WorldWideScience

Sample records for juice concentrate electronic

  1. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  2. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  3. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  4. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  5. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  6. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  7. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  8. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  9. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithore, Smita; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; Irey, Mike; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-12-02

    In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2-5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%-3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1-3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30-200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30-400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30-400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  10. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raithore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL, citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL, hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL. Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical and #5 (food were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  11. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  12. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate

  13. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  14. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  16. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is considered...

  17. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  18. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  19. Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell

    2011-05-01

    The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid.

  20. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  1. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  2. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy;

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  3. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of... the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the... Villanueva, Program Manager, New Shipper Review: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's...

  4. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Couto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix corresponding to a Volumetric Concentration Factor (VCF of 2.9. The concentration of soluble solids, total solids, and total acidity increased proportionally to FCV. The concentrated juice and three commercial concentrated pineapple juices were evaluated regarding preference and purchase intention by 79 pineapple juice consumers. The concentrated juice by reverse osmosis was the preferred among consumers. It can be concluded that this process may be considered an alternative to the pre-concentration of fruit juices.

  5. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... antidumping duty order on imports of non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China (65 FR 35606). Following... continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of non- frozen concentrated apple juice from China (70 FR...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR...

  6. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05).

  7. 75 FR 81969 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping... (``Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the [[Page... an administrative review on the antidumping order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the PRC...

  8. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of... shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's...

  9. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's... Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the New...

  10. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset Review and... the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China... apple juice concentrate from the PRC. See Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

  11. 75 FR 47270 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-855) Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's... Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic...

  12. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simões Couto; Lourdes Maria Corrêa Cabral; Virgínia Martins da Matta; Rosires Deliza; Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix correspon...

  13. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  14. Separation of Water to Concentrate Aloe Vera Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Abdullah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aloe Vera is a succulent plant and is found in different arid areas. Due to its healing effect and soothing properties it is being used in herbal medicines for years and its importance has grown due to use in cosmetic products. It contains more than thirty active ingredients, which are utilized in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. It also contains 98% water. To remove water from those active ingredient Reverse osmosis is used in order not to thermally damage the active ingredients present in the juice. A reverse osmosis is a separation technique which utilizes difference in pressure to segregate water from plant without damaging the active ingredients present in the plant. This research is dedicated to evaluate the parameter for separation of water from aloe Vera so that aloe Vera can be obtained in a form which can be utilized for different purposes such as cosmetics and medicine. Osmosis technique is preferred over other conventional technique for the separation purpose because it is not operated at high temperature, which will not damage the aloe Vera juice quality. Next step in this research is the preserving, drying and analysis of this juice so that this product can be utilized in versatile way.

  15. Grape juice concentrate (G8000™) modulates apoptosis but not oxidative stress following rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Landman, Gilles; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Campanholo, Vanessa Maria De Lima Pazine; Gollucke, Andrea Pittelli Boiago; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if grape juice concentrate is able to protect against experimental colon carcinogenesis. For this purpose, a total of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into seven groups: G1: SHAM animals receiving only saline; G2: animals receiving 15 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM); G3: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G4: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G5: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G6: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G7: animals receiving only 2% grape juice concentrate. The group that received 2% grape juice concentrate before induction with AOM showed the decreased expression of Bcl-2 compared to those animals that were induced by AOM (positive control). Regarding Bax, animals that received grape juice at 2% decreased Bax immunoexpression when compared to AOM group. Furthermore, animals that intake grape juice at 1% after induced by AOM decreased Bax immunoexpression as well. 8-OHdGLI did not show significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) among groups. In summary, our results demonstrate that grape juice is able to modulate rat colon carcinogenesis as a result of induction of apoptosis.

  16. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.

  17. The Polyphenols Stability, Enzyme Activity and Physico-Chemical Parameters During Producing Wild Elderberry Concentrated Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Galić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of processing wild elderberry into concentrated juice on polyphenols (total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, hydrolysed tannins stability, activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD, and changes of physico-chemical parameters (total and soluble dry matter, total acidity, pH, sugars were investigated. The amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, falvan-3-ols and hydrolysed tannins were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, while the total anthocyanins were determined by bisulphite bleaching method. Total phenols ranged from 25.87 mg/g DM to 38.87 mg/g DM. Total anthocyanins were the most abundant polyphenols in all investigated samples (raw elderberries, elderberries after blanching, elderberry juice after disintegration and pressing, concentrated elderberry juice and their concentration ranged from 13.12 mg/g DM to 25.67 mg/g DM. Other polyphenols determined in high concentration were hydrolysed tannins, followed by fl avan-3-ols, flavonoids and nonfavonoids. After blanching, the concentration of all polyphenols did not decrease significantly. After disintegration of elderberries the concentration of all polyphenols increased, probably due to inactivation of PPO and POD and better isolation of polyphenols from homogenized puree. During processing of elderberry juice into concentrated juice most polyphenols were stable. Total acidity and pH value were not changed during processing, whereas the amounts of total and reducing sugar increased after pressing and additionally after concentration. The obtained results suggest that raw elderberries as well as elderberry concentrated juice are high potential source of polyphenols especially anthocyanins.

  18. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-02-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate.

  19. Orange and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations of the OATP2B1 substrate aliskiren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapaninen, Tuija; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of orange juice and apple juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren. METHODS In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of orange juice, apple juice or water three times daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were measured up to 72 h, its excretion into urine up to 12 h and plasma renin activity up to 24 h. RESULTS Orange and apple juice reduced aliskiren peak plasma concentrations by 80% (95% CI 63%, 89%, P juice correlated with aliskiren AUC during the water phase (r = 0.98, P juice and apple juice phases, respectively, than during the water phase (P juice and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations and renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren, probably by inhibiting its OATP2B1-mediated influx in the small intestine. Concomitant intake of aliskiren with orange or apple juice is best avoided. PMID:21204914

  20. 75 FR 76754 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... review * * *'' (75 FR 69628). Accordingly, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C... COMMISSION Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... concentrate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  1. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice.

  2. THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED SUGAR BEET JUICE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Different methods of obtaining the product given were tested and rational modes for the proposed technology were chosen in the development of technology for production of sugar beet concentrated juice. The sugar beet concentrated juice is obtained as follows: sugar beets are washed in the continuous action washing machine, checked, rotten or spoiled beets are removed from the cycle, and insufficiently treated roots are directed to re-washing. Then with the help of thermal processing the sugar beet is peeled. The peeled roots are white. They are crushed to the 3-4 mm particles size, mixed with acidified to pH 3,5-4,0 water (hydromodule 1-1.2, then the resulting mass is heated to 80 0C temperature. The use of acidified water is necessary to prevent the darkening initiation. Then the received sugar beet mass is fed to pressing to obtain its juice. The pressed juice depending on the beet source contains 12 % of DS and 1.5-3 % reducing substances (RS of the total mass of dry substances. The juice concentration is under the suction of 0.008 MPa at the boiling temperature of up to 60 0C to the content of 70 % DS. Due to the delicate mode, the sugars breakdown is less intensive, the finished product is of good quality. At the simultaneous concentration with steam the volatile substances with a specific smell are removed, that improves the juice taste and smell. Under this mode, the sugar hydrolysis is intensive, there is a growth reducing substances up to 20 %, the color is increased to 40% density. The research results allow to recommend the product obtained as the sugar syrup substitute.

  3. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  4. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  5. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Sugar Composition and Concentrations in Sugarcane Juice as Affected by Sampling Date and Internode Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) harvest season lasts about six months from late-October through mid-April in Florida. Cane juice sugar concentration and composition are important for sucrose yield and profits, however research is lacking on the influence of harvesting time and intermodal position...

  7. Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50 ± 2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage.

  8. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS ON THE CITRUS JUICE ON THE CONCENTRATIONS OF FLAVANONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LíLIAN MARIA MOURA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds in fruits, vegetables, grains, etc with antioxidant capacity and anti-inflamatory, anticoagulant, antiallergic proprieties that contributes to human health. The effect of the pasteurization and concentration processes on the citric juices can influence the composition of the flavanones. The flavanones composition in the orange juice (a mixture of Pera and Valencia and of the tangor Murcott was determined by HPLC. The flavanones (narirutin and hesperidin were extracted with methanol, heated in 55°C for 15 minutes and separated from the insoluble solids by centrifugation. The separation was done in C18 column (5μm, 250x4.6mm using the isocratic system of acetonitrile mixture: water, acetic acid (21:75:4v/v/v in a flow of 0.6L/min, detention of 280nm and quantification by external pattern. The effect of the pasteurization and concentration on the citric juice did not affect significantly the amount of flavones in the samples of murcott and orange juice (mixture Pera and Valencia.

  10. Toxicity evaluation of e-juice and its soluble aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes using recombinant bioluminescent bacteria responsive to specific cellular damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shiv; Mitchell, Robert J; Qureshi, Anjum; Niazi, Javed H

    2017-04-15

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are widely used as an alternative to traditional cigarettes but their safety is not well established. Herein, we demonstrate and validate an analytical method to discriminate the deleterious effects of e-cigarette refills (e-juice) and soluble e-juice aerosol (SEA) by employing stress-specific bioluminescent recombinant bacterial cells (RBCs) as whole-cell biosensors. These RBCs carry luxCDABE-operon tightly controlled by promoters that specifically induced to DNA damage (recA), superoxide radicals (sodA), heavy metals (copA) and membrane damage (oprF). The responses of the RBCs following exposure to various concentrations of e-juice/SEA was recorded in real-time that showed dose-dependent stress specific-responses against both the e-juice and vaporized e-juice aerosols produced by the e-cigarette. We also established that high doses of e-juice (4-folds diluted) lead to cell death by repressing the cellular machinery responsible for repairing DNA-damage, superoxide toxicity, ion homeostasis and membrane damage. SEA also caused the cellular damages but the cells showed enhanced bioluminescence expression without significant growth inhibition, indicating that the cells activated their global defense system to repair these damages. DNA fragmentation assay also revealed the disintegration of total cellular DNA at sub-toxic doses of e-juice. Despite their state of matter, the e-juice and its aerosols induce cytotoxicity and alter normal cellular functions, respectively that raises concerns on use of e-cigarettes as alternative to traditional cigarette. The ability of RBCs in detecting both harmful effects and toxicity mechanisms provided a fundamental understanding of biological response to e-juice and aerosols.

  11. Production of grape juice powder obtained by freeze-drying after concentration by reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Deyse Gurak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the freeze-drying process for obtaining grape juice powder by reverse osmosis using 50% grape juice pre-concentrated (28.5 °Brix and 50% hydrocolloids (37.5% maltodextrin and 12.5% arabic gum. The morphology of the glassy food showed the absence of crystalline structure, which was the amorphous wall that protected the contents of the powder. The samples were stored in clear and dark containers at room temperature, evaluated for their physical (X-ray diffraction for 65 days and chemical (polyphenol content stability for 120 days. During the storage time in plastic vessels, samples remained physically stable (amorphous and the phenolic concentration was constant, indicating the potentiality of this technique to obtain a stable product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the freeze-drying process promoted the encapsulation of concentrated grape juice increasing its stability and shelf life, as well as proving to be an applicable process to food industry

  12. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-01-01

    This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line.), dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pomelo (Citrus grandis L.), and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.). On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP), temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was deter...

  13. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  14. Effect of Concentrated Pomegranate Juice Consumption on Glucose and Lipid Profile Concentrations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rashidi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important metabolic disorders worldwide. As regards the anti-diabetic effects in different parts of pomegranate fruit, this study was performed to determine the effects of concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ consumption on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental study was performed on 55 diabetic patients, among patients referred to the Kashan Diabetes Center. Patients were divided into two groups: CPJ consumption and control. An anthropometric, medical and 24-hour food recall questioner was completed. Fasting blood sample before and after study was collected to measure glucose, HbA1c, TG, Chol, LDL and HDL. The patients consumed 45 g/day CPJ for 3 month. Control group did not received experiment. variables were measured at the end of the study again. Both groups received the same diet and physical activity advice during the study. Results: Cholesterol and LDL - cholesterol concentrations decreased in CPJ than control group but not significant (p>0.05. The mean glucose concentrations showed no significant change between CPJ group and control (p>0.05.Conclusion: concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ consumption there are no effective on blood glucose and lipid profiles concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Cássia Martins Salomão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37ºC, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  16. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia Martins Salomão, Beatriz; Muller, Chalana; do Amparo, Hudson Couto; de Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37 °C, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  17. Chemical composition and properties of spray-dried sugar beet concentrate obtained after ultrafiltration of diffusion juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiec Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of diffusion juice is a method that can reduce environmental pollution during the production of sugar. A by-product (concentrate of ultrafiltration contains a large amount of sucrose, but due to its properties, it is difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the temperature used during drying of diffusion juice concentrates on the content of certain components and characteristics of resultant preparations. Diffusion juice obtained from one of the Polish sugar plants was subjected to ultrafiltration and the obtained concentrates were dried in a spray dryer. In the dried samples, the following parameters were analyzed: dry mass, sucrose, total ash, protein, crude fiber and color. It has been declared that the degree of concentration and drying temperature influenced the chemical composition and the properties of the dehydrated diffusion juice concentrates. An increase in drying temperature was accompanied by the increased content of dry mass, protein, ash and fiber content in the preparations. The greater the degree of juice concentration, the greater was the content of dry mass, ash, and fiber. Inversely, the greater the degree of juice concentration, the lower the content of sucrose. The brightest color of the dehydrated product was observed at the drying temperature of 200°C. Spray-drying may be used for waste management after the diffusion juice membrane filtration, and the resultant preparations might be used in the production of feedstuff or food industry in general e.g. as sucrose source, in fermentation processes or in microorganisms propagation.

  18. KINETICS OF THE PROCESS OF CONCENTRATION BY FREEZING THE CHERRY JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The urgency of theme is substantiated and the basic directions of studies are determined. Is substantiated the mechanism of the process of the concentration of liquid media by freezing moisture, that is determined in essence by the conditions for the migration of the molecules of water to the frontal surface of crystallization and their incorporation into the crystal structure of ice. It is shown that the regime of freezing moisture is characterized by the temperature of the heat exchange surface, which receives heat of crystallization of moisture, by the speeds of displacement and with the surface area of the contact of the being transferred heat media, by form and by the concentration of the dissolved substances of product. The process of heat exchange between the surface of crystallization and the workable technological medium is described. The schematic of the work of the experimental freezing out installation and the procedure of experiences is represented. Are investigated a change in the average value of a quantity of frozen out ice from the unit of heat exchange surface, which freezes out installations in the time, reflected in the form of the curves of increase and rate of growth in the icy phase on the surface of the heat exchange elements of area of 0.08 m2 , in 3600 seconds depending on the temperature of the heat exchange surface and initial content of dry matter in the cherry juice. An increase in the initial content of dry matter in the cherry juice at constant temperature of boiling refrigerant in the vaporizer of the freezing out installation nonlinearly reduces the specific quantity of ice, which was being formed on the heat exchange surface. A change in the boiling point of refrigerant also causes a nonlinear increase in the specific quantity of ice, frozen out on the heat exchange surface. The obtained curves of the rate of growth in the icy phase make it possible to isolate the sections of the crystallization of the

  19. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  20. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that

  1. Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G

    2009-01-01

     Membrane distillation (MD) has been tested as a low temperature replacement of traditional falling film evaporators for juice concentration. Compared to other membrane processes, MD is non-pressure driven performing a high degree of concentration in the same versatile installation[1]. Aronia mel...

  2. [Rapid determination of ethephon residues in concentrated pineapple juice by head-space gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X G; Yong, W; Cai, H X; Pan, J W

    2001-05-01

    The method developed is based on the special property that ethephon can be easily decomposed into ethene in alkaline solution by heating. Certain amount of concentrated KOH solution was added to the sample and heated at 70 degrees C. Then, 1 mL of the gas above the sample was injected into a gas chromatograph by head-space sampler for the determination of the target compound with external standard quantitation method. The detection limit was 0.025 mg/kg and the fortified recoveries of ethephon in concentrated pineapple juice (60 +/- 1) Brix at the range of 0.1 mg/kg-10 mg/kg were 92%-98% (n = 8, for each level). The relative standard deviations were 3.99%-7.94%.

  3. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Evan J; Baines, Katherine J; Berthon, Bronwyn S; Wood, Lisa G

    2017-02-08

    Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V) juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m². Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥3.0 mg/mL) who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16), these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK), zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5) and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39), respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  4. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  5. High concentrations of human β-defensin 2 in gastric juice of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Shigeru Kohno; Hiroshi Mukae; Hiroshi Ishimoto; Yoshito Nishi; Chun-Yang Wen; Akihiro Wada; Ken Ohnita; Toshiya Hirayama; Masamitsu Nakazato

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Human β-defensin (HBD)-1 and HBD-2 are endogenous antimicrobial peptides. Unlike HBD-1, the HBD-2 expression is augmented by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). We sought to determine HBD-1 and HBD-2 concentrations in gastric juice duringH pylori infection.METHODS: HBD-1 and HBD-2 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma and gastric juice of 49 H pylori-infected and 33 uninfected subjects and before and after anti-H pyloritreatment in 13 patients with H pylori-associated gastritis. Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 concentrations in gastric juice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histological grades of gastritis were determined using two biopsy specimens taken from the antrum and corpus. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)was used to identify HBD-2.RESULTS: HBD-2 concentrations in gastric juice, but not in plasma, were significantly higher in H pylori-positive than -negative subjects, albeit the post-treatment levels were unchanged. Immunoreactivity for HBD-2 was exclusively identified in H pylori-infected mucosa by RPHPLC. HBD-2 concentrations in gastric juice correlated with histological degree of neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration in the corpus. IL-1β levels correlated with those of IL-8, but not HBD-2. Plasma and gastric juice HBD-1concentrations were similar in H pylori-infected and uninfected subjects.CONCLUSION: Our results place the β-defensins, especially HBD-2, in the front line of innate immune defence.Moreover, HBD-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of H pylori-associated gastritis, possibly through its function as immune and inflammatory mediator.

  6. Ultrasound assisted forward osmosis concentration of fruit juice and natural colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanukya, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of higher and lower molecular weight compounds present in the feed on concentration polarization during forward osmosis concentration and its mitigation by the application of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound on transmembrane water flux at different forward osmosis membrane orientations and different model feed solutions consisting of sucrose and pectin have also been evaluated. The feed containing sucrose and pectin subjected towards active layer of the membrane was found to be the most suitable orientation. The application of ultrasound (30kHz) significantly reduced the concentration polarization when the feed contains sucrose concentration up to 5%. Whereas, in case of feed containing 0.5% pectin, the ultrasound was not found to be effective in dislodging the gel layer formation resulting in severe external concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In comparison to the ordinary forward osmosis process, the ultrasound-assisted forward osmosis process resulted in higher water fluxes in case of sweet lime juice as well as rose extract containing anthocyanin. The degradation of rose anthocyanin due to ultrasound was found to be 1.82%. Application of ultrasound was found to be an effective way in mitigating concentration polarization on the forward osmosis membrane resulting in increased flux.

  7. Juice of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) inhibits oxytocin-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration in human myometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, A P; Grãos, M; Duarte, C B; Brenneisen, R; Hamburger, M; Mennet, M; Ramos, M H; Schnelle, M; Wächter, R; Worel, A M; von Mandach, U

    2010-10-01

    The use of preparations from Bryophyllum pinnatum in tocolysis is supported by both clinical (retrospective comparative studies) and experimental (using uterus strips) evidence. We studied here the effect of B. pinnatum juice on the response of cultured human myometrial cells to stimulation by oxytocin, a hormone known to be involved in the control of uterine contractions by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this work, [Ca2+]i was measured online during stimulation of human myometrial cells (hTERT-C3 and M11) with oxytocin, which had been pre-incubated in the absence or in the presence of B. pinnatum juice. Since no functional voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be detected in these myometrial cells, the effect of B. pinnatum juice was as well studied in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which are known to have such channels and can be depolarised with KCl. B. pinnatum juice prevented the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in hTERT-C3 human myometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner, achieving a ca. 80% inhibition at a 2% concentration. Comparable results were obtained with M11 human primary myometrial cells. In hTERT-C3 cells, prevention of the oxytocin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was independent of the extracellular Ca2+ concentration and of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. B. pinnatum juice delayed, but did not prevent the depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, the data suggest a specific and concentration-dependent effect of B. pinnatum juice on the oxytocin signalling pathway, which seems to corroborate its use in tocolysis. Such a specific mechanism would explain the rare and minor side-effects in tocolysis with B. pinnatum as well as its high therapeutic index.

  8. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).

  9. IN VITRO STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CAUSATIVE AGENT OF AMOEBIASIS WITH LEMON JUICE AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION SHOWED ANTIAMOEBIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Bhanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A species of parasite protozoa Entamoeba histolytica causing amoebiasis and amoebic dysentery characteristic include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded. This is a single celled parasitic animal, that infects predominantly humans and other primates. Amoebic infection was first described by Fedor Losch in 1875 in St. Petersburg. In 1890, Sir William Osler reported the first North American case of amoebiasis when he observed amoebae in stool in abscess fluid from physician who previously resided in Panama. So we used the Lemon juice (Citrus at different concentration against Entamoeba histolytica to treat the amoebiasis disease. Entamoeba histolytica shows the variety of growth due to the effect of Lemon juice (Citrus. Lemon juice is ingredient and it has antiamoebic properties against Entamoeba histolytica a causative agent of amoebiasis.

  10. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  11. Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destani, F.; Cassano, A.; Fazio, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gebriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization

  12. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is

  13. Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destani, F.; Cassano, A.; Fazio, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gebriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization step

  14. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is po

  15. Discrimination and characterization of strawberry juice based on electronic nose and tongue: comparison of different juice processing approaches by LDA, PLSR, RF, and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Gao, Liping

    2014-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) have been used to characterize five types of strawberry juices based on processing approaches (i.e., microwave pasteurization, steam blanching, high temperature short time pasteurization, frozen-thawed, and freshly squeezed). Juice quality parameters (vitamin C, pH, total soluble solid, total acid, and sugar/acid ratio) were detected by traditional measuring methods. Multivariate statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR)) and neural networks (Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines) were employed to qualitative classification and quantitative regression. E-tongue system reached higher accuracy rates than E-nose did, and the simultaneous utilization did have an advantage in LDA classification and PLSR regression. According to cross-validation, RF has shown outstanding and indisputable performances in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. This work indicates that the simultaneous utilization of E-nose and E-tongue can discriminate processed fruit juices and predict quality parameters successfully for the beverage industry.

  16. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest effect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coefficients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fit of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specific attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confirms

  17. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  18. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  19. [Physical, chemical and microbiological quality of concentrated orange juices made in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R M; Hernández, P

    1996-03-01

    Concentrated fruit juices are a very attractive type of product because of the many advantages they offer for reductions in packing, transportation and storage costs, and in addition, they offer the possibility of consumption outside harvesting time. Due to their potential in the international market, it is necessary to evaluate if they are accomplishing the quality requirements, and to know the different factors that can affect their stability. For this purpose, samples of national products were analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics; the diacetyl test was performed as a measure of the sanitary conditions under processing. The samples analyzed comply with the national standards established by the Comision Venezolana de Normas Industriales (COVENIN N(o) 2395-86 Concentrados de frutas para consumo directo). It is advisable to determine the zero tolerant yeasts population because this type of microorganisms are responsible for spoilage whenever cold storage is interrupted, and because they can not be detected by the official procedures used to detect yeasts.

  20. On Debitterzing Technique of Concentrated Orange Juice%浓缩橙汁脱苦技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国良; 秦云

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究脱苦工艺对浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果以及对果汁品质的影响.[方法]试验采用活性炭对浓缩橙汁进行脱苦,以橙汁中的柚皮苷(碱性二甘醇显色法)和柠檬苦素(对-二甲氨基苯甲醛显色法)的含量变化来表征浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果.[结果]通过单因素试验结合感官评定,确定了较适于橙汁的脱苦工艺:脱苦条件为常温20℃,活性炭用量35 g/L浓缩果汁(可溶性固形物含量50.5%),搅拌时间20 min.采用最佳工艺处理,得到的浓缩果汁中柚皮苷和柠檬苦素的脱除率分别为49.5%和73.5%.[结论]脱苦后浓缩橙汁苦味明显变淡,风味自然,口感适中.%[Objective] To study effects of debitterzing technique on concentrated orange juice debitterzing effect and juice quality.[Method]Active carbon was used to conduct debitterzing.naringin and limonin in orange juice was showed effect of concentrated orange juice.[Result]Through single-factor experiment and sensory assessment,the optimum debitterzing technique was identified at temperature 20 ℃,active carbon 35 g/L (soluble solids content 50.5%),processing time 20 min.The concentrated juice naringin and limonin removal rates were 49.5% and 73.5% under the above conditions.[Conclusion] After debitterzing,the concentrated juice is:gentle flavor,mild taste.

  1. The quality control of fruit juices by using the stable isotope ratios and trace metal elements concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.

    2012-02-01

    In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic "tracers" to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruit juices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.

