroactive Interference and Forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinishaa Ankala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroactive interference is the amount of information that can be forgotten by a person over time due to newly learned material. In this paper we establish a relationship between the amount of information forgotten by college students while they read and watch television and the time taken to forget it. We equate these numerical equations to solve for the unknown constants. By doing so, we can find the exact equation and also the amount of forgetting information due to retroactive interference.

  17. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa; Igor dos Santos Masson; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Juliana Pelegrini Roviero; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consi...

  18. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  19. Destructive Interference of Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fusion of two (diffeomorphism) invariant self-dual scalars described by right and left chiral-WZW actions, produces a Hull non-mover field. After fusion, right and left moving modes disappear from the spectrum, displaying in this way the phenomenon of (destructive) quantum interference of dualities.

  20. Interference Alignment for Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Koyluoglu, Onur Ozan; Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the frequency/time selective $K$-user Gaussian interference channel with secrecy constraints. Two distinct models, namely the interference channel with confidential messages and the one with an external eavesdropper, are analyzed. The key difference between the two models is the lack of channel state information (CSI) about the external eavesdropper. Using interference alignment along with secrecy pre-coding, it is shown that each user can achieve non-zero secure Degrees of Freedom (DoF) for both cases. More precisely, the proposed coding scheme achieves $\\frac{K-2}{2K-2}$ secure DoF {\\em with probability one} per user in the confidential messages model. For the external eavesdropper scenario, on the other hand, it is shown that each user can achieve $\\frac{K-2}{2K}$ secure DoF {\\em in the ergodic setting}. Remarkably, these results establish the {\\em positive impact} of interference on the secrecy capacity region of wireless networks.

  1. Quantum interference in polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Movassagh, Ramis; Datta, Supriyo

    2014-12-01

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments - if coherence in probe connections can be arranged - in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  2. Quantum interference in polyenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald, E-mail: rh34@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Movassagh, Ramis [Department of Mathematics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA and Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building E18, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Datta, Supriyo [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, Electrical Engineering Building, 465 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2035 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    The explicit form of the zeroth Green's function in the Hückel model, approximated by the negative of the inverse of the Hückel matrix, has direct quantum interference consequences for molecular conductance. We derive a set of rules for transmission between two electrodes attached to a polyene, when the molecule is extended by an even number of carbons at either end (transmission unchanged) or by an odd number of carbons at both ends (transmission turned on or annihilated). These prescriptions for the occurrence of quantum interference lead to an unexpected consequence for switches which realize such extension through electrocyclic reactions: for some specific attachment modes the chemically closed ring will be the ON position of the switch. Normally the signs of the entries of the Green's function matrix are assumed to have no physical significance; however, we show that the signs may have observable consequences. In particular, in the case of multiple probe attachments – if coherence in probe connections can be arranged – in some cases new destructive interference results, while in others one may have constructive interference. One such case may already exist in the literature.

  3. Laser Interference Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hennessy, Theodore C.

    In this chapter we explain how submicron gratings can be prepared by Laser Interference Lithography (LIL). In this maskless lithography technique, the standing wave pattern that exists at the intersection of two coherent laser beams is used to expose a photosensitive layer. We show how to build the

  4. Downlink Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Changho; Tse, David

    2010-01-01

    We develop an interference alignment (IA) technique for a downlink cellular system. In the uplink, IA schemes need channel-state-information exchange across base-stations of different cells, but our downlink IA technique requires feedback only within a cell. As a result, the proposed scheme can be implemented with a few changes to an existing cellular system where the feedback mechanism (within a cell) is already being considered for supporting multi-user MIMO. Not only is our proposed scheme implementable with little effort, it can in fact provide substantial gain especially when interference from a dominant interferer (base-station) is significantly stronger than the remaining interference: it is shown that in the two-isolated cell layout, our scheme provides four-fold gain in throughput performance over a standard multi-user MIMO technique. We show through simulations that our technique provides respectable gain under more realistic scenarios: it gives approximately 55% and 20% gain for a linear cell layou...

  5. Interference and radioastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. R.; Vanden Bout, Paul A.; Gergely, Tomas E.

    1991-11-01

    The vulnerabilty of radio astronomy to the growing flood of interfering sources ranging from garage door openers to digital audio broadcast satellites is reviewed. Technical solutions to these problems are briefly examined, and work that needs to be done in the international regulatory system to ameliorate the interference is addressed. An overview is given of existing regulations.

  6. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  7. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  8. Clinical Features and HLA Association of 5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA)-induced Nephrotoxicity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heap, Graham A.; So, Kenji; Weedon, Mike; Edney, Naomi; Bewshea, Claire; Singh, Abhey; Annese, Vito; Beckly, John; Buurman, Dorien; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Cole, Andrew T.; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Creed, Tom; Cummings, Fraser; de Boer, Nanne K.; D'Inca, Renata; D'Souza, Richard; Daneshmend, Tawfique K.; Delaney, Michael; Dhar, Anjan; Direkze, Natalie; Dunckley, Paul; Gaya, Daniel R.; Gearry, Richard; Gore, Steve; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hart, Ailsa; Hawkey, Chris J.; Hoentjen, Frank; Iqbal, Tariq; Irving, Peter; Lal, Simon; Lawrence, Ian; Lees, Charlie W.; Lewis, Steve; Lockett, Melanie; Mann, Stephen; Mansfield, John; Mowat, Craig; Mulgrew, Chris J.; Müller, Frank; Murray, Charles; Oram, Richard; Orchard, Tim; Parkes, Miles; Phillips, Rosemary; Pollok, Richard; Radford-Smith, Graham; Sebastian, Shaji; Sen, Sandip; Shirazi, Tarek; Silverberg, Mark; Solomon, Laurie; Sturniolo, Giacomo C.; Thomas, Mark; Tremelling, Mark; Tsianos, Epameinondas V.; Watts, David; Weaver, Sean; Weersma, Rinse K.; Wesley, Emma; Holden, Arthur; Ahmad, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Nephrotoxicity is a rare idiosyncratic reaction to 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) therapies. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of this complication and identify clinically useful genetic markers so that these drugs can be avoided or so that monitoring can

  9. Association between oral 5-ASA adherence and health care utilization and costs among patients with active ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Debanjali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational cohort study to assess the association between adherence to oral 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs and all-cause costs and health care utilization among patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC in the United States. Methods Retrospective analysis of insurance claims from June 1997 to August 2006 in the LifeLink Database. Patient criteria: aged 18 or older with one or more claim(s between June 1997 and August 2005 for a UC diagnosis and at least one oral 5-ASA prescription on or after the first observed UC diagnosis; continuous enrollment for at least 6 months prior to and 12 months following 5-ASA initiation (index date. As a proxy for active disease, patients needed to have at least two UC-specific non-pharmacy claims, at least 30 days of 5-ASA treatment and at least one corticosteroid prescription within the 12-month post-index period. Cumulative exposure to oral 5-ASAs over the 12-month period was calculated using the medication possession ratio (MPR. Patients with an MPR of at least 0.80 were classified as adherent. All-cause medical and pharmacy resource utilization and costs were computed over the 12-month post-index period and compared between adherent and nonadherent patients. Results 1,693 UC patients met study inclusion criteria: 72% were nonadherent to 5-ASA treatment (n = 1,217 and 28% were adherent (n = 476 in the 12-month study period. Compared with nonadherent patients, adherent patients had 31% fewer hospitalizations (P = 0.0025 and 34% fewer emergency department admissions (P = 0.0016. Adherent patients had 25% more pharmacy prescriptions overall (P P P = 0.0002. After adjusting for covariates, total all-cause costs were 29% higher for nonadherent patients than for adherent patients (mean [95% confidence interval]: $13,465 [$13,094, $13,835] vs $17,339 [$17,033, $17,645]. Conclusions Approximately three-quarters of patients with active UC were not adherent with their

  10. PC/ASA合金的研发%Research on PC/ASA Alloy Performance and Preparation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄李胜; 李景; 麦伟宗; 赖世亮

    2016-01-01

    利用双螺杆挤出机制备PC/ASA合金,探讨了不同PC与ASA配比对性能的影响。结果表明:在PC/ASA体系中,PC与ASA的配比为70∶30,添加4%的相容剂SMA以及0.8%的抗氧剂、润滑剂,能获得最优的性能:悬臂梁缺口冲击强度达66.7kJ/m2,拉伸强度达56.1MPa,弯曲强度达82.3MPa,热变形温度达105.6℃;同时比同等条件下制备出来的PC/ABS合金拥有更好的耐光性。%Using a twin-screw extruder equipment,PC/ASA alloy was prepared,the effects of different ratio of PC and ASA on performance were investigated. The results showed that:in PC/ASA system,PC and ASA ratio is 70∶30,adding compatibility agent SMA 4% and 0. 8% of antioxidant and lubricant,can achieve optimal perform-ance:Izod notched impact strength of 66. 7kJ/m2 , the tensile strength of 56. 1MPa, the bending strength of 82. 3MPa,heat distortion temperature of 105. 6℃;while PC/ABS was prepared under the same conditions,PC/ASA alloy has better lightfastness than PC/ABS.

  11. Interference Decoding for Deterministic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    An inner bound to the capacity region of a class of three user pair deterministic interference channels is presented. The key idea is to simultaneously decode the combined interference signal and the intended message at each receiver. It is shown that this interference decoding inner bound is strictly larger than the inner bound obtained by treating interference as noise, which includes interference alignment for deterministic channels. The gain comes from judicious analysis of the number of combined interference sequences in different regimes of input distributions and message rates.

  12. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. I

  13. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for

  14. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurizatio

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  16. Pancreatic Juice Culture in Acute Pancreatitis and Other Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively evaluated the results of pancreatic juice cultures of patients with acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorders. Methods Twenty patients who underwent pancreatic juice culture were studied. Nine had acute pancreatitis due to alcohol (n=5, idiopathic causes (n=2, drugs (n=1, or gallstones (n=1, and remaining 11 had other pancreatic disorders such as an intraductal papillary mucin-producing neoplasm (n=3 and main pancreatic duct dilatation with a stricture due to a tumorous lesion suspected of pancreatic cancer (n=7 or chronic pancreatitis (n=1 without symptoms. Nasopancreatic drainage tubes were placed for pancreatic duct drainage in acute pancreatitis and for pancreatic juice cytology in other disorders. Pancreatic juice was obtained through the drainage tube and cultured. Results Pancreatic juice cultures were positive in all patients with acute pancreatitis for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species, and others. Six among 11 patients (54.5% with other disorders showed positive results for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus salivarius, and others. The rate of positive pancreatic juice cultures was significantly higher in acute pancreatitis (p=0.038. Seven of the 9 patients with acute pancreatitis were classified as having severe acute pancreatitis, and all survived treatment. Conclusions Pancreatic juice culture was highly positive in acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to confirm the relationship between orally indigenous bacteria identified in the pancreatic juice and acute pancreatitis.

  17. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  18. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  20. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  1. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  2. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  3. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  4. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  5. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  6. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  8. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  11. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  12. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  13. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate

  14. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  15. PERWUJUDAN ASAS AL MUSAWAH DALAM AKAD PEMBIAYAAN MURABAHAH PADA PERBANKAN SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicaksana Wahyu Prasetya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Murabahah Covenant is a product issued by banks that use Sharia principles in their operations, which in a short span of time to become a popular public financing products. This research aims at identifying, describing and analyzing the realization of the Al Musawah principle of Murabahah financing in Islamic banking, this study is the type of research that uses the approach Statute Normative Approach and Conceptual approach. Murabahah is a sale and purchase of goods at home with the added advantage that agreed between the bank and the customer. In Murabahah, the seller said the purchase price of the goods to the buyer, then hinted he would return in a certain amount. The results showed that of the seven groups of clauses in which there are rights and obligations of both sides, there are two groups that do not comply with the principle (Al Musawah: the group of clause about Total Financing, Financing Forms, Purpose Financing and Financing Deadline, in the article about the amount of financing should include negotiation process between the two sides, and the deadline to enter is clearly a limit in the form of range (minimum-maximum and the clause on Affirmative Covenant containing the accumulation of customer obligations, should include penalties on arrears should be based agreement of the parties and specified in the financing agreement. Key Words: financing contract, al musawah, murabahah   Abstrak Akad Pembiayaan Murabahah merupakan produk yang dikeluarkan oleh bank yang menggunakan prinsip Syariah dalam operasionalnya, yang dalam kurun waktu singkat mampu menjadi produk pembiayaan yang digemari masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi, mendeskripsikan dan analisis perwujudan asas Al Musawah dalam Akad pembiayaan Murabahah di perbankan Syariah, maka penelitian ini jenis penelitian normatif yang menggunakan pendekatan Statute Approach dan Conceptual approach. Murabahah adalah jual beli barang pada harga asal

  16. A search for photometric variability in magnetic chemically peculiar stars using ASAS-3 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, K.; Hümmerich, S.; Otero, S.; Paunzen, E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The (magnetic) chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper main sequence are well-suited laboratories for investigating the influence of magnetic fields on the stellar surface because they produce abundance inhomogeneities (spots), which results in photometric variability that is explained in terms of the oblique rotator model. CP stars exhibiting this phenomenon are normally classified as α2 Canum Venaticorum (ACV) variables. It is important to increase the sample of known rotational periods among CP stars by discovering new ACV variables. An increased sample size will contribute to the understanding of the CP stars' evolution in time. Aims: We aim at discovering new ACV variables in the public data of the third phase of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS-3). Furthermore, by analysis of the available photometric data, we intend to derive rotational periods of the stars. Methods: The ASAS-3 data were cross-correlated with the Catalogue of Ap, HgMn, and Am stars in order to analyse the light curves of bona fide CP and related stars. The light curves were downloaded and cleaned of outliers and data points with a flag indicating bad quality. Promising candidates showing a larger scatter than observed for constant stars in the corresponding magnitude range were searched for periodic signals using a standard Fourier technique. Objects exhibiting periodic signals well above the noise level were considered and visually inspected, whereas borderline cases were rejected. Results: In total, we found 323 variables, from which 246 are reported here for the first time, and 77 were probably wrongly classified before. The observed variability pattern of most stars is in accordance with an ACV classification. For some cases, it is difficult to distinguish between the light curves of double-waved ACVs and the variability induced by orbital motion (ellipsoidal variables/eclipsing variables), especially for objects exhibiting very small amplitudes and/or significant scatter

  17. Transmission of Correlated Messages over Interference Channels with Strong Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhan; Yoon, Eunchul; Moon, Hichan

    Transmission of correlated messages over interference channels with strong interference is considered. As a result, an achievable rate region is presented. It is shown that if the messages are correlated, the achievable rate region can be larger than the capacity region given by Costa and El Gamal. As an example, the Gaussian interference channel is considered.