  2. Effects of pH and sugar concentration in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii growth and time for spoilage in concentrated grape juice at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, M C; Arroyo López, F N; Lerena, M C; Mercado, L; Torres, A; Combina, M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of pH (1.7-3.2) and sugar concentration (64-68 °Brix) on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii MC9 using response surface methodology was studied. Experiments were carried out in concentrated grape juice inoculated with Z. rouxii at isothermal conditions (23 °C) for 60 days. pH was the variable with the highest effect on growth parameters (potential maximum growth rate and lag phase duration), although the effect of sugar concentration were also significant. In a second experiment, the time for spoilage by this microorganism in concentrated grape juice was evaluated at isothermal (23 °C) and non-isothermal conditions, in an effort to reproduce standard storage and overseas shipping temperature conditions, respectively. Results show that pH was again the environmental factor with the highest impact on delaying the spoilage of the product. Thereby, a pH value below 2.0 was enough to increase the shelf life of the product for more than 60 days in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and buyers to predict the growth and time for spoilage of Z. rouxii in concentrated grape juice.

  3. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  4. INFLUENCE AT DIFFERENT OPERATION CONDITIONS ON THE ACEROLA JUICE CONCENTRATION BY REVERSE OSMOSIS, USING SPIRAL MEMBRANE OF COMPOSITE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R.S. GOMES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The concentration of acerola juice, involves removal of water with the objective of reducing packing, storage and transport costs. The reverse osmosis (RO is a process of increasing interest in food industry and among the advantages they stand out: the low consumption of energy and the minimum thermal damages is caused to the products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different operation conditions in relation to the permeate flux, in the concentration process of the acerola juice by RO. All the RO experiments were carried out with retentate recycling. The concentration by RO, were carried on the transmembrane pressures of 20, 30 and 40 bar and at 23ºC and 40ºC, being used a membrane of composite film in spiral module (99% NaCl rejection. The acerola pulp was defrosted and treated with Citrozym Ultra L enzyme (100 ppm, 45ºC ,1 hour, then it was ultrafiltrated at 3 bar at the same temperature, in 0.1 µm ceramic membrane, and so it was concentrated by RO. It was verified that the pressure and the temperature influenced the concentration and the permeate flux obtained in the RO process. The flux decreased along the processing, once the feeding becomes more concentrate, increasing the viscosity, osmotic pressure and retained sugar. KEYWORDS: Acerola juice concentration; reverse osmosis; membrane of composite film.

  5. Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO R.F. CAMPOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by using an enzymatic treatment followed by Membrane Separation Process (MSP has been investigated. By using Novozym 33095(r and Ultrazym AFP L(r enzymes varying three operating parameters, the best result on the grape pulp characteristics was attained for the Novozym 33095(r performed at 35oC, 15 min. and 50 mgL-1. In micro/ultra filtration processes after enzymatic pretreatment, the best performance of the MSP with high permeate flux value and suitable grape juice characteristics was attained using 0.05 mm membrane pore size, 1 bar pressure and 40 oC treatment temperature. When reverse osmosis process is operated at 40 bar and 40oC, high soluble solid and low turbidity values are attained. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

  6. Optimization of Xanthan Gum Production from Grape Juice Concentrate Using Plackett-Burman Design and Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghashghaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low grade grape juice concentrate was used as carbon source for xanthan production. Significant factors affecting xanthan concentration, productivity and viscosity were investigated using Plackett-Burman Design. Based on the obtained results, carbon and nitrogen concentrations, inoculum size and agitation rate, were assumed as significant factors. Broth culture viscosity and xanthan concentration were optimized using Response Surface Methodology with four independent variables: carbon source (30, 40, 50 g l-1, ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source (0.5, 1.25, 2 g l-1, agitation (150, 200, 250 rpm and inoculum size (5, 10, 15% v v-1. Optimum level for each factor was obtained by desirability function approach. The average of xanthan gum production and its viscosity under optimized conditions were recorded as 14.35 g l-1 and 1268 cP, respectively. The average yield of production and productivity of xanthan within 72 h under optimized conditions were 35% and 0.19 g l-1 h-1, respectively. The current study showed the potential of low-grade grape juice concentrate as an economic carbon source for xanthan gum production.

  7. 电子鼻检测不同品种和加工类型的柑橘汁%Detection of different variety and processing type of Citrus juices using electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宇; 程薇; 王少华; 熊光权; 潘思轶; 徐晓云; 范刚; 马明辉; 廖李; 汪兰; 王俊; 杜欣

    2011-01-01

    为了探索一种通过气味快速区别橙汁和橘汁以及在线监测橙汁加工品质的方法,应用电子鼻对不同品种的橙汁和橘汁的香气进行区分,研究酸橙汁加工过程中各工艺操作对香气成分的影响,并对不同加工类型的酸橙汁进行区分.通过对所获得的数据进行主成分分析及偏最小二乘回归分析,结果显示,不同品种的橙汁和橘汁的香气品质存在差异,橙汁经过一系列加工工艺后香气发生了明显变化,浓缩还原汁的香气品质要逊于非浓缩橙汁(NFC橙汁),28%、38%、48%和63.5%4种不同可溶性周形物质量分数的还原汁在电子鼻传感器上的信号经拟合后有良好的线性关系,以55%还原汁为盲样,判别结果为57.95%,误差为5%.使用电子鼻可以很好的区分不同品种、不同加工类型的柑橘汁,还可以应用于橙汁加工过程中的品质控制.%In order to explore the method that fast distinguishes the aroma of orange juice and mandarin juice and monitor the quality during process, the electronic nose was applied to discriminate the overall aroma of orange juice and mandarin juice. The effect of aroma on different process during sour orange juice processing and discrimination of different processing type were also studied. The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate factor analysis (DFA). The results indicated that the aroma quality of orange juice and mandarin juice from different variety present diversity. Meanwhile, the aroma had taken place significant changes after processing. The aroma of reconstituted orange juice was weaker than NFC (not from concentrated) juice. The electronic nose sensor signal of 4 kinds of reconstituted juice with different soluble solids (28%, 38%, 48%, 63.5%) existed linear relationship. The 55% reconstituted juice was chosen as unknown sample to discriminate the concentration. The discriminate result was 57.95% with 5

  8. 浓缩橙汁脱苦技术的研究%Establishment of Debittering Technique in Concentrated Orange Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国良; 秦云

    2014-01-01

    [目的]研究脱苦工艺对浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果以及对果汁品质的影响。[方法]试验采用活性炭对浓缩橙汁进行脱苦,以橙汁中的柚皮苷(碱性二甘醇显色法)和柠檬苦素(对-二甲氨基苯甲醛显色法)的含量变化来表征浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果。[结果]通过单因素试验结合感官评定,确定了较适于橙汁的脱苦工艺:脱苦条件为常温20℃,活性炭用量35 g/L浓缩果汁(可溶性固形物含量50.5%),搅拌时间20 min采用最佳工艺处理,得到的浓缩果汁中柚皮苷和柠檬苦素的脱除率分别为49.5%和73.5%。[结论]脱苦后浓缩橙汁苦味明显变淡,风味自然,口感适中。%[Objective]To explore the debittering technique for concentrated orange juice. [Method] Active carbon was used to debitterze naringin and limonin from con-centrated orange juice. [Result] Through single-factor experiment and sensory as-sessment, the optimum debittering technique was identified as temperature at 20 ℃, active carbon at 35 g/L (soluble solid content 50.5%), processing time of 20 min. Under above conditions, the removal rates of naringin and limonin in concentrated juice were 49.5% and 73.5% respectively. [Conclusion] Debittering endows the con-centrated juice with gentle flavor and mild taste.

  9. Comparison of enological characteristics between fresh apple juice and juice concentrate%鲜榨苹果汁与浓缩苹果汁酿酒特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周劝娥; 王晓宇; 田呈瑞; 郭玉蓉

    2011-01-01

    Fresh apple juice and juice concentrate were used as raw material to ferment wine with adding sugar and diluting for initial sugar concentration at 200g/L.The conventional physical and chemical indicators and total polyphenols,total flavonoids and flavanols content of the products were determined as well as sensory evaluation. The results showed that total acid content of two apple wine were 2.6g/L and 3.2g/L,respectively. The content of polyphenols,total flavonoids and fiavanols of fresh juice wine were higher than those of diluted juice wine. Each of two apple wine had its own style,fresh juice wine fruity and diluted juice wine mellow.%以苹果鲜榨汁和浓缩汁为原料,分别通过添加蔗糖和稀释的方式使发酵起始糖度为200g/L进行酒精发酵。对发酵产品的常规理化指标和总酚,总类黄酮以及黄烷醇含量进行测定,并对发酵产品进行感官鉴评。实验结果表明:稀释浓缩汁和鲜榨果汁酒样总酸含量分别为2.6g/L和3.2g/L。鲜榨果汁酒样总酚含量、总类黄酮以及黄烷醇含量均高于稀释浓缩汁酒样。两种酒各具特色,鲜榨汁酒样果香浓郁,稀释浓缩汁酒样酒香醇厚。

  10. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  11. Oral concentrated grape juice suppresses expression of NF-kappa B, TNF-α and iNOS in experimentally induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanholo, Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Silva, Tiago Donizetti; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of grape juice on colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and expression of NF-kB, iNOS and TNF- α. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups: G1, control; G2, 15 mg/kg AOM; G3, 1% grape juice 2 weeks before AOM; G4, 2% grape juice 2 weeks before AOM; G5, 1% grape juice 4 weeks after AOM; G6, 2% grape juice 4 weeks after AOM; G7, 2% grape juice without AOM. Histological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied, while RNA expression of NF- kB, TNF- and iNOS was evaluated by qPCR. The number of ACF was higher in G2, and G4 presented a smaller number of crypts per focus than G5 (p=0.009) and G6. Small ACF (1-3) were more frequent in G4 compared to G2, G5 and G6 (p=0.009, p=0.009 and p=0.041, respectively). RNA expression of NF-kB was lower in G3 and G4 compared to G2 (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). A positive correlation was observed between TNF- α and NF-kB gene expression (p=0.002). In conclusion, the administration of 2% grape juice before AOM reduced the crypt multiplicity, attenuating carcinogenesis. Lower expression of NF-kB was observed in animals exposed to grape juice for a longer period of time, regardless of concentration.

  12. Substitution of commercial concentrate with soy bean meal protected by tannin from banana stem juice for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to evaluate the optimal utilization of protected soy bean meal with secondary compound from banana stem juice in ration for sheep and its effect on sheep performance. Soy bean meal was mixed with banana stem juice at ratio 1:1 (w/v then dried in the oven at temperature 90oC. This protected soy bean meal was used to substitute commercial concentrate in sheep ration. The experiment used 24 head male lamb Sumatera composite breed. The lambs were grouped into six group based on its body weight and was assigned to one of 4 diets treatment. The sheep was fed on grass basal diet and supplemented with commercial concentrate. Data recorded were feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, average daily gain, feed efficiency and nitrogen utilization. Study was conducted in randomized complete block design and data obtained were analyzed using general linier model from SAS program. Results show that dry matter intake (DMI significantly (P 0.05 between R10, R20 and R30. The increasing in DMI is followed by the increasing crude protein (CP from 8.75 (R0 to 10.64; 11.68 and 12.32 g/BB0.75 respectively for R10; R20 and R30. Commercial concentrate substitution by protected soy bean meal significantly increased DM and CP digestibility at all levels. However, this substitution did not significantly affected organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF digestibility. Nitrogen excretion in urine was only increased at this level 30% substitution but nitrogen retention increased at substitution levels 20 and 30%. From this study can be concluded that commercial concentrate substitution with protected soy bean meal in the diet only increased CP consumption and CP digestibility but not average daily gain of lamb.

  13. Influence of temperature, concentration and shear rate on the rheological behavior of malay apple (Syzygium malaccense juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santos

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of malay apple, a traditional Amazonian fruit with high bioactive properties, at different temperatures and soluble solids concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a Brookfield R/S Plus rheometer with concentric cylinders geometry. Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley, Mizrahi-Berk, and Sisko rheological models were fitted to the experimental data. The malay apple juice (pulp and skin showed a pseudoplastic behavior for all temperatures and concentrations with flow behavior indexes lower than 1. The temperature effect on the samples’ apparent viscosity was analyzed by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy increased with a decrease in the soluble solids concentration, showing that the lower the concentration, the greater the temperature influence on the apparent viscosity. The soluble solids effect was described by the exponential equation. The exponential factor increased with the temperature increasing, showing that the higher the temperature, the greater the effect of the soluble solids concentration on samples’ apparent viscosity. Finally, a triparametric mathematical model combining temperature, concentration, and shear rate was proposed aiming to evaluate its effects on the samples’ apparent viscosity and has accurately adjusted to the data with high correlation index R2.

  14. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  15. Fast method for in-flight estimation of total dose from protons and electrons using RADE Minstrument on JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Xiao, Hualin

    2017-04-01

    The primary concern of the ESA JUICE mission to Jupiter is the harsh particle radiation environment. Ionizing particles introduce radiation damage by total dose effects, displacement damages or single events effects. Therefore, both the total ionizing dose and the displacement damage equivalent fluence must be assessed to alert spacecraft and its payload as well as to quantify radiation levels for the entire mission lifetime. We present a concept and implementations steps for simplified method used to compute in flight a dose rate and total dose caused by protons. We also provide refinement of the method previously developed for electrons. The dose rates values are given for predefined active volumes located behind layers of materials with known thickness. Both methods are based on the electron and proton flux measurements provided by the Electron and Proton Detectors inside the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) located on-board of JUICE. The trade-off between method accuracy and programming limitations for in-flight computations are discussed. More comprehensive and precise dose rate computations based on detailed analysis of all stack detectors will be made during off-line data processing. It will utilize full spectral unfolding from all RADEM detector subsystems.

  16. Inhibition of clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by buffered vinegar and lemon juice concentrate during chilling.....of ground turkey road containing minimal ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey roast containing minimal ingredients (salt and sugar), by buffered vinegar (MoStatin V) and a blend (buffered) of lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) was evaluated. Ground turkey roast was formulat...

  17. Concentration of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb in soil, sugarcane leaf and juice: residual effect of sewage sludge and organic compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Sarah Mello Leite; Bertoncini, Edna Ivani; Vitti, André César; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton

    2016-03-01

    Many researchers have evaluated the effects of successive applications of sewage sludge (SS) on soil plant-systems, but most have not taken into account the residual effect of organic matter remaining from prior applications. Furthermore, few studies have been carried out to compare the effects of the agricultural use of SS and sewage sludge compost (SSC). Therefore, we evaluated the residual effect of SS and SSC on the heavy metal concentrations in soil and in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) leaves and juice. The field experiment was established after the second harvesting of unburned sugarcane, when the organic materials were applied. The SS and SSC rates were (t ha(-1), dry base): 0, 12.5, 25, and 50; and 0, 21, 42, and 84, respectively. All element concentrations in the soil were below the standards established by São Paulo State environmental legislation. SS promoted small increases in Zn concentrations in soil and Cu concentrations in leaves. However, all heavy metals concentrations in the leaves were lower than the limits established for toxic elements and were in accordance with the limits established for micronutrients. There were reductions in the concentrations of Ni and Cu in soil and the concentration of Pb in juice, with increasing rates of SSC. The heavy metal concentrations were very low in the juice. Under humid tropical conditions and with short-term use, SS and SSC containing low heavy metal concentrations did not have negative effects on plants and soil.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  19. 红枣浓缩清汁生产工艺的探讨%An Analysis of Jujube Concentrated Juice Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建钢

    2012-01-01

    In the production of Jujube concentrated juice, there are many factors that affect the quality and nutri- tive value of products, including the variety of raw materials, extraction method and process and so on. In recent years, the jujube concentrated juice production technology is more matured, but there are still some problems in the process of production. The article discusses how to keep the color and flavor of the Jujube juice while preserve its ric- hest nutrition and physiological active materials to improve the extraction rate and quality of Jujube concentrated juice.%在生产红枣浓缩清汁时,影响产品质量和营养成分的因素颇多,主要有原料的品种、提取方法和提取工艺参数等。目前国内红枣浓缩清汁的生产工艺日趋成熟,但是在生产过程中还存在一些问题,文中就在保证枣汁色泽和风味的同时,最大限度地保留红枣中各种丰富营养成分和提取具有生理活性物质,并且尽量提高原料提取率和商品红枣浓缩清汁的品质进行了探讨。

  20. Concentration of Fruit Juices by Multiple-Effect Membrane Distillation%多效膜蒸馏技术用于果汁浓缩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕; 秦英杰; 刘立强; 崔东胜

    2012-01-01

    利用自制的具有高效内部热量回收功能的多效膜蒸馏组件对西瓜汁、梨汁、柚子汁和苹果汁4种果汁进行了浓缩试验,考察了进料温度、浓度和料液流量对膜通量和造水比的影响.浓缩试验中选用温度为75℃的热水作为低品位热源以保障果汁经历的最高温度不超过70℃.在浓缩过程中膜平均通量约为3 L/(m2·h),造水比约为7.5,相当于九效蒸发器的节能效果.选取苹果汁为料液,利用上述单因素、浓缩试验后的膜组件进行了周期为2个月的多效膜蒸馏浓缩操作稳定性试验,试验期间所用膜组件的操作性能没有明显下降.%Multiple-effect membrane distillation ( MEMD) was used to concentrate fruit juices such as watermelon juice, pear juice, grapefruit juice and apple juice, which possessed characteristics of mild operation conditions, high enrichment ratio, low capital cost and high thermal efficiency. The influences of various experimental conditions such as feed-in concentration, feed-in flow rate, and heating temperature on the trans-membrane flux and gained output ratio (GOR) were studied. In the initial stage of concentrating fresh juices by MEMD process, both GOR and trans-membrane flux were less influenced by the concentration of sugars in the juice and, the average water permeate flux achieved 3 L/( m2 ? L) , the GOR achieved 7. 5 when the temperature of heating resource was 75 ℃. In a long-term stability test lasting for 60 days, the MEMD module and operation kept in good condition through the whole experiment.

  1. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  2. Modeling the growth/no growth interface of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice as a function of pH, temperature, Brix and nisin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Luera Peña

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth probability of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 in orange juice was studied in different product conditions. The microorganism response was monitored until 47 days of storage in different conditions of pH (3 to 5.8, soluble solids (11 to 19°Brix, temperature (20 to 54°C and nisin concentration (0 to 70 IU/ml. Growth/no growth data were modeled by the polynomial logistics regression model. The concordance of the obtained model was 96.3% indicating good fitting of observed data. The results showed fast growth in the conditions 0 IU nisin/ml juice, pH 4.4 and 15ºBrix, at 35ºC. For 70 IU nisin/ml there was no growth, pH 4.4, at 37ºC, up to 47 days of storage. Simple juices (11°Brix with pHs between 3.5 to 3.7 can keep stable and withstand abuse temperatures up to 36°C, since added in 70IU nisin/ml, extending its shelf life. With 0.05 growth probability and using the logistics model, high pH critical values can be obtained when 50 IU nisin/ml, at 25ºC, are present in the juice, however increases in temperature and decreases in soluble solids concentration make the pH critical values decrease. It is then concluded that nisin incorporation is an alternative for controlling A. acidoterrestris growth in orange juice, as well as the logistics regression model proved to be an important tool for determining the microbial response under critical values of the variables, besides predicting growth probabilities for the different studied conditions.

  3. Impacts of a liberalization in the USA market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice: why Florida's producers are so afraid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Fracalanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining the resource allocation and welfare implications of the reduction of barriers in the United States market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ imported from Brazil. The present paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents an overview of the main features of the market and current trade regime for orange juice, as well as the possible impacts of liberalization within FTAA and with the European Union; section 3 describes the partial equilibrium model of imperfect substitute goods used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization in the United States, on prices and quantities and on welfare; in section 4 two possible scenarios for liberalization are designed using the large country model. The last section summarizes the main conclusions.Este artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o exame das implicações em termos da alocação de recursos e de bem-estar de uma eventual redução das barreiras tarifárias no mercado dos EUA de suco de laranja concentrado e congelado (FCOJ importado do Brasil. Depois da introdução, uma segunda seção apresenta uma visão geral das principais características do mercado e do regime de comércio para o suco de laranja, bem como uma avaliação preliminar dos possíveis impactos da liberalização comercial dentro do quadro de acordos comerciais com o NAFTA e com a União Européia. A terceira seção descreve os modelos de equilíbrio parcial com bens substitutos utilizados para o exame dos impactos em termos de quantidades, preços e bem-estar da redução tarifária nos mercados de FCOJ dos EUA. A quarta seção apresenta dois possíveis cenários da liberalização comercial usando o modelo de «país grande». A última seção sumariza os principais resultados.

  4. Colour stabilities of sour cherry juice concentrates enhanced with gallic acid and various plant extracts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz, Ayşe; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA) and pomegranate rind extract (PRE), cherry stem extract (CSE) and green tea extract (GTE) were added to sour cherry juice concentrates (SCJCs) to enhance the colour. Effects of these copigment sources on anthocyanins, colour and turbidity were investigated during storage at -20, 4 and 20°C for 110 days. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (cyd-3-glu-rut, 75%) was the major anthocyanin, followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cyd-3-rut, 23%) and cyanidin-3-sophoroside (cyd-3-soph, 2%). While GA (37-53%), PRE (27-77%) and GTE (44-119%) increased the stabilities of cyd-3-rut and cyd-3-glu-rut, CSE reduced (12-24%) the stabilities of all anthocyanins. Polymeric colour and turbidity values increased after the addition of all extracts and GA. The lowest turbidity value after 110 days of storage at 20°C was determined in the SCJC enhanced with PRE. We recommend the addition of PRE to SCJC for the enhancement of anthocyanin stability and colour intensity, and the reduction in turbidity.

  5. The Influence Concentration to Mulberry Juice Nutritional Quality%浓缩对桑葚汁营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春玲; 姜绍通; 沈鸿; 齐路路

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨旋转蒸发浓缩的温度和浓缩度对桑葚汁营养品质和有机酸含量的影响,将鲜榨的桑葚汁于不同温度的条件下进行旋转蒸发浓缩处理,得到可溶性固形物含量为30、40、50、60°Brix的四种浓缩汁,比较分析各复原汁与新鲜桑葚汁的色泽、总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮、Vc、5-HMF以及有机酸种类和含量。结果表明:随着浓缩温度和浓缩汁可溶性固形物含量的增加,桑葚复原汁的颜色变暗,色差值△E值逐渐变大,总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮和维生素C的含量有所减少,而褐变度和5-HMF含量逐渐升高。桑葚汁中主要的有机酸是苹果酸和柠檬酸,随着可溶性固形物含量的不断增加,有机酸中除了柠檬酸的含量有所增加,其余五种有机酸的含量逐渐下降。综上,旋转蒸发的温度为60℃、浓缩度为50°Brix时能更好的保持桑葚复原汁中的风味营养物质。%Fresh mulberry juice was rotaried,evaporated and concentrated in the conditions of different temperature in order to explore the influence of rotary evaporation concentration to mulberry juice nutritional quality and organic acid content. Take four concentrations respectively includes soluble solids content of 30°Brix,40°Brix,50°Brix,and 60°Brix, and compare and analyze the color,total sugar,anthocyanin,total phenol and flavonoids,Vc,5-HMF,organic acid types and levels between reconstituted juice and fresh mulberry juice. Results indicate that with the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content in the concentrate mulberry reconstituted juice,color darkened;total color difference△E value increased gradually;total sugar,anthocyanin,Vc,total flavonoids and total phenol content have decreased but the 5-HMF content has increased. The main organic acids in mulberry juice are malic acid and citric acid. With the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content

  6. O2浓度对鲜榨番木瓜汁品质的影响%Influence of O2 Concentration on Fresh Papaya Juice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雪雁; 张钦发; 何淑华; 张义珂

    2015-01-01

    以鲜榨番木瓜汁为研究对象,以番木瓜汁感官评价及果汁中糖、酸、醇和醛的变化量作为其品质的判定指标,以不同浓度的O2气体成分对鲜榨番木瓜汁进行储藏,研究气调储藏对鲜榨番木瓜汁品质的影响。结果表明:随着储藏时间的延长,在高O2浓度下,番木瓜汁的品质明显变化较快,而在低O2浓度为下,番木瓜汁的品质变化较慢。所以,低的O2浓度利于鲜榨番木瓜汁的保藏。%Taking fresh papaya juice as research object, effect of controlled atmosphere storage on its qualitywas studied by the means of storing it in O2 gas with different concentrations, taking variations of sugar, acid, alcohol, aldehyde and sensory evaluation in fresh papaya juice as index to judge its quality. Results indicated thatthere were apparent quicker changes of quality of papaya juice in higher concentration of oxygenas the storage time extension, while changes slowdown in lower oxygen concen-tration. Conclusion was that low concentration of O2 was conducive to preservation of fresh papaya juice.

  7. 浓缩芒果浑汁制备中的酶解工艺研究%Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Preparing Concentrated Cloudy Mango Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱巧力; 许学勤

    2009-01-01

    Mango puree enzymes treatment was investigated for juice yield,suspension stability and the economics of juice concentration. The results showed that the optimum enzymolysis conditions were as follows; at 40 ℃ and pH 3.5-4.0,combinational enxyme treating with 0.02% (w/w) cellulase,0. 08% (w/w) glucoamylase and 0.0015% (w/w) pectinase enzyme for 30min,followed by 0.01% (w/w) acid protease treatment for 30min. The juice yield attained 95.24% compared with the control and the juice yield increased by 15% -20%. Under the a-bove described conditions,the cloudy juice could be concentrated to 65° Brix,increased 10 - 15°Brix compared with the control. Optimum ratio of mango puree to water of the enzymolysis system was 1:2 for concentrated mango juice preparation.%围绕芒果出汁率、悬浮稳定性和浓缩芒果汁的经济性,研究了芒果浆的酶解工艺.结果表明,利用纤维素酶、葡萄糖淀粉酶、果胶酶及酸性蛋白酶分2步对芒果原浆进行酶解的最适工艺条件为:40℃和pH3.5-4.0条件下,先利用0.02%纤维素酶、0.08%葡萄糖淀粉酶和0.001 5%果胶酶3种酶共同酶解30 min;灭酶后再用0.01%酸性蛋白酶酶解30 min.在此酶解条件下,芒果浆出汁率与对照样相比提高了20%,可达95.24%.酶解得到的果汁液最终可真空浓缩到65.Brix,比对照样提高了10-15°Brix.用于芒果果汁浓缩的酶解液最佳加水量为m(果肉)∶1(水)=1∶2.