  18. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  19. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    and pulsed electric field (PEF) juice are compared with their probability of choice for pasteurized juice and freshly produced apple juice, and consumer choices are tried explained by values and consequences generated from a MEC study. The study support, at least partly, that means-end chain structures’ have......, within the core of academic consumer research, MEC has been almost ignored. One plausible explanation for this lack of interest may be that studies linking MEC data to choice have been few. In this study, we are to investigate how values and consequences generated from a previous MEC study structure can...... be linked to likelihood of choice. Hypotheses about European consumers’ likelihood of choice for novel processed juice are stated and tested in a rating based conjoint study in Norway, Denmark, Hungary and Slovakia. In the study, consumers probability of choice for high pressure processed (HPP) juice...

  20. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  1. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  2. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (platex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  3. Synergistic Emulsification of Pickering ASA Emulsion by Dodecane and Nano-montmorillonite Modified with Silane Coupling Agent%硅烷偶联剂改性纳米蒙脱石协同正十二烷乳化ASA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兆云; 李友明; 于得海

    2012-01-01

    ASA(烯基琥珀酸酐)是在造纸过程中赋予纸和纸板抗渗透性的一种浆内施胶剂。本文研究了硅烷偶联剂改性纳米蒙脱石协同正十二烷乳化ASA,及其乳液稳定性和施胶性能,对改性纳米蒙脱石(MMT)利用X射线衍射(XRD)、傅里叶红外FT—IR、表面接触角等方法进行分析表征。结果表明,KH570成功改性纳米蒙脱石颗粒,并与蒙脱石表面羟基反应而改变颗粒亲水性;当油水比中为0.4时,改性蒙脱石用量为2%时,由KH570改性蒙脱石固体颗粒与正十二烷协同乳化稳定的Pickering乳液型ASA乳液稳定性最好;硫酸铝用量为0.6%时,随ASA用量的增加,纸页施胶效果明显提高。%Alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) is an internal sizing agent used to hydrophobize paper and paper- board in papermaking process. The stability and sizing performance of ASA Pickering emulsions (o/w) stabilized by nano-montmorillonite (nano-MMT) modified with silane coupling agent KH570 are reported. The modified nano-MMT particles were characterized by XRD, FTIR and interfacial contact angles. And the morphology of ASA emulsions was observed by optical microscopy. The results show that KH570 successfully modified nano-MMT and improved hydrophobicity due to the reaction between KH570 and hydroxyl group of MMT particle. With 0.4 oil vol- ume fraction, stable ASA Pickering emulsions (o/w) was prepared by the synergistic effect of KH570 modified nano-MMT (2wt%) and dodecane. The obtained ASA Pickering emulsion exhibited increased sizing performance with 0.6wt% aluminum sulfate and increasing dosage of ASA.

  4. Preparation of ASA Emulsions with Butylamine Modified Laponite and Its Sizing Performance%正丁胺改性锂皂石制备ASA Pickering乳液及其施胶性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鹏翔; 刘温霞

    2011-01-01

    固体微粒稳定的乳液可以避免表面活性剂的不利影响.以纳米尺寸的锂石颗粒为乳化剂,以正丁胺为锂皂石的改性剂,制备了稳定的ASA乳液,并对其施胶性能、水解稳定性进行了研究.结果表明,当水相pH值为6,锂皂石对ASA用量为1.5%,正丁胺对锂皂石用量为2%时,利用改性锂皂石可以制备稳定的ASA乳液.所制备的ASA乳液可以产生良好的施胶效果,但其水解稳定性较差.铝盐的加入可以显著提高ASA乳液的施胶性能,而且在高铝盐添加量下,即使不使用助留剂,ASA乳液也能产生很好的施胶效果.%Solid particles stabilized emulsions can avoid detrimental effects of surfactant. In this paper, ASA emulsions were prepared using nano-size Laponite particles, which were modified by n-butylamine, as emulsifier. Tie sizing performance and hydrolysis stability of the prepared emulsions were investigated. The results showed that stable ASA emulsion is obtained as the pH of aqueous phase, Laponite to ASA mass fraction, bulylamine to Laponite mass fraction are 6.0, 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The ASA emulsion shows good sizing performance but low hydrolysis stability. The addition of alum remarkably enhances the sizing efficiency of the ASA emulsion, and with high amount of alum the ASA emulsion can develop a rather high sizing degree for paper even in absence of retention aid.

  5. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the S

  6. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  7. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice. In thi...

  8. A search for photometric variability in magnetic chemically peculiar stars using ASAS-3 data

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, K; Otero, S; Paunzen, E

    2015-01-01

    The (magnetic) chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper main sequence are well-suited laboratories for investigating the influence of magnetic fields on the stellar surface because they produce abundance inhomogeneities (spots), which results in photometric variability that is explained in terms of the oblique rotator model. CP stars exhibiting this phenomenon are normally classified as alpha2 Canum Venaticorum (ACV) variables. It is important to increase the sample of known rotational periods among CP stars by discovering new ACV variables. The ASAS-3 data were cross-correlated with the Catalogue of Ap, HgMn, and Am stars in order to analyse the light curves of bona fide CP and related stars. The light curves were downloaded and cleaned of outliers and data points with a flag indicating bad quality. Promising candidates showing a larger scatter than observed for constant stars in the corresponding magnitude range were searched for periodic signals using a standard Fourier technique. In total, we found 323...

  9. Tratamiento del síncope neuralmente mediado con marcapasos: utilidad del sensor de asa cerrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El síncope vasovagal es una entidad frecuente, de difícil manejo, con alta tasa de recurrencia aun con manejo médico. Se ha estudiado la estimulación cardiaca en pacientes con respuesta cardioinhibitoria en la mesa basculante con resultados contradictorios. Los estudios iniciales mostraron buenos resultados, que no lograron reproducirse cuando se introdujo el diseño doble ciego. La mayoría de estos estudios se realizaron con marcapasos con sensores convencionales. Las guías actuales de dispositivos indican la terapia de estimulación cardiaca en síncope vasovagal con respuesta cardioinhibitoria como una alternativa ante la no respuesta al tratamiento convencional. Existe evidencia reciente que indica que los marcapasos con sensores de asa cerrada (CLS, del inglés closed-loop sensor muestran mejores resultados que los sensores convencionales; estos estudios, aunque con población pequeña, reportan reducciones de la frecuencia de síncopes y presíncopes. Este tipo de dispositivos actúan en etapas más tempranas de la cascada de eventos fisiopatológicos del síncope vasovagal, detectando cambios en la impedancia ventricular antes de la caída de la frecuencia cardiaca, lo cual permite intervenir en forma precoz con estimulación para evitar el síncope.

  10. 2010 update of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; van den Berg, R; Baraliakos, X; Boehm, H; Burgos-Vargas, R; Collantes-Estevez, E; Dagfinrud, H; Dijkmans, B; Dougados, M; Emery, P; Geher, P; Hammoudeh, M; Inman, RD; Jongkees, M; Khan, MA; Kiltz, U; Kvien, TK; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Maksymowych, WP; Olivieri, I; Pavelka, K; Sieper, J; Stanislawska-Biernat, E; Wendling, D; Özgocmen, S; van Drogen, C; van Royen, BJ; van der Heijde, D

    2011-01-01

    This first update of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations on the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is based on the original paper, a systematic review of existing recommendations and the literature since 2005 and the discussion and agreement among 21 international experts, 2 patients and 2 physiotherapists in a meeting in February 2010. Each original bullet point was discussed in detail and reworded if necessary. Decisions on new recommendations were made — if necessary after voting. The strength of the recommendations (SOR) was scored on an 11-point numerical rating scale after the meeting by email. These recommendations apply to patients of all ages that fulfill the modified NY criteria for AS, independent of extra-articular manifestations, and they take into account all drug and non-drug interventions related to AS. Four overarching principles were introduced, implying that one bullet has been moved to this section. There are now 11 bullet points including 2 new ones, one related to extra-articular manifestations and one to changes in the disease course. With a mean score of 9.1 (range 8-10) the SOR was generally very good. PMID:21540199

  11. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  12. Highly selective PdCu/amorphous silica-alumina (ASA) catalysts for groundwater denitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Yuping; Zhang, Yi; Crittenden, John C

    2011-05-01

    Catalytic nitrate reduction is a promising technology in groundwater purification. In this study, PdCu bimetallic catalysts supported on an industrial amorphous silica-alumina (ASA) were synthesized and used to simulate catalytic removal of nitrate in groundwater. The catalysts exhibited very high activity and the highest catalytic selectivity toward N₂O and N₂ was 90.2%. The optimal Pd/Cu weight ratio was four. Relatively low reduction temperature was found benefit the catalytic stability and 300 °C was the appropriate reduction temperature during catalyst preparation. With an average particle size 5.4 nm, the metal particles were very uniformly distributed on the catalyst surface prepared with the codeposition method. This kept the catalyst more stable than the PdCu/Al₂O₂ catalyst with larger metal particles. According to XRD, TEM, and XPS results, the metals maintained zero-valence but aggregated by about 2 nm during the denitration reaction, which caused gradual deactivation of the catalysts. Little leaching of Cu and Pd from the catalyst might also have a slightly negative impact to the stability of the catalysts. A simple treatment was found to redistribute the particles on the deactivated catalysts, and high catalytic activity was recovered after this process.

  13. Coca-Cola's Acquisition Over Huiyuan Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's Anti-Monopoly Law,the foundation stone of the market economy,started to be implemented since August 1st 2008.After half a year of investigation,.Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice was put to a stop by Ministry of Commerce on March 18th 2009.It became the first abortive case since the implementation of the Anti-Monopoly Law and caused strong repercussions home and abroad.While the nationalists applauded for the decision,overseas media generally took a skeptical attitude,considering it as a case of trade protectionism.This phenomenon requires a rational interpretation and guidance for the domestic and international media.On the one hand,acquisition by foreign capital may bring advanced technology and management experience and promote economic development;on the other hand,it may lead to the monopoly of relevant market,hamper competition and cause some domestic brands to disappear.We should look at Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice from two aspects.

  14. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity.

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  16. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is considered...

  17. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  18. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p fruit juice.

  19. Holographic interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  20. Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del S; Santander-Martínez, Ingrid Renata; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ariza-Ortega, José A; Omaña-Covarrubias, Ariana; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3-5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L(-1), 255.9 mg·L(-1), 294.4 mg·L(-1), and 276.7 mg·L(-1), respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L(-1), 135.2 mg·L(-1), and 128.5 mg·L(-1), respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•.

  1. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  2. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  3. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

    2005-01-01

    NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses.No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice.A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acutehepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice.

  5. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  6. Some thoughts about the application of ASA materials in PVC profiles%ASA材料在PVC型材应用中的若干思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟刚

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了PVC材料与ASA材料,探讨了PVC材料与ASA材料物理性能和加工性能上的差异、颜料对ASA材料性能的影响、ASA/PVC共挤型材及门窗的热变形问题,总结了ASA/PVC共挤型材变形的影响因素;为了解决ASA/PVC共挤型材加工过程和使用过程中的变形问题,还给出了具体的注意事项。%PVC materials and ASA materials were brifely introduced. Differences between PVC materials and ASA materials in physical properties and processing properties were discussed as well as influences of pigments on properties of ASA materials and the hot deformation problems of ASA/ PVC co-extrusion profiles and ASA/PVC doors & windows. Factors of influencing the the hot de- formation of ASA/PVC co-extrusion profiles were summaried. To solve the problems of deforma- tion of ASA/PVC co-extrusion profiles during procsessing and application, matters needing atten- tion were proposed in detail.

  7. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue -- IX. Spotted pairs with red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Ratajczak, M; Konacki, M; Smith, A M S; Kozłowski, S K; Espinoza, N; Jordán, A; Brahm, R; Hempel, M; Anderson, D R; Hellier, C

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric solutions for three spotted systems with red giant components. Absolute physical and orbital parameters for these double-lined detached eclipsing binary stars are presented for the first time. These were derived from the V-, and I-band ASAS and WASP photometry, and new radial velocities calculated from high quality optical spectra we obtained with a wide range of spectrographs and using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR). All of the investigated systems (ASAS J184949-1518.7, BQ Aqr, and V1207 Cen) show the differential evolutionary phase of their components consisting of a main sequence star or a subgiant and a red giant, and thus constitute very informative objects in terms of testing stellar evolution models. Additionally, the systems show significant chromospheric activity of both components. They can be also classified as classical RS CVn-type stars. Besides the standard analysis of radial velocities and photometry, we applied spectral disenta...

  8. Hacia la búsqueda sistemática de estrellas variables en asociaciones estelares: escarbando VSX y ASAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque Arancibia, M.; González, J. F.; Barbá, R. H.; Flores, M. G.; Veramendi, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    We present an application for period determination and automatic classification of light curves for eclipsing binaries. In this case, we have correlated the list of eclipsing binary stars from the international Variable Star indeX (VSX) data base, with the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) and SIMBAD databases. As a result, we have obtained nearly 23000 light curves for stars with stellar magnitudes between 7 and 14. About 40 of these stars had not been previously detected by the automatic classification software of the ASAS project, which is motivating for finding new eclipsing binary stars. We show an overall statistics about light curves parameters for the 15000 stars of our sample, among which almost 10000 still lack detailed observational studies (less than four bibliographic entries).

  9. Análise aerodinâmica de asas usando o método VLM acoplado ao XFOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Álvaro Gil Sampaio

    2009-01-01

    O objectivo do presente trabalho é desenvolver uma ferramenta numérica para a análise aerodinâmica de asas subsónicas usando o método de análise VLM (Vortex Lattice Method). A solução aerodinâmica é obtida em duas partes: o método VLM fornece a sustentação e a resistência aerodinâmica induzida e as suas distribuições sobre a superfície média da asa; para se obter a resistência aerodinâmica parasita o código XFOIL, que usa um método dos painéis acoplado a uma formulação de camada limi...

  10. Partial Interference Alignment for K-user MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a Partial Interference Alignment and Interference Detection (PIAID) design for $K$-user quasi-static MIMO interference channels with discrete constellation inputs. Each transmitter has M antennas and transmits L independent data streams to the desired receiver with N receive antennas. We focus on the case where not all K-1 interfering transmitters can be aligned at every receiver. As a result, there will be residual interference at each receiver that cannot be aligned. Each receiver detects and cancels the residual interference based on the constellation map. However, there is a window of unfavorable interference profile at the receiver for Interference Detection (ID). In this paper, we propose a low complexity Partial Interference Alignment scheme in which we dynamically select the user set for IA so as to create a favorable interference profile for ID at each receiver. We first derive the average symbol error rate (SER) by taking into account of the non-Guassian residual interfere...