  8. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  9. Full scale plant with membrane based concentration of blackcurrant juice on the basis of laboratory and pilot scale tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, K. V.; Andresen, R.

    2012-01-01

    distillation and water removal by reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and direct contact membrane distillation. It has been combined with optimization of membrane performance and juice quality in mind. The annual production scale is 17,283 ton of 66 degrees Brix out of single strength juice. The operation cost...... is 0.40 (sic)/kg BCJC, which is lower than the price of a traditional operation by about 43%. Therefore, the economical potential of the process is very promising and could supersede conventional evaporators. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Partial reflection. [electron concentration of the D region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Differential-absorption electron concentration and drifts wind data were collected on a daily basis along with daily winds data. The daily winds data are compared with the daily electron concentration data on the meridional prevailing wind are compared with the electron concentration. Results are briefly discussed.

  11. 紫甘薯浓缩汁的流变特性研究%Study on the Rheological Properties of Concentrated Purple Sweet Potato juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 吕晓玲; 李津; 杨雪吟

    2012-01-01

    Rheological properties of Purple Sweet Potato concentrated juice were studied at different temperature(25 ℃,50 ℃,75 ℃) and different concentration(10°Brix,20°Brix,30°Brix,40°Brix,50°Brix,60°Brix) by the rheometer CV-Ⅲ+.The results showed that within the study of temperature and concentration framework,the purple sweet potato concentrated juice was the Newtonian fluid;Through regression analysis showed that: the effect of temperature on viscosity could be described by Arrhenius type equation,the effect of concentration on viscosity could be described by an Index type equation;and the equation used to describe combined effect of temperature and concentration on viscosity of concentrated purple sweet potato juice was established.%采用CV-Ⅲ+型数字流变仪对不同温度(25℃,50℃,75℃)和不同浓度(10°Brix,20°Brix,30°Brix,40°Brix,50°Brix,60°Brix)下的紫甘薯浓缩汁的流变特性进行了研究,结果表明:在所研究的温度和浓度范围内,紫甘薯浓缩汁为牛顿流体;回归分析表明,温度对粘度的影响符合Arrhenius方程,浓度对粘度的影响可以用指数方程更准确的表示,并依此推导并验证了温度和浓度对紫甘薯浓缩汁粘度综合影响的方程模型。

  12. Use of electronic tongue and nose sensors to differentiate between juice from greening (Huanglongbing) and healthy fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...

  13. 浓缩橙汁Vc与色泽的保护研究%Study on protection of Vc and color in the concentrated orange juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴向华; 吴克刚; 段雪娟; 王胜利; 张文; 林若慧

    2011-01-01

    Several additives effecting the stability of Vc and color in concentrated orange juice were studied in the experiment. Three methods were tried, including visual observation, using iodine tirimettle to determinate the content of Vc,using colorimetry to test absorption of photoelectronen,and then use these results as the reference index of browning degree in concentrated orange juice. After all,the effect of single factor additives on the browning in the concentrated orange juice was discussed. Through the single factor experiment, the type and dosage of the additive were determined, and then the proportion of compound protective agent was obtained. At last, the proportion of single-factor in the compound protective agent were confirmed,0.16% sodium erythorbate + 0.035%calcium + 0.04% sulfite + 0.025 % EDTA, and the addition of compound protective agent was 0.1 5 %.%研究影响浓缩橙汁的Vc与色泽稳定性的各种添加剂,通过感官上目测观察、碘量滴定法测定浓缩橙汁的Vc含量、比色法测定浓缩橙汁的吸光度,作为褐变程度的参考指数,探讨各种添加剂对浓缩橙汁褐变的影响.通过单因子实验,确定其种类与用量,进而得到复合保护剂中的比例.结果表明:适宜的复合保护剂为0.16%异Vc钠+0.035%钙盐+0.04%亚硫酸盐+0.025% EDTA,确定其添加量为0.15%.

  14. Research on the clarification process of yacon juice concentrate%雪莲果浓缩清汁的澄清工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宏愿; 夏文水

    2011-01-01

    研究雪莲果浓缩清汁的澄清工艺.以透光率、蛋白质含量、总糖、还原糖及糖类成分组成等为指标,比较醇法、壳聚糖絮凝法、超滤3种方法对雪莲果浓缩汁的澄清效果.结果表明,3种澄清方法得到的浓缩汁澄清度均>80%,用壳聚糖处理的浓缩汁放置后会出现少量混浊;浓缩汁多酚含量是醇法>壳聚糖絮凝>超滤;蛋白质含量从84.65 μg/mL降至20μg/mL以下,其中超滤去除蛋白质能力最强,含量仅为4.27μg/mL;醇法对还原糖有较大影响,总糖含量是醇法>超滤>壳聚糖絮凝.%The clarification process of yacon juice concentrate was investigated. The clarification effect of ethanol, ultrafiltration, and chitosan was compared with anlysis the parameter such as light transmittance, contents of protein and total phenolic compounds, total sugar, reducing sugar and constituent of sugar. The results showed that the transmittance of all the yacon juice concentrate gained by the three clarification methods was over 80%, the juice concentrate by chitosan treatment appeared a little turbid after a while. The polyphenol content of the juice concentrate was ethanol>chitosan>ultrafiltration. The protein content decreased from 84. 65 μg/mL to less than 20 μg/mL, ultrafiltration can get the lowest 4.27 μg/mL. Ethanol have a great impact on the reduce sugar. The total sugar concent was ethanol>ultrafiltration>chitosan.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice and its sour concentrate processed by conventional evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, H Hülya

    2009-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate juice (PJ) and its traditional sour concentrate (CPJ), produced in Denizli, Turkey, were analysed. The total anthocyanin content of PJ was found to be 492.9 mg/l but it was not determined in CPJ. The total phenolics were also found to be 3,246 and 9,870 microg/ml in PJ and CPJ, respectively. The antioxidant activity (percentage of inhibition of on peroxidation in linoleic acid system) of CPJ was determined to be higher (85.91%) than that of PJ (79.06%). During the concentration process, the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose level of CPJ showed an increase to 46.46%, 23.89%, and 22.53%, respectively. In CPJ the amounts of sodium, iron, zinc, copper and lead were found lower than those of PJ. On the other hand, potassium and magnesium mineral contents increased during concentration. Among the various elements, cadmium, mercury, manganese, cobalt and boron were also analysed for determination of metallic contamination, but they were not found in PJ juice and CPJ. 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural was determined to be at a significant level in CPJ as a result of the heat process.

  16. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L(-1) of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L(-1) and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol/V solution), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  18. Application of fuzzy expert system approach on prediction of some quality characteristics of grape juice concentrate (Pekmez) after different heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ozlem; Arslan, Derya; Taşdemir, Sakir; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2011-08-01

    Effects of heat treatment on physicochemical characteristics and sensory properties of different fruit juice concentrates (pekmez) were studied. Apricot pekmez had the highest viscosity followed by mulberry and date pekmez. Apricot and date pekmez had higher scores for odour, taste and consistency than others. Hydroxymethyl furfural concentration of all pekmez samples increased after heat treatments. Samples heated at 75°C showed highest L* values while at 65°C the lowest mean L* values. L* values of all pekmez samples were similar while carob Pekmez had higher L* values. Also a development of the Fuzzy Expert System (FES) was made for prediction. Using the experimental values, FES model of the system was designed. Accordance was found with experimental and FES results when compared statistically. This study provides advantage for prediction possibility of unknown sub-values', which were not experimentally studied.

  19. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Shaanxi Concentrated Apple Juice Export%陕西浓缩苹果汁出口贸易的SWOT分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼利

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the SWOT analysis, the paper comprehensively analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Shaanxi concentrated apple juice industry, and proposed further development direction of Shaanxi concentrated juice industry and specific measures.%结合SWOT分析方法对陕西浓缩苹果汁产业的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战进行较为全面的分析,并提出陕西浓缩果汁产业进一步发展的方向和具体对策.

  20. The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-28

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.

  1. Effect of an oral supplementation with a proprietary melon juice concentrate (Extramel®) on stress and fatigue in healthy people: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Marie-Anne; Lacan, Dominique; Brosse, Hervé; Desor, Didier; Notin, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between perceived stress and oxidative stress. As SOD is the main enzyme of the enzymatic antioxidant defence system of the body, we evaluated the effect of an oral daily intake of a proprietary melon juice concentrate rich in SOD (EXTRAMEL®) on the signs and symptoms of stress and fatigue in healthy volunteers. Methods This randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical study was conducted with seventy healthy volunteers aged between 30 and 55 years, who feel daily stress and fatigue. They took the dietary supplement based on the melon juice concentrate (10 mg Extramel® corresponding to 140 IU SOD per capsule) or a placebo one time daily during 4 weeks. Stress and fatigue were measured using four observational psychometric scales: FARD, PSS-14, SF-12 and Epworth scale. The study was conducted by Isoclin, a clinical research organization, located in Poitiers, France. Results No adverse effect was noted. The supplementation with the proprietary melon juice concentrate bringing 140 IU SOD/day significantly improved signs and symptoms of stress and fatigue linked to performance, physical (pain, sleep troubles), cognitive (concentration, weariness, sleep troubles) or behavioural (attitude, irritability, difficulty of contact) compared to the placebo. In the same way, quality of life and perceived stress were significantly improved with SOD supplementation. Conclusion This pilot study showed that an oral supplementation with a proprietary melon juice concentrate rich in SOD may have a positive effect on several signs and symptoms of perceived stress and fatigue. PMID:19754931

  2. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  3. Study on the Non-enzymatic Browning of Greengage Juice in the Concentration Processing%青梅汁浓缩过程中非酶褐变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 李远志

    2015-01-01

    非酶褐变是青梅汁加工和贮藏过程中发生褐变的主要原因。研究青梅汁浓缩过程中不同添加剂对果汁非酶褐变的影响,结果表明:添加青梅汁质量0.005%的异抗坏血酸钠对果汁浓缩过程具有显著的防褐变效果。同时,研究添加不同添加剂对青梅汁浓缩前后果汁颜色变化与其VC、总糖和总酚含量变化相关系数R2,结果表明:青梅汁浓缩过程中非酶褐变主要是由酚类物质的氧化缩合引起,VC的氧化、美拉德反应和焦糖化反应对果汁颜色劣变影响不大。%Non-enzymatic browning is the main cause of browning during processing and the storage of greengage juice. This paper focused on the influence of various additives on the non-enzymatic browning of fruit juice in the concentrating of greengage juice. The result indicated that adding sodium erythorbate of 0.005%quality of greengage juice had a significant effect on preventing browning during the concentrating of fruit juice. In addition, this paper conducted research on the effect of different additives on color change of fruit juice and its correlation coefficient of total VC, sugar, and phenolic content before and after the concentrating of fruit juice. The result showed that non-enzymatic browning occured in the concentrating of greengage juice was mainly caused by oxidative condensation of phenolic compounds, while oxidation of VC, the Maillard reaction, and caramelisation had little effect on color change of fruits.

  4. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  5. Addition of Orange Pomace to Orange Juice Attenuates the Increases in Peak Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Sequential Meal Ingestion in Men with Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Honglin; Rendeiro, Catarina; Kristek, Angelika; Sargent, Laura J; Saunders, Caroline; Harkness, Laura; Rowland, Ian; Jackson, Kim G; Spencer, Jeremy Pe; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Prospective cohort studies show that higher dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk, yet the impact on postprandial glucose and insulin responses is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of orange beverages with differing fiber concentrations on postprandial glycemic responses (secondary outcome measure) after a sequential breakfast and lunch challenge in men with increased cardiometabolic risk. Thirty-six men (aged 30-65 y; body mass index 25-30 kg/m(2): fasting triacylglycerol or total cholesterol concentrations: 0.8-2.2 or 6.0-8.0 mmol/L, respectively) were provided with a high-fat mixed breakfast and were randomly assigned to consume 240 mL Tropicana (PepsiCo, Inc.) pure premium orange juice without pulp (OJ), OJ with 5.5 g added orange pomace fiber (OPF), juice made from lightly blended whole orange, or an isocaloric sugar-matched control (Control) on 4 occasions separated by 2 wk. A medium-fat mixed lunch was provided at 330 min. Blood samples were collected before breakfast and on 11 subsequent occasions for 420 min (3 time points postlunch) to determine postprandial glucose, insulin, lipid, and inflammatory biomarker responses. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. OPF significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the maximal change in glucose concentrations (1.9 ± 0.21 mmol/L) reached after breakfast compared with other treatments (2.3-2.4 mmol/L) and after lunch (3.0 ± 0.05 mmol/L) compared with OJ (3.6 ± 0.05 mmol/L). The maximal change in insulin concentration (313 ± 25 pmol/L) was also lower compared with Control (387 ± 30 pmol/L) and OJ (418 ± 39 pmol/L) after breakfast. OPF significantly delayed the time to reach the peak glucose concentration compared with Control and OJ, and of insulin compared with Control after breakfast. OPF consumed with breakfast may lower postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to typical meal ingestion in men with increased cardiometabolic risk. This trial is

  6. ANALYSIS ON WATER SAVING AND POLLUTANT REDUCING IN PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICE%浓缩果汁生产中的节水减污分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍萍; 赵顺利; 谭良玺; 高原; 向文力

    2011-01-01

    Water,acts as a basic source,was heavily dissipated in the process of concentrated fruit juice production,and then,poured as wastewater with high COD loadings.The wastewater from a fruit juice features large fluctuation in its quality and quantity,using traditional aerobic treatment technology is hardly fit for the great change.The water use of several local typical enterprises was investigated and online monitoring,was carried out,it was proposed some suggestins on water-saving and pollution-reducing from the control of water quantity,wastewater emissions,wastewater treatment technology.If these water saving and abatement proposals were put into practice,the water consumption of this company would be lowered by 31.68%,the total COD into the sewage station would be reduced by about 20%.%浓缩果汁生产过程中消耗大量新鲜水,排放废水COD含量高,水质、水量波动大,传统的好氧处理方法难以取得理想效果。通过对几个典型浓缩果汁企业用水的调查和在线监测,从水量控制、废水减排、废水处理工艺等方面提出节水减污建议,实行清洁生产措施后,该企业耗水量减少了31.68%,排入污水站COD总量减少约20%。

  7. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  8. Several indicators of oxidative stress, immunity, and illness improved in trained men consuming an encapsulated juice powder concentrate for 28 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Oettl, Karl; Schwaberger, Guenther; Hofmann, Peter; Greilberger, Joachim F

    2007-12-01

    Phytonutrients from plant foods provide numerous antioxidants. We hypothesized that supplementation for 28 wk with a commercially available encapsulated juice powder concentrate (JPC) could influence indicators of oxidative stress, immunity, and illness. Trained men (n = 41; 34 +/- 5 y; maximum oxygen uptake = 55 +/- 7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) from a homogenous police Special Forces unit were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to either JPC (n = 21) or placebo (n = 20). We used multiple 7-d food records to assess dietary intake and found inadequate mean daily fruit and vegetable consumption (3.2 +/- 1.2 servings). The group physician documented all duty days lost due to illness. We collected plasma at baseline and study wk 4, 8, 16, and 28 for analysis of carbonyl groups on protein (CP) and TNFalpha. Over the 28-wk investigation, CP was lower in the JPC group, with both a treatment and a time x treatment interaction (P JPC than in the placebo group (P JPC group (P = 0.068). These data suggest beneficial JPC effects with regard to reduction of duty days lost due to illness and reduction of CP and TNFalpha concentrations in this group of trained men over 28 wk.

  9. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  11. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  12. Decomposition of high concentration SF6 using an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Suk; Lee, Sung-Joo; Choi, Chang Yong; Park, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Jung, In-Ha

    2016-07-01

    In this study, high concentration SF6 (2-10%) was decomposed using an electron beam irradiation. Various influential factors were investigated to improve the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF6. The initial concentrations of SF6, absorbed doses, SF6/H2 ratios and retention times were the main factors of concern. As a result, the DRE increased as the adsorbed dose and retention time increased. The DRE of SF6 also increased up to 20% approximately when H2 was added to the reaction mixture. On the other hand, the DRE of SF6 decreased as initial concentrations of SF6 increased. Finally, the main by-product formed from SF6 decomposition by the electron beam was HF.

  13. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia

    2014-05-01

    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

  14. Studies on Freeze Concentrated Loquat Juice Treated by Pulsed Electric Field%高压脉冲电场处理冷冻浓缩枇杷汁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方婷; 钟海荣; 陈锦权

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of liquid foods will directly influence the strength of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF). The conductivity of liquid foods treated by freeze concentration will decrease which will benefit for sterilization effect of PEF. In this article, freeze concentrated Loquat juice was treated by PEF and the effects of different conditions on liquid foods conductivity were investigated. The results showed that in pretreatments homogeneity and degassing could improve the stabilization and reliability of PEF instrument. After pre - cooling, the conductivity of different concentration Loquat juice was decreasing with the temperature fell down. The sterilization effect of PEF on freeze concentrated Loquat juice was nearly equal to original Loquat juice was only treated by PEF.%液体食品电导率的高低直接影响高压脉冲电场(Pulsed Electric Field,PEF)的电场强度,冷冻浓缩后的液体食品电导率降低,有利于高压脉冲电场的杀菌效果。本研究将冷冻浓缩后的枇杷汁通过高压脉冲电场处理,并探讨不同条件对冷冻浓缩枇杷汁电导率的影响,结果表明:在前处理时,均质、脱气可有效地提高高压脉冲杀菌过程中仪器的稳定性和可靠性;经预冷后的不同浓度枇杷汁的电导率随着温度的降低而逐渐减小,PEF处理冷冻浓缩后枇杷汁的杀菌效果与仅用PEF处理效果相当。

  15. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  16. Browning type in Chinese olive juice concentrate processing%橄榄浓缩汁加工过程中的褐变类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婕; 郭泽镔; 郭明殊; 郑宝东

    2012-01-01

    通过检测橄榄浓缩汁加工过程中的多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,多酚、Vc、5-羟甲基糠醛(5-HMF)含量和褐变度等指标,研究整个加工过程中各阶段的褐变类型,分析褐变机制.结果表明:橄榄浓缩汁在加工过程中,热烫基本抑制了橄榄汁的酶促褐变,全过程以非酶促褐变为主;Vc氧化褐变持续存在,加工过程中损失了90%以上;热烫、酶解和浓缩阶段发生了美拉德反应,最终5-HMF的含量升高至0.9174 mg·L-1.%Browning type in different stage and its mechanism were studied by detecting the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, the content of polyphenol, the content of vitamin C, the content of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), browning degree in each production process of Chinese olive juice concentrate. It was found that browning was mainly non-enzymatic in the processing with enzymatie browning inhibited by blanching. Oxidation and browning of vitamin C constantly existed with more than 90% loss in the processing and there was Maillard reaction in blanching, hydrolysis and concentrating process with the content of 5-HMF increasing to 0.9174 mg · L-1 in the end.

  17. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  18. Clarificação e concentração de suco de caju por processos com membranas Clarification and concentration of cashew apple juice by membrane processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Cianci

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de separação por membranas têm sido estudados como alternativa aos processos térmicos de conservação de alimentos, por serem conduzidos em condições amenas de temperatura, permitindo, assim, a preservação de compostos termosensíveis como as vitaminas, por exemplo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da microfiltração e da osmose inversa para a obtenção de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado. O processamento consistiu de três etapas principais: o tratamento enzimático do suco integral; a microfiltração para obtenção do suco clarificado; e a concentração do suco clarificado por osmose inversa. Para o tratamento enzimático, utilizou-se um complexo pectinolítico durante 1 hora. A clarificação foi conduzida em uma unidade de microfiltração tubular e, em seguida, foi utilizado um sistema de osmose inversa, do tipo quadro e placas, para concentrar o suco clarificado. Os fluxos médios de permeado obtidos foram de 184,0 e 11,3L/hm² para a microfiltração e a osmose inversa, respectivamente. Os taninos, responsáveis pela adstringência do suco, foram retidos pela membrana de microfiltração e, por isso, não foram detectados nos sucos clarificado e concentrado. O suco clarificado contendo 12,1° Brix foi concentrado até 28,6° Brix. A vitamina C aumentou de 162mg/100g no suco clarificado para 372mg/100g, no concentrado.Membrane separation processes have been studied as alternatives to heat processes due to their characteristics being conducted at low temperatures, permitting the preservation of heat sensitive compounds such as vitamins. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of microfiltration and reverse osmosis for obtaining clarified and concentrated cashew apple juice. Processing consisted of three main stages that were an enzymatic treatment of the pulp, microfiltration for obtaining the clarified juice and concentration of clarified juice by reverse osmosis. A

  19. Physicochemical properties changes of sea buckthorn cloudy juice during cold crushing, concentrating and storage%加工过程中冷打浆沙棘浓缩浊汁理化特性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋自娟; 徐怀德; 高锦明; 张明兰; 肖蕊; 李文娟

    2014-01-01

    Sea buckthorn berries were used as raw materials to study the process of concentrating sea buckthorn cloudy juice and their quality. Physicochemical properties including vitamin C, total flavonoids, total polyphenols, polysaccharides, pH value, total acidity, and browning index changed. Cold crushing sea buckthorn berries, concentrating production and the storage of concentrated cloudy juices were investigated systematically. The results showed that the quality of sea buckthorn juice obtained by cold crushing process technology was excellent. The contents of soluble solids and total acidity reached to 18.0% and 4.24% of sea buckthorn juice obtained respectively. It contained vitamin C 729.69 mg/100mL, flavonoids 445.17 mg/100mL, total polyphenols 924.67 mg/100mL and polysaccharides 25.22 mg/100mL. Disc milk separator removed the impurities and oil in sea buckthorn juice due to horizontal screw centrifuge. Whole cold crushing was fast with low temperature. Nutrient and health components in sea buckthorn juice lost less, they had been effectively enriched. Then, different concentrations for multiple sea buckthorn juices were processed at 45℃ by evaporation in the vacuum of 0.095~0.1 MPa. With the increase of the concentration, the loss rate of nutrients and browning index became larger, the total acidity and 5-HMF content were increased and pH value was decreased. Different concentratedn juices were placed at room temperature (10 to 25℃) and refrigerated conditions (5 to 8℃) for 60 days, their physicochemical properties were changed as follows. Vitamin C, flavonoids, total polyphenols and polysaccharide contents decreased gradually, pH and total acidity did not change significantly, browning index and 5-HMF content increased. Furthermore, refrigerated conditions were conducive to the preservation of the sea buckthorn juice compared with the room temperature condition. The nutrient and health components in preserving rate of same multiple sea buckthorn cloudy

  20. 大蒜汁对旋毛虫幼虫杀灭效果研究%Kill effect of different concentrations of garlic juice on Trichinella spiralis muscle larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗卉; 张云; 肖明洋; 饶永庚; 张莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective By comparing the different concentrations of garlic juice soak meat containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva influence on mice's appeal, to assess the garlic juice on the killing effect of trichinella spiralis larvae. Methods Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups, only 30 fed by different concentrations of garlic juice concentration (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50% respectively) and normal saline containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva soak for half an hour of meat, feeding profile control after 30 d kill mice, observation and counting muscle larvae. Results The mice fed by 100%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50% concentration of garlic juice, and normal saline containing trichinella spiralis muscle larva soak for half an hour after meat, detection of trichinella spiralis muscle in muscle larvae number is 0, 10, 60, 140 and 235. Conclusion The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was decreased after the treatment of certain concentrations with garlic juice.%目的:通过比较经不同浓度大蒜汁浸泡含旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉块对小鼠感染力的影响,来评估大蒜汁对旋毛虫幼虫的杀灭效果。方法30只昆明小鼠分为5组,喂食经不同浓度的大蒜汁(浓度分别为100.00%、50.00%、25.00%、12.50%)和生理盐水浸泡半小时含有旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉,饲喂30d后剖杀小鼠,观察和计数肌幼虫数。结果小鼠饲喂经100.00%、50.00%、25.00%、12.50%浓度大蒜汁和生理盐水浸泡半小时含有旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉后,在单位肌肉中检出旋毛虫肌幼虫数为0条、10条、60条、140条和235条。结论含旋毛虫肌幼虫的肉经一定浓度的大蒜汁浸泡后其旋毛虫肌幼虫的感染力会降低。

  1. 为士果胶酶加工砀山酥梨浓缩清汁的应用%Application of Weise Pectinase in Processing DangShan Pear Concentrated Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传文; 黄德侠; 秦静

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme preparation in the processing of fruit juice concentration plays an important role. The function of the enzyme preparation influences the quality of fruit juice. This paper aimed to discuss the function of weise pectinase based on the research of that in the production process of Dangshan pear concentrated juice. The results showed that it improves product color stability and ultrafiltration flux, and reducse turbidity.%酶制剂在加工果蔬浓缩清汁方面起着重要的作用,酶制剂的功能影响着果蔬汁质量的好坏,现对为士果胶酶在线生产砀山酥梨清汁的研究,说明该种酶制剂结合其他工艺条件表现出来的功能,结果表明,可以提高产品色值稳定性,提高生产过程超滤通量,降低产品浊度。

  2. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  3. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  4. Concentration of precious metals during their recovery from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayumil, R; Khanna, R; Rajarao, R; Mukherjee, P S; Sahajwalla, V

    2016-11-01

    The rapid growth of electronic devices, their subsequent obsolescence and disposal has resulted in electronic waste (e-waste) being one of the fastest increasing waste streams worldwide. The main component of e-waste is printed circuit boards (PCBs), which contain substantial quantities of precious metals in concentrations significantly higher than those typically found in corresponding ores. The high value and limited reserves of minerals containing these metals makes urban mining of precious metals very attractive. This article is focused on the concentration and recovery of precious metals during pyro-metallurgical recycling of waste PCBs. High temperature pyrolysis was carried out for ten minutes in a horizontal tube furnace in the temperature range 800-1350°C under Argon gas flowing at 1L/min. These temperatures were chosen to lie below and above the melting point (1084.87°C) of copper, the main metal in PCBs, to study the influence of its physical state on the recovery of precious metals. The heat treatment of waste PCBs resulted in two different types of solid products, namely a carbonaceous non-metallic fraction (NMFs) and metallic products, composed of copper rich foils and/or droplets and tin-lead rich droplets and some wires. Significant proportions of Ag, Au, Pd and Pt were found concentrated within two types of metallic phases, with very limited quantities retained by the NMFs. This process was successful in concentrating several precious metals such as Ag, Au, Pd and Pt in a small volume fraction, and reduced volumes for further processing/refinement by up to 75%. The amounts of secondary wastes produced were also minimised to a great extent. The generation of precious metals rich metallic phases demonstrates high temperature pyrolysis as a viable approach towards the recovery of precious metals from e-waste.