  11. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  12. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Robert G W; Bakker, Pauline A C; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weber, Ulrich; Rudwaleit, Martin; Hermann, K G; Sieper, Joachim; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Bennett, Alex; Braun, Jürgen; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Dougados, Maxime; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Maksymowych, Walter P; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Østergaard, Mikkel; Poddubnyy, Denis; Reijnierse, Monique; van den Bosch, Filip; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene; Landewé, Robert

    2016-11-01

    To review and update the existing definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) MRI working group conducted a consensus exercise to review the definition of a positive MRI for inclusion in the ASAS classification criteria of axial SpA. Existing definitions and new data relevant to the MRI diagnosis and classification of sacroiliitis and spondylitis in axial SpA, published since the ASAS definition first appeared in print in 2009, were reviewed and discussed. The precise wording of the existing definition was examined in detail and the data and a draft proposal were presented to and voted on by the ASAS membership. The clear presence of bone marrow oedema on MRI in subchondral bone is still considered to be the defining observation that determines the presence of active sacroiliitis. Structural damage lesions seen on MRI may contribute to a decision by the observer that inflammatory lesions are genuinely due to SpA but are not required to meet the definition. The existing definition was clarified adding guidelines and images to assist in the application of the definition. The definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial SpA should continue to primarily depend on the imaging features of 'active sacroiliitis' until more data are available regarding MRI features of structural damage in the sacroiliac joint and MRI features in the spine and their utility when used for classification purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossec, Laure; Portier, Agnès; Landewé, Robert; Etcheto, Adrien; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; Kroon, Féline; van der Heijde, Désirée; Dougados, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Flares may be used as outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) trials or observational studies. The objective was to develop a definition for 'flare' (or worsening) in axSpA, based on validated composite indices, to be used in the context of clinical trial design. (1) Systematic literature review of definitions of 'flare' in published randomised controlled trials in axSpA. (2) Vignette exercise: 140 scenarios were constructed for a typical patient with axSpA seen at two consecutive visits. Each scenario included a change in one of the following outcomes: pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), BASDAI plus C-reactive protein (CRP) or Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)-CRP. Each Assessment of Spondyloarthritis (ASAS) expert determined if every scenario from a random sample of 46 scenarios was considered a flare (yes/no). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were applied to derive optimal cut-off values. (3) ASAS consensus was reached. (1) The literature review yielded 38 studies using some definition of 'flare', with 27 different definitions indicating important heterogeneity. The most frequent definitions were based on BASDAI changes or pain changes. (2) 121 ASAS experts completed 4999 flare assessments. The areas under the ROC curves were high (range: 0.88-0.89). Preliminary cut-offs for pain (N=3), BASDAI (N=5) and ASDAS-CRP (N=4) were chosen, with a range of sensitivity 0.60-0.99 and range of specificity 0.40-0.94 against the expert's opinions. This data-driven ASAS consensus process has led to 12 preliminary draft definitions of 'flare' in axSpA, based on widely used indices. These preliminary definitions will need validation in real patient data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. ASAS-SN Optical Light Curve of Swift J0243.6+6124 Shows Long Term Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo

    2017-10-01

    Swift J0243.6+6124 (GCN #21960) has been localized (ATel #10809) to likely coincide with B=13 star USNO-B1.0 1514-0083050. Given the statement in ATel #10809 of "no statistically strong evidence of optical variability," we used ASAS-SN Sky Patrol public all-sky light curve interface (Kochanek et al. 2017) to retrieve 1000+ days light curve at the position of USNO-B1.0 1514-0083050.

  16. Synthesis and applications of polyacrylamide grafted agar as a matrix for controlled drug release of 5-ASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha Rani, G; Konreddy, Ananda Kumar; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam

    2014-04-01

    Agar has been modified by microwave assisted grafting with acrylamide monomer, resulting in poly acrylamide grafted agar (Ag-g-PAM). The synthesized grades of Ag-g-PAM were characterized by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) to ascertain the intended grafting. The synthesized graft copolymer (Ag-g-PAM) has been investigated (in vitro) for controlled and colon targeted release of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA).

  17. A dinâmica dos fluidos complementada e a sustentação da asa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weltner Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A explicação convencional da sustentação da asa, usando a lei de Bernoulli, apresenta equívocos graves que são aqui analisados. Usamos as leis de Newton para demonstrar coerentemente a sustentação que se origina na aceleração do ar para baixo pela asa. A velocidade do fluxo de ar acima da asa é maior do que abaixo dela. Mostramos que isto é decorrência e não causa da baixa pressão. Se uma linha de corrente for curva existe um gradiente de pressão perpendicular à velocidade, fato que não pode ser negligenciado na representação da dinâmica dos fluidos. A análise da curvatura das linhas de corrente em volta de um obstáculo esclarece a geração e a distribuição das pressões. Outras aplicações equivocadas da lei de Bernoulli são detalhadamente analisadas segundo o nosso enfoque. Apresentamos experimentos convincentes e facilmente realizáveis em sala de aula, compreensíveis mesmo para o ensino médio.

  18. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  19. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  20. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  1. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  2. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  3. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted of conventional and organic juices marketed in Poland, in that pure pressed juices, fermented juice and juices from concentrate, pure and combined with apple or lemon juice. The concentration of vitamin C, organic acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolic acids, flavonoids and betalains has been determined in the juices. All beetroot juices were abundant in betalains, with higher concentrations of these compounds found in pure beetroot juices when compared to juices combined with apple or lemon. Highest concentration of betanin-3-O-glucoside was found in pure conventional juice from concentrate, while highest betanidin content was found in pure organic fermented juice. Highest vitamin C contents were found in pressed organic juices combined with apple and lemon. All juices were abundant in polyphenols, mainly phenolic acids, with highest concentrations of these antioxidants found in conventional pure pressed juice. The study shows that beetroot juices, independently on the beetroot processing technology and agricultural production system, are very valuable products due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, especially betalains, in their composition. Therefore beetroot juice consumption should be promoted among consumers.

  4. Graphene quantum interference photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Voss, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI) photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector), low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  5. Sensing via optical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Bailey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological sensing are problems of tremendous contemporary technological importance in multiple regulatory and human health contexts, including environmental monitoring, water quality assurance, workplace air quality assessment, food quality control, many aspects of biodiagnostics, and, of course, homeland security. Frequently, what is needed, or at least wanted, are sensors that are simultaneously cheap, fast, reliable, selective, sensitive, robust, and easy to use. Unfortunately, these are often conflicting requirements. Over the past few years, however, a number of promising ideas based on optical interference effects have emerged. Each is based to some extent on advances in the design and fabrication of functional materials. Generally, the advances are of two kinds: chemo- and bio-selective recognition and binding, and efficient methods for micropatterning or microstructuring.

  6. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  7. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...... in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our...

  8. Clarification Effects of Chitosan on Apple Fruit Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-fei; LI He-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is a good flocculant. The paper deals with the clarification of apple juice by means of chitosan. The results showed that the transmittance was over 97% and soluble solid content was stable basically, under the technological condition of chitosan of 0.5 - 1.2 g L-1 , temperature of 45 - 55℃ and pH 4.5. After the orthogonal trial, the optimum technological conditions of apple juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.3 g L-1 chitosan, 45℃C and pH 4.5. The research of the apple juice clarification with chitosan made a basis of the application of chitosan and provided the theoretical basis for the clarification of apple juice with chitosan.

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  11. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of sugar. ... Key words: Ethanol, sweet sorghum, stalk juice, medium ..... production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a.

  12. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  13. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  14. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  15. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  17. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  18. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  19. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Quantum Interference in Graphene Nanoconstrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Pascal; Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Lau, Chit Siong; Liu, Junjie; Ardavan, Arzhang; Warner, Jamie H; Lambert, Colin J; Briggs, G Andrew D; Mol, Jan A

    2016-07-13

    We report quantum interference effects in the electrical conductance of chemical vapor deposited graphene nanoconstrictions fabricated using feedback controlled electroburning. The observed multimode Fabry-Pérot interferences can be attributed to reflections at potential steps inside the channel. Sharp antiresonance features with a Fano line shape are observed. Theoretical modeling reveals that these Fano resonances are due to localized states inside the constriction, which couple to the delocalized states that also give rise to the Fabry-Pérot interference patterns. This study provides new insight into the interplay between two fundamental forms of quantum interference in graphene nanoconstrictions.

  1. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  2. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  3. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  5. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  6. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a cohort of new users of low-dose ASA for secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Cea Soriano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database was used to identify a cohort of 38 077 individuals aged 50–84 years with a first prescription of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 75–300 mg/day for secondary prevention of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events during 2000–2007. From this cohort, 169 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB were identified. Controls with no UGIB (n = 2000 were frequency-matched to the cases by age, sex and follow-up time. A nested case–control analysis was performed to determine risk factors associated with UGIB. The incidence of UGIB was 1.1 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.0–1.3. Low-dose ASA users with a history of peptic ulcer disease had an increased risk of UGIB compared with those without (rate ratio [RR], 4.59; 95% CI, 2.87–7.33. Concomitant use of ASA and clopidogrel (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.85–3.05 or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; RR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.77–4.82 conferred an increased risk of UGIB compared with ASA monotherapy. Discontinuation of ASA therapy (RR: 0.71, 95% CI, 0.42–1.20 and PPI co-treatment given since the start of ASA therapy (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33–0.96 were associated with a reduced risk of UGIB. In conclusion, in a cohort of individuals receiving low-dose ASA for secondary prevention of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease, or who were receiving clopidogrel or NSAIDs had an increased risk of UGIB. The prescription of PPI therapy at the initiation of low-dose ASA reduced the risk of UGIB by almost half.

  7. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...

  8. Adjunct therapy of n-3 fatty acids to 5-ASA ameliorates inflammatory score and decreases NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodji, Khaly; Charpentier, Cloé; Guérin, Charlène; Querec, Coraline; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Aziz, Moutaz; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the potential of nutritional intervention as adjunct therapy to 5-ASA in IBD. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties in gut inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the dual therapy (n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA) in rats with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of TNBS while control rats received the vehicle. Rats received by gavage a fish oil-rich formula (n-3 groups) or an isocaloric and isolipidic oil formula supplemented with 5-ASA for 14 days. A dose response of 5-ASA (5-75 mg. suppression mg kg(-1) d(-1)) was tested. Colitis was evaluated and several inflammatory markers were quantified in the colon. COX-2 expression (Pinducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression (Pinduce PPARγ. By contrast, the dual therapy did not improve the effects of individual treatments on eicosanoids or cytokine production. Use of n-3 PUFA in addition to 5-ASA may reduce dose of standard therapy.

  9. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  10. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  11. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  12. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  13. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  14. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  15. The RNA interference revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lenz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing has rapidly led to its use as a method of choice for blocking a gene, and has turned it into one of the most discussed topics in cell biology. Although still in its infancy, the field of RNA interference has already produced a vast array of results, mainly in Caenorhabditis elegans, but recently also in mammalian systems. Micro-RNAs are short hairpins of RNA capable of blocking translation, which are transcribed from genomic DNA and are implicated in several aspects from development to cell signaling. The present review discusses the main methods used for gene silencing in cell culture and animal models, including the selection of target sequences, delivery methods and strategies for a successful silencing. Expected developments are briefly discussed, ranging from reverse genetics to therapeutics. Thus, the development of the new paradigm of RNA-mediated gene silencing has produced two important advances: knowledge of a basic cellular mechanism present in the majority of eukaryotic cells and access to a potent and specific new method for gene silencing.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C

    2015-10-05

    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented.

  17. Communications in interference limited networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book offers means to handle interference as a central problem of operating wireless networks. It investigates centralized and decentralized methods to avoid and handle interference as well as approaches that resolve interference constructively. The latter type of approach tries to solve the joint detection and estimation problem of several data streams that share a common medium. In fact, an exciting insight into the operation of networks is that it may be beneficial, in terms of an overall throughput, to actively create and manage interference. Thus, when handled properly, "mixing" of data in networks becomes a useful tool of operation rather than the nuisance as which it has been treated traditionally. With the development of mobile, robust, ubiquitous, reliable and instantaneous communication being a driving and enabling factor of an information centric economy, the understanding, mitigation and exploitation of interference in networks must be seen as a centrally important task.

  18. Photometric study and preliminary elements of the low-mass ratio W UMa system ASAS 021209+2708.3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Acerbi; Carlo Barani; Massimiliano Martignoni

    2011-01-01

    We present CCD B and V light curves, obtained in the year 2006, and a photometric solution of the Iow-mass ratio contact binary ASAS 021209+2708.3.With our data we were able to determine six new times of minimum light and refine the orbital period of the system to 0.3181963 days. The light curves are analyzed using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program and the analysis was performed with and without adding a spot on the surface of one star because the light curves appear to exhibit a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum 11. The results show that ASAS 021209+2708.3 may be classified as an A-subtype W Ursae Majoris system with a small mass ratio q = 0.1889, a large over-contact degree of f=0.587, a very small difference between the component temperatures of △T = 53 K and an orbital inclination of i= 81°. It is known that deep (f > 50%), low-mass ratio (q < 0.25) overcontact binary stars are a very important resource for understanding the phenomena of Blue Straggler/FK Com-type stars. The formations of Blue Straggler stars and FK Com-type stars are unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics. One of the possible explanations for their formation is from the coalescence of W UMa-type overcontact binary systems. The absolute dimensions of ASAS 021209+2708.3 are estimated and its dynamical evolution is inferred.

  19. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  1. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Jazmin D; Beuchat, Larry R; Tauxe, Robert V

    2008-02-01

    Outbreaks of illness associated with consumption of fruit juice have been a growing public health problem since the early 1990s. In response to epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks in which juice was implicated, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented process control measures to regulate the production of fruit juice. The final juice regulation, which became effective in 2002, 2003, and 2004, depending on the size of the business, requires that juice operations comply with a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) receives reports of food-associated outbreaks of illness. We reviewed fruit juice-associated outbreaks of illness reported to the CDC's Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System. From 1995 through 2005, 21 juice-associated outbreaks were reported to CDC; 10 implicated apple juice or cider, 8 were linked to orange juice, and 3 involved other types of fruit juice. These outbreaks caused 1,366 illnesses, with a median of 21 cases per outbreak (range, 2 to 398 cases). Among the 13 outbreaks of known etiology, 5 were caused by Salmonella, 5 by Escherichia coli O157:H7, 2 by Cryptosporidium, and one by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O111 and Cryptosporidium. Fewer juice-associated outbreaks have been reported since the juice HACCP regulation was implemented. Some juice operations that are exempt from processing requirements or do not comply with the regulation continue to be implicated in outbreaks of illness.