  5. The Physics of the Hume-Rothery Electron Concentration Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uichiro Mizutani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time we have shared the belief that the physics of the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule can be deepened only through thorough investigation of the interference phenomenon of itinerant electrons with a particular set of lattice planes, regardless of whether d-states are involved near the Fermi level or not. For this purpose, we have developed the FLAPW-Fourier theory (Full potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave, which is capable of determining the square of the Fermi diameter, ( 2 k F 2 , and the number of itinerant electrons per atom, e/a, as well as the set of lattice planes participating in the interference phenomenon. By determining these key parameters, we could test the interference condition and clarify how it contributes to the formation of a pseudogap at the Fermi level. Further significant progress has been made to allow us to equally handle transition metal (TM elements and their compounds. A method of taking the center of gravity energy for energy distribution of electrons with a given electronic state has enabled us to eliminate the d-band anomaly and to determine effective ( 2 k F 2 , and e/a, even for systems involving the d-band or an energy gap across the Fermi level. The e/a values for 54 elements covering from Group 1 up to Group 16 in the Periodic Table, including 3d-, 4d- and 5d-elements, were determined in a self-consistent manner. The FLAPW-Fourier theory faces its limit only for elements in Group 17 like insulating solids Cl and their compounds, although the value of e/a can be determined without difficulty when Br becomes metallic under high pressures. The origin of a pseudogap at the Fermi level for a large number of compounds has been successfully interpreted in terms of the interference condition, regardless of the bond-types involved in the van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle map.

  6. Influence of Concentration Process of Litchi Juice Freezing on the Growth of Ice Crystals%荔枝汁冷冻浓缩过程中浓度对冰晶生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杨; 曾新安; 彭郦

    2009-01-01

    为了研究荔枝汁在冷冻浓缩处理过程中初始浓度(可溶性固形物含量)对冰晶生长规律的影响,采用华南理工大学自主研制的冷冻浓缩设备,测定冰晶生成过程中温度和粒度的变化.结果表明:随着浓度的增大冰点温度不断下降,生成冰晶质量分数也不断下降,但是平均粒径却随浓度先升高再下降,浓度在10-20° Brix附近生成的冰晶平均粒径最佳,有利于浓缩分离操作.%In order to investigate the effect of original concentration (soluble solid content) on the quality of ice crystals during the litchi juice freezing concentration process, the temperature and particle size were detected. Results showed that the freezing point and ice mass fraction decreased by increasing the concentration of litchi juice. But average granule diameter increased with the concentration and then decreased. The best average granule diameter was obtained when the concentration was from 10 to 20°Brix. The crystals were better separated from the solution under the above concentration.

  7. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Lerner

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used, and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292 in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that

  8. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted of conventional and organic juices marketed in Poland, in that pure pressed juices, fermented juice and juices from concentrate, pure and combined with apple or lemon juice. The concentration of vitamin C, organic acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolic acids, flavonoids and betalains has been determined in the juices. All beetroot juices were abundant in betalains, with higher concentrations of these compounds found in pure beetroot juices when compared to juices combined with apple or lemon. Highest concentration of betanin-3-O-glucoside was found in pure conventional juice from concentrate, while highest betanidin content was found in pure organic fermented juice. Highest vitamin C contents were found in pressed organic juices combined with apple and lemon. All juices were abundant in polyphenols, mainly phenolic acids, with highest concentrations of these antioxidants found in conventional pure pressed juice. The study shows that beetroot juices, independently on the beetroot processing technology and agricultural production system, are very valuable products due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, especially betalains, in their composition. Therefore beetroot juice consumption should be promoted among consumers.

  9. Thermo-electronic solar power conversion with a parabolic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukunle, Olawole C.; De, Dilip K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the energy dynamics of the power generation from the sun when the solar energy is concentrated on to the emitter of a thermo-electronic converter with the help of a parabolic mirror. We use the modified Richardson-Dushman equation. The emitter cross section is assumed to be exactly equal to the focused area at a height h from the base of the mirror to prevent loss of efficiency. We report the variation of output power with solar insolation, height h, reflectivity of the mirror, and anode temperature, initially assuming that there is no space charge effect. Our methodology allows us to predict the temperature at which the anode must be cooled in order to prevent loss of efficiency of power conversion. Novel ways of tackling the space charge problem have been discussed. The space charge effect is modeled through the introduction of a parameter f (0 solar insolation, height h, apart from radii R of the concentrator aperture and emitter, and the collector material properties. We have also considered solar thermos electronic power conversion by using single atom-layer graphene as an emitter.

  10. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  12. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  13. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  14. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  15. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  17. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  19. The phenolic acids of Agen prunes (dried plums) or Agen prune juice concentrates do not account for the protective action on bone in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Gaudout, David; Rey, Stéphane; Vitrac, Xavier; Massenat, Laurent; Rashidi, Salim; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2016-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with dried plum (DP) has been shown to protect against and reverse established osteopenia in ovariectomized rodents. Based on in vitro studies, we hypothesized that DP polyphenols may be responsible for that bone-sparing effect. This study was designed to (1) analyze whether the main phenolic acids of DP control preosteoblast proliferation and activity in vitro; (2) determine if the polyphenolic content of DP or DP juice concentrate is the main component improving bone health in vivo; and (3) analyze whether DP metabolites directly modulate preosteoblast physiology ex vivo. In vitro, we found that neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acids induce the proliferation and repress the alkaline phosphatase activity of primary preosteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, low-chlorogenic acid Agen prunes (AP) enriched with a high-fiber diet and low-chlorogenic acid AP juice concentrate prevented the decrease of total femoral bone mineral density induced by estrogen deficiency in 5-month-old female rats and positively restored the variations of the bone markers osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline. Ex vivo, we demonstrated that serum from rats fed with low-chlorogenic acid AP enriched with a high-fiber diet showed repressed proliferation and stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity of primary preosteoblasts. Overall, the beneficial action of AP on bone health was not dependent on its polyphenolic content.

  20. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  1. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  2. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  3. 果汁冷冻浓缩中生物冰核的成冰作用及初步应用%Bacterial ice nucleation and its applications in the freeze concentration of fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何松; 胡卓炎; 孙福在; 赵廷昌; 钟士清

    2001-01-01

    介绍了冰核细菌促进成冰的机制,并结合国外有关报道和我们的研究结果,论述了冰核细菌在食品冷冻浓缩中导致冰晶形成的结构、冷冻效率、应用前的预处理及食用级冰核细菌在果汁中的应用情况,最后展望了未来的研究方向。%Freeze concentration of foods using ice-nucleation active bacteria was reviewed, including the ice formation mechanism, freezing texture, freezing efficiency, preliminary treatments of this bacterium before it was applied, and applications of food-gradeice-nucleation active bacteria in freeze concentration of fruit juice.

  4. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  5. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Naderi, Gholamali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Nayeri, Hashem

    2011-07-01

    We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. 5 μl of lime juice didn't change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  6. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn′t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  7. Research on the Fumaric Acid Content in the Concentrated Apple Juice%浓缩苹果汁中富马酸含量初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易建华; 仇农学; 胡冰; 朱振宝

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1、前言 富马酸又名反-丁烯二酸,是浓缩苹果汁的品质检测指标之一,其含量的高低可从侧面反映一个生产厂家的生产工艺和管理状况,因此一些果汁进口国,特别是AITN(Association of the industry of juice and Nectars from frans and vegetableof the industry of European Economic Community)对浓缩苹果汁中,富马酸的含量作了严格的规定,AITN提出浓缩苹汁富马酸的含量(11.2°Brix)不超过5ppm,而在实际生产中,富马酸含量时常超过此标准.

  8. Otimização no planejamento agregado de produção em indústrias de processamento de suco concentrado congelado de laranja Optimization in the aggregate production planning in frozen concentrated orange juice processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Munhoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se modelos de programação linear e programação por metas para apoiar decisões no processo de planejamento agregado da produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja, com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos. Além das decisões de produção, mistura e estocagem de sucos, os modelos também incorporam o planejamento de colheita da laranja, levando-se em consideração suas curvas de maturação. Desta maneira, os modelos consideram grande parte da cadeia de suprimento envolvida no setor de produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Outro ponto a destacar é a consideração do processo de mistura de diferentes tipos de sucos para a obtenção da especificação de ratio do produto acabado, utilizando a acidez da laranja como base de cálculo para a especificação de ratio. Para resolver os modelos de programação linear e programação por metas, utilizou-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um aplicativo de última geração de solução de problemas de programação matemática. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma empresa de suco de laranja localizada no Estado de São Paulo, envolvendo várias plantas e com uma rede de distribuição internacional com características típicas de outras empresas do setor. Os resultados indicam que a abordagem aqui proposta pode ser aplicada em situações reais.This work presents models using linear programming and goal programming to support decision making in the frozen concentrated orange juice planning process with multiple products, stages, and periods. Besides decisions about the production, blending, and juice storage, the models also include orange harvesting plan, which takes into account oranges maturation curves. Thus, the models take into consideration a large portion of the supply chain involved in the frozen concentrated orange juice sector. Another point to highlight is the inclusion of the blending process of different types of

  9. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  10. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  11. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  12. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  13. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  14. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pjuice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  15. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  16. 酚类物质和可溶性蛋白对苹果浓缩汁后混浊的影响%The Influences of Phenol and Soluble Protein on the Post Concentration Haze of Apple Juice Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海峰; 孙家财; 于士梅; 周亚平; 梁美霞; 戴洪义

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors influence the post concentration haze of apple juice. The contents of soluble proteins, the total phenol, polyphenol contents of flavanols, condensed tannins, and the several small phenol-ic compound were measured during the storage. The contents of total phenol, soluble proteins, and condensed tannins were decreased; the polyphenol contents of flavanols was reduced at the beginning of storage and then increased.Small phenolic compounds changed by the variety of the apple and type of the specific compound. However, the total contents of small phenolic was continuously decreased. Correlation analysis indicated that the content of soluble pro-tein contents, phenolic contents of flavanols and Epicatechin was highly significantly positive correlation with the tur-bidity value; the content of Caffeic acid was also significantly positive correlation with the turbidity value, but the con-tent of Ferullic acid was significantly negative correlation with the turbidity value; during the storage, polyphenol con-tent of flavanols, Caffeic acid and Epicatechin content changes showed significantly negative correlation with turbidity value. The changes of soluble protein contents had significant negative correlation with changes of turbidity value.%测定了鲁加1号和鲁加5号苹果浓缩汁在贮藏过程中可溶性蛋白质含量、总酚含量、黄烷醇类多酚含量、缩合单宁含量和几种小分子酚类物质的含量的变化.结果表明:苹果浓缩汁中总酚含量、可溶性蛋白含量以及缩合单宁的含量随着贮藏时间的延长而降低,而黄烷醇类多酚的含量则是呈先降低然后又上升的趋势,小分子酚类物质则因苹果品种的不同和小分子酚类物质的不同存在很大的差异,但总体的变化呈下降趋势.相关性分析表明:可溶性蛋白含量、黄烷醇类多酚含量和表儿茶素的含量与浊度值呈极显著正相关,咖啡酸的含量与浊度值呈显著

  17. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  18. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  19. Nicotine concentrations with electronic cigarette use: effects of sex and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Cheryl A; Litt, Mark D; McLaughlin, Lynn D; Burki, Nausherwan A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when using a popular e-cigarette and 18 mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations. We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5 min ad libitum. Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after the onset of e-cigarette use. Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5 min by 4 ng/mL at the first laboratory session (p flavor (based on smoking history) on changes in nicotine concentrations. After adding preferred flavor, sex, and visit order to the model, there was a significant preferred flavor by sex interaction (p flavors had lower nicotine concentrations and rated their e-cigarette as less likeable (p flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with e-cigarette use in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  1. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  2. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  3. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  4. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  5. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. I

  6. Production of a low calorie mandarin juice by enzymatic conversion of constituent sugars to oligosaccharides and prevention of insoluble glucan formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Cho, Jae-Young; Seo, Ye-Seul; Woo, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Ghahyun J; Jhon, Deok-Young; Kim, Doman

    2015-03-01

    Over 99% of sucrose in mandarin juice (57.1 g/l in original juice to 428.4 g/l in concentrated juice) was enzymatically converted to glucooligosaccharides using 3 U dextransucrase/ml prepared from Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 28 °C. The oligosaccharide synthesis yields were 51 and 47% for the original and the concentrated mandarin juice, respectively. The degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides in the enzyme-modified juice was 2-7. Calories in the original and modified mandarin juice were 433 and 301 kcal/l (30.5% reduction). Compared with the original juice, the enzyme-modified juice showed 82% decrease of insoluble glucan formation by mutansucrase from Streptococcus mutans. A sensory evaluation of the juices revealed that the original and modified mandarin juices had sweetness values of 4.5 and 4.9 and the same values for overall acceptability.

  7. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.

  8. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  9. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  10. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  11. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.

  12. Contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the observed electron concentration in October-November 2003 and September 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verronen, P.T.; Andersson, M.E.; Kauristie, K.; Palmroth, M. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland). Earth Observation; Kero, A. [Oulu Univ., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Geophysical Observatory; Enell, C.F. [EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna (Sweden); Wissing, J.M. [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental Systems Research; Talaat, E.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Lab.; Sarris, T.E. [Democritus Univ. of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece). Space Research Lab.; Armandillo, E. [European Space Agency, Nordwijk (Netherlands). ESTEC

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the altitude distribution of particle precipitation forcing is vital for the assessment of its atmospheric and climate impacts. However, the proportion of electron and proton forcing around the mesopause region during solar proton events is not always clear due to uncertainties in satellite-based flux observations. Here we use electron concentration observations of the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) incoherent scatter radars located at Tromsoe (69.58 N, 19.23 E) to investigate the contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the changes taking place during two solar proton events. The EISCAT measurements are compared to the results from the SodankylaeIon and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC). The proton ionization rates are calculated by two different methods - a simple energy deposition calculation and the Atmospheric Ionization Model Osnabrueck (AIMOS v1.2), the latter providing also the electron ionization rates. Our results show that in general the combination of AIMOS and SIC is able to reproduce the observed electron concentration within 50% when both electron and proton forcing is included. Electron contribution is dominant above 90 km, and can contribute significantly also in the upper mesosphere especially during low or moderate proton forcing. In the case of strong proton forcing, the AIMOS electron ionization rates seem to suffer from proton contamination of satellite-based flux data. This leads to overestimation of modelled electron concentrations by up to 90% between 75-90 km and up to 100-150% at 70-75 km. Above 90 km, the model bias varies significantly between the events. Although we cannot completely rule out EISCAT data issues, the difference is most likely a result of the spatio-temporal fine structure of electron precipitation during individual events that cannot be fully captured by sparse in situ flux (point) measurements, nor by the statistical AIMOS model which is based upon these observations

  13. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  14. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  16. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Punica granatum juice, a delicious multivitamin drink of great medicinal significance, is rich in different types of phytochemicals, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, sugars, fatty acids, aromatic compounds, amino acids, tocopherols, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the juice for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the AuNPs was complete in few minutes and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the fruit extract. The AuNPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Catalytic activity of the synthesized colloidal AuNPs has also been demonstrated.

  17. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae) fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína) against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ), produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese) has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for thei...

  18. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or vegetable juice. The beverage may be carbonated or noncarbonated, concentrated, full-strength... to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) This section applies to any food that...

  19. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  20. Effect of three different concentration methods on the nutrient composition of pomegranate juice%三种不同浓缩方式对石榴汁功能成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    热娜古丽·克热木; 曹叶青; 陈国辉; 冯作山

    2012-01-01

    以多酚、黄酮、花青素、VC、DPPH·清除率、褐变指数为实验指标,用紫外分光光度法,重点研究了冷冻浓缩(FC)、真空冷冻浓缩(VFC)和真空热浓缩(VTC)对石榴汁营养及抗氧化活性成分的影响。通过实验可以看出,真空冷冻浓缩(VFC)能有效保护石榴汁中的营养和抗氧化活性物质。氧气和温度对石榴汁的品质影响较大,在实际生产过程中,可采用真空冷冻浓缩的方式解决石榴汁褐变问题,最大限度地保留果汁中的多酚、黄酮、花青素、VC等营养物质。%Based on polyphenol,flavonoids,anthocyanins,VC,DPPH· clearance information for experimental index,this experiment focused on how the frozen concentrate color and resistance influences the active ingredients of pomegranate juice.Through the experiment,the

  1. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  2. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  3. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  4. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Widianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and FS902 cultivars, were achieved by OUT7903, OUT7913, OUT7903, and OUT7027 yeast strains, respectively. However, the best specific CO2 evolution rate of the yeast strain during fermentation of the juices was achieved by OUT7027 yeast strains. The highest ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and sugar conversion efficiency (SCE were obtained by strain OUT7921 when it was employed to ferment sweet-stem sorghum juice of FS902 cultivar. It was also observed that the juice extracted from sweet-stalk sorghum of FS902 cultivar is the most suitable medium for all yeast strains to achieve their best fermentation abilities. Thus, it is likely that the growth and ethanol production ability of a yeast strain in sweet-stalk sorghum juice depend on the physiological responses of the yeasts to nutrientcomposition of the sorghum juice and the sorghum cultivar from which the juice was extracted.Key words : Sweet-stalk sorghum juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast

  5. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  6. Analysis of drifting electron concentration in a self-magnetically insulated ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Pak, V. G.

    2015-02-01

    The drifting electron concentration in a self-magnetically insulated ion diode is analyzed using a TEMP-4M accelerator operating in a double bipolar pulse regime with the first pulse (300-600 ns and 150-200 kV) being negative and the second (120 ns and 250-300 kV) being positive. The electron concentration in the drift region is shown to be 1013-1014 cm-3. It is established that the Lorentz force acting on electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields is 150-200 times greater than the Coulomb repulsion force, which ensures a higher electron concentration in the drift region as compared with the space charge region.

  7. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for

  8. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurizatio

  9. Hydrogen concentrations as an indicator of the predominant terminal electron-accepting reactions in aquatic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Goodwin, S.

    1988-01-01

    Factors controlling the concentration of dissolved hydrogen gas in anaerobic sedimentary environments were investigated. Results, presented here or previously, demonstrated that, in sediments, only microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of H2 coupled to the reduction of nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III), sulfate, or carbon dioxide. Theoretical considerations suggested that, at steady-state conditions, H2 concentrations are primarily dependent upon the physiological characteristics of the microorganism(s) consuming the H2 and that organisms catalyzing H2 oxidation, with the reduction of a more electrochemically positive electron acceptor, can maintain lower H2 concentrations than organisms using electron acceptors which yield less energy from H2 oxidation. The H2 concentrations associated with the specified predominant terminal electron-accepting reactions in bottom sediments of a variety of surface water environments were: methanogenesis, 7-10 nM; sulfate reduction, 1-1.5 nM; Fe(III) reduction, 0.2 nM; Mn(IV) or nitrate reduction, less than 0.05 nM. Sediments with the same terminal electron acceptor for organic matter oxidation had comparable H2 concentrations, despite variations in the rate of organic matter decomposition, pH, and salinity. Thus, each terminal electron-accepting reaction had a unique range of steady-state H2 concentrations associated with it. Preliminary studies in a coastal plain aquifer indicated that H2 concentrations also vary in response to changes in the predominant terminal electron-accepting process in deep subsurface environments. These studies suggest that H2 measurements may aid in determining which terminal electron-accepting reactions are taking place in surface and subsurface sedimentary environments. ?? 1988.

  10. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  11. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  12. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  13. Influence of refrigeration length and of sugar addition on ascorbic acid content in some natural juices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Avramiuc; Liviu Fartaies

    2009-01-01

    Following some studies concerning the main factors influencing the concentration of vitamins within food raw materials, especially ascorbic acid, this work tries to evidence the influence of the refrigeration temperature and of the sucrose addition on content of this vitamin in three types of natural juice. The biological material was represented by orange, strawberry and kivi natural juices, obtained from these fruits by means a crushing out process. For each type of juice there ...

  14. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  15. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  16. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  18. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsad P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by increasing the yield of the fruit juice. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of different enzymatic treatment on sugar palm fruit juice processing. Sugar palm fruit purees were treated individually and in combination using two types of commercial enzymes: Novozymes Cellulase and Pectinex Ultra SP-L at a concentration of 0.05% (w/w and incubated at 45°C for 60 min. The results showed that there are significant (p<0.05 reduction on proximate content such as crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate for the enzymes treated juices as compared to the untreated juice. The enzyme treatment also significantly (p<0.05 reduced the juice viscosity and ascorbic acid content, promoted juice clarification and increased L value, yield, TSS and sugar content. In conclusion, the quality of sugar palm fruit juice can be improved by using the combination treatment of pectinase and cellulase enzymes.

  19. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v and 0.45 g/g for sweet sorghum in 80 h and 6.5% w/v and 0.37 g/g for sugarcane molasses in 60 h, respectively. The findings on the physical properties of sweet sorghum juice revealed that it has better physical properties compared to sugarcane molasses, resulting to enhanced performance of sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production

  1. Sensory properties of oxide films with high concentrations of conduction electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhushner, M. A.; Bodneva, V. L.; Belysheva, T. V.; Gerasimov, G. N.; Gromov, V. F.; Ikim, M. I.; Paltiel, Y.; Spiridonova, E. Yu.; Trakhtenberg, L. I.

    2017-03-01

    The dependence of a sensor's response to hydrogen on the temperature and hydrogen pressure in an indium oxide nanostructured film is measured. A theory of sensor's response to reducing gases in nanostructured semiconducting oxides with high concentrations of electrons in the conduction band is developed (using the example of In2O3). It is shown that the capture of conduction electrons by adsorbed oxygen redistributes the electrons in nanoparticles and reduces the surface electron density and the conductivity of a system; the conductivity is proportional to the electron density in nanoparticle contacts, i.e., to the surface electron density. It is found that atomic oxygen ions react with reducing gases (H2, CO) during adsorption of the latter: electrons are released and enter the volumes of nanoparticles; the conductivity of the system grows, creating the sensory effect. Using a model developed earlier to describe the distribution of conduction electrons in a semiconductor nanoparticle, a kinetic scheme corresponding to the above scenario is built and corresponding equations are solved. As a result, a theoretical dependence of a sensor's sensitivity to temperature is found that describes the experimental data well.

  2. Method for calculating ionic and electronic defect concentrations in y-stabilised zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, F.W. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A numerical (trial and error) method for calculation of concentration of ions, vacancies and ionic and electronic defects in solids (Brouwer-type diagrams) is presented. No approximations or truncations of the set of equations describing the chemistry for the various defect regions are used. Doped zirconia and doped thoria with simultaneous presence of protonic and electronic defects are taken as examples: 7 concentrations as function of oxygen partial pressure and/or water vapour partial pressure are determined. Realistic values for the equilibrium constants for equilibration with oxygen gas and water vapour, as well as for the internal equilibrium between holes and electrons were taken from the literature. The present mathematical method is versatile - it has also been employed by the author to treat more complex systems, such as perovskite structure oxides with over- and under-stoichiometry in oxygen, cation vacancies and simultaneous presence of protons. (au) 6 refs.

  3. Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food–drug interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David G

    2010-01-01

    A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

  4. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation.

  5. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

  6. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry juice treated with gas phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Putnik, Predrag; Vukušić, Tomislava; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to cold atmospheric gas phase plasma and changes in hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins were monitored. Plasma treatments were carried out under different treatment times and juice volumes under constant gas flow (0.75dm(3)min(-1)). The results were compared against control (untreated) and pasteurized chokeberry juice (80°C/2min). During pasteurization, the most unstable were hydroxycinnamic acids with losses of up to 59%, while flavonols and anthocyanins increased by 5% and 9%, respectively. On the contrary, plasma treated chokeberry juice showed higher concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and 23% loss of anthocyanins in comparison to untreated juice. In order to obtain the optimal cold plasma treatment parameters principal component and sensitivity analysis were used. Such parameters can be potentially used for pasteurization in terms of phenolic stability of chokeberry juice. Optimal treatment was at 4.1min and sample volume of 3cm(3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  9. 正渗透膜用于橙汁浓缩及其污染研究%Studies on concentration of orange juice with forward osmosis membrane and membrane fouling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 许春玲; 王铎

    2012-01-01

    正渗透因其低能耗及低污染等优点,已在越来越多的领域得到应用.利用自制的醋酸纤维素正渗透膜应用于橙汁的浓缩,主要考察了不同汲取液、膜方位对浓缩过程的影响,并且研究了浓缩过程中的膜污染现象.结果表明,采用3 mol/L葡萄糖+2 mol/L NaCl混合溶质所配制的汲取液的通量较高,同时盐的反向渗透通量明显降低,浓缩14 h后总可溶物由11.5°Brix上升到40.5°Brix;同时还发现,FO模式下产生的稀释的内浓差极化对水通量的影响要小于PRO模式下产生的浓缩的内浓差极化.在浓缩过程中存在较轻的膜污染,清洗之后通量基本恢复,每6h清洗一次,浓缩25 h后总可溶物可从11.5°Brix达到48.0°Brix.%Forward osmosis has been used in more and more fields with its advantages such as low energy consumption and low membrane fouling. In the present study, self-made forward osmosis membrane of cellulose acetate was used in concentration of orange juice, and the effect of different draw solution, membrane orientation on concentration process and also membrane fouling phenomenon were studied in the concentration process. The results showed that when the 3 mol/L glucose + 2 mol/L NaCl solutes was used as draw solution, the water flux of FO membrane is higher, at the same time, the reverse salt flux reduced significantly, and after 14 h the total soluble solids increased from 11. 5 °Brix to 40. 5 °Brix . It was also found that, the effect of diluted internal concentration polarization in FO mode on the water flux was less than in the PRO mode. In the concentration process, there was little membrane fouling, and after cleaning flux was recovered mostly. The FO membrane was washed by water once every 6 h and after 25 h concentrating, total soluble solids increased from 11. 5 to 48. 0 °Brix.

  10. Impact of electronic waste disposal on lead concentrations in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Erik; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Lead is the element most likely to cause discarded electronic devices to be characterized as hazardous waste. To examine the fate of lead from discarded electronics in landfills, five columns were filled with synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW). A mix of electronic devices was added to three columns (6% by weight), while two columns served as controls. A sixth column contained waste excavated from an existing MSW landfill. Leachate quality was monitored for 440 days. In columns with the synthetic waste, leachate pH indicated that the simulated landfill environment was characteristic of the acid phase of waste decomposition; lead leachability should be greater in the acid phase of landfill degradation as compared to the methanogenic phase. Lead concentrations ranged from 7 to 66 microg/L in the columns containing electronic waste and ranged from electronic devices were greater than those in the controls, the difference was not found to be statistically significant when comparing the data sets over the entire monitoring period. Lead results from the excavated waste column suggest that lead concentrations in all columns will decrease as the pH increases toward more neutral methanogenic conditions.

  11. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was foun

  12. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was

  13. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  14. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  15. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    1-hour intervals, the mass of the magnesium wire was determined on an analytical balance. A digital multimeter was used to measure the voltage every hour and the current every other hour. The pH of the juice, initially 3.85 at 20 °C, was 3.93 at the end of the experiment, as measured with a portable pH meter. This is a typical result. A comparison system (called "no clock" in Table 1) was set up merely by putting a 0.3317-g strip of magnesium in 400 mL of orange juice. With this system we can exemplify a "corrosion process" where the anode and the cathode are in the same place. There is consumption of magnesium and evolution of molecular hydrogen but no useful current can be obtained. The mass of this magnesium strip was measured at 1-hour intervals. Faraday's constant, which relates coulombs to moles of electrons, can be used to calculate the approximate current available to the clock in this system. The current will not be constant because the H+ concentration (related to pH) is changing and also because the surface area and composition of the magnesium electrode change with time. The change is not necessarily regular, because although the surface is being oxidized, it is not smooth. The actual available surface area will therefore be considerably greater than the geometric surface. The mass of magnesium oxidized in the clock reaction over the 4-hour period is approximately equal to the change in grams of magnesium while running the clock minus the mass of magnesium oxidized in orange juice without the clock. Using the data from Table 1, grams Mg oxidized to run clock = approx. (0.3317 - 0.3089) - (0.3317 - 0.3136) = 0.0047 g Mg The average current can then be calculated via Faraday's constant: This is a rather simplistic way to get the current, but it shows well the use of Faraday's constant. The Value of Computer Interfacing - Exploring the Physics of Current/Voltage Measurements A more instructive measure of voltage vs. time, which opens up the activity to

  16. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  17. Electronic Entanglement Concentration for the Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang-Ping; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes many physical qubits in a logic qubit will have important applications in both quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we will describe an entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for electronic C-GHZ state, by exploiting the electronic polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and charge detection. This protocol has several advantages. First, the parties do not need to know the exact coefficients of the initial less-entangled C-GHZ state, which makes this protocol feasible. Second, with the help of charge detection, the distilled maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for future application. Third, this protocol can be repeated to obtain a higher success probability. We hope that this protocol can be useful in future quantum computation based on electrons.

  18. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  19. Analysis of carrier concentration, lifetime, and electron mobility on p-type HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Dong; Kwack, Kae Dal

    1998-03-01

    Minority carrier transport characteristics of vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe such as carrier concentration, lifetime, and mobility are investigated. In the calculation of the carrier concentration two acceptor levels—a donor level and a trap level—were taken into account. The acceptor levels have been described by two models—two independent singly ionized levels and a divalent level with two ionization energies. When each model was examined by calculating electron mobility as a function of temperature, the latter was found to be more accurate. Electron mobility as a function of majority carrier concentration was also presented for both n-type and p-type HgCdTe with 0.225 Cd mole fraction. Steady state electron lifetime was computed assuming the acceptor levels and the trap level would act as Schokley-Read-Hall type recombination centers. The calculated results using the divalent acceptor model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  1. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  2. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  3. Least Square Regression Method for Estimating Gas Concentration in an Electronic Nose System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Khalaf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an Electronic Nose (ENose system which is able to identify the type of analyte and to estimate its concentration. The system consists of seven sensors, five of them being gas sensors (supplied with different heater voltage values, the remainder being a temperature and a humidity sensor, respectively. To identify a new analyte sample and then to estimate its concentration, we use both some machine learning techniques and the least square regression principle. In fact, we apply two different training models; the first one is based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM approach and is aimed at teaching the system how to discriminate among different gases, while the second one uses the least squares regression approach to predict the concentration of each type of analyte.

  4. Least square regression method for estimating gas concentration in an electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Walaa; Pace, Calogero; Gaudioso, Manlio

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Electronic Nose (ENose) system which is able to identify the type of analyte and to estimate its concentration. The system consists of seven sensors, five of them being gas sensors (supplied with different heater voltage values), the remainder being a temperature and a humidity sensor, respectively. To identify a new analyte sample and then to estimate its concentration, we use both some machine learning techniques and the least square regression principle. In fact, we apply two different training models; the first one is based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach and is aimed at teaching the system how to discriminate among different gases, while the second one uses the least squares regression approach to predict the concentration of each type of analyte.

  5. Electronic film with embedded micro-mirrors for solar energy concentrator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Mario; Davidson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    A novel electronic film solar energy concentrator with embedded micro-mirrors that track the sun is described. The potential viability of this new concept is presented. Due to miniaturization, the amount of material needed for the optical system is minimal. Because it is light-weight and flexible, it can easily be attached to the land or existing structures. This presents an economic advantage over conventional concentrators which require the construction of a separate structure to support them, and motors to orient them to intercept and properly reflect sunlight. Such separate structures must be able to survive gusts, windstorms, earthquakes, etc. This concentrator utilizes the ground or existing edifices which are already capable of withstanding such vicissitudes of nature.

  6. Inhibitory effect of fruit juices on the doxorubicin metabolizing activity of carbonyl reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Nagai, Katsutoshi; Kaneshiro, Shingo; Taketomi, Ayako; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Konishi, Hiroki; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-09

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, is effective for breast cancer and childhood lymphoma. Chronic cardiotoxicity has been known as a critical adverse effect of doxorubicin and is attributed to its metabolite doxorubicinol produced by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, SDR21C1). Some flavonoids have been reported to act as inhibitors for CBR1, therefore, commercially available juices containing flavonoids are likely to be applicable as a prophylactic treatment against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppression doxorubicinol production. In the study, fruit juices containing flavonoids were investigated on inhibitory effects for CBR1. Recombinant CBR1 protein was subjected to in vitro enzymatic assays with/without juices. An apple juice and a grapefruit juice were selected in the present study as candidates capable of inhibiting CBR1. The enzymatic assays revealed that both juices potently inhibit the CBR1-mediated metabolic conversion of doxorubicin to doxorubicinol in concertation-dependent manners. The concentrations required for obtaining 50% inhibition (IC50) were 0.0012% (v/v) and 0.0014% (v/v) for apple and grapefruit juices, respectively. Additionally, it is worth noting that these juices showed inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 even at very low concentrations (0.0001% (v/v)). An apple juice and a grape fruit juice showed strong inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 in vitro. These results suggest that the intake of flavonoid-containing juices can be promising measure for the protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity, enabling patients to keep higher adherence with routine use in light of safety, economic performance and stable supply to market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Warming, C.

    2004-01-01

    l/h at 30 degreesC gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound as C-permeate/C-feed: from similar to4 to 15. The concentration factors increased with decreased juice temperature during VMD; at 10 degreesC concentration factors of 21-31 were obtained for the highly volatile aroma....... VMD thus turned out to be a promising technique for gentle stripping of black currant juice aroma compounds....

  8. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  9. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    sensory analyses that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  10. Effect of HF Concentration on Physical and Electronic Properties of Electrochemically Formed Nanoporous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common fabrication technique of porous silicon (PS is electrochemical etching of a crystalline silicon wafer in a hydrofluoric (HF acid-based solution. The electrochemical process allows for precise control of the properties of PS such as thickness of the porous layer, porosity, and average pore diameter. The effect of HF concentration in the used electrolyte on physical and electronic properties of PS was studied by visual color observation, measuring nitrogen sorption isotherm, field emission type scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that with decrease in HF concentration, the pore diameter increased. The PS sample with large pore diameter, that is, smaller nanocrystalline size of Si between the pores, was found to lead to a pronounced photoluminescence peak. The systematic rise of photoluminescence peak with increase of pore diameter and porosity of PS was attributed to quantum confinement. The changes in nanocrystalline porous silicon were also clearly observed by an asymmetric broadening and shift of the optical silicon phonons in Raman spectra. The change in electronic properties of PS with pore diameter suggests possibilities of use of PS material as a template for fundamental physics as well as an optical material for technological applications.

  11. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  12. The production of guava juice fortified with dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Chanthachum

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of guava juice fortified with soluble dietary fiber as pectin extracted from guava cake (peel, pulp, seeds was conducted. The waste guava cake from juice processing plant was used for pectin extraction using sodium hexametaphosphate method followed by pectin precipitation using acidified ethanol method. A yield of 30.50±0.34% crude pectin was achieved. Crude pectin also contained 4.71±0.18% moisture, 0.34±0.21% protein, 0.68±0.00% ash, 20.70±0.16 g (%dwb soluble dietary fibers. pH of crude pectin was 3.06±0.02. The L* a*and b* values were 81.17±0.21, 4.76±0.04 and 15.43±0.07, respectively. Water holding capacity and bulk density were 0.90±0.01 g.water/g.solid and 0.96±0.05 g/ml, respectively. This study found that the optimum conditions for guava juice extraction using pectinase at 45oC were 0.10 % v/v pectinase concentration and 21 2 h incubation time. Under these optimum conditions, production of guava juice with different ratios of total soluble solids (oBrix to acid as citric acid content (% including, 24.0, 28.0, 32.0, 35.0 and 40.0 oBrix-acid ratio, and product sensory evaluation were also conducted. By the consideration from the greatest perceived scores of all sensory evaluation attributes including color, turbidity, odor, flavor and overall acceptability, the oBrix-acid ratio of 40.0 was selected for guava juice processing. The clarified guava juice was then fortified with pectin powder extracted from previous experiments using various pectin concentrations: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% (w/w. It was found that the perceived scores of the overall acceptability attribute decreased (p<0.05 with increasing of pectin concentration. The greatest perceived score of the mouthfeel attribute was observed from the use of 0.25% pectin. Therefore, the optimum concentration of 0.25% soluble dietary fiber as pectin for guava juice fortification is selected for further guava juice processing.

  13. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  14. The electronic properties of concentric double quantum ring and possibility designing XOR gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Badry, Lafy. F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper I have investigated the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in concentric double quantum ring. The outer ring attached to leads while the inner ring only tunnel-coupled to the outer ring. The effect of inner ring on electron transport properties through outer ring studied and found that the conductance spectrum consists of two types of oscillations. One is the normal Aharonov-Bohm oscillation, and other is a small oscillations superposed above AB oscillation. The AB oscillation utilized to designing nanoscale XOR gate by choosing the magnetic flux and tuning the gate voltages which realization XOR gate action.

  15. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  16. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  17. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  18. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene.

  19. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  20. Um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para análise de um sistema de produção e distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja A model based on linear programming and goal programming to analyze a frozen concentrated orange juice production and distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Munhoz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para apoiar decisões no processo de mistura e na distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Explora-se a importância das decisões do processo de mistura para a análise da logística de distribuição do suco de laranja, além das decisões de transporte e armazenagem. O modelo utiliza conceitos conhecidos da literatura de problemas de mistura e planejamento da produção com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos, e foi resolvido por meio da linguagem de modelagem GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System. Um estudo de caso foi realizado numa empresa de suco de laranja localizada no interior do estado de São Paulo, e os resultados preliminares obtidos são promissores.This work proposes a model based on linear programming and goal programming to support decisions in the blending process and distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice. This study explores the importance of blending decisions for the logistic analysis of the orange juice distribution, besides transportation and storage decisions. The model utilizes well-known concepts from the literature of blending problems and multistage, multiproduct and multiperiod production planning problems, and it was solved using the GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System programming language. A case study was developed in an orange juice industry located in São Paulo State, and the preliminary results are promising.

  1. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  2. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  3. Effects of Differing Dosages of Pomegranate Juice Supplementation after Eccentric Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Machin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice improves isometric strength recovery after unaccustomed eccentric exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a dose response effect of pomegranate juice supplementation after eccentric exercise isometric strength recovery. Forty-five nonresistance trained, recreationally active men were assigned once-daily pomegranate juice, twice-daily pomegranate juice, or placebo supplementation. On day four of supplementation, 20 min of downhill running and 40 maximal eccentric elbow flexion repetitions were performed. Isometric knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, muscular soreness, and serum myoglobin concentrations were measured prior to exercise and 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after exercise. Throughout the postexercise time period, while isometric knee extensor and elbow flexor strength were similar between once-daily and twice-daily pomegranate juice supplementation groups, isometric strength was significantly higher in pomegranate juice groups than placebo. Knee extensor soreness, elbow flexor soreness, and myoglobin increased in response to exercise but were similar between groups. It is apparent that pomegranate juice supplementation improves strength recovery in leg and arm muscles following eccentric exercise; however, no dose response effect was present. We conclude that once-daily pomegranate juice supplementation is not different from twice-daily supplementation in regards to strength recovery after eccentric exercise.

  4. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity analysis. Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed using the SAS program. The concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity of the grape juices treated with microwave heating and ultrasonication increased significantly with increasing treatment time notably at 5 min treatment. It can be noted that all the bioactive contents and % radical scavenging activity were higher in noncold stabilized grape juice than in cold stabilized juices. However, blanching whole grapes for longer period of time before processing resulted in the decrease of all bioactive compounds and % radical scavenging activity both in non-cold stabilized and cold stabilized juice especially at 5 min blanching period. It was also showed that 1 min blanching is more effective in increasing the bioactive compounds of the grape juice as compared to other treatment time.

  5. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  6. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  7. STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CITRUS FRUIT JUICES AGAINST SELECTED ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansode.D.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of citrus fruit juices viz. Lemon (Citrus limon and Orange (Citrus ourantium against medically important selected enteric pathogens. As microorganisms are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical study of Citrus fruit juices against selected enteric pathogens. Biological active compounds present in the medicinal important fruit juices have always been of great interest to scientist. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and etiological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the Lemon and Orange fruit juices were subjected to screening against enteric pathogens, E.coli, Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei. Antimicrobial analysis was done by using agar well diffusion method against selected enteric bacteria. The MIC values were determined by using U.V. Spectrophotometer. The fresh crude Lemon fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella para.B and Shigella sonnei followed by E.coli and fresh crude Orange fruit juice produced the highest antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and Salmonella para.B. followed by E.coli. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with Lemon and Orange fruit juices. The Minimum inhibitory concentration observed at 25% conc. of lemon juice against Salmonella paratyphy B, and Shigella sonnei and 25% concentration of orange juice against Shigella sonnei. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroid, saponin, and reducing sugar in citrus fruit juices.

  8. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  9. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001). This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in

  10. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  11. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (pgallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice.

  12. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Du, Bao-Lei; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Chun-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice. High hydrostatic pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the total viable count from 4.38 log cfu/ml to nondetectable level and completely inactivated yeasts and molds in raw mulberry juice, ensuring the microbiological safety as thermal processing at 85 ℃ for 15 min. High hydrostatic pressure processing maintained significantly (p juice than thermal processing. The main volatile compounds of mulberry juice were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. High hydrostatic pressure processing enhanced the volatile compound concentrations of mulberry juice while thermal processing reduced them in comparison with the control. These results suggested that high hydrostatic pressure processing could be an alternative to conventional thermal processing for production of high-quality mulberry juice.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for enhanced production of Jamun juice using Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) enzyme and its characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Payel; Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Mishra, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    Jamun fruit comprises of seed and thick pulp. The pectin–protein bond of the thick pulp creates difficulty in making juice. Clear Jamun juice is not available in the market, so there is a need for extraction of juice with maximum yield. The goal of this research is to obtain high yield of clarified juice with the help of Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) enzyme. The study was conducted at different enzyme concentration (0.01–0.1%), time duration (40–120 min), and temperature (30–50 °C). Vario...

  14. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  15. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  16. Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

    2011-03-23

    Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ∼1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described.

  17. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  18. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  19. Longitudinal variations of the electron concentration in the ionospheric D region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givishvili, G. V.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of the longitudinal effects in the lower ionosphere revealed from the measurements by rockets and partial reflection method is presented. It is shown that in the summer and equinox periods the electron concentration in the altitude range 70-85 km at fixed zenith angle varies by a factor of 1.5-5.6 at the transition from the Pacific longitudinal sector to the Eurasian and American sectors. The longitudinal effects depend on season and time of the day: they are weak in the American sector and strong in the Eurasian sector. A conclusion is drawn that to reconstruct the longitudinal features of the global structure of the lower ionosphere, it is reasonable to attract the data obtained by the A1 method.

  20. Stabilization of reentrance AFM on Gd{sub 2}Al system in a certain electron concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A. [Tarbit Modarres Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); St. Gardner, J. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-08-01

    A random mixture of two compounds with different type of magnetic ordering which can lead to a new phase with different magnetic characteristics is studied. Such an interesting random magnetic system can be formed by a ferromagnet (e.g. Gd{sub 2}Au) and antiferromagnetic system like e.g. Gd{sub 2}Al with localized magnetic moments where, in principle, the dominant exchange interactions are those of the nearest neighbours. A systematic study on the solid solutions of the type Gd{sub 2}(Al{sub 1-x}Au{sub x}) is reported here. (I) The roles and effects of conduction electron concentration ``c.e.c.`` on the magnetic structure, where the magnetic behaviour is shape dependent (0.2 < x < 0). (II) The cause of magnetic instability of Gd{sub 2}Al, which should be due to the ``c.e``. (III) The critical stabilized point by decreasing ``c.e.c.``. It is shown that the magnetic phase of the pseudobinary intermetallic compound Gd{sub 2}(Au{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}) becomes unstable by increasing the conduction electron concentration through the variation in unit cell dimensions. It becomes stable at a critical value of c.e.c., where {Sigma}{epsilon}{sub ij} J{sub ij} = 0, resulting in a paramagnetic behaviour ({theta}{sub p} {approx} 0 to 5) at x = 0.3. It is shown that the instabilities of the crystal and magnetic structure are functions of c.e.c. and depend on the Fermi sphere K{sub F} which is the main cause of the shape dependence of the magnetic structure of the sample. (orig.) 22 refs.

  1. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  3. Effect of ultrasound and enzymatic pre-treatment on yield and properties of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Sandhan Jyoti; Handique, Jyotishman; Sit, Nandan

    2017-07-01

    Effect of ultrasound and enzymatic pre-treatments with cellulase and pectinase on yield and properties of banana juice were investigated. A two-level full factorial design was employed. The factors selected were ultrasonication time (0 and 30min), cellulase concentration (0 and 0.2%) and pectinase concentration (0 and 0.2%). The responses studied were yield, viscosity, clarity, total soluble solids (TSS) and pH. It was observed that pectinase was more effective in increasing the yield of juice compared to cellulase. Ultrasonic pre-treatment alone did not significantly increase the yield of juice. When ultrasound was combined with pre-treatment with both the enzymes maximum yield of 89.40% was obtained compared to 47.30% in the control. The viscosity of the juice decreased with addition of enzymes and with application of ultrasound. The clarity of the juice was not affected by cellulase treatment, but improved with pectinase treatment. Ultrasonication alone was found to be more effective than pectinase or cellulase treatment in improving the clarity of the juice. The TSS increased with enzymatic treatment, ultrasonication and their combination. pH was not affected by treatment type, but was found to be lower for the treated juices. Significant correlations were observed between the various responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. LC-MS/MS法测定浓缩果汁中2-氨基苯并咪唑、多菌灵、噻菌灵、甲基硫菌灵的残留量%Determination of 2-aminobenzimidazole,carbendazim,triabendazole,thiophanate-methyl in concentrated fruit juice by LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文雯; 刘晓松; 郑玲; 宁恩创

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative determination of 2-aminobenzimidazole,carbendazim,triabendazole,thiophanate-methyl in concentrated fruit juice. Apple,mango,pineapple,pear,orange,lychee,passion fruit juice concentrate were selected as samples. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by PSA column. With methanol-10mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% volume concentration of formic acid) as mobile phase gradient elution,extractions of samples were separated by ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column and detected by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with ESI+ and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) modes. Results showed that the mean recoveries ranged from 70.3%~109.8% with relative standard deviations in the range of 0.1%~10.9% when the spiked concentrations of 2-amino-benzimidazole were 2,4,20μg/kg and thiophene benomyl,carbendazim,thiophanate-methyl were 1,2,10μg/kg respectively. And the limits of detections of 2-amino-benzimidazole,carbendazim,thiabendazole,thiophanate-methyl were 2,1,1,1μg/kg. This method can be used to accurately and efficiently detect these four fungicides residues in concentrated fruit juice so it can be an important measure to monitor and control the quality of concentrated fruit juice.%建立了同时测定浓缩果汁中2-氨基苯并咪唑、噻菌灵、多菌灵、甲基硫菌灵的LC-MS/MS检测法。选取苹果、芒果、菠萝、梨、橙、荔枝、西番莲7种浓缩果汁进行了研究,样品采用乙腈提取,经PSA(乙二胺基N-丙基柱)柱净化后用LC-MS/MS测定。色谱条件是以甲醇-10mmol/L的乙酸铵(含0.1%体积浓度的甲酸)为流动相进行梯度洗脱,待测物经ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18柱分离,最后用电喷雾正离子(ESI+)和多反应监测模式(MRM)进行MS测定。结果表明,当2-氨基苯并咪唑添加水平为2、4、20μg/kg,噻菌灵、多菌灵、甲基硫菌灵添加水平为1、2、10

  6. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  7. Influence of concentration and position of carboxyl groups on the electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Ivi Valentini; Zanella, Ivana; de Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes; Fagan, Solange Binotto

    2014-10-21

    The effects of attaching COOH groups at different sites and in various concentrations on electronic and structural properties of (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were investigated using ab initio calculations. The binding energies and the charge transfers between the COOH functional groups and the tube were calculated for several configurations and a novel feature in the electronic structure of these groups was observed. The electronic character of these systems can be modulated by playing with the concentration and the position of the carboxyl groups bonded on the tube wall. The carboxyl groups bound to different carbon atom sub-lattices are more hybridized than those bound in the same one. These results suggested that SWNT-COOH systems are a playground for engineering electronic properties through a proper chemical functionalization which exploit both the attachment site and concentration of functional groups.