  2. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  3. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  4. The reliability and validity of a Korean translation of the ASAS Health Index and Environmental Factors in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jong; Shin, Kichul; Choi, Chan-Bum; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, So-Hyun; Kim, Nah-Ihm; Ahn, Min-Joo; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society-Health Index/Environmental Factor (ASAS HI/EF) and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). A total of 43 patients participated. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ASAS HI/EF was performed according to international standardized guidelines. We also evaluated validity by calculating correlation coefficients between the ASAS-HI/EF score and the clinical parameters. Test-retest reliability was excellent. The correlations among the mean ASAS-HI score and all tools of assessment for SpA were significant. When it came to construct validity, the ASAS HI score was correlated with nocturnal back pain, spinal pain, patients's global assessment score, the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) and EuroQoL visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) (r = 0.353, 0.585, 0.598, 0.637, 0.690, 0.430, and -0.534). The ASAS EF score was also correlated with the patient's global assessment's score, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, and EQ VAS score (r = 0.375, 0.490, 0.684, 0.485, and -0.554). The Korean version of the ASAS HI/EF can be used in the clinical field to assess and evaluate the state of health of Korean axial SpA patients.

  5. Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale

    2004-06-01

    Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice.

  6. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Naderi, Gholamali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Nayeri, Hashem

    2011-07-01

    We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. 5 μl of lime juice didn't change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  7. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pjuice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  8. [RP-HPLC fingerprint evaluating different ginger juice as processing material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao; Gao, Hui-Min

    2008-05-01

    To establish a method for comparing the differences between fresh and dried ginger juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprint method was performed on an Alltech C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with mobile phase in gradient elution composed of A-acetonitrie and B-water at a flow rate: 0.8 mL x min(-1). The detecting wavelength was 280 nm, and the column temperature 25 degrees C. There was no significant difference among the same breed ginger juice of different batches. But there was significant difference between crushed ginger juice and the boiled juice. Trytophan, 6-gingerol were common constituents of the three kinds of ginger juice, the fresh ginger and the dry ginger. Besides, 6-shogaol emerged in the boiled juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprints spectrum can be used to distinguish different ginger juices. And the crushed juice of fresh ginger have the same chemical consititents with the fresh ginger.

  9. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  11. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn′t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  12. Optical interference with digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, David; Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    In 1804, Thomas Young reported the observation of fringes in the intensity of light, and attributed it to the concept of interference between coherent sources. In this paper, we revisit this famous experiment and show how it can easily be demonstrated with digital holography. We look closely at the concept of interference with light and ask, "fringes in what?" We then show that depending on how light interferes, fringe patterns in observables other than intensity can be seen. We explain this conceptually and demonstrate it experimentally. We provide a holistic approach to the topic, aided by modern laboratory practices for a straightforward demonstration of the underlying physics.

  13. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  14. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  15. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  16. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions.

  17. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  18. The Recently-Discovered Dwarf Nova System ASAS J002511+1217.2: A New WZ Sagittae Star

    CERN Document Server

    Templeton, M R; Szkody, P; Henden, A; Cook, L; Starkey, D; Oksanen, A; Koppelman, M; Boyd, D; Vanmunster, T; Pickard, R; Quinn, N; Huziak, R; Aho, M; James, R; Golovin, A; Durkee, R I; Crawford, T R; Walker, G; Paakkonen, P

    2005-01-01

    The cataclysmic variable ASAS J002511+1217.2 was discovered in outburst by the All-Sky Automated Survey in September 2004, and intensively monitored by AAVSO observers through the following two months. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate that this is a very short-period system. Clearly defined superhumps with a period of 0.05687 +/- 0.00001 days (1-sigma) are present during the superoutburst, 5 to 18 days following the ASAS detection. We observe a change in superhump profile similar to the transition to ``late superhumps'' observed in other short-period systems; the superhump period appears to increase slightly for a time before returning to the original value, with the resulting superhump phase offset by approximately half a period. We detect variations with a period of 0.05666 +/- 0.00003 days (1-sigma) during the four-day quiescent phase between the end of the main outburst and the single echo outburst. Weak variations having the original superhump period reappear during the echo and its rapid declin...

  19. Optimizing use of 5-ASA in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: Focus on patient compliance and adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Bernick

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Steven J Bernick1, Sunanda Kane21Department of Gastroenterology, Naval Medical Center, San Diego California; 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USAAbstract: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that requires long-term treatment. The first-line therapy remains 5-ASA, which is available in a variety of different formulations and dosing schedules. Multiple studies have demonstrated that adherence rates to prescribed 5-ASA products is below what would have been expected with significant consequences for important outcomes. Worse disease outcomes, higher medical costs, and even potentially higher rates of colorectal cancer have been associated with nonadherence. Nonadherence is multifactorial, fluid in nature over time, and dependent on disease activity level. Interventions to improve adherence rates have to be individualized. With the advent of simpler dosing regimens it was assumed that adherence rates would improve, but this has not necessarily been the case. Despite our current knowledge about nonadherence, it remains difficult to manage in the long term.Keywords: ulcerative colitis, adherence, mesalamine, persistence, compliance

  20. Synthesis and Kinetic Study on the Chromium(Ⅲ) Complex [Cr(ASA)(en)2]CI·2H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; YANG Bin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the transfer mechanism of chromium(Ⅲ) in mammals,a novel complex [Cr(ASA)(en)2]C1·2H2O,bis(ethylenediamine-k2 N,N')(4-aminosalicylic acid-k2 O,O') chromium(Ⅲ) monochloride dihydrate was synthesized (4-aminosalicylic acid=H2ASA,ethylenediamine=en).The crystal structure belongs to orthorhombic system with the space group P212121 by means of X-ray diffraction.The characteristic for transfer of Cr3+ from the compound to the low-molecular-mass chelator EDTA and the iron-binding protein apoovotransferrin (apoOTf) was followed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectra in 0.01 mol·L-1 Hepes at pH 7.4.The second order rate constants were calculated.Those spectra in conjunction were used to obtain more accurate information about the interaction of chromium complex with apoOTf.The experimental results indicate that Cr3+ can be transferred from the complex to apoOTf with the retention of the 4-aminosalicylic acid acting as a synergistic anion.

  1. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Juice. 51.1177 Section 51.1177... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1177 U.S. Grade A Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade A Juice...

  2. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  3. Common Interferences in Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    Interferences relating to laboratory toxicology testing refer to results which differ from their true value and are often encountered in the setting of a drug screen compared with confirmatory testing. Such interferences fall into two general categories; those that cause false positive results (when a drug screen is positive but confirmatory testing is negative) and those that cause false negative results (when a drug screen is negative when in reality the sample donor has ingested the tested substance). Such interferences can result from differences in laboratory testing methodology, reagent and analyte cross reactivity, limits of analyte detection, instrument resolution, reporting cutoff, sample processing, tissue type and sample adulteration among others. Awareness of the possible causes of such interferences are integral to proper laboratory result interpretation and patient management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interference Phenomena in Quantum Information

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    One of the key features of quantum mechanics is the interference of probability amplitudes. The reason for the appearance of interference is mathematically very simple. It is the linear structure of the Hilbert space which is used for the description of quantum systems. In terms of physics we usually talk about the superposition principle valid for individual and composed quantum objects. So, while the source of interference is understandable it leads in fact to many counter-intuitive physical phenomena which puzzle physicists for almost hundred years. The present thesis studies interference in two seemingly disjoint fields of physics. However, both have strong links to quantum information processing and hence are related. In the first part we study the intriguing properties of quantum walks. In the second part we analyze a sophisticated application of wave packet dynamics in atoms and molecules for factorization of integers. The main body of the thesis is based on the original contributions listed separately...

  5. Interference of Quantum Market Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Piotrowski, E W; Syska, J

    2003-01-01

    Recent development in quantum computation and quantum information theory allows to extend the scope of game theory for the quantum world. The paper is devoted to the analysis of interference of quantum strategies in quantum market games.

  6. Multipolar interference effects in nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an arbitrary nanoscale object can be characterized by a multipole decomposition of the electromagnetic field that allows to describe the scattering intensity and radiation pattern through interferences of dominating excited multipole modes. In modern nanophotonics, both generation and interference of multipole modes start to play an indispensable role, and they enable nanoscale manipulation of light with many related applications. Here we review the multipolar interference effects in metallic, metal-dielectric, and dielectric nanostructures, and suggest a comprehensive view on many phenomena involving the interferences of electric, magnetic and toroidal multipoles, which drive a number of recently discussed effects in nanophotonics such as unidirectional scattering, effective optical antiferromagnetism, generalized Kerker scattering with controlled angular patterns, generalized Brewster angle, and nonradiating optical anapoles. We further discuss other types of possible ...

  7. Evaluate interference in digital channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    Any future mobile satellite service (MSS) which is to provide simultaneous mobile communications for a large number of users will have to make very efficient use of the spectrum. As the spectrum available for an MSS is limited, the system's channels should be packed as closely together as possible, with minimum-width guard bands. In addition the employment of frequency reuse schemes is an important factor. Difficulties regarding these solutions are related to the introduction of interference in the link. A balance must be achieved between the competing aims of spectrum conservation and low interference. While the interference phenomenon in narrowband FM voice channels is reasonably well understood, very little effort, however, has been devoted to the problem in digital radios. Attention is given to work, which illuminates the effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on digital FM (FSK) radios.

  8. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of § 102.5...

  9. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently omitted from Tables I and II. The corrections... of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.go v or http://www.ams.usda...

  10. 77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The proposal includes changes to the grade standards for grapefruit juice to remove the parameters for maximum ``free and suspended pulp'' to account...

  11. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices ha

  12. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.

  13. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  14. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  15. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  16. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  17. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  18. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  19. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  20. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN-γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections. PMID:28812026

  1. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices

  2. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  3. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  4. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  5. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mian-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P P P P Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests.

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  7. Multipolar interference effects in nanophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2017-03-28

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an arbitrary nanoscale object can be characterized by a multipole decomposition of the electromagnetic field that allows one to describe the scattering intensity and radiation pattern through interferences of dominating multipole modes excited. In modern nanophotonics, both generation and interference of multipole modes start to play an indispensable role, and they enable nanoscale manipulation of light with many related applications. Here, we review the multipolar interference effects in metallic, metal-dielectric and dielectric nanostructures, and suggest a comprehensive view on many phenomena involving the interferences of electric, magnetic and toroidal multipoles, which drive a number of recently discussed effects in nanophotonics such as unidirectional scattering, effective optical antiferromagnetism, generalized Kerker scattering with controlled angular patterns, generalized Brewster angle, and non-radiating optical anapoles. We further discuss other types of possible multipolar interference effects not yet exploited in the literature and envisage the prospect of achieving more flexible and advanced nanoscale control of light relying on the concepts of multipolar interference through full phase and amplitude engineering.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'.

  8. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  9. The production of guava juice fortified with dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Chanthachum

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of guava juice fortified with soluble dietary fiber as pectin extracted from guava cake (peel, pulp, seeds was conducted. The waste guava cake from juice processing plant was used for pectin extraction using sodium hexametaphosphate method followed by pectin precipitation using acidified ethanol method. A yield of 30.50±0.34% crude pectin was achieved. Crude pectin also contained 4.71±0.18% moisture, 0.34±0.21% protein, 0.68±0.00% ash, 20.70±0.16 g (%dwb soluble dietary fibers. pH of crude pectin was 3.06±0.02. The L* a*and b* values were 81.17±0.21, 4.76±0.04 and 15.43±0.07, respectively. Water holding capacity and bulk density were 0.90±0.01 g.water/g.solid and 0.96±0.05 g/ml, respectively. This study found that the optimum conditions for guava juice extraction using pectinase at 45oC were 0.10 % v/v pectinase concentration and 21 2 h incubation time. Under these optimum conditions, production of guava juice with different ratios of total soluble solids (oBrix to acid as citric acid content (% including, 24.0, 28.0, 32.0, 35.0 and 40.0 oBrix-acid ratio, and product sensory evaluation were also conducted. By the consideration from the greatest perceived scores of all sensory evaluation attributes including color, turbidity, odor, flavor and overall acceptability, the oBrix-acid ratio of 40.0 was selected for guava juice processing. The clarified guava juice was then fortified with pectin powder extracted from previous experiments using various pectin concentrations: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% (w/w. It was found that the perceived scores of the overall acceptability attribute decreased (p<0.05 with increasing of pectin concentration. The greatest perceived score of the mouthfeel attribute was observed from the use of 0.25% pectin. Therefore, the optimum concentration of 0.25% soluble dietary fiber as pectin for guava juice fortification is selected for further guava juice processing.

  10. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  11. Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, Giuseppe; Caristi, Corrado; Gargiulli, Claudia; Bellocco, Ersilia; Toscano, Giovanni; Leuzzi, Ugo

    2006-05-31

    A comprehensive profile of flavonoids in bergamot juice was obtained by a single DAD-ESI-LC-MS-MS course. Eight flavonoids were found for the first time, five of these are C-glucosides (lucenin-2, stellarin-2, isovitexin, scoparin, and orientin 4'-methyl ether), and three are O-glycosides (rhoifolin 4'-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside-4'-O-glucoside, and chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside). A method is proposed to differentiate chrysoeriol and diosmetin derivatives, which are often indistinguishable by LC-MS-MS. In-depth knowledge of the flavonoid content is the starting point for bergamot juice exploitation in food industry applications.

  12. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  13. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  14. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  15. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%.

  16. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of... the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the... Villanueva, Program Manager, New Shipper Review: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's...

  17. ASAS-SN optical light-curve of blazar TXS 0506+056, located inside the IceCube-170922A error region, shows increased optical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckowiak, A.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo

    2017-09-01

    Archival ASAS-SN (Shappee et al. 2014) data show an increased optical activity of the blazar TXS 0506+056, which is located inside the error region of the high-energy neutrino candidate IceCube-170922A, and was found to be in a flaring state by Fermi-LAT (ATel #10791), and it was also observed by Swift Using ASAS-SN Sky Patrol public all-sky light curve interface (Kochanek et al. 2017), we retrieved 200-day light curve of TXS 0506+056, showing a rise of 0.5 mag in V-band over the last 50 days.