  8. Chicken Juice Enhances Surface Attachment and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L.; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J.; Cross, Kathryn L.; Betts, Roy P.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain. PMID:25192991

  9. Chicken juice enhances surface attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain.

  10. Lactic acid production from date juice using lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 in batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaavessina Mujtahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was employed as a fermentative organism to convert sugars from date juice into lactic acid. Both glucose and fructose in date juice were fermented directly without any pretreatment. The influences of supplementation of yeast extract and date juice concentration on some fermentation parameters, such as: cell growth rate, sugar conversion, productivity and yield, were investigated using this bacterium in batch fermentation. The results showed that by adding yeast extract about 20g/l in a date juice medium, the maximum specific growth rate of bacteria (μm enhanced from 0.1229 to 0.1819 g/l. Meanwhile, increasing date juice concentration from 86.6942 to 158.9181 and 229.5367 g/l enhanced the μm from 0.1819 to 0.2107 and 0.1916 g/l, respectively. It indicated that the optimum value for μm is 0.2107 g/l in this concentration range. In the date juice concentration of 158.9181 g/l, the optimum lactic acid can be produced is 117.8301 g/l with yield of 92.685% for 48 h.

  11. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  12. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  14. Varietal blends as a way of optimizing and preserving the anthocyanin content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage.

  15. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  16. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  18. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    from the flavonoids in order to facilitate better analysis.         In the current study, the major solutes in black currant juice are fructose (32 ± 3 g/l), glucose (22 ± 3 g/l), sucrose (1.6 ± 0.2 g/l) and organic acids (28.9 ± 0.1 g/l). The flavonoids in black currant juice are mainly (97......%) comprised by the glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin [2]. The content of these flavonoids in black currant juice is measured to (1.5 ± 0.1 g/l). The separation process consists of nanodiafiltration on flat sheet membranes with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 1,000 Da. The separation...... process was monitored by comparing concentrations of the four flavonoids and the sugars and acids in permeate and retentate. The flavonoids in the juice have a molecular weight between 449 and 611 Da and should be able to pass the pores of the membrane. However this study shows that the flavonoids...

  19. A magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst for fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-12-15

    The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.

  20. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  1. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  2. Studies on Juice Quality Obtained from Pomegranate and Various Vegetables Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the interest in antioxidants, mainly present in fruits and vegetables, has prompted research in the field of commercial beverages. Taking into account new requirements to improve the quality of feeding behaviour by getting juices without added sugar, the consumer health benefits and high organoleptics properties, it was decided to study the correlation quality of raw pomegranates with other vegetables such as celery, carrot and sharon fruit in order to obtain pomegranate juice with vegetable additions. The vegetable raw materials were chosen in order to improve the quality and organoleptic properties of the pomegranate juice with vegetable additions by optimizing the “in-house” method, to obtaining a stable formulation. The main objectives of the study were characterization of raw and addition materials, studied by psycho-chemical analysis, evaluating of the antioxidant capacity of 4 types of pomegranate juice with additions in different proportions,  establish the best type of mixture juice. Consumer preference was established in sensory analysis  based on hedonic test with 9 point scale, the type of juice with additions with the following concentrations: pomegranate 50%, Sharon 10%, celery 30%, carrot 10%. Positive correlations were performed between antioxidant capacity and type of juice preferred by consumers.

  3. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  4. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine.

  5. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  6. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature.

  7. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  8. Altitude distribution of electron concentration in ionospheric D-region in presence of time-varying solar radiation flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina, A., E-mail: sandrast@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia); Cadez, V. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sreckovic, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia); Sulic, D. [Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Union - Nikola Tesla University, Cara Dusana 62, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we study the influence of solar flares on electron concentration in the terrestrial ionospheric D-region by analyzing the amplitude and phase time variations of very low frequency (VLF) radio waves emitted by DHO transmitter (Germany) and recorded by the AWESOME receiver in Belgrade (Serbia) in real time. The rise of photo-ionization rate in the ionospheric D-region is a typical consequence of solar flare activity as recorded by GOES-15 satellite for the event on March 24, 2011 between 12:01 UT and 12:11 UT. At altitudes around 70 km, the photo-ionization and recombination are the dominant electron gain and electron loss processes, respectively. We analyze the relative contribution of each of these two processes in the resulting electron concentration variation in perturbed ionosphere.

  9. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  10. Pulmonary anti-inflammatory effects and spasmolytic properties of Costa Rican noni juice (Morinda citrifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussossoy, Emilie; Bichon, Florence; Bony, Emilie; Portet, Karine; Brat, Pierre; Vaillant, Fabrice; Michel, Alain; Poucheret, Patrick

    2016-11-04

    Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) is a medicinal plant used in Polynesia for many properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antineoplastic effects. Recent studies showed that noni juice have anti-oxidant and acute anti-inflammatory activities likely due to polyphenols, iridoids and vitamin C content. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic effects of noni juice. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of oral or intraperitoneal administrations of noni juice in vivo on the lung inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized Brown Norway rat (with prednisolone 10mg/kg intraperitoneously as reference compound) and the ex vivo effect of noni juice on BaCl2 (calcium signal) or methacholine (cholinergic signal) induced spasms in jejunum segments. We found that noni juice (intraperitoneously 2.17mL/kg and orally 4.55mL/kg) reduced the inflammation in OVA-sensitized Brown Norway rat with regard to the decreased number of inflammatory cells in lung (macrophages minus 20-26%, lymphocytes minus 58-34%, eosinophils minus 53-30%, neutrophils minus 70-28% respectively). Noni juice demonstrated a dose-dependent NO scavenging effect up to 8.1nmol of nitrites for 50µL of noni juice. In addition noni juice inhibited (up to 90%) calcium and cholinergic induced spasms on the jejunum segments model with a rightward shift of the concentration response curve. We describe for the first time that noni juice demonstrate (1) a chronic anti-inflammatory activity on sensitized lungs along with (2) a spasmolytic effect integrating a calcium channel blocker activity component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  12. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  13. [Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xian; Huang, Jin-Qiong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Su-Kun; Yang, Yan-Yan; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Wen, Yu-Long

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively.

  14. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com; Rao, Asha, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, Moodabidri, Mangalore-574225 (India); Krishnan, Sheeja [Department of Physics, Sri Devi Institute of Technology, Kenjar, Mangalore-574142 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India); Suresh, E. P. [Solar Panel Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  15. Measurement of thermal characteristics of spray-dried milk and juice blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan S; Abu Shelaibi, A A; Laleye, L C; Ismail, I A

    2009-01-01

    Blended concentrated grape/peach (G/P) juice 60% total soluble solids (TSS) with condensed whole cow milk 40% TSS (1.5:8.5) was spray dried using a pilot-scale spray drier FT 80 at feeding pressure 7,000 Pa, at chamber temperature 180 degrees C and at chamber pressure -110 Pa. The glass transition state of blended G/P juice-milk powder, three pure sugars (glucose, sucrose and lactose) and casein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetry showed that G/P juice-milk powder is a glassy material. The glass transition temperature of blended G/P juice-milk powder at 0.248 water activity was 42 degrees C, compared with commercial full milk powder (control) of 29 degrees C at 0.334 at water activity (a(w)).

  16. Explorative study of apple juice fluorescence in relation to antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Lemańska, Katarzyna; Khmelinskii, Igor; Sikorska, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matrices, EEM) were recorded for a series of commercial apple juices, including clear and cloudy juices produced from concentrate, cloudy juices that were not from concentrate, and freshly squeezed juices. An exploratory study of the spectra with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed three groups of fluorophores with different emission properties, and these properties were characterized by excitation/emission maxima at 270/315nm, (310, 370)/455nm, and 430/(550, 680)nm, respectively. A regression analysis of the total fluorescence spectra arranged into three-way arrays using N-way partial least squares regression methods (NPLS1 and NPLS2) and an analysis of the unfolded spectra by partial least squares methods (PLS1 and PLS2) revealed quantitative relations between the fluorescence and antioxidant properties of juices. The best models for the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacities were obtained by applying the NPLS1 method to the EEM. The model parameters were as follows: R(2)CV=0.802, RPD=2.3 for the total phenolic content and R(2)CV=0.808 and RPD=2.3 for the total antioxidant capacity. These results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening apple juices for their antioxidant properties.

  17. Color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape treated with abscisic acid in different ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of (S-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA application at different ripening stages, in increasing phenolic compounds and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca. The evaluated treatments were: control, without S-ABA application; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before veraison (DBV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 days after first application (DAFA; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied at veraison (V + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA; and 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days after veraison (DAV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA. There was no difference among treatments regarding the physical characteristics of berries and clusters, as well as total polyphenols in berry and juice. However, there was an increase in total anthocyanins in berry and juice with S-ABA application. Colorimetric variables indicated the increase in color of berry treated with S-ABA. Juices produced from grapes treated with S-ABA were more appreciated by tasters. The treatments with 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before, during, or 7 days after veraison, combined with an additional application 35 days after the first one, increment total anthocyanin concentration and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape, with better juice acceptance, without affecting total polyphenol concentration.

  18. Phenolic compounds in juice of “Isabel” grape treated with abscisic acid for color improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Lilian Yukari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isabel grape is the main cultivar used to produce juice in Brazil, which has rusticity and high productivity, but it is deficient in anthocyanins, a pigment responsible for the color. Thus, an alternative is the application of abscisic acid (S-ABA, which is responsible to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the phenolic compounds composition in “Isabel” grape juice treated with S-ABA, by HPLC-DAD–ESI-MS/MS technique. The results showed the increasing in total anthocyanin concentration in juices, with S-ABA treatments, as well as the proportion of B-ring tri-substituted anthocyanidins. Regarding total flavonols, differences were only significant in juices obtained in 2012 season. S-ABA treatments did not significantly affect the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavan-3-ols, resveratrol and antioxidant capacity of juices. Juice from “Isabel” grapes treated with S-ABA provides an enhancement of total anthocyanin concentration, mainly when grapes are treated before or at the onset of véraison.

  19. Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola R. Oyenihi

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of watermelon juice for fifteen (15 days prior to ethanol intoxication, significantly reduced the concentration of MDA in the liver and brain of rats. In addition, water melon pre-treatment increased the concentration of GSH and normalized catalase activity in both tissues in comparison to the ethanol control group. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and steroids in watermelon juice. Our findings indicate that watermelon juice demonstrate anti-oxidative effects in ethanol-induced oxidation in the liver and brain of rats; which could be associated with the plethora of antioxidant phyto-constituents present there-in.

  20. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part II: volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles in the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Zhu, Danping; Sng, Jingting; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2012-09-15

    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.

  1. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  2. Influence of manganese concentration on the electron magnetic resonance spectrum of Mn{sup 2+} in CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-19

    Electron magnetic resonance spectra of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO) have been studied at room temperature for Mn concentrations between 0.10 and 1.00 mol%. The results suggest that the range of the exchange interaction between Mn{sup 2+} ions is about 0.56 nm.

  3. The effect of C atom concentration on the electronic properties of boron carbonitride alloy nanotube in zig-zag form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Milani Moghaddam

    2011-06-01

    Electronic properties of single-walled boron nitride nanotube in zig-zag form are numerically investigated by replacing B atoms with C atoms. Using a tight-binding Hamiltonian, the methods based on Green’s function theory, Landauer formalism and Dyson equation, the electronic density of states and electronic conductance in boron nitride nanotube and boron carbonitride nanotube are calculated. Our calculations indicate that in a boron nitride nanotube, the localized states associated with C impurities appear as the concentration of C atoms increases. The boron carbonitride nanotube thus behaves like a semiconductor. Also, by increasing the C atom concentration, the voltage in the first step on the – characteristics decreases, whereas the corresponding current increases.

  4. Correlation of martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni- Mn-Ga/Al-X alloys to non-bonding electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, M.; Satish Kumar, A.; Seshubai, V.; Rajasekharan, T.

    2015-02-01

    The martensitic transformation TM of the alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Al show a general trend of increase with electron per atom ratio (e/a) calculated from the total number of electrons outside the rare gas shell of the atoms. However prediction of TM fails among iron substituted Ni-Mn-Ga alloys and those with In doped for Ga, due to the absence of a useful trend. A scheme of computing modified electron concentration is presented considering only the non-bonding electrons per atom Ne/a of the compounds, based on Pauling's ideas on the electronic structure of metallic elements. Systematic variation of TM with Ne/a is reproduced for a large number of alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and the anomaly observed for Fe containing alloys with e/a disappears. The non-bonding electron concentration is thus demonstrated to be effective in predicting TM of shape memory alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga-X system including the isoelectronic compounds of Ni-Mn-Ga-In.

  5. Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical and sensory properties of winter melon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Duan, Yongping; Bai, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. The juices had low sugars (juice were significantly lower than in HP juice. The phenolic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were detected at 10-45 mg L(-1) levels, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 36 to 49 mg gallic acid L(-1) . C6 and C9 aldehydes were mainly found in HP juice, and boiling induced the accumulation of sulfur compounds and C5 aldehydes. The LPNB juice showed the highest acceptability in the sensory panel. The frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) reconstituted with LPNB was preferable to regular FCOJ for 31% of panelists and not different for 20% of panelists. The low sugar/low acid LPNB juice with 'fresh' flavor could be developed to replace water for reconstituting FCOJ with enhanced nutritional value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Microbial modeling of thermal resistance of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 spores in concentrated orange juice with nisin addition Modelagem microbiana da resistência térmica de esporos de Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 em suco de laranja concentrado com adição de nisina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Edgard Luera Peña

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nisin effect on thermal death of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 spores in concentrated orange juice (64ºBrix was studied. Concentrations of 0, 50, 75 and 100 IU of nisin/ml juice, at temperatures of 92, 95, 98 and 102ºC were evaluated. The quadratic polynomial model was used to analyze the effects of the factors and their interaction. Verification of surviving spores was carried out through plating in K medium (pH 3.7. The results showed that the D values without nisin addition were 25.5, 12.9, 6.1 and 2.3 min for 92, 95, 98 and 102ºC respectively. With addition of nisin into the juice there was a drop of heat resistance as the concentration was increased at a same temperature. With 30, 50, 75, 100 and 150 IU/ml at 95ºC, the D values were 12.34, 11.38, 10.49, 9.49 and 9.42 min respectively, showing that a decrease in the D value up to 27% can be obtained. The second order polynomial model established with r² = 0.995 showed that the microorganism resistance was affected by the action of temperature followed by the nisin concentration. Nisin therefore is an alternative for reducing the rigor of the A. acidoterrestris CRA 7152 thermal treatment.Estudou-se o efeito da nisina na inativação térmica dos esporos de Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA 7152 em suco de laranja concentrado (64 ºBrix. Foram avaliadas as concentrações de 0, 50, 75 e 100 UI de nisina/ml de suco nas temperaturas de 92, 95, 98 e 102 ºC. Foi utilizado o modelo polinomial quadrático para analisar os efeitos dos fatores e suas interações. A contagem dos esporos sobreviventes foi feita através de plaqueamento em meio K (pH = 3,7. De acordo com os resultados obtidos encontrouse um valor de D sem adição de nisina de 25,5; 12,9; 6,1 e 2,3 min para as temperaturas de 92, 95, 98 e 102 ºC respectivamente. Quando a nisina foi adicionada ao suco observouse uma queda na resistência térmica em função do aumento da concentração de nisina para os mesmos

  7. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum on hardness of molybdenum. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary molybdenum alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to molybdenum, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons that molybdenum failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and molybdenum.

  8. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  9. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  10. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  12. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice.

  13. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  14. Sustainability as Sales Argument in the Fruit Juice Industry? An Analysis of On-Product Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Klink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Purpose/Value – The objective of this paper is to determine (1 the extent to which sustainability serves as a sales argument and (2 which areas of sustainability are communicated in the fruit juice industry. This seems promising against the background that there are several ethical challenges the fruit juice chain is increasingly confronted with and consumers demand for sustainable products is also rising. Design/Methodology – A market investigation at the Point-of Sale (POS was conducted in July 2013. On-product communication of all fruit juice products (‘not from concentrate (NFC’ fruit juices, ’reconstituted (RECON’ fruit juices, fruit nectars and smoothies from five retailers (two full-range retailers, two discounters, one organic supermarket was analyzed. The data was evaluated using content analysis. Results/Findings – Overall, 562 fruit juices were examined. Results reveal that nearly one quarter of the products has labels signaling sustainable aspects. However, most of those products were found in the organic food retailer and are organic juices. Only a small number of products consider other areas of sustainability, such as social concerns or regional production. Discussion/Conclusion – Communicating sustainability aspects of fruit juice production via on-package labels is scarce in conventional retail stores. In view of the ethical challenges present in the fruit juice chain and discussed in the paper, the increasing demand of consumers for sustainable products and the high competition in the sector, communicating different sustainability aspects can be an opportunity for fruit juice producers and retailers to differentiate their products on the highly saturated fruit juice market.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  15. Interaction of erythromycin and clarithromycin with orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of orange juice with fexofenadine has been found to decrease the bioavailability of fenofenadine to less than 30% via inhibition of organic-anion transporting polypeptide (OATP, a drug uptake transporter expressed in organs such as liver, kidney and intestine. Erythromycin and clarithromycin are substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, a drug metabolizing enzyme in the liver and enterocytes, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux transporter expressed in the same organs as OATP. Since an extensive overlap exists between substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and OATP transporters, we want to study the effect of coadministration of our local orange (Siam orange juice on the bioavailability of the above antibacterials. We conducted two 2-way cross-over randomized studies, one study for each antibacterial (500 mg, crossed between administration with orange juice (200 ml and with water, in 12-13 healthy subjects per study. The serum concentrations of the antibacterials were assayed by microbiological method. The mean (range ratio of AUC0-t with orange juice/with water were as follows : erythromycin : total (n=13 81.7 (9.7-193.8%, unchanged (n=4 96.4 (80.5-107.9%, decreased (n=6 31.9 (9.7-49.0%, increased (n=3 161.8 (134.6-193.8%; clarithromycin : total (n=12 91.4 (20.6-158.3%, unchanged (n=5 103.1 (80.9-123.0%, decreased (n=4 34.8 (20.6-64.3%, increased (n=3 147.2 (132.9-158.3%. It was concluded that coadministration of Siam orange juice with erythromycin or clarithromycin produced unpredictable effects on the bioavailability of these antibacterials in individual subjects, with marked decreases in almost half of the subjects, although in totals the effects were not statistically significant. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 78-86Keywords: interaction, erythromycin, clarithromycin, orange juice.

  16. Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B

    2010-04-01

    Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174.

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (Pcider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  19. Eletrochemical reduction of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in both neutral and acid non-aqueous media. Their electroanalytical determination in apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damián Chanique, Gerardo; Heraldo Arévalo, Alejandro; Alicia Zon, María; Fernández, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.1±0.1)×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.0×10(-7) to 2.2×10(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices.

  20. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  1. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  2. Dispensing of high concentration Ag nano-particles ink for ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Mao, Peng; He, Hu

    2016-02-17

    Paper-based writing electronics has received a lot of interest recently due to its potential applications in flexible electronics. To obtain ultra-low resistivity paper-based writing electronics, we developed a kind of ink with high concentration of Ag Nano-particles (up to 80 wt%), as well as a related dispensing writing system consisting an air compressor machine and a dispenser. Additionally, we also demonstrated the writability and practical application of our proposed ink and writing system. Based on the study on the effect of sintering time and pressure, we found the optimal sintering time and pressure to obtain high quality Ag NPs wires. The electrical conductivity of nano-silver paper-based electronics has been tested using the calculated resistivity. After hot-pressure sintering at 120 °C, 25 MPa pressure for 20 minutes, the resistivity of silver NPs conductive tracks was 3.92 × 10(-8) (Ωm), only 2.45 times of bulk silver. The mechanical flexibility of nano-silver paper-based electronics also has been tested. After 1000 bending cycles, the resistivity slightly increased from the initial 4.01 × 10(-8) to 5.08 × 10(-8) (Ωm). With this proposed ink preparation and writing system, a kind of paper-based writing electronics with ultra-low resistivity and good mechanical flexibility was achieved.

  3. Characteristic of Fermented Whey Beverage with Addition of Tomato Juice (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Sari, A. M.; Laksono, P. W.; Aprilia, E. N.

    2017-04-01

    Whey is the liquid resulting from the coagulation of milk from cheese manufacture. The availability of lactose in whey and presence of other essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms makes it one of the potential substrate for the production of different bio-products through fermentation process. Lactic acid production through fermentation from lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative processing route for whey lactose utilization. However, a problem with such approaches is the low total solids content. Sucrose and tomato juice added to increases the total solids content. The aim of this work was to study the characteristic of fermented whey beverage with different tomato juice concentration (5, 10, 15%) using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid content, pH, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of fermented whey beverage samples were examined after 18hours fermentation. Fermented whey beverage with 5% tomato juice obtained the highest scores for color, aroma, flavor, texture and overall attributes. The lactic acid content and pH of fermented whey beverage ranged from 0.326 to 0.437% and from 4.13 to 4.64, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity (9.073%) was found in sample with 15% tomato juice concentration. The best formulation is the sample with 5% of tomato juice concentration.

  4. Influence of chromium concentration on the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of Cr3+ in SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sergio de Biasi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron magnetic resonance (EMR spectra of Cr3+ ions in samples of chromium-doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3 have been studied at room temperature for chromium concentrations between 0.20 and 1.00 mol%. According to previous studies, chromium substitutes Ti4+ sites in the lattice and its preferred valence state is Cr4+, which is EMR silent in the X-band, but the trivalent state can be produced by illumination or codoping with Nb. In the present work, the codoping method was used; the results show the electron magnetic resonance linewidth of the Cr3+ spectrum increases with increasing chromium concentration and that the range of the exchange interaction between Cr3+ ions is about 0.96 nm.

  5. Crystal growth and electronic properties of a 3D Rashba material, BiTeI, with adjusted carrier concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao

    2013-04-03

    3D Rashba materials can be a leading player in spin-related novel phenomena, ranging from the metallic extreme (unconventional superconductivity) to the transport intermediate (spin Hall effects) to the novel insulating variant (3D topological insulating states). As the essential backbone for both fundamental and applied research of such a 3D Rashba material, this study established the growth of sizeable single crystals of a candidate compound BiTeI with adjusted carrier concentrations. Three techniques (standard vertical Bridgman, modified horizontal Bridgman, and vapour transport) were employed, and BiTeI crystals (>1 × 1 × 0.2 mm(3)) with fundamentally different electronic states from metallic to insulating were successfully grown by the chosen technique. The 3D Rashba electronic states, including the Fermi surface topology, for the corresponding carrier concentrations of the obtained BiTeI crystals were revealed by relativistic first-principles calculations.

  6. Study of electron-vibrational interaction and concentration quenching effect of Cu+ ions in lithium based sulphate phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Choithrani, Renu; Dhoble, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) and concentration quenching and their manifestation in experimental photoluminescence spectra of Cu+ ion in various lithium based phosphors namely, Li2SO4, LiNaSO4 and LiKSO4. The main parameters of EVI, such as the Stokes shift, Huang-Rhys factor and zero-phonon line positions, were estimated. The studied systems shows strong electron lattice coupling. The validity of results was established by modeling the shape of the emission spectra, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental photoluminescence spectra. The concentration quenching study is also carried out for these compounds. The studied systems correspond to the nearest neighbor energy transfer mechanism.

  7. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  8. Maximum electron concentration and total electron content of the ionosphere over Concepción, Chile, prior to the 27 February 2010 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Bravo, M. A.; Villalobos, C. U.; Foppiano, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ionospheric variability observed prior to mayor earthquakes has been studied for decades. In particular, in many such studies the identification of ionospheric precursors of large earthquakes has been regarded as a specific goal. This paper analyses the observations of the maximum electron concentration (NmF2) over Concepción (36.8°S; 73.0°W) and of the total electron content (TEC) for an area covering the rupture zone corresponding to the very large Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010. The analyses used here are similar to those published before for many earthquakes in Taiwan, Japan and Russia. Possible NmF2 and TEC precursors are compared with other precursors proposed for the same earthquake using different TEC determinations and satellite observations of electron/ion concentration, energetic particle bursts and electromagnetic emissions. Some possible precursors derived from the various observations are consistent with each other. However, none can be unambiguously associated to the Chilean earthquake.

  9. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  10. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2015-04-15

    Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found.

  11. Efeito do tratamento térmico na concentração de carotenóides, compostos fenólicos, ácido ascórbico e capacidade antioxidante do suco de tangerina murcote Effect of thermal treatment on the carotenoid, phenolic compound and ascorbic acid concentrations, and the antioxidant capacity of murcott tangerine juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Souza Dutra

    2012-09-01

    possibilitaram menores alterações e/ou maiores retenções nos compostos determinados.This study evaluated the effect of thermal treatment on the total carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid profile (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, total phenolic compound content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity of Murcott Tangerine juice. Using a tubular heat exchanger eleven treatments were evaluated based on a full 2² factorial design with three replicates at the central point, four axial points and a region of observation from 88 to 100 ºC and from 16 to 44 s. The total carotenoid content decreased significantly in almost all treatments when compared with the results obtained for the fresh juice. The carotenoid levels (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin were not significantly reduced by most of the treatments studied, and the β-carotene content was not significantly changed by any treatment. For the carotenoid contents, the analysis of variance showed no significant interactions between the variables of temperature and time. The levels of ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds decreased in six of the conditions evaluated, while in four treatments an increase in the total phenolic compounds was observed, probably due to evaporation of water from the juice. The greatest reduction and the greatest increase of, respectively, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds were observed for the binomial of 100 ºC/30 s. The ascorbic acid content was significantly influenced by the temperature, and its degradation process can be described using a quadratic model. All the treatments applied reduced the antioxidant capacity of the juice, but the reduction was higher for the binomial 100 ºC/30 s. The nutritional characteristics of the juice were little affected by the changes observed, and the heat treatments carried out at 94 ºC for 16 to 44 s allowed for the smallest changes and/or the highest retentions of the determined compounds.