  18. Enrichment of nutritional value of Phyllanthus emblica fruit juice using the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 mediated fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartjin PEERAJAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermented herbal juices are capable of curing and preventing diseases and reducing the aging progress. The present study was performed to investigate the fermentation of Phyllanthus emblica fruit by Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 with respect to carbon sources, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties. The physical changes, for instance, color, odor, taste, turbidity and gas formation, throughout the fermentation process was manually monitored. The fermented product was rich in polyphenolic content. The acid content and pH of the product were under the norms of Thai community product standards. Antioxidant properties of the fermented product were proved using ABTS, and FRAP assays. Chelation based study suggested that fermented P. emblica fruit juices are healthy enough to stabilize the oxidized form of the metal ion. The optimum fermentation period was 15 days. All the results supported that studied carbon sources did not interfere with the quality of the product. This report is the prelude study on the use of probiotic starter culture for the production of P. emblica fruit based lactic acid bacteria fermented beverages (LAFB enriched with bioactive compounds. Further research on the impact of different carbon sources and upstream processes on the quality of LAFB is currently in progress.

  19. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  20. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Widianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and FS902 cultivars, were achieved by OUT7903, OUT7913, OUT7903, and OUT7027 yeast strains, respectively. However, the best specific CO2 evolution rate of the yeast strain during fermentation of the juices was achieved by OUT7027 yeast strains. The highest ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and sugar conversion efficiency (SCE were obtained by strain OUT7921 when it was employed to ferment sweet-stem sorghum juice of FS902 cultivar. It was also observed that the juice extracted from sweet-stalk sorghum of FS902 cultivar is the most suitable medium for all yeast strains to achieve their best fermentation abilities. Thus, it is likely that the growth and ethanol production ability of a yeast strain in sweet-stalk sorghum juice depend on the physiological responses of the yeasts to nutrientcomposition of the sorghum juice and the sorghum cultivar from which the juice was extracted.Key words : Sweet-stalk sorghum juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast

  1. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  2. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining the ASA Physical Classification System and Continuous Intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score Measurement in Predicting Postoperative Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jering, Monika Zdenka; Marolen, Khensani N; Shotwell, Matthew S; Denton, Jason N; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse Menachem

    2015-11-01

    The surgical Apgar score predicts major 30-day postoperative complications using data assessed at the end of surgery. We hypothesized that evaluating the surgical Apgar score continuously during surgery may identify patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We retrospectively identified general, vascular, and general oncology patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Logistic regression methods were used to construct a series of predictive models in order to continuously estimate the risk of major postoperative complications, and to alert care providers during surgery should the risk exceed a given threshold. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discriminative ability of a model utilizing a continuously measured surgical Apgar score relative to models that use only preoperative clinical factors or continuously monitored individual constituents of the surgical Apgar score (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and blood loss). AUROC estimates were validated internally using a bootstrap method. 4,728 patients were included. Combining the ASA PS classification with continuously measured surgical Apgar score demonstrated improved discriminative ability (AUROC 0.80) in the pooled cohort compared to ASA (0.73) and the surgical Apgar score alone (0.74). To optimize the tradeoff between inadequate and excessive alerting with future real-time notifications, we recommend a threshold probability of 0.24. Continuous assessment of the surgical Apgar score is predictive for major postoperative complications. In the future, real-time notifications might allow for detection and mitigation of changes in a patient's accumulating risk of complications during a surgical procedure.

  4. Advanced Steganography Algorithm Using Randomized Intermediate QR Host Embedded With Any Encrypted Secret Message: ASA_QR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdip Dey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in communication technology, now it is a real problem / challenge to send some confidential data / information through communication network. For this reason, Nath et al. developed several information security systems, combining cryptography and steganography together, and the present method, ASA_QR, is also one of them. In the present paper, the authors present a new steganography algorithm to hide any small encrypted secret message inside QR CodeTM , which is then randomized and then, finally embed that randomized QR Code inside some common image. Quick Response Codes (or QR Codes are a type of two-dimensional matrix barcodes used for encoding information. It has become very popular recently for its high storage capacity. The present method is ASA_QR is a combination of strong encryption algorithm and data hiding in two stages to make the entire process extremely hard to break. Here, the secret message is encrypted first and hide it in a QR CodeTM and then again that QR CodeTM is embed in a cover file (picture file in random manner, using the standard method of steganography. In this way the data, which is secured, is almost impossible to be retrieved without knowing the cryptography key, steganography password and the exact unhide method. For encrypting data The authors used a method developed by Nath et al i.e. TTJSA, which is based on generalized modified Vernam Cipher, MSA and NJJSA method; and from the cryptanalysis it is seen that TTJSA is free from any standard cryptographic attacks, like differential attack, plain-text attack or any brute force attack. After encrypting the data using TTJSA,the authors have used standard steganographic method To hide data inside some host file. The present method may be used for sharing secret key, password, digital signature etc.

  5. A new graphene oxide/polypyrrole foam material with pipette-tip solid-phase extraction for determination of three auxins in papaya juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yuan, Yanan; Tian, Jing

    2014-11-14

    A new material, graphene oxide/polypyrrole (GO/Ppy), was synthesized by mixing graphene oxide and polypyrrole in a specific proportion. It possesses a unique structure similar to that of foam. A homemade pipette-tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) device, which is more simple and convenient than traditional devices, was used for saving reagents and operation time. When GO/Ppy was used as the adsorbent of PT-SPE for determining three auxins (indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid) present in trace amounts in papaya juice, it showed high affinity and adsorption capacity for all the three auxins. GO/Ppy-PT-SPE also had a significant capacity for eliminating the interferences from the papaya juice matrix. Under optimized conditions, a good linearity of auxins was obtained in the range 16.3-812.5 ng g(-1); the average recoveries at the three spiked levels of the three auxins ranged from 89.4% to 105.6% with the relative standard deviations ≤ 3.0%. Meanwhile, six papaya juice samples with different growth stages were analyzed under optimum conditions, and trace auxins in the range 18.3-100.6 ng g(-1) were observed. Because of its high selectivity, simplicity, and reliability, the GO/Ppy-PT-SPE method developed herein can be potentially applied for determining trace auxins in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  7. Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Heidi D; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren B; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P juice (P juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

  8. Leguminose green juice as an efficient nutrient for l(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.

  9. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  11. Improvement of Organoleptic Properties of Red Grapefruit Juice (Citrus Paradise Processed By Non-Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating and ultrasound on quality parameters of red grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi. The juice was processed by ohmic heating (120 V, 70 and 80 °C, 30 and 180 s and ultrasound (amplitude of 40 and 50 µm, and 2 and 10 minutes. The treatments did not significantly affect the cloud value, pH, non-enzymatic browning and colorimetric parameters. The taste was the determining parameter in the choice of juice by consumers. Juices processed with ohmic heating showed sensory characteristics more like the natural juice. The best juice was obtenied by processing with OH at 70 °C for 30 s. According to the present study it could be suggested that red grapefruit juice processed by ohmic heating could improve sensory characteristics without changes in quality parameter.

  12. Demonstrations of Beats as Moving Interference Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. S.; Dishman, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a ripple tank demonstration that displays interference patterns responsible for producing beats and provides photographs of computer simulations of various beat interference patterns. Includes programs for the computer simulation and equations of constructive interference paths in beat interference patterns. (Author/SK)

  13. Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to anthocyanins.

  14. Microbial inactivation and physicochemical properties of ultrasound processed pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Çiğdem Uysal; Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Özcan, Gülçin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound treatment at various amplitudes (50, 75, and 100%) and times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min) on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2366 levels and physicochemical characteristics (monomeric anthocyanins, color values, total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids) were determined in pomegranate juice. More than a 5-log inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 and a 1.36-log inactivation of S. cerevisiae ATCC 2366 were achieved after 30 min of ultrasound treatment at 100% amplitude. The log-linear and Weibull models were successfully used to estimate the microbial inactivation as a function of ultrasound treatment time (R(2) > 0.97). No significant changes were observed in total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids of the treated juice (P > 0.05). The ultrasound treatment for up to 30 min resulted in more than 92 and 89% anthocyanin retention at 75 and 100% amplitude, respectively. The redness (a*) of the juice did not change significantly after the ultrasound treatment at amplitudes of 75 and 100% for up to 24 and 12 min, respectively. No significant changes in L* and b* values were observed after ultrasound treatment at all amplitudes and after up to 30 min of treatment for 50 and 75% amplitudes. Small differences in juice color were noted based on total color difference scores.

  15. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  16. Research of intensive ways of diffusion juice production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying of preparation methods influence for beet shavings and waters to the extraction process with application of different reagents (aluminum sulfate, bentonite and gypsum to produce the electrochemically activated solutions on quality indicators of sugar beet produced juice.

  17. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  18. Separation of monoglycosides from fruit juice by diafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    The process of separating sugars from anthocyanins in black currant juice has been investigated. Diafiltration on a laboratory scale flat sheet module (Labstk M20, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark) loaded with an ultrafiltration membrane (ETNA01-PP, MWCO = 1,000 Da, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark...

  19. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  20. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    from the flavonoids in order to facilitate better analysis.         In the current study, the major solutes in black currant juice are fructose (32 ± 3 g/l), glucose (22 ± 3 g/l), sucrose (1.6 ± 0.2 g/l) and organic acids (28.9 ± 0.1 g/l). The flavonoids in black currant juice are mainly (97......%) comprised by the glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin [2]. The content of these flavonoids in black currant juice is measured to (1.5 ± 0.1 g/l). The separation process consists of nanodiafiltration on flat sheet membranes with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 1,000 Da. The separation...... process was monitored by comparing concentrations of the four flavonoids and the sugars and acids in permeate and retentate. The flavonoids in the juice have a molecular weight between 449 and 611 Da and should be able to pass the pores of the membrane. However this study shows that the flavonoids...

  1. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 1:1000 Adrenaline solution, +/- hyaluronidase. This survey aimed to ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in operating ... selection of the referral facilities, stage two was sampling of ... 33. 100.0. Jungle Juice and its uses ... was no difference in the distribution of knowledge levels between ...

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  3. A magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst for fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-12-15

    The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  5. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  6. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... and duty-paid at the U.S. port). If you are a trade/ business association, provide the information, on... antidumping duty investigations on imports of lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico (72 FR 53991 and 53995...

  7. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  8. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis.

  9. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  10. Comparison of roxatidine and famotidine on nocturnal gastric juice secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, H; Kaga, K

    1996-01-01

    Adult patients with symptoms of gastric disease were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (roxatidine group, n = 115; famotidine group, n = 113) or untreated control group (placebo, n = 111). The treatment groups randomly received 75 mg of roxatidine or 20 mg of famotidine at 9 pm, and 12 - 13 h later gastric juice secretion was measured with gastric X-ray films in both groups. Mean gastric juice secretion was significantly lower in the treated groups (roxatidine, 16.1 ml/12 h; famotidine, 19.9 ml/12 h) than in the untreated controls (placebo, 49.5 ml/12 h). Gastric juice suppression by roxatidine and by famotidine, respectively, was 82% and 37% in patients with gastric ulcer; 71% and 39% in patients with duodenal ulcer; 70% and 64% in patients with gastritis; and 68% and 86% in patients with no evidence of disease. It is concluded that roxatidine was more effective than famotidine for gastric juice suppression in patients with peptic ulcer. In patients with no evidence of gastric disease, however, famotidine was more effective than roxatidine.

  11. Identification of insulin in the human pancreatic juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H; Sato, K; Murozono, S

    1986-12-01

    In this study, we purified insulin-like substance (ILS) in the human pancreatic juice by the combined use of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amino acid sequence of ILS in the N-terminal region is the same as that of human insulin. The influence of the enzymes present in the pancreatic juice on the RIA procedure, was examined. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase showed steep influences on radioactivity. The addition of enzyme inhibitors could not reduce pseudo-activity, but the elimination of enzymes in the pancreatic juice by ultrafiltration with the Mole-Cut (Millipore, Japan) resulted in a lowering of the pseudo-insulin activity. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with anti-porcine insulin was used to capture ILS. ILS was eluted by 1 M acetic acid from the affinity column monitoring pH and the insulin activity by RIA. The amino acid sequences of two components of ILS in amino terminal region were Phe-Val and Gly-Ile-Val. This indicates that ILS obtained from human pancreatic juice was the insulin derived from endocrine secretion of pancreas.

  12. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  13. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  14. Whirling waves in Interference experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Urbasi; Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna

    2014-03-01

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well- known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption, the wave function hypothesis, which is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from non-classical paths in interference experiments which provide a measurable deviation from the wave function hypothesis. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these non-classical paths is hard. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence. I will also describe some ongoing experimental efforts towards testing our theoretical findings.

  15. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  16. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  17. Transmission Techniques for Relay-Interference Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajer, Soheil; Fragouli, Christina; Tse, David N C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the relay-interference wireless network, in which relay (helper) nodes are to facilitate competing information flows over a wireless network. We examine this in the context of a deterministic wireless interaction model, which eliminates the channel noise and focuses on the signal interactions. Using this model, we show that almost all the known schemes such as interference suppression, interference alignment and interference separation are necessary for relay-interference networks. In addition, we discover a new interference management technique, which we call interference neutralization, which allows for over-the-air interference removal, without the transmitters having complete access the interfering signals. We show that interference separation, suppression, and neutralization arise in a fundamental manner, since we show complete characterizations for special configurations of the relay-interference network.

  18. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same movement direction and agonist muscles, but not by learning involving the opposite movement and antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did...

  19. Interference, Reduced Action, and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2007-09-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the trajectories of the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function’s trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  20. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, E R

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function's trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  1. Interference of diffusive light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J M; Knüttel, A; Knutson, J R

    1992-10-01

    We examine interference effects resulting from the superposition of photon-density waves produced by coherently modulated light incident upon a turbid medium. Photon-diffusion theory is used to derive expressions for the ac magnitude and phase of the aggregate diffusive wave produced in full- and half-space volumes by two sources. Using a frequency-domain spectrometer operating at 410 MHz, we verify interference patterns predicted by the model in scattering samples having optical properties similar to those of skin tissue. Potential imaging applications of interfering diffusive waves are discussed in the context of the theoretical and experimental results.

  2. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Marcella [arXiv:quant-ph/0703126] has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his calculation as if no approximations are employed. We show that he implicitly makes the same approximations found in classical treatments of interference and that no new physics has been introduced. At the same time, some of the quantum mechanical arguments Marcella gives are, at best, misleading.

  3. The contribution of JUICE-PRIDE to Jovian system ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, Dominic; Gurvits, Leonid; Lainey, Valery; Cimo, Giuseppe; Bocanegra-Bahamon, Tatiana; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.; Gastaldello, Niccolò

    2016-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission will perform detailed measurements of the properties of the Galilean moons, with a nominal mission duration of 4 years (2030-2033). Using both radio tracking data, and (Earth- and JUICE-based) optical astrometry, the dynamics of these moons can be derived to unprecedented accuracy. This will provide key input to the creation of ephemerides and the determination of physical properties of the Jovian system. We perform a general analysis of the Galilean moon dynamics that could be observable from JUICE data. Moreover, we specifically analyze the contribution to the ephemerides of VLBI data, obtained with the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) experiment.We perform a sensitivity analysis of the influence on the dynamics of the Galilean system for a wide array of undertainties in gravitational, tidal and rotational characteristics, and analyze the capabilities of the nominal (unperturbed) dynamical model to absorb the influence of these perturbations. Our results indicate that this nominal model can mostly absorb the influence of current uncertainties of the Galilean system's characteristics. A key exception is the dissipation in Io, which will likely be observable in the JUICE tracking data.The VLBI data from PRIDE will provide measurements of the motion of the moons perpendicular to their orbital planes. We perform a covariance analysis of the ephemeris generation for a broad range of mission and system characteristics, providing key input for the further development of the PRIDE observational planning and ground segment development.The results of the covariance analysis show that the VLBI data are crucially important for constraining the out-of-plane dynamics of Ganymede and Callisto. Also, the VLBI data make the ephemerides less dependent on the error in the orbit determination of the JUICE spacecraft itself. Furthermore, we find that optical astrometry data of

  4. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  5. Gravity Science with The JUICE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M.; Finocchiaro, S.; Iess, L.

    2012-04-01

    JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) is a European mission to the Jovian system, proposed in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision program. The spacecraft will reach the Jovian system and fly several times by the moons Callisto and Europa before being inserted in a nearly circular, polar orbit around Ganymede. After its arrival in 2030, the mission timeline entails two Europa flybys (2030), twelve Callisto flybys (2031) and the orbital phase at Ganymede (2033) [1]. Gravity measurements will provide crucial information on the interior structure of the three satellites. If the bodies are in hydrostatic equilibrium, the radial density distribution may be constrained from their moment of inertia factor and low-degree gravity field coefficients [2]. Furthermore, the determination of the high-degree harmonics will provide the distribution of gravity anomalies. Evidence for subsurface oceans within Ganymede and Callisto, one of the main scientific goals of the mission, will be obtained by the determination of the tidal Love number k2 as part of a global solution for the static and variable gravity field. Gravity fields and tidal deformations will be determined by means of precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft in Ka-band (32.5-34 GHz). The Radio Science Instrument (RSI) is enabled by a Ka-band transponder which, complemented by suitable ground instrumentation, will enable a radio link with a very high phase stability. The main observable quantity for gravity field determination is the range rate (to 3 micron/s at 1000 s integration time, two-way). The spacecraft range (accurate to 20 cm, two-way) will be used to improve the ephemerides of the Jupiter system. Gravity science at Ganymede will be carried out during the orbital phase. According to the mission profile (subject to change), the first 102 days will be spent at an altitude of 500 km. The orbit will be lowered to 200 km in the last 32 days of the mission. If the spacecraft will be endowed with a steerable medium gain

  6. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  7. Eletrochemical reduction of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in both neutral and acid non-aqueous media. Their electroanalytical determination in apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damián Chanique, Gerardo; Heraldo Arévalo, Alejandro; Alicia Zon, María; Fernández, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.1±0.1)×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.0×10(-7) to 2.2×10(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices.

  8. Interference in Time: A Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P

    2005-01-01

    I comment on the interpretation of a recent experiment showing quantum interference in time. It is pointed out that the standard nonrelativistic quantum theory, used by the authors in their analysis, cannot account for the results found, and therefore that this experiment has fundamental importance beyond the technical advances it represents.

  9. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  10. Political Interference in Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    ``All of us have a right to our own views about the seriousness of global warming,'' U.S. Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.), chair of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, said at a 30 January committee hearing held to examine political interference in climate science. ``But we don't have a right to our own science.''

  11. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  12. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Defining active sacroiliitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: a consensual approach by the ASAS/OMERACT MRI group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; Jurik, A G; Hermann, K-G A

    2009-01-01

    be detected by MRI. At present, however, the exact place of structural damage lesions for diagnosis and classification is less clear, particularly if these findings are minor. The ASAS group formally approved these proposals by voting at the annual assembly. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, MRI findings...

  14. Measuring impairments of functioning and health in patients with axial spondyloarthritis by using the ASAS Health Index and the Environmental Item Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A

    2016-01-01

    , were included. RESULTS: The ASAS HI and the EF Item Set were translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Turkish. Some difficulties were experienced with translation of the contextual factors indicating...

  15. Label-Free LSPR Detection of Trace Lead(II) Ions in Drinking Water by Synthetic Poly(mPD-co-ASA) Nanoparticles on Gold Nanoislands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangyu; Ng, Siu Pang; Liang, Xiongyi; Ding, Ning; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2017-02-07

    Using self-assembly gold nanoislands (SAM-AuNIs) functionalized by poly(m-phenylenediamine-co-aniline-2-sulfonic acid) (poly(mPD-co-ASA)) copolymer nanoparticles as specific receptors, a highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optochemical sensor is demonstrated for detection of trace lead cation (Pb(II)) in drinking water. The copolymer receptor is optimized in three aspects: (1) mole ratio of mPD:ASA monomers, (2) size of copolymer nanoparticles, and (3) surface density of the copolymer. It is shown that the 95:5 (mPD:ASA mole ratio) copolymer with size less than 100 nm exhibits the best Pb(II)-sensing performance, and the 200 times diluted standard copolymer solution contributes to the most effective functionalization protocol. The resulting poly(mPD-co-ASA)-functionalized LSPR sensor attains the detection limit to 0.011 ppb toward Pb(II) in drinking water, and the linear dynamic range covers 0.011 to 5000 ppb (i.e., 6 orders of magnitude). In addition, the sensing system exhibits robust selectivity to Pb(II) in the presence of other metallic cations as well as common anions. The proposed functional copolymer functionalized on AuNIs is found to provide excellent Pb(II)-sensing performance using simple LSPR instrumentation for rapid drinking-water inspection.

  16. Synthesis of Research on the Role of Culture in Learning among African American Youth: The Contributions of Asa G. Hilliard, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol D.

    2008-01-01

    This article synthesizes selected historical, philosophical, and empirical research of Asa G. Hilliard, III and discusses theoretical linkages between that body of research and empirical studies of learning and development among African American youth in the field of Black psychology. (Contains 6 notes, 1 table, and 1 figure.)

  17. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - IV. A 0.61 + 0.45 M_sun binary in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Rozyczka, M; Kaluzny, J; Ratajczak, M; Borkowski, J; Sybilski, P; Muterspaugh, M W; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; Haislip, J B; Crain, J A; Foster, A C; Nysewander, M C; LaCluyze, A P

    2012-01-01

    We present the orbital and physical parameters of a newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binary from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database: ASAS J011328-3821.1 A - a member of a visual binary system with the secondary component separated by about 1.4 seconds of arc. The radial velocities were calculated from the high-resolution spectra obtained with the 1.9-m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, 3.9-m AAT/UCLES and 3.0-m Shane/HamSpec telescopes/spectrographs on the basis of the TODCOR technique and positions of H_alpha emission lines. For the analysis we used V and I band photometry obtained with the 1.0-m Elizabeth and robotic 0.41-m PROMPT telescopes, supplemented with the publicly available ASAS light curve of the system. We found that ASAS J011328-3821.1 A is composed of two late-type dwarfs having masses of M_1 = 0.612 +/- 0.030 M_sun, M_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.019 M_sun and radii of R_1 = 0.596 +/- 0.020 R_sun, R_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.024 R_sun, both show a substantial level of activity, which manifests in strong H_alp...

  18. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - VIII. The totally-eclipsing double-giant system HD 187669

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Konacki, M; Pilecki, B; Ratajczak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Sybilski, P; Villanova, S; Gieren, W; Pojmański, G; Konorski, P; Suchomska, K; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; B., J; Haislip,; LaCluyze, A P

    2014-01-01

    We present the first full orbital and physical analysis of HD 187669, recognized by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) as the eclipsing binary ASAS J195222-3233.7. We combined multi-band photometry from the ASAS and SuperWASP public archives and 0.41-m PROMPT robotic telescopes with our high-precision radial velocities from the HARPS spectrograph. Two different approaches were used for the analysis: 1) fitting to all data simultaneously with the WD code, and 2) analysing each light curve (with JKTEBOP) and RVs separately and combining the partial results at the end. This system also shows a total primary (deeper) eclipse, lasting for about 6 days. A spectrum obtained during this eclipse was used to perform atmospheric analysis with the MOOG and SME codes in order to constrain physical parameters of the secondary. We found that ASAS J195222-3233.7 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary composed of two evolved, late-type giants, with masses of $M_1 = 1.504\\pm0.004$ and $M_2=1.505\\pm0.004$ M$_\\odot$, and radii ...

  19. Chemopreventive effects of the juice of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat on two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Yuhara, Yuta; Kamiya, Tomonori; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Goro

    2013-01-01

    Our study revealed the inhibitory effect of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, known as Yamabudo in Japan, at the stages of multi-step carcinogenesis. The juice of Vitis coignetiae (Y-grape juice) was antimutagenic toward dimethylbenzo[a]anthracene (DMBA), aflatoxin B1, and benzo[a]pyrene in the Ames test. The Y-grape juice was also antigenotoxic in the micronucleus test using HepG2 cells toward DMBA and aflatoxin B1. Topical and oral administration of the Y-grape juice to mice inhibited the induction of inflammation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Topical and oral administration of the Y-grape juice significantly decreased the incidence and mean number of tumors in mice skin with the 2-stage tumorigenesis protocol. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiinflammatory and antitumor promotion activity of the Y-grape juice, the effect of Y-grape juice on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in mouse ear treated with TPA was studied. Both topical and oral application of the Y-grape juice inhibited the TPA-induced increase in COX-2 activity. Caftaric acid, isolated and identified from the Y-grape juice, was antimutagenic toward DMBA and prevented TPA-induced inflammation in mice, suggesting caftaric acid participates in chemopreventive effect/activities of Y-grape juice.

  20. Preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice on neuronal damage induced by focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Satake, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia, Noni, Rubiaceae) has various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities, which may help the inhibition of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined the effect of the fruit juice of M. citrifolia (Noni juice) on the brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 l/4 kg of fruit; 100% Okinawa Noni juice (ONJ). Male ddY mice were supplied with 3% or 10% juice in the drinking water for 7 d, and compared to the control group. On the 7th day, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Interestingly, the intake of juice reduced the infarct volume as analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on the 3rd day of MCAO when compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the neurological deficit scores (NDS) were decreased after the reperfusion in the juice-supplied mice. On the other hand, the intake of juice did not affect the expression levels of antioxidant such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The present study suggests that Noni juice may have a preventive effect against cerebral ischemic stress, while further studies are needed to explain the detailed mechanism.

  1. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsad P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by increasing the yield of the fruit juice. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of different enzymatic treatment on sugar palm fruit juice processing. Sugar palm fruit purees were treated individually and in combination using two types of commercial enzymes: Novozymes Cellulase and Pectinex Ultra SP-L at a concentration of 0.05% (w/w and incubated at 45°C for 60 min. The results showed that there are significant (p<0.05 reduction on proximate content such as crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate for the enzymes treated juices as compared to the untreated juice. The enzyme treatment also significantly (p<0.05 reduced the juice viscosity and ascorbic acid content, promoted juice clarification and increased L value, yield, TSS and sugar content. In conclusion, the quality of sugar palm fruit juice can be improved by using the combination treatment of pectinase and cellulase enzymes.

  2. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  3. Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food–drug interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David G

    2010-01-01

    A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

  4. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  5. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 2: Effect on composition, phytochemical content, and physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    Traditional thermal techniques may cause losses in nutritional quality and phytochemical contents, and also in physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of processed fruit juices. This paper provides an overview of the effect on these qualities by the use of alternatives to traditional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing, for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice-yield improvement. These alternatives are UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, Ohmic heating, microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation, and flash-vacuum expansion. Although alternatives to heat treatments seem to be less detrimental than the thermal treatment, there are many parameters and conditions that influence the output, as well as the nature of the juice itself, hampering comparisons between different studies. Additionally, future research should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the overall quality of fruit juices, and also on scaled-up processes, process design, and optimization that need to be deal with in detail to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing while maintaining fruit-juice attributes to the maximum.

  6. Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Susan S; Talcott, Stephen T; Chin, Sherry T; Mallak, Anne C; Lounds-Singleton, Angela; Pettit-Moore, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    The mango, Mangifera indica L., is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals, suggesting that it might have chemopreventative properties. In this study, whole mango juice and juice extracts were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activity. Antioxidant activity of the mango juice and juice extracts was measured by 3 standard in vitro methods. The results of the 3 methods were in general agreement, although different radicals were measured in each. Anticancer activity was measured by examining the effect on cell cycle kinetics and the ability to inhibit chemically induced neoplastic transformation of mammalian cell lines. Incubation of HL-60 cells with whole mango juice and mango juice fractions resulted in an inhibition of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase. A fraction of the eluted mango juice with low peroxyl radical scavenging ability was most effective in arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Whole mango juice was effective in reducing the number of transformed foci in the neoplastic transformation assay in a dose-dependent manner. These techniques provide valuable screening tools for health benefits derived from mango phytochemicals.

  7. Enzyme-assisted extraction and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of patulin in apple juice and method optimization using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tavakoli, Rouya; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Rashedi, Hamid; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Delavar, Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    A simple and highly sensitive analytical methodology for isolation and determination of patulin in apple-juice samples, based on enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was developed and optimized. Enzymes play essential roles in eliminating interference and increasing the extraction efficiency of patulin. Apple-juice samples were treated with pectinase and amylase. A mixture of 80 μL ionic liquid and 600 μL methanol (disperser solvent) was used for the IL-DLLME process. The sedimented phase was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Experimental parameters controlling the performance of DLLME, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.99) for patulin in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 7.5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.15 ng g(-1) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise and reliable sample-pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for investigation trace amount of patulin in apple-juice samples.