  12. The Analgesic Effect of Pineapple Fruit Juice on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Atiqah binti Hilmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is a feeling stimulated by the nervous system which can be suppressed by giving an analgesic agent. Some studies revealed that pineapples have an analgesic effect. This study aim was to determine analgesic effect of pineapple on mice. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect was examined by using a writhing method on the 28 male mice. Subjects were divided into 4 groups with 7 mice each. The control group received aquades and other groups received pineapple fruit juice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration with the dosage of 10 mL/kg/body weight. After 30 minutes, 3% acetic acid was injected intraperitoneally to induce pain. Writhing responseswere observed every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: The result for mean of total writhing reaction was 2.39±0.40, 1.92±0.40, 1.50±2.13, 1.66±0.11 respectively for group 1 to 4. These data indicated a significant decrease of total writhing response in mice with 20%, 40% and 80% concentration compared to control group (p=0.023;p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Most optimal concentration was40% with the protective percentage equal to 71.8%. Conclusion: Pineapple fruit juice concentrations (20%, 40%, and 80%has an analgesic effect with the most optimal concentration of 40%.

  13. 稳定同位素比质谱法测定苹果和浓缩苹果汁的δ~(13)C值%Determination of δ~(13)C Values of Apple and Apple Juice Concentrate by the Stable Isotopes Ratio-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张遴; 蔡砚; 李高华; 王昌钊

    2012-01-01

    The reference standard selected is traceable to the CRM of olive oil [Cat.No.B 2172,Batch 3130,with its δ13C value(vs.PDB) of(-28.51±0.16)‰] obtained from IAEA and the stable isotopes ratio mass spectrometry was used for the determination of δ13C of apple pulp and apple juice,on the base of which the range of δ13C values of apples produced in our country was determined and the quality of apple juice produced was appraised.The apple sample was peeled and the pulp was sliced and made into paste.After centrifuging,the supernatant was taken and heated at 75 ℃ for 2-3 h to condense it to a syrupy state,having its Brix degree of about 70.In general,the sample of apple juice concentrate was in syrupy state and having its Brix degree of around 70.Two μL of either of the above samples,as well as 2 μL of the olive oil standard were taken and placed in tin cups separately for MS analysis.Values of ratio of the stable isotopes of 13C and 12C were substituted into the given formula and the values of δ13C were calculated.Precision was tested and values of RSD′s(n=11) obtained were all less than 0.021%.The range of δ13C values for apples grown in various origin in our country was between-29.17‰ and-23.33‰.%用从国际原子能机构溯源得到的橄榄油标准物质[Cat No.B 2172-Batch 3130,其δ13CPDB为(-28.51±0.16)‰]作标准,应用稳定同位素比质谱法测定了苹果和苹果汁的δ13 C值,并以此确定国产苹果的δ13 C值的范围和鉴定制成的果汁的质量。苹果样品去皮后切碎,打成糊状,离心后取其上清液,在75℃加热2~3h至呈黏稠状液体,冷却至室温。此时其糖度约为70Brix。浓缩苹果汁样品是黏稠液体,其糖度一般也在70Brix左右。取2μL上述样品置于锡杯中,按方法处理后供质谱分析。标准物质的进样量为2μL。按所测得碳的稳定同位素13C与12C的比值代入所给公式计算δ13 C值。结果表明:方法的精密度较

  14. Optimization of polyphenol removal from kiwifruit juice using a macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenpeng; Yu, Zhifang; Yue, Tianli; Quek, Siew Young

    2017-06-01

    The separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential for enhancing sensory properties and prevent the browning reaction in juice during processing and storage. The present study investigated the dynamic adsorption and desorption of polyphenols in kiwifruit juice using AB-8 resin. The model obtained could be successfully applied to predict the experimental results of dynamic adsorption capacity (DAC) and dynamic desorption quantity (DDQ). The results showed that dynamic adsorption of polyphenols could be optimised in a juice concentration of 19 °Brix, with a feed flow-rate of 1.3 mL min(-1) and a feed volume of 7 bed volume (BV). The optimum conditions for dynamic desorption of polyphenols from the AB-8 resin were an ethanol concentration of 43% (v/v), an elute flow-rate of 2.2 mL min(-1) and an elute volume of 3 BV. The optimized DAC value was 3.16 g of polyphenols kg(-1) resin, whereas that for DDQ was 917.5 g kg(-1) , with both values being consistent with the predicted values generated by the regression models. The major polyphenols in the dynamic desorption solution consisted of seven compositions. The present study could be scaled-up using a continuous column system for industrial application, thus contributing to the improved flavor and color of kiwifruit juice. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sardar Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grapefruit juice is consumed widely in today's health conscious world as a protector against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. It has however, been found to be an inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P – 450 3A4 system, which is responsible for the first pass metabolism of many drugs. The P – glycoprotein pump, found in the brush border of the intestinal wall which transports many of these cytochrome P – 450 3A4 substrates, has also been implicated to be inhibited by grapefruit juice. By inhibiting these enzyme systems, grapefruit juice alters the pharmacokinetics of a variety of medications, leading to elevation of their serum concentrations. Most notable are its effects on the calcium channel antagonist and the statin group of drugs. In the case of many drugs, the increased serum concentration has been found to be associated with increased frequency of dose dependent adverse effects. In this review, we have discussed the phytochemistry of grapefruit juice, the various drugs involved in the drug – grapefruit juice eraction with their mechanisms of action and have presented the clinical implications of these interactions.

  16. A rocket radiobeacon experiment on the electron concentration profile measurements in the bottomside of the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, V. M.; Lvova, G. P.; Guliaeva, T. L.; Pakhomov, S. V.; Glotov, A. P.

    The possibility of measuring the electron density profile in the height interval 70-110 km with a two-frequency coherent transmitter set mounted on a 'small' geophysical rocket of type M-100 is investigated. Results are presented of measurements using the phase Doppler method carried out at middle latitudes in May 1979 and February 1980. Good consistency of the profiles measured for the D and E regions of the ionosphere with those of IRI is not always obtained, even when the correct helio and geophysic conditions of the experiments are given for calculations with IRI.

  17. Flavor characterization of sugar-added pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices treated with ultra-high pressure and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Wongfhun, Pronprapa; Gordon, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The flavor characteristics of pennywort juices with added sugar treated by ultra-high pressure, pasteurization, and sterilization were investigated using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons comprised the major class of volatile components present and the juices had a characteristic aroma due to the presence of volatiles including beta-caryophyllene and humulene and alpha-copaene. In comparison with heated juices, HPP-treated samples could retain more volatile compounds such as linalool and geraniol similar to those present in fresh juice, whereas some volatiles such as alpha-terpinene and ketone class were apparently formed by thermal treatment. All processing operations produced juice that was not significantly different in the concentration of total volatiles. Practical Application: Pennywort juice is considered a nutraceutical drink for health benefits. Therefore, to preserve all aroma and active components in this juice, a nonthermal process such as ultra-high pressure should be a more appropriate technique for retention of its nutritive values than pasteurization and sterilization.

  18. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  19. Cationic concentration effects on electron beam cured of carbon-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitsuji, D. A.; Marinucci, G.; Evora, M. C.; Silva, L. G. A.

    2010-03-01

    Electron beam (e-beam) curing is a technology that offers advantages over the thermal curing process, that usually requires high temperature and are time-consuming. E-beam curing is faster and occurs at low temperatures that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in a thermoset composite. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate) ranged from 1 to 3 wt% in DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) epoxy resin when cured by a 1.5 MeV electron beam. The specimens were cured to a total dose of 200.4 kGy for 40 min. Analyses by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that the e-beam irradiated samples with 2 wt% cationic initiator were 96% cured obtained a glass transition temperature (tan δ) of 167 °C. The same epoxy resin, thermally cured for 16 h with an anhydride hardener, reached a Tg (tan δ) of 136 °C. So, the irradiated sample had its Tg increased approximately 20% and the curing process was much less time consuming.

  20. Cationic concentration effects on electron beam cured of carbon-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitsuji, D.A., E-mail: delmo_amari@yahoo.com.b [Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marinucci, G. [Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Evora, M.C. [Institute of Advanced Studies/CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Silva, L.G.A. [Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute-IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Electron beam (e-beam) curing is a technology that offers advantages over the thermal curing process, that usually requires high temperature and are time-consuming. E-beam curing is faster and occurs at low temperatures that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in a thermoset composite. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoroantimonate) ranged from 1 to 3 wt% in DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) epoxy resin when cured by a 1.5 MeV electron beam. The specimens were cured to a total dose of 200.4 kGy for 40 min. Analyses by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that the e-beam irradiated samples with 2 wt% cationic initiator were 96% cured obtained a glass transition temperature (tan delta) of 167 deg. C. The same epoxy resin, thermally cured for 16 h with an anhydride hardener, reached a T{sub g} (tan delta) of 136 deg. C. So, the irradiated sample had its T{sub g} increased approximately 20% and the curing process was much less time consuming.

  1. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  2. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  3. Development Of An Electronic Nose For Environmental Monitoring: Detection Of Specific Environmentally Important Gases At Their Odor Detection Threshold Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Centola, Paolo; Della Torre, Matteo; Demattè, Fabrizio

    2011-09-01

    The use of a sensor array is demonstrated to be an effective approach to evaluate hazardous odor (or gas) emissions from industrial sites1. Therefore the possibility to use electronic noses for the prolonged survey of odor emissions from industrial sites is of particular interest for environmental monitoring purposes2. At the Olfactometric Laboratory of the Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Sacmi Group, Imola, an innovative electronic nose for the continuous monitoring of environmental odors is being developed. The aim of this work is to show the laboratory tests conducted to evaluate the capability of the electronic nose to recognize some specific environmentally important gases at their odor detection threshold concentration. The laboratory studies up to now focused on ammonia and butyric acid, those being compounds that can typically be found in the emissions from waste treatment plants, that may cause health effects when they exceed a given concentration level. The laboratory tests proved the sensors to be sensitive towards the considered compounds and the system to be capable of discriminating between odorous or non-odorous air, with a detection limit comparable with the detection limit of human nose.

  4. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  5. Electrons per atom ratio determination and Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule for P-based polar compounds studied by FLAPW-fourier calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Uichiro; Sato, Hirokazu; Inukai, Manabu; Nishino, Yoichi; Zijlstra, Eeuwe Sieds

    2015-02-02

    The extent to which reliable electrons per atom ratio, e/a, are determined and the validity of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism are ensured upon increasing ionicity are studied by applying first-principles full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier band calculations to as many as 59 binary compounds formed by adding elements from periods 2-6 to phosphorus in group 15 of the Periodic Table. Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle maps were constructed both by using the Allen electronegativity data and by using an energy difference between the center-of-gravity energies of FLAPW-derived s and p partial densities of states (DOSs) for the equiatomic compounds studied. The determination of e/a and the test of the interference condition, both of which play a key role in the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism, were reliably made for all intermetallic compounds, as long as the ionicity is less than 50%. In the A-P (A = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) compounds with ionicity exceeding 50%, however, e/a determination becomes unstable, as reflected in its P concentration dependence. New Hume-Rothery electron concentration rules were theoretically found in two families of polar compounds: skutterudite compounds TMP(3), TMAs(3), and TMSb(3) (TM = Co, Ni, Rh, and Ir; cI32) with e/a = 4.34 and TM(3)P (TM = Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni; tI32) with e/a = 2.20.

  6. Concentration-dependent study of electronic and optical properties of c-Si and c-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Gonzalez, R. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Sonora, C.P. 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Posada-Amarillas, A. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-088 C.P. 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Galvan, D.H.; Reyes-Serrato, A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Electronic and optical properties of crystalline silicon (c-Si) and hydrogen-doped crystalline silicon (c-Si:H) were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane waves (FLAPWs) method, within the density functional theory (DFT), and the supercell method to model different hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen was introduced in both bond-centered (BC) and tetrahedral (Td) interstitial sites to find out the most favorable configuration by searching for the lowest energy structure. The Td interstitial site yields the most stable and lowest energy structure. For several hydrogen concentrations we found that the effect of interstitial hydrogen is to introduce electronic states at the silicon band gap, turning it into a metallic system. Analysis of the calculated energy-loss function of doped silicon shows the existence of a plasmon peak at low energy of the loss spectrum, and the position of this plasmon peak is highly dependent on hydrogen concentration into silicon. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  8. Refined entanglement concentration for electron-spin entangled cluster states with quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2017-01-01

    We present a refined entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for an arbitrary unknown less-entangled four-electron-spin cluster state by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. In our ECP, the parties obtain not only the four-electron-spin systems in the partial entanglement with two unknown parameters, but also the less-entangled two-electron-spin systems in the first step. Utilizing the above preserved systems as the resource for the second step of our ECP, the parties can obtain a standard cluster state by keeping the robust odd-parity instances with two parity-check gates. Meanwhile, the systems in the rest three instances can be used as the resource in the next round of our ECP. The success probability of our ECP is largely increased by iteration of the ECP process. Moreover, all the coefficients of our ECP are unknown for the parties without assistance of extra single electron-spin, so our ECP maybe has good applications in quantum communication network in the future.

  9. Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2014-04-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices.

  10. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  11. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication.

  12. Physical properties of inulin and inulin-orange juice: physical characterization and technological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Leyva-Porras, C; Martínez-Guerra, E; Pérez-García, S A; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Álvarez-Salas, C

    2014-05-25

    In this work two systems based on a carbohydrate polymer were studied: inulin as model system and inulin-orange juice as complex system. Both system were stored at different water activity conditions and subsequently characterized. Water adsorption isotherms type II were fitted by the GAB model and the water monolayer content was determined for each system. From thermal analyzes it was found that at low water activities (aw) systems were fully amorphous. As aw increased, crystallinity was developed. This behavior was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. In the inulin-orange juice system, crystallization appears at lower water activity caused by the intensification of the chemical interaction of the low molecular weight species contained in orange juice. Glass transition temperature (Tg), determined by modulated differential scanning calorimeter, decreased with aw. As water is adsorbed, the physical appearance of samples changed which could be observed by optical microscopy and effectively related with the microstructure found by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  14. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  15. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  16. Study on the retentivity of the volatile components of simulated guava juice using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Hashim Khalil

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on retentivity of major guava juice volatile compounds during ultrafiltration is presented in this paper. Simulated guava juice solutions were used throughout the study and the ultrafiltration was carried out in a batch stirred cell system. Polyethersulfone membranes with MWCO of 100,000 and 500,000 were used. The effects of important process operating parameters such as pressure and pectin concentration were studied. It was found that hydrophobic interactions with the membrane are the major factors, which control the flavor retention. A qualitative correlation between component polarity and retentivity was also observed.

  17. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  18. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  19. Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.

  20. 雪梨汁饮料工艺的研究%Technology of Sydney Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思宁

    2012-01-01

    本文以浓缩雪梨汁为原料,通过正交试验设计澄清梨汁饮料,确定梨汁饮料的合理配方.结果表明,浓缩汁含量5%、白砂糖6%、柠檬酸0.18%、香精添加量0.06%,以适量果胶和CMC-Na为复合稳定剂时,可以制成风味、色泽良好的梨汁饮料.%In this paper, concentrated Sydney juice as raw material, by orthogonal experimental to design clarified pear juice drinks, a reasonable formula of pear juice drink was determined. The results showed that the juice content of 5%, 6% sugar, 0.18%citric acid, 0.06% flavor, a modest pectin and CMC-Na as a composite stabilizer, the flavor, color and good pear juice drinks could be made.

  1. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  2. Polyacetylene levels in carrot juice, effect of pH and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, I; Brunton, N; Rai, D K; Balagueró, E; Hossain, M B; Valverde, J

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the study of polyacetylenes in carrot juice and their response to pH, storage and thermal processing conditions. Falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) were in fresh carrot juice at concentrations of 73 and 233 μg/L, respectively. Reducing the pH of the raw carrot juice from its natural pH 6.13 to pH 3.5 resulted in 2 and 5 fold better extraction of FaDOAc and FaOH respectively in comparison to a control sample (pH 6.13). Polyacetylenes were retained better in acidified juices and cold storage temperatures (4 °C) for first week of storage with respect to untreated juices. An increase in FaDOAc and FaOH of 10- and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to raw unprocessed samples was observed when processing samples at 90 °C for 1 min. This was assumed to be due to cell wall polysaccharides dissolution. However, negative correlation between total polyacetylenes and hexoses was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, indicating some biological links between polyacetylenes and soluble sugars.

  3. The Mixture of Yogurt and Strawberry Juice to Repair Blood Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rince Alfia Fadri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways to do in reducing cholesterol concentration in blood. Yogurt and strawberry juice have ability  to repair blood lipid profile at hypercholesterolemia. Research and lactobacillus development potention as the cholesterol killing probiotic that to be mixed with strawberry juice is necessary to do to support community health. The purpose of this reasearch was measuring the mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice effectiveness to repair blood lipid profile.  The design of this research that to be used was experimental by pretest and posted randomized control design progam. The sample of this research was thirty white mice (Rattus Norvegicus. Cholesterol Total, HDL and LDL to be analyzed by WI-M-KK2 BLK-SB methode (Clinical Chemstry Auto Analyzer using tool Selectra E Auto Analyzer. The data was analyzed by Anova test, continued by LSD test using computer program . The result after giving mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice with the dosage 2ml and 3ml per day could obviously reduce LDL Level (p<0,05, Cholesterol Total (p<0,05 and to increase HDL Level (p>0,05. The differentiation in dosis giving showed unmeaning reduction result (p>0,05. Conclusion, the mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice could repair blood lipid profile, where it’s proved to reduce drastically choleterol Total Level, LDL in 30 days.

  4. Chemical guide parameters for Spanish lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, José; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Ibarz, Albert; Coll, Luís; Hernández, Julio; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2014-11-01

    To contribute for setting reference guideline for commercial juice extracted from the Spanish lemon varieties, chemical composition of 92 direct and 92 reconstituted samples were investigated. In direct lemon juice, titratable acidity was 52.4 g/L, being the citric acid the main component. Glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were 7.9, 7.3 and 4.5 g/L, respectively. Predominant mineral was potassium (1264.2mg/L), followed by phosphorous (306 mg/L), calcium (112 mg/L) and magnesium (92.6 mg/L). Hesperidin ranged from 257 to 484.8 mg/L, while water soluble pectins varied between 164.8 and 550 mg/L. Similar values were obtained in reconstituted lemon juice. There are different parameters that did not reach or exceeded the limits proposed by the European Association of the Industry of Juices and Nectars. These levels should be taken into account to modify the present reference guideline and that Spanish lemon juices are not discarded for to have lower or bigger values.

  5. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  6. Enantioseparation of the fungicide imazalil in orange juice by chiral HPLC. Study on degradation rates and extractive/enrichment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, L; Aguilar, A; Díaz, A N; Sánchez, F G

    2015-07-01

    Imazalil ([1-(β-allyloxy-2,4-dichlorophenethyl)imidazole]) is a systemic chiral fungicide used in postharvest protection of citruses against fungi development for during storage and transportation. The chemical structure of imazalil shows an asymmetric carbon in the C7 position. These enantiomers may have different toxicity. A method for both chiral enantiomers extraction and determination in orange juice is developed in order to provide their concentration and to study the degradation rates in orange juice. Spiked imazalil was extracted from orange juice by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction and solid phase extraction. Recovery assays of imazalil enantiomers from spiked orange juice samples showed that solid phase extraction is a better choice in order to obtain higher recovery values. Obtained chromatographic data show that within 24h the (-)-imazalil enantiomer decreases from 0.548 to 0.471 (expressed as enantiomer fraction).

  7. Effect of Agave tequilana juice on cell wall polysaccharides of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca; Arrizon, Javier; Ramirez, Jesús; Solis-Pacheco, Josué

    2007-02-01

    In this study, a characterization of cell wall polysaccharide composition of three yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages was performed. The three yeast strains were isolated from different media (tequila, mezcal and bakery) and were evaluated for the beta(1,3)-glucanase lytic activity and the beta-glucan/ mannan ratio during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice and in YPD media (control). Fermentations were performed in shake flasks with 30 g l(-1) sugar concentration of A. tequilana juice and with the control YPD using 30 g l(-1) of glucose. The three yeasts strains showed different levels of beta-glucan and mannan when they were grown in A. tequilana juice in comparison to the YPD media. The maximum rate of cell wall lyses was 50% lower in fermentations with A. tequilana juice for yeasts isolated from tequila and mezcal than compared to the bakery yeast.

  8. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  9. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  10. Soursop juice stabilized with soy fractions: a rheologial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Fasolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS as a stabilizer in acidic beverages was evaluated using rheological and stability studies. For this purpose, soy-based beverages were formulated with soy protein isolate (SPI and soursop juice due to the low stability of this kind of dispersion. The influences of the concentrations of soybean soluble polysaccharide, calcium chloride, and soy protein isolate on the stability and rheology of soursop juice were evaluated using a factorial experimental design. Interactions between the concentrations of soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein isolate exerted a positive effect on the maximum Newtonian viscosity. The stability was positively influenced by the soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein isolate concentrations, but the interactions between soy protein isolate and CaCl2 also affected the sedimentation index. These results suggest that soybean soluble polysaccharide is effective in stabilizing fibers and proteins in acidic suspensions due to the increase in viscosity and steric effect caused by the formation of complexes between the soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein isolate.

  11. Effects of pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices on the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2015-05-04

    The present study examined the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores after inoculation into apple, pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices (10, 20, 40 and 80%, v/v). Also, the effect of sporulation medium was tested using mineral [Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA) and Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA)] and non-mineral containing media [potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA)]. The juice samples were inoculated separately with approximately 10(5)CFU/mL cells or spores from different sporulation media and then incubated at 37°C for 336 h. The number of cells decreased significantly with increasing pomegranate juice concentration in the blend juices and storage time (ppomegranate juices, respectively while the cell counts attained approximately 7.17 log CFU/mL in apple juice after 336 h. On the other hand, the cell growth was inhibited for a certain time, and then the numbers started to increase after 72 and 144 h in 10% and 20% blend juices, respectively. After 336 h, total population among spores produced on PDA, BATA, BAA and MEA indicated 1.49, 1.65, 1.67, and 1.28 log reductions in pomegranate juice; and 1.51, 1.38, 1.40 and 1.16 log reductions in 80% blend juice, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 10%, 20% and 40% blend juices varied depending on the sporulation media used. The results obtained in this study suggested that pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices could inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores.

  12. Optimization of process parameters for enhanced production of Jamun juice using Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) enzyme and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Payel; Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Mishra, Sabyasachi

    2016-12-01

    Jamun fruit comprises of seed and thick pulp. The pectin-protein bond of the thick pulp creates difficulty in making juice. Clear Jamun juice is not available in the market, so there is a need for extraction of juice with maximum yield. The goal of this research is to obtain high yield of clarified juice with the help of Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) enzyme. The study was conducted at different enzyme concentration (0.01-0.1%), time duration (40-120 min), and temperature (30-50 °C). Various physical and chemical parameters, such as yield, turbidity, viscosity, clarity, colour, polyphenol, protein, TSS, and total solid, were measured as dependent variables. Process optimization has been done using Box-Behnken design. Optimization has been done for maximum yield percentage, L* value, a* value, protein, and polyphenol content, and minimum values for turbidity, viscosity, clarity, b* value, TSS, and total solid content. The suggested parameters for extraction of juice were at 0.05% enzyme concentration at 44 °C for 80 min. In a large-scale production, extraction of juice by Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) has a significance importance due to its high yield as well as nutritional values.

  13. Study on detection method of arbutin in pomegranate juice concentrates by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%浓缩石榴汁中熊果苷的超高效液相-串联质谱检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 孔祥虹; 李建华; 乐爱山; 吴双民

    2012-01-01

    建立了浓缩石榴汁样品中熊果苷含量测定的固相萃取-超高效液相-串联质谱测定方法。样品用水稀释,HLB和氨基固相萃取柱净化,采用BEHAmide色谱柱(100mm×2.1mm,1.7μm)分离,以乙腈和水梯度洗脱,多反应监测模式测定,定量离子对为m/z271.2〉108.0,定性离子对为m/z271.2〉160.9,外标法定量。熊果苷的检测限为0.006mg/kg,在0.004~0.2mg/L浓度范围内,熊果苷的线性相关系数为0.9994,熊果苷的加标回收率均在80.6%~108.1%范围内,相对标准偏差均低于8.3%。该方法样品净化效果良好,检测简便、快速、准确,能够满足浓缩石榴汁中熊果苷含量测定和定性确证的要求。%A method was developed for the determination of arbutin in pomegranate juice concentrate by solid phase extraction(SPE)and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS).Samples were diluted by water and then cleanup with HLB and aminopropyl SPE columns.UPLC was performed on a BEH Amide column(100mm×2.1mm,1.7μm)using a gradient acetonitrile-water system as mobile phase,and MS/MS was performed with multiple reation monitoring(MRM)mode using m/z 271.2108.0 as quantitative ion pair and m/z 271.2160.9 as qualitative ion pair.Quantitation was carried out using an external standard method.The detection limit of arbutin was 0.006mg/kg and the calibration curves were linear at the range of 0.004~0.2mg/L with linear correlation coefficient as 0.9994.The recoveries ranged from 80.6% to 108.1% with relative standard deviations less than 8.3%.The results of sample cleanup were well,and the determination method was simple,fast and sufficient.It was suitable for quantitative and qualitative analysis of arbutin in pomegranate juice concentrate.