  8. Interaction of erythromycin and clarithromycin with orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of orange juice with fexofenadine has been found to decrease the bioavailability of fenofenadine to less than 30% via inhibition of organic-anion transporting polypeptide (OATP, a drug uptake transporter expressed in organs such as liver, kidney and intestine. Erythromycin and clarithromycin are substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, a drug metabolizing enzyme in the liver and enterocytes, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux transporter expressed in the same organs as OATP. Since an extensive overlap exists between substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and OATP transporters, we want to study the effect of coadministration of our local orange (Siam orange juice on the bioavailability of the above antibacterials. We conducted two 2-way cross-over randomized studies, one study for each antibacterial (500 mg, crossed between administration with orange juice (200 ml and with water, in 12-13 healthy subjects per study. The serum concentrations of the antibacterials were assayed by microbiological method. The mean (range ratio of AUC0-t with orange juice/with water were as follows : erythromycin : total (n=13 81.7 (9.7-193.8%, unchanged (n=4 96.4 (80.5-107.9%, decreased (n=6 31.9 (9.7-49.0%, increased (n=3 161.8 (134.6-193.8%; clarithromycin : total (n=12 91.4 (20.6-158.3%, unchanged (n=5 103.1 (80.9-123.0%, decreased (n=4 34.8 (20.6-64.3%, increased (n=3 147.2 (132.9-158.3%. It was concluded that coadministration of Siam orange juice with erythromycin or clarithromycin produced unpredictable effects on the bioavailability of these antibacterials in individual subjects, with marked decreases in almost half of the subjects, although in totals the effects were not statistically significant. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 78-86Keywords: interaction, erythromycin, clarithromycin, orange juice.

  9. Dynamical modelling of the Galilean moons for the JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Lainey, V.; Gurvits, L. I.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Radio tracking and astrometric data obtained by the JUICE mission, using the PRIDE, 3GM and JANUS instruments, will allow the dynamics of the Galilean moons to be measured to unprecedented accuracy. As a result, the dynamical models used for creating ephemerides from these data will most likely require the inclusion of various heretofore neglected physical effects. To determine which effects will need to be included, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the influence on the dynamics of the system for a wide array of gravitational, tidal and rotational characteristics of the system. We estimate the dynamics of the Galilean moons with a given perturbation turned off, using ideal three-dimensional measurements of the satellites' positions generated with these perturbations turned on. In doing so, we assess the capabilities of the nominal dynamical model to absorb the influence of this perturbations. We analyze the dynamical behaviour over a period of five years, and limit our analysis to effects that may be observable from JUICE radio tracking and optical astrometry data. Our simulations comprise a short-period (5 years) sensitivity analysis of the dynamics of the moons, and not a simulation of the tracking data inversion for JUICE. Our analysis indicates that the nominal dynamical model of the Galilean satellites can very efficiently absorb the influence of the current uncertainties in most of the physical parameters of the Jovian system, to a level where these uncertainties will not be influential for JUICE-derived ephemerides. An important exception is the influence of tidal dissipation: the k2 / Q of Io will be clearly observable by JUICE tracking data, which will be strongly correlated with the weaker effect of Jupiter's k2 / Q . The dissipation inside Europa may also be weakly constrained by JUICE tracking data. Without improvements in the Jovian gravity field from the Juno mission, the estimation of Jupiter zonal gravity field coefficients at degrees 2, 3 and 5

  10. Effect of Preparation and Storage Conditions on Physical and Chemical Properties of Puree, Puree Juices and Cloudy Juices Obtained from Pumpkin with Added Japanese Quince and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NAWIRSKA-OLSZAŃSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence it seems recommendable to blend pumpkin with other fruits. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety ‘Karowita’. The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical properties of pumpkin samples based on different storage conditions. Pumpkin puree, puree juice and cloudy juices containing Japanese quince and strawberries were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties initially and after three months storage at temperatures of 4 °C and 30 °C. Cloudy juices were prepared with pectolytic preparation. The extract dry matter in all the samples was at a similar level. Puree and puree juice had considerably higher viscosity than cloudy juices. The highest quantities of bioactive compounds were detected in slightly processed samples (puree, puree juice and cloudy juices stored at 4 °C. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in puree and puree juice after storage. However, in the remaining samples, there was observed a decrease in the content of the compounds. A considerable decrease in carotenoids took place in samples subjected to pressing, where the amount of assayed carotenoids in puree was 5.24 mg/100 g fresh matter (FM, 4.15 mg/100 g FM in puree juice, and 0.18-0.47 mg/100 g FM in cloudy juices. The pressing also caused a significant decrease in colour parameters. Three months of storage showed markedly decreased contents of carotenoids and vitamin C.

  11. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost.

  12. Do media players cause interference with pacemakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Jay P; Patel, Mehul B; Shah, Ashok J; Liepa, Valdis V; Brunett, Joseph D; Jongnarangsin, Krit; Gardiner, Joseph C; Thakur, Ranjan

    2009-11-01

    Electrical devices generate electromagnetic fields that may interfere with pacemakers. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but it is not known whether they cause direct interference with pacemakers. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction between pacemakers and 3 different media players. In this prospective, randomized study, 54 patients with dual chamber pacemakers who were in sinus rhythm underwent baseline observation, followed by observation under telemetry communication. These patients were then randomly evaluated with 3 media players (iPod 3G, iPod Photo, and iPod Touch Apple, Cupertino, CA) with and without telemetry communication for 1 minute each. Patients were monitored for pacemaker malfunction using a single-channel ECG during exposure to media players. The pacemaker was interrogated after each exposure and an interrogation report was printed for evaluation. Pacemaker interference was categorized as type I, II, or III. Types I and II interference described telemetry interference and type III interference was defined as any direct interference with pacemaker function or programmed parameters. A total of 54 patients (29 men and 25 women; mean age 77.2 +/- 9.3 y) were evaluated. In total, of the 162 tests (for telemetry interference) 36.4% were positive (Type I and II). Type III interference was also evaluated in 162 tests and none showed any evidence of direct interference. Media players cause telemetry interference with pacemakers, but they do not directly interfere with pacemaker function.

  13. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation.

  14. Chemical and sensory analysis of commercial tomato juices present on the Italian and Spanish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Valli, Enrico; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-06

    A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of a set of 12 organic and conventional tomato juices sold in Spanish and Italian markets. The volatile compounds of tomato juices were also studied. Twelve sensory descriptors, selected by a trained panel, evaluated the sensory profile of the samples. Some tomato juices were characterized by dominant positive notes typical of tomatoes (tomato paste, vegetable notes), whereas others by negative sensory attributes (off-flavors, high intensity of acidity, and sweetness). The volatile pattern of the samples, studied by SPME/GC-MS, was correlated with the sensory results: basically, organic tomato juices were characterized by vegetable notes and higher volatile compounds than conventional samples, regardless of their geographical origin. Conventional tomato juices were grouped in a closer cluster, whereas organic tomato juices were more diversified. Moreover, "defective" samples showed higher amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  15. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

  16. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry juice treated with gas phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Putnik, Predrag; Vukušić, Tomislava; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to cold atmospheric gas phase plasma and changes in hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins were monitored. Plasma treatments were carried out under different treatment times and juice volumes under constant gas flow (0.75dm(3)min(-1)). The results were compared against control (untreated) and pasteurized chokeberry juice (80°C/2min). During pasteurization, the most unstable were hydroxycinnamic acids with losses of up to 59%, while flavonols and anthocyanins increased by 5% and 9%, respectively. On the contrary, plasma treated chokeberry juice showed higher concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and 23% loss of anthocyanins in comparison to untreated juice. In order to obtain the optimal cold plasma treatment parameters principal component and sensitivity analysis were used. Such parameters can be potentially used for pasteurization in terms of phenolic stability of chokeberry juice. Optimal treatment was at 4.1min and sample volume of 3cm(3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial scale microwave processing of tomato juice using a novel continuous microwave system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Linton, Mark; Patterson, Margaret F; Koidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of an industrial scale continuous flow microwave volumetric heating system in comparison to conventional commercial scale pasteurisation for the processing of tomato juice in terms of physicochemical properties, microbial characteristics and antioxidant capacity. The effect against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells, after in vitro digestion was also investigated. Physicochemical and colour characteristics of juices were very similar between technologies and during storage. Both conventional and microwave pasteurisation inactivated microorganisms and kept them in low levels throughout storage. ABTS[Symbol: see text](+) values, but not ORAC, were higher for the microwave pasteurised juice at day 0 however no significant differences between juices were observed during storage. Juice processed with the microwave system showed an increased cytoprotective effect against H2O2 induced oxidation in Caco-2 cells. Organoleptic analysis revealed that the two tomato juices were very similar. The continuous microwave volumetric heating system appears to be a viable alternative to conventional pasteurisation.

  18. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  19. Environmental assessment of organic juice imported to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Langer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has given rise to a debate on the environmental impacts during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic orange juice produced by smallholders in Brazil, processed and imported to Denmark, were identified in a case study using a life...... of copper per hectare were significantly lower, indicating that environmental impacts from small-scale differ from large-scale organic farms....... cycle approach. Furthermore, small-scale organic orange production was compared with small-scale conventional and large-scale organic orange production in the case study area in Brazil. Transport was the main contributor (58%) to the global warming potential of organic orange juice from small...

  20. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  1. Lipase assay in duodenal juice using a conductimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, C; Favre-Bonvin, G; Wallach, J M

    1984-11-15

    Lipase activity in duodenal juice is known to undergo important variations in pathologic states, especially in cases of chronic pancreatitis. Almost all of the current assay methods are based on the measurement of hydrolysis of olive oil or triolein, mainly by potentiometry. As we have developed a conductimetric method for enzyme activity measurements, we have applied it to lipase assay. A higher experimental conductimetric sensitivity is obtained when liberated acids have a short chain (higher limiting equivalent conductivity). We have therefore used triacetin as a substrate and compared out method with potentiometry (pH-stat) and spectrophotometry. The correlation coefficients of both methods with conductimetry were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, indicating that the conductimetric method may be used for lipase assay in duodenal juice, using triacetin as a substrate.

  2. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, Alexis; Danchi, William C; Lopez, Bruno; Absil, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line-of-sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude, or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental pertubations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental ...

  3. Silicon superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, J. E.; Francheteau, A.; Marcenat, C.; Lefloch, F., E-mail: francois.lefloch@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA - INAC - SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Chiodi, F.; Débarre, D. [Université Paris-sud, CNRS - IEF, F-91405 Orsay - France (France); Hasselbach, K. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS - Inst. Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Kirtley, J. R. [Center for probing at nanoscale, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305-4045 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We have studied a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) made from a single layer thin film of superconducting silicon. The superconducting layer is obtained by heavily doping a silicon wafer with boron atoms using the gas immersion laser doping technique. The SQUID is composed of two nano-bridges (Dayem bridges) in a loop and shows magnetic flux modulation at low temperature and low magnetic field. The overall behavior shows very good agreement with numerical simulations based on the Ginzburg-Landau equations.

  4. Interference Mitigation in Cognitive Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Alvarez Roig, Victor;

    2010-01-01

    in densely deployed femto scenarios. In this paper, two key elements of cognitive femtocells are combined: a power control algorithm and a fully distributed dynamic spectrum allocation method. The resulting solution was evaluated through system-level simulations and compared to the separate algorithms...... and fixed frequency reuses. The outage throughput performance of the combined algorithm exceeds all other options, proving the efficiency of the method in reducing inter-cell interference....

  5. RNA干扰%RNA Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 朱明华

    2003-01-01

    RNA干扰(RNA interference,RNAi)是一种古老的生物抗病毒机制,能介导序列特异性的mRNA降解,是基因功能研究和蛋白组学的有效工具,在药物靶基因的筛选、抗病毒、肿瘤基因治疗等领域有很好的发展前景.

  6. Potential ergogenic activity of grape juice in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; Tavares, Renata Leite; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira da; Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro de; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain food products have ergogenic potential similar to that of sports supplements. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ergogenic effect of integral purple grape juice on the performance of recreational runners. Twenty-eight volunteers of both sexes (age, 39.8 ± 8.5 years; peak oxygen consumption, 43.2 ± 8.5 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into either a group that received grape juice (grape juice group (GJG), n = 15; 10 mL/(kg·min) for 28 days) or a group that received an isocaloric, isoglycemic, and isovolumetric control beverage (control group (CG), n = 13). A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol. The GJG showed a significant increase (15.3%) in running time-to-exhaustion (p = 0.002) without significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold (3.6%; p = 0.511) or aerobic capacity (2.2%; p = 0.605). In addition, GJG exhibited significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (38.7%; p = 0.009), vitamin A (11.8%; p = 0.016), and uric acid (28.2%; p = 0.005), whereas α-1-acid glycoprotein significantly decreased (20.2%; p = 0.006) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables in the CG. In conclusion, supplementation with purple grape juice shows an ergogenic effect in recreational runners by promoting increased time-to-exhaustion, accompanied by increased antioxidant activity and a possible reduction in inflammatory markers.

  7. Analysis of Gastric Juice in Acid Peptic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad V. Khodke , , ,; Z. G. Badade; N. L. Vyas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is an imbalance between offensive and defensive gastric factors. A bacterium called Helicobacter pylori has been considered a major causative agent for gastric and duodenal ulcers. This is a major cause of mortality in developing countries. Aims and Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters in gastric juice of acid peptic disease patients (Study Group) and normal healthy individuals (Control Group) in ...

  8. CRISPR interference: a structural perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeks, Judith; Naismith, James H.; White, Malcolm F.

    2013-01-01

    CRISPR (cluster of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats) is a prokaryotic adaptive defence system, providing immunity against mobile genetic elements such as viruses. Genomically encoded crRNA (CRISPR RNA) is used by Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins to target and subsequently degrade nucleic acids of invading entities in a sequence-dependent manner. The process is known as ‘interference’. In the present review we cover recent progress on the structural biology of the CRISPR/Cas system, focusing on the Cas proteins and complexes that catalyse crRNA biogenesis and interference. Structural studies have helped in the elucidation of key mechanisms, including the recognition and cleavage of crRNA by the Cas6 and Cas5 proteins, where remarkable diversity at the level of both substrate recognition and catalysis has become apparent. The RNA-binding RAMP (repeat-associated mysterious protein) domain is present in the Cas5, Cas6, Cas7 and Cmr3 protein families and RAMP-like domains are found in Cas2 and Cas10. Structural analysis has also revealed an evolutionary link between the small subunits of the type I and type III-B interference complexes. Future studies of the interference complexes and their constituent components will transform our understanding of the system. PMID:23805973

  9. Improved Linear Parallel Interference Cancellers

    CERN Document Server

    Srikanth, T; Chockalingam, A; Milstein, L B

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, taking the view that a linear parallel interference canceller (LPIC) can be seen as a linear matrix filter, we propose new linear matrix filters that can result in improved bit error performance compared to other LPICs in the literature. The motivation for the proposed filters arises from the possibility of avoiding the generation of certain interference and noise terms in a given stage that would have been present in a conventional LPIC (CLPIC). In the proposed filters, we achieve such avoidance of the generation of interference and noise terms in a given stage by simply making the diagonal elements of a certain matrix in that stage equal to zero. Hence, the proposed filters do not require additional complexity compared to the CLPIC, and they can allow achieving a certain error performance using fewer LPIC stages. We also extend the proposed matrix filter solutions to a multicarrier DS-CDMA system, where we consider two types of receivers. In one receiver (referred to as Type-I receiver), LPIC...

  10. Photometry and H$alpha$ studies of a Low Mass Ratio Overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, K; Rao, P Vivekananda

    2014-01-01

    Both high precision CCD photometric and H$alpha$ line studies are presented for an overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0. The light curve exhibits a total eclipse at secondary minima along with an O'Connell effect. The light curve was modeled using the Wilson Devinney code and the best solution provides the mass ratio q = 0.106 and fill-out factor f = 72%. These parameters indicate that the system is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with a high degree of geometrical contact. The H alpha line equivalent width varied at different phases and it is found that the line is possibly filled-in at secondary minima. From a small sample of overcontact binaries, we found a correlation between the orbital period and H alpha line equivalent width of the primary component. Based on a sample of high filling factor and low mass ratio contact binaries, a mass ratio cut-off is observed at q = 0.085 in mass ratio - period plane. It was observed that below q $\\le$ 0.085, period decreases with an increase in q and above it, pe...

  11. Arachidonic acid metabolism in TNS-induced chronic and immunologic enteritis in rats, and the effect of 5-ASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Zijlstra

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the rat distal intestine was induced by intradermal sensitization and subsequent multiple intrajejunal challenge with the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS via an implanted catheter. The time course of the inflammatory reaction was followed by determination of the enteritis score and measurement of in vitro eicosanoid formation of homogenates of the gut after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days of local daily challenge with 0.08% TNBS. There was a small initial increase of eicosanoid formation, reached at days 1 and 2, followed by a significant increase in metabolism of arachidonic acid on day 21. Although at day 1 a four-fold increase in inflammation score was reached, no further significant changes were observed during the following 3 weeks. The greatest increase in metabolite formation was observed in prostanoids TxB2, PGE2. and PGD2 and the 5-lipoxygenase product LTC4, whereas minor changes were found for LTB4 and other lipoxygenase products such as 12- and 15-HETE. The formation of these metabolites was already inhibited by low-dose 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, given orally twice daily during the 3 weeks challenge period, while the enteritis score was affected dosedependently.

  12. The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R: adaptation and construct validity in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R. The sample was made up of 627 subjects (69.8% women aged between 18 and 88 years (mean = 38.3; SD = 13.26 from 17 Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis of part of the sample (n1 = 200 yielded a three-factor solution which showed adequate levels of reliability. Two confirmatory factor analyses of the other part of the sample (n2 = 427 tested both the exploratory and the original model. The analysis of convergent validity using the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2 demonstrated adequate levels of validity. A significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and age, level of education and income. The analysis of sample members with chronic disease (n = 134 showed that higher levels of self-care agency indicated lower levels of negative impact of the chronic illness in the individual's everyday life.

  13. Determination of pulsation periods and other parameters of 2875 stars classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, N; Fuentes-Morales, I; Vogt-Geisse, S; Arcos, C; Abarca, C; Agurto-Gangas, C; Caviedes, M; DaSilva, H; Flores, J; Gotta, V; Peñaloza, F; Rojas, K; Villaseñor, J I

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as 'Mira' in the ASAS data base, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes and, whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. 2012. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al, the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes require still more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275 and 330 d, apparently of universal validity, their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual ...

  14. New Photometric Observations and the 2015 Eclipse of the Symbiotic Nova Candidate ASAS J174600-2321.3

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Bernhard, Klaus; Otero, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The eclipsing binary system ASAS J174600-2321.3, which has shown a conspicuous brightening of ~4 magnitudes (V) in the past, was recently identified as a symbiotic nova candidate. A long-term photometric monitoring program was initiated in July 2014. In its present active stage, the system shows deep eclipses with an amplitude of ~3.5 magnitudes (V) that occur about every 33 months. In order to monitor the eclipse of 2015, AAVSO Alert Notice 510 was issued. During the ensuing campaign, AAVSO observers obtained 338 measurements in Johnson B, 393 measurements in Johnson V, and 369 measurements in Cousins I, as well as 27 visual observations. The present paper presents and analyzes these data from the AAVSO International Database, along with observations from the aforementioned photometric monitoring program. From these data, we were able to refine the orbital period to Porb = 1012.4 days. Furthermore, the data are suggestive of a slight decrease in mean brightness, which -if proven real- might indicate a declin...

  15. Determination of Pulsation Periods and Other Parameters of 2875 Stars Classified as MIRA in the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Contreras-Quijada, A.; Fuentes-Morales, I.; Vogt-Geisse, S.; Arcos, C.; Abarca, C.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Caviedes, M.; DaSilva, H.; Flores, J.; Gotta, V.; Peñaloza, F.; Rojas, K.; Villaseñor, J. I.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an interactive PYTHON code and derived crucial ephemeris data of 99.4% of all stars classified as “Mira” in the ASAS database, referring to pulsation periods, mean maximum magnitudes, and whenever possible, the amplitudes among others. We present a statistical comparison between our results and those given by the International Variable Star Index (VSX) of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, as well as those determined with the machine learning automatic procedure of Richards et al. Our periods are in good agreement with those of the VSX in more than 95% of the stars. However, when comparing our periods with those of Richards et al., the coincidence rate is only 76% and most of the remaining cases refer to aliases. We conclude that automatic codes still require more refinements in order to provide reliable period values. Period distributions of the target stars show three local maxima around 215, 275, and 330 days, apparently of universal validity; their relative strength seems to depend on galactic longitude. Our visual amplitude distribution turns out to be bimodal, however, 1/3 of the targets have rather small amplitudes (A < 2.5 m ) and could refer to semiregular variables (SR). We estimate that about 20% of our targets belong to the SR class. We also provide a list of 63 candidates for period variations and a sample of 35 multiperiodic stars that seem to confirm the universal validity of typical sequences in the double period and in the Petersen diagrams.

  16. 49 CFR 193.2633 - Interference currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2633 Interference currents. (a) Each component that is subject to electrical current interference must be protected by a continuing program to minimize...

  17. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D Mattes; Hendrickson, Sara J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  18. Influence of refrigeration length and of sugar addition on ascorbic acid content in some natural juices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Avramiuc; Liviu Fartaies

    2009-01-01

    Following some studies concerning the main factors influencing the concentration of vitamins within food raw materials, especially ascorbic acid, this work tries to evidence the influence of the refrigeration temperature and of the sucrose addition on content of this vitamin in three types of natural juice. The biological material was represented by orange, strawberry and kivi natural juices, obtained from these fruits by means a crushing out process. For each type of juice there ...

  19. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  20. Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Valerie B; Rawal, Shristi; Park, Jeeha; Brand, Mark H; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from 'Viking' aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal

  1. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy;

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  2. Morphological alterations on human radicular dentin after exposure to different fruit juice drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Leal ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Martins, Cínthia Oliveira [UNESP; CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; Rossa Júnior, Carlos; Abi-Rached, Ricardo Samih Georges [UNESP; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of different fruit juice drinks available in the Brazilian market on smear layer removal and dentinal tubules opening, as well as to verify the effect of toothbrushing subsequently to the juices exposure. Methods: Dentin specimens were prepared and randomly distributed into the control group (distilled water) and twelve types of fruit juice drinks (cashew, orange, mandarin, apple, passion fruit, guava, strawberry, grape, mango, pear, p...

  3. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Arsad P; Sukor R; Wan Ibadullah WZ; Mustapha NA; Meor Hussin AS

    2015-01-01

    The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by in...

  4. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Cristina; Beatriz CANCINO-MADARIAGA; Andrés RAMÍREZ-SALVO; Sáenz, Carmen; Robert, Paz; Lutz, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric) were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%), also containing poly...

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  6. Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B

    2010-04-01

    Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174.

  7. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  8. Energy consumption during Refractance Window evaporation of selected berry juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nindo, C.I.; Tang, J. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Powers, J.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Bolland, K. [MCD Technologies, Tacoma, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Refractance Window evaporator represents a novel concept in the design of evaporation systems for small food processing plants. In this system thermal energy from circulating hot water is transmitted through a plastic sheet to evaporate water from a liquid product flowing concurrently on the top surface of the plastic. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this evaporator, determine its energy consumption, and capacity at different tilt angles and product flow rates. The system performance was evaluated with tap water, raspberry juice, and blueberry juice and puree as feed. With a direct steam injection heating method, the steam economy ranged from 0.64 to 0.84, while the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was 666 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}. Under this condition, the highest evaporation capacity was 27.1 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry juice and 31.8 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry puree. The energy consumption was 2492-2719 kJ kg{sup -1} of water evaporated. Installation of a shell and tube heat exchanger with better temperature control minimized incidences of boiling and frequent discharge of condensate. The steam economy, highest evaporation rate and overall heat transfer coefficient increased to 0.99, 36.0 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} and 733 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}, respectively. [Author].

  9. Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M.A.; Imeokparia, O.E. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Jekayinfa, S.O.; Ojediran, J.O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Department

    2008-01-15

    Energy and exergy studies were conducted in an orange juice manufacturing industry in Nigeria to determine the energy consumption pattern and methods of energy optimization in the company. An adaptation of the process analysis method of energy accounting was used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the eight defined unit operations. The types of energy used in the manufacturing of orange juice were electrical, steam and manual with the respective proportions of 18.51%, 80.91% and 0.58% of the total energy. It was estimated that an average energy intensity of 1.12 MJ/kg was required for the manufacturing of orange juice. The most energy intensive operation was identified as the pasteurizer followed by packaging unit with energy intensities of 0.932 and 0.119 MJ/kg, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the pasteurizer was responsible for most of the inefficiency (over 90%) followed by packaging (6.60%). It was suggested that the capacity of the pasteurizer be increased to reduce the level of inefficiency of the plant. The suggestion has been limited to equipment modification rather than process alteration, which constitutes additional investment cost and may not be economical from an energy savings perspective. (author)

  10. Separation of Water to Concentrate Aloe Vera Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Abdullah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aloe Vera is a succulent plant and is found in different arid areas. Due to its healing effect and soothing properties it is being used in herbal medicines for years and its importance has grown due to use in cosmetic products. It contains more than thirty active ingredients, which are utilized in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. It also contains 98% water. To remove water from those active ingredient Reverse osmosis is used in order not to thermally damage the active ingredients present in the juice. A reverse osmosis is a separation technique which utilizes difference in pressure to segregate water from plant without damaging the active ingredients present in the plant. This research is dedicated to evaluate the parameter for separation of water from aloe Vera so that aloe Vera can be obtained in a form which can be utilized for different purposes such as cosmetics and medicine. Osmosis technique is preferred over other conventional technique for the separation purpose because it is not operated at high temperature, which will not damage the aloe Vera juice quality. Next step in this research is the preserving, drying and analysis of this juice so that this product can be utilized in versatile way.

  11. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  12. Canceling Stationary Interference Signals Exploiting Secondary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Swärd, Johan; Jakobsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel interference cancellation method that exploits secondary data to estimate stationary interference components present in both the primary and the secondary data sets, thereby allowing for the removal of such interference from the data sets, even when these components share frequencies with the signal of interest. The algorithm estimates the present interference components one frequency at a time, thus enabling for a computationally efficient algorithm, that re...

  13. Distributed Interference Alignment with Low Overhead

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Based on closed-form interference alignment (IA) solutions, a low overhead distributed interference alignment (LOIA) scheme is proposed in this paper for the $K$-user SISO interference channel, and extension to multiple antenna scenario is also considered. Compared with the iterative interference alignment (IIA) algorithm proposed by Gomadam et al., the overhead is greatly reduced. Simulation results show that the IIA algorithm is strictly suboptimal compared with our LOIA algorithm in the overhead-limited scenario.

  14. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  15. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Ten Iranian Pomegranate Cultivars Depend on Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Akhavan; Mohsen Barzegar; Helmut Weidlich; Zimmermann, Benno F.

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method. The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A (5.40–285 mg/L), punicalagin B (25.9–884 mg/L), and ellagic acid (17.4–928 mg/L). The major ...

  16. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  17. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Sinnott, Robert A

    2017-07-14

    Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression. CpG sites with low P-values (P juice-specific low P-value epigenetic signatures were largely independent. Genes near the fruit-specific epigenetic signature were enriched among pathways associated with antigen presentation and chromosome or telomere maintenance, while the juice-specific epigenetic signature was enriched for proinflammatory pathways. IPA and eFORGE analyses implicate fruit and juice-specific epigenetic signatures in the modulation of macrophage (fruit) and B or T cell (juice) activities. These data suggest a role for epigenetic regulation in fruit and juice-specific health benefits and demonstrate independent associations with distinct immune functions and cell types, suggesting that these groups may not confer the same health benefits. Identification of such differences between foods is the first step toward personalized nutrition and ultimately the improvement of human health and longevity.

  18. Understanding the effect of novel approaches based on ultrasound on sensory profile of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work investigates the effects of novel non thermal processing based on ultrasound on the sensory profile of orange juice and also compares the observed trends with the conventional thermal pasteurization. A novel treatment methodology based on combination of ultrasound and UV irradiations was investigated. The juice quality was assessed in terms of standard parameters (taste, flavor, odor, mouth feel etc.) by panel tests. Physicochemical analysis in terms of color of processed juice (which is an important physical attribute) and oxidation reduction potential (a good indicator of the quantum of oxidants present in the fruit juices) has also been performed. Thermally treated juices had significantly different characteristics that were not very appealing as compared to the ultrasound treated juices or those treated using the combined approach. The sensory properties of the ultrasound treated juices showed that the samples were most acceptable to the consumers and rated at par with the quality parameters of the fresh untreated juices. Overall the present work is the first to report and conclusively establish the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment approaches for maintaining the sensory profile in comparison with the thermally processed juice.

  19. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Donny Widianto; Akbar Arofatullah; Triwibowo Yuwono; Irfan Dwidya Prijambada

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and...

  20. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.