  14. Validación de la metodología ICUMSA "Draft Method Nº 3" para determinar la concentración de almidón en jugos de caña de azúcar Validation of ICUMSA Draft Method No. 3 to determine starch concentration in sugar cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Silvia Zossi

    2011-06-01

    quantification at different production stages is common in process industry, where α-amylase enzyme is used to diminish the negative effects arising from an excess in starch contents. The laboratory of Sección Química of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, working under a certified quality management system, always strives to update and replace methodologies with those which produce better results. Thus the application of ICUMSA Draft Method No. 3 was validated for determining starch in sugar cane juice, on account of its simplicity, quick results and the low costs incurred in its use, as compared with other methods previously used in the lab. Parameters were determined to establish its repeatability, reproducibility and uncertainty degrees. Results showed that this technique is appropriate for determining starch in sugar cane juice at concentrations between 43.75 and 500 mg/l, with an uncertainty of ± 6.22% when a security factor of 2 was used.

  15. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  16. Research of the processing technique of the cider with apple concentrated juice%利用浓缩苹果汁生产苹果干酒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝霞; 韩舜愈; 杨学山; 王婧; 盛文军; 张波

    2013-01-01

    以浓缩苹果汁为原料,利用单因素实验和正交实验对全汁型苹果干酒的发酵条件进行了优化.同时研究了不同发酵条件下,苹果汁中的糖、酸、酒精度的变化趋势.结果表明:利用浓缩苹果汁酿制苹果干酒的最佳工艺条件为:温度20℃、酸度pH3.6、糖度23%、酵母菌种为活性干酵母.在此条件下发酵得到的产品,其感官评定平均分数达到92.5分.%Concentrated apple purified liquor was used as raw material to produce purified liqueur and the fermentation condition was optimized through the single factor test and the orthogonal test.The content change trend of sugar, acid and alcohol was also studied in this paper. The best fermentation condition was that the temperature 20℃,pH3.6,the sugar content 23% and the yeast was the active dry yeast.The product under this condition showed properties of transparent persistence, apple aroma, taste flavor of solidness and color consistency.No layer and browning existed in the product.And the average score of sensory evaluation was 92.5.

  17. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  18. 出口浓缩果汁中脂环酸芽孢杆菌的分离及相关生物学特性的研究%Research of isolation and physiological characteristics of the Alicyclobacillus isolated from apple juice concentrate export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇霞; 李儒

    2013-01-01

    通过对甘肃省内浓缩苹果汁生产企业的浓缩苹果汁成品以及浓缩苹果汁生产中的主要生产工段进行无菌取样,共采集144个样品,经过分离、筛选和纯化,共得到59株分离菌株,并与标准菌株Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (ATCC 49025)、Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus(ATCC 49029)进行对比分析.结果表明在耐热、耐酸性检验中,可以较好地生长,符合脂环酸芽孢杆菌属嗜酸耐热的特点;细胞、菌落形态观察、生长条件、生理生化特征和糖、醇利用等方面与标准菌株有较大的相似性.%After the separation,screening and purification,59 strains were isolated in 144 samples including polluted apple juice concentrate production and the major sections of its in Gansu Province. Comparative analysis the isolated strains with standard strains,the result showed that they were heat-resistant and acid-endurant,which matched with the characteristics of the thermoacidiphilic Alicyclobacillus spp. The comparison results with the standard strains in terms of cellular morphology, colony morphology, cultural characteristics, physiological characteristics and sugar/alcohols utilization showed that,the isolated strains had great similarity with the standard strain.

  19. Effect of citrus juice and SLCO2B1 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougey, E B; Lang, J E; Wen, X; Lima, J J

    2011-05-01

    Previously the authors found that a common polymorphism, rs12422149 (SLCO2B1{NM_007256.2}:c.935G>A), in the gene coding for OATP2B1, was associated with absorption of and response to montelukast in humans. In vitro studies showed that citrus juice could reduce the permeability of montelukast consistent with known inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptides. To study the clinical significance of c.935G>A, the authors conducted a single-dose, pharmacokinetic study of montelukast co-ingested with citrus juice. On average, co-ingestion with either orange juice or 4× concentrated grapefruit juice had a minimal effect on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinite time (AUC(0→∞)) of montelukast relative to co-ingestion with Gatorade control (n = 24). However when the data were stratified by genotype at c.935 (G/G n = 21, A/G n = 5), a significant reduction in AUC(0→∞) was detected with orange juice in G/G homozygotes (AUC(0→∞), G/G, Gatorade = 2560 ± 900 ng·h·mL(-1) vs AUC(0→∞), G/G, orange juice = 2010 ± 650 ng·h·mL(-1), P = .032). Significantly, A/G heterozygotes showed reduced AUC(0→∞) relative to G/G homozygotes, independent of treatment (AUC(0→∞), G/G, combined treatments = 2310 ± 820 ng·h·mL(-1) vs AUC(0→∞), A/G, combined treatments = 1460 ± 340 ng·h·mL(-1), P = 2.0 × 10(-5)) replicating previous observations.

  20. Study on genotypic variation for ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnavathi, C.V.; Suresh, K.; Kumar, B.S. Vijay; Pallavi, M.; Komala, V.V.; Seetharama, N. [Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-07-15

    Sugarcane molasses is the main source for ethanol production in India. Sweet sorghum with its juicy stem containing sugars equivalent to that of sugarcane is a very good alternative for bio-ethanol production to meet the energy needs of the country. Sweet sorghum is drought resistant, water logging resistant and saline-alkaline tolerant. Growing sweet sorghum for ethanol production is relatively easy and economical and ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is eco-friendly. In view of this, it is important to identify superior genotypes for ethanol production in terms of percent juice brix, juice extractability, total fermentable sugars, ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency. This paper presents the study on the variability observed for the production of ethanol by various sweet sorghum genotypes in a laboratory fermentor. Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes were evaluated for ethanol production from stalk juice (Keller, SSV 84, Wray, NSSH 104 and BJ 248). Sweet sorghum juice differs from cane juice mainly in its higher content of starch and aconitic acid. Data were collected for biomass yield; stalk sugar yield and ethanol production in five genotypes. Maximum ethanol production of 9.0%w/v ethanol was obtained with Keller variety (20% sugar concentration was used), and decreased for other genotypes. A distiller's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gifted by Seagram Distilleries Ltd.) was employed for fermentation. The fermentation efficiency (FE) was 94.7% for this strain. High biomass of yeast was obtained with BJ 248 variety. When the similar experiments were conducted with unsterile sweet sorghum juice (15% sugar concentration) 6.47%w/v ethanol was produced. (author)

  1. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  2. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  3. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  4. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  5. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  6. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... vegetable juices includes steps like extraction, clarification, and stabilization .... given by INRAB. Methods. Juice extraction: The collected cashew fruits were ...... Clarification, Preservation and Shelf Life. Evaluation of Cashew ...

  7. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  9. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  10. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices: chemical composition, micronutrient cations, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kar, Chiraz; Ferchichi, Ali; Attia, Faouzi; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-08-01

    Phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins of pomegranate juices, obtained from 9 Tunisian ecotypes were quantified. Phenolics and flavonoids in the variety Tounsi (TN) (3299 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/L and 636 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/L of juice, respectively) were higher than in the variety Gabsi (GB) (1570 mg GAE/L and 135 mg QE/L of juice, respectively). The highest anthocyanins quantity was found in GB 2 with 156 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (CGE)/L. TN 3 ecotype showed the highest tannins quantity with 2550 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/L of juice. TN 1 presented the highest radical-scavenging activity (2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS], IC₅₀ [50% inhibition concentration] = 525 mg/L), as well as the highest concentration of micronutrient cations (potassium and sodium). A high correlation (R² = 0.80) between antioxidant capacity and proanthocyanin contents was found, this suggests that proanthocyanins are the principal contributor in the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate. Our data suggest also that the high concentrations of K⁺ and Na⁺ may play a role in the adaptation of pomegranate to arid environments.

  11. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R., E-mail: jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States); Baalousha, M., E-mail: mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-L-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80–100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20–100 μg L{sup −1}). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation

  12. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  13. [Obtainment of pineapple juice powder by foam-mat drying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, C I; Cortés, R; Casillas, M A; Díaz, R

    1991-06-01

    The foam-mat production and stability using pineapple juice concentrate (25, 30 and 40 degrees Brix), adding a surfactants mixture and maltodextrin (DE 10) as co-adjuvant, stirred in a commercial mixer, was studied. Adequate foam formation conditions were as follows: concentrate of 25 degrees Brix using surface active agents (Sorbac 60-Polisorbac 80) 0.285% surface active agent/total solids, HLB = 6, and stirring time, 7 min. The foam was dehydrated in an oven dried with a horizontal air flow circulation set at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C using 3, 5 and 10 mm bed depths. The best conditions were obtained at 60 degrees C and 5 mm bed depth. The product had a particle size of sieve 40-80, and a moisture content of 3%. It was then packaged in multilayer plastic film and stored at environmental conditions. No brown color formation or mold growth was detected during storage. Pineapple juice and a refreshing drink were prepared. The general acceptability in a community indicated that 95% of the population involved accepted the product.

  14. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  15. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  16. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  17. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  18. Semi-empirical model of the maximum electron concentration in the ionosphere: Comparison with data from Toluca (México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Manuel; Cipagauta, Carolina; Foppiano, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    A simple semi-empirical model to determine the maximum electron concentration in the ionosphere (NmF2) for South American locations is used to calculate NmF2 for a northern hemisphere station in the same longitude sector. NmF2 is determined as the sum of two terms, one related to photochemical and diffusive processes and the other one to transport mechanisms. The model gives diurnal variations of NmF2 representative for winter, summer and equinox conditions, during intervals of high and low solar activity. Model NmF2 results are compared with ionosonde observations made at Toluca-México (19.3°N; 260°E). Differences between model results and observations are similar to those corresponding to comparisons with South American observations. It seems that further improvement of the model could be made by refining the latitude dependencies of coefficients used for the transport term.

  19. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A; Lead, J R; Baalousha, M

    2015-12-15

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-l-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80-100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20-100 μg L(-1)). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation force and

  20. Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiated human lymphocytes from healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Itaki, Chieko; Saito, Ayako; Yonezawa, Toko; Aizawa, Koichi; Hirai, Ayumi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tomisato; Mariya, Yasushi; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2017-05-12

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0.25 mg β-carotene, per day for 3 weeks and then refrain from drinking it for 3 weeks. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected before and after the intake period of tomato juice and after the washout period. The blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 Gy. Cytogenetic damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the dicentrics (DIC) assay. The level of oxidative stress was determined using serum 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROMs). The concentration of carotenoids in plasma was measured at the three time points. The levels of 8-oxo-dG tended to decrease during the intake period and increase during the washout period. A non-significant inverse correlation was noted between the plasma concentration of lycopene plus β-carotene and the level of 8-oxo-dG (P = 0.064). The radiation-induced MN and DIC frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner, and when compared at the same dose, the MN and DIC frequencies decreased during the intake period compared with those at baseline and then increased during the washout period. The results suggest that continuous tomato juice consumption non-significantly decreases extracellular 8-oxo-dG, d-ROMs, and MN. Tomato juice intake had minimal or no effect on radiation-induced 8-oxo-dG and d-ROMs. For most radiation doses, continuously tomato juice intake lowered the levels of MN and DIC. Tomato juice

  1. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Commercial Fruit Juice Samples by Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in commercial fruit juice by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 490 mV on a Pt disc working electrode (versus SCE). The influence of the potential sweep speed on the peak height was studied. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between peak height and ascorbic acid concentration in the domain (0.1–10 mmol·L−1). The equation of the calibration graph was y = 6.391x + 0.1903 (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the anodic peak height, expressed as μA and x the analyte concentration, as mmol·L−1, r2 = 0.9995, r.s.d. = 1.14%, n = 10, Cascorbic acid = 2 mmol·L−1). The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juice. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged from 0.83 to 1.67 mmol·L−1 for orange juice, from 0.58 to 1.93 mmol·L−1 for lemon juice, and from 0.46 to 1.84 mmol·L−1 for grapefruit juice. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.35% and 104%. Ascorbic acid determination results obtained by cyclic voltammetry were compared with those obtained by the volumetric method with dichlorophenol indophenol. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:19343183

  2. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Juice on Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity and its Hypouricemic and Antioxidant Effects on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, F; Mohammad Shahi, M; Keshavarz, S A; Rashidi, M R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (PTart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (Ptart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (Ptart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of UV radiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) in fruit juices of different absorptivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Juan M; Peltzer, Mercedes; Gannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of UV light for inactivating E. coli (ATCC 25922) and E. coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) was examined in fruit juices (orange, apple, and multifruit) with different absorptivities under several operating conditions (liquid film thickness and agitation rate). The juices were inoculated with two bacterial concentrations (10(5) and 10(7) CFU/ml) and were treated using a UV desinfection unit at 254 nm; UV doses ranged from 0 to 6 J/cm2. The effect of the culture medium, tryptone soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), on the recovery of E. coli strains exposed to UV radiation was also analyzed. The most suitable culture medium for recovery of E. coli strains in juices exposed to UV radiation was TSA. Values of D (radiation dose [joules per square centimeter] necessary to decrease the microbial population by 90%) obtained in all juices assessed were higher in TSA than in SMAC. In the juices analyzed, stirring of the medium exposed to UV radiation and reducing liquid film thickness (to 0.7 mm) produced the highest bactericidal effect. A linear relationship was found between the D-values obtained and the absorptivity coefficients for all the juices. The higher the absorbance of the medium, the greater the values of D required to inactivate E. coli strains by UV radiation. An equation was developed to describe the relationship of the fraction of energy absorbed by the system (absorbed energy factor [AEF]), the thickness of the film exposed to UV radiation, and the absorptivity coefficient of the juices. A linear relationship was found between D and AEF in the different juices tested.

  5. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  6. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  7. Comparison of phenolic compounds of orange juice processed by pulsed electric fields (PEF) and conventional thermal pasteurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agcam, E; Akyıldız, A; Akdemir Evrendilek, G

    2014-01-15

    Processing of orange juice by pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurisation was carried out to compare changes in total phenolic concentration, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavones and flavonones before and after being stored at 4°C for 180days. Changes in the initial total phenolic concentration of the samples varied depending on the applied electric field intensity and thermal pasteurisation. Hesperidin and chlorogenic acids were detected as the most abounded flavonoid and phenolic acids in the orange juice, respectively. Except for syringic acid and neoeriocitrin, the concentration of the phenolic compounds indentified in the orange juice samples enhanced after the PEF or thermal pasteurisation. The samples treated with PEF had more stable flavonoids and phenolic acids than those treated with the thermal pasteurisation. The PEF-treated samples had higher sensory scores than the heat-treated samples.

  8. Heavy Metal Removal from Commercially-available Fruit Juice Packaged Products by Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing trend in the production and consumption of local and imported fruit juices in Iran. The presence of impurities and foreign matter in finished products for human consumption is of great concern because they present health hazards when they exceed beneficial limits. The manufacture of juices requires special attention in terms of purity and the sources of water and its purification are crucial for maintaining quality and safety. Biosorption can be defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by biological material. citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. Levels of heavy metals: Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in 180 selected fruit juice commercially available packaged samples (Pineapple, Orange, Mango, Tropical, Cherry& Grape purchased from Tehran local Market in 2014. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS by wet digestion method in Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran-Iran. From the obtained result Ni, Cd and Pb were detectable in 85% of samples especially in Mango and Tropical juices. The efficiency removal of Nickel, lead and Cadmium and neutralization of calculus contain of juice by Citric acid as a chelating were carried out by using of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and cadmium in addition to this removal were increased by increasing the citric acid. The enhancing of citric acid in removal of lead and cadmium caused to create a

  9. Luminescence studies of zinc borates activated with different concentrations of Ce and La under x-ray and electron excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, N; Ayvacikli, M; Akça, S; Yüksel, M; Guinea, J Garcia; Karabulut, Y; Canimoglu, A; Topaksu, M; Can, N

    2017-09-01

    Several ZnB2O4 powder samples having dopants concentrations of 0.1, 0.01, 0.04wt% Ce and La were prepared using the nitric acid method via the starting oxides. Several complementary methods such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), Radioluminescence (RL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques were used. Unique luminescence properties of Ce doped ZnB2O4 powder samples are reported for the first time. A new luminescence bands appearing in red part of the spectrum and having all the characteristics of Ce(3+) were obtained from RL results. Changing the Ce and La concentration of 0.01-0.1wt% leads to an increase in RL and CL intensities of Ce(3+) and La(3+) ions and also CL emission spectra of ZnB2O4 show gradual shift towards longer wavelength. When we compare the luminescence intensity of the samples it is seen that Ce doped ZnB2O4 has the highest intense whereas La doped ZnB2O4 has the lowest one. However, emission spectra of both Ce and La doped samples kept unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pomegranate Juice (Punica Granatum): A New Storage Medium for Avulsed Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Aliasghar, Elham; Babaki, Fatemeh Ahmadian; Emadi, Fatemeh; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence indicating that pomegranate juice contains many of the essential properties necessary to retain cell viability and cell proliferation. These properties indicate that pomegranate juice is a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. However, this idea has not yet been tested. In this study, the capacity of pomegranate juice (PJ) as a storage medium for retaining avulsed teeth was evaluated. Materials and Methods: PDL fibroblasts were obtained from healthy human premolars and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). Cultured cells were subjected to different concentrations of pomegranate juice (PJ), 1% Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) and tap water for 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by the neutral red uptake assay. Results: The results indicated that 7.5% PJ was the most effective solution for maintaining PDL cell viability amongst all the experimental solution’s and time intervals (P<0.05). The results also showed that 1% PJ was as effective as HBSS for maintaining PDL cell viability. The amount of cell viability increased with increasing concentration of PJ at all time intervals (P<0.001). This effect is suggestive of the proliferative potential of PJ solution. Conclusion: In conclusion, PJ can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:24910699

  11. Pomegranate juice (punica granatum: a new storage medium for avulsed teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tavassoli-Hojjati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence indicating that pomegranate juice contains many of the essential properties necessary to retain cell viability and cell proliferation. These properties indicate that pomegranate juice is a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. However, this idea has not yet been tested. In this study, the capacity of pomegranate juice (PJ as a storage medium for retaining avulsed teeth was evaluated.PDL fibroblasts were obtained from healthy human premolars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM. Cultured cells were subjected to different concentrations of pomegranate juice (PJ, 1% Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS and tap water for 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by the neutral red uptake assay.The results indicated that 7.5% PJ was the most effective solution for maintaining PDL cell viability amongst all the experimental solution's and time intervals (P<0.05. The results also showed that 1% PJ was as effective as HBSS for maintaining PDL cell viability. The amount of cell viability increased with increasing concentration of PJ at all time intervals (P<0.001. This effect is suggestive of the proliferative potential of PJ solution.In conclusion, PJ can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  12. Influence of electron donors and copper concentration on geochemical and mineralogical processes under conditions of biological sulphate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Sulphidogenous microorganism communities were isolated from soil polluted by crude oil. The study was focused on determining the influence of 1) copper (II) concentration on the activity of selected microorganism communities and 2) the applied electron donor on the course and evolution of mineral-forming processes under conditions favouring growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The influence of copper concentration on the activity of selected microorganism communities and the type of mineral phases formed was determined during experiments in which copper (II) chloride at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7 g/L was added to SRB cultures. The experiments were performed in two variants: with ethanol (4 g/L) or lactate (4 g/L) as the sole carbon source. In order to determine the taxonomic composition of the selected microorganism communities, the 16S rRNA method was used. Results of this analysis confirmed the presence of Desulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium, Desulfotalea, Thermotoga, Solibacter, Gramella, Anaeromyxobacter and Myxococcus sp. in the stationary cultures. The post-culture sediments contained covelline (CuS) and digenite (Cu9S5 ). Based on the results, it can be stated that the type of carbon source applied during incubation plays a crucial role in determining the mineral composition of the post-culture sediments. Thus, regardless of the amount of copper ion introduced to a culture with lactate as the sole carbon source, no copper sulphide was observed in the post-culture sediments. Cultures with ethanol as the sole carbon source, on the other hand, yielded covelline or digenite in all post-culture sediments.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.

  15. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol, 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups. Results Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations. Conclusion Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice.

  16. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  17. The transversal strength of acrylic resin plate after being immersed soaking in noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia Linn. juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Indiani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages of acrylic resin plate are liquid absorption and porosity, allowing microorganisms to grow and multiply resulting in inflammation in the oral cavity. The juice of the noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia Linn. contains active flavonoid and atsiri oil. Flavonoid is a phenol substance that degrades acrylic resin plate in prolonged contact. The purpose of this study was to examine the transversal strength of acrylic resin plate after being immersed in noni fruit juice. An acrylic resin plate of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm was immersed in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of noni fruit juice and distilled water in a control group for 31, 46, and 61 days. The transversal strength of acrylic resin plate was tested using an autograph with a crosshead speed of 1/10mm/second; the distance for the two supporting parts was 50 mm. The data was analyzed by using a One–Way ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the transversal strength of the plate after being soaked for 31, 46, and 61 days in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of the juice. This study showed that the soaking of acrylic resin plate for 31, 46, and 61 days in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of noni fruit juice does not decrease the transversal strength.

  18. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice using very high gravity technology: effects of carbon and nitrogen supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Nuanpeng, Sunan; Srinophakun, Penjit; Klanrit, Preekamol; Laopaiboon, Pattana

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP01 was investigated under very high gravity (VHG) fermentation and various carbon adjuncts and nitrogen sources. When sucrose was used as an adjunct, the sweet sorghum juice containing total sugar of 280 g l(-1), 3 g yeast extract l(-1) and 5 g peptone l(-1) gave the maximum ethanol production efficiency with concentration, productivity and yield of 120.68+/-0.54 g l(-1), 2.01+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.51+/-0.00 g g(-1), respectively. When sugarcane molasses was used as an adjunct, the juice under the same conditions gave the maximum ethanol concentration, productivity and yield with the values of 109.34+/-0.78 g l(-1), 1.52+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.45+/-0.01 g g(-1), respectively. In addition, ammonium sulphate was not suitable for use as a nitrogen supplement in the sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production since it caused the reduction in ethanol concentration and yield for approximately 14% when compared to those of the unsupplemented juices.

  19. Impact of citrus soft drinks relative to grapefruit juice on ciclosporin disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ute I; Johnston, Philip E; Bailey, David G; Kim, Richard B; Mayo, Gail; Milstone, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aims A recent case report had suggested a citrus soft drink (Sun Drop®) may have caused clinically relevant elevations in ciclosporin levels through a grapefruit juice-like mechanism via inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study was conducted to investigate the effect of grapefruit juice and citrus sodas Sun Drop® and Fresca®, the latter soda containing 83-fold higher concentration of the proposed CYP3A4 inhibitor bergamottin than Sun Drop®, relative to water on oral ciclosporin pharmacokinetics. Methods In a randomized four-way crossover study with a washout of at least 1 week, 12 healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of ciclosporin (Neoral®) with Sun Drop®, Fresca®, grapefruit juice and water (control). Each drink (591 ml) was consumed twice on the prior day and three times on the study day. Whole blood concentrations of ciclosporin were measured up to 24 h with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Results Grapefruit juice increased area under the concentration–time curve by 186% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval of mean difference 3302–6240 ng ml h−1) and peak concentration by 150% (P < 0.0001) of ciclosporin with a significant decrease in oral clearance of 43% (P < 0.0001) when compared with water. Neither citrus soda altered significantly ciclosporin pharmacokinetic variables; changes in mean values ranged from ±3 to 11% of the corresponding water value. Conclusion Although our results do not support a clinically relevant grapefruit juice-like interaction between oral ciclosporin and citrus constituent containing sodas Sun Drop® or Fresca®, an effect in the setting of chronic ciclosporin therapy cannot be ruled out. PMID:16995870

  20. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  1. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  2. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  3. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Nuria; Mena, Pedro; Cánovas, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Saura, Domingo

    2009-05-01

    The literature on the content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) in citrus juices in relation to industrial practices is reviewed. The role of vitamin C from citrus juices in human diet is also reviewed. Citrus fruits and juices are rich in several types of bioactive compounds. Their antioxidant activity and related benefits derive not only from vitamin C but also from other phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids. During juice processing, temperature and oxygen are the main factors responsible for vitamin C losses. Non-thermal processed juices retain higher levels of vitamin C, but economic factors apparently delay the use of such methods in the citrus industry. Regarding packing material, vitamin C in fruit juice is quite stable when stored in metal or glass containers, whereas juice stored in plastic bottles has a much shorter shelf-life. The limiting step for vitamin C absorption in humans is transcellular active transport across the intestinal wall where AA may be oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), which is easily transported across the cell membrane and immediately reduced back to AA by two major pathways. AA bioavailability in the presence of flavonoids has yielded controversial results. Whereas flavonoids seem to inhibit intestinal absorption of AA, some studies have shown that AA in citrus extract was more available than synthetic ascorbic acid alone. DHAA is reported to possess equivalent biological activity to AA, so recent studies often consider the vitamin C activity in the diet as the sum of AA plus DHAA. However, this claimed equivalence should be carefully reexamined. Humans are one of the few species lacking the enzyme (L-gulonolactone oxidase, GLO) to convert glucose to vitamin C. It has been suggested that this is due to a mutation that provided a survival advantage to early primates, since GLO produces toxic H2O2. Furthermore, the high concentration of AA (and DHAA) in neural tissues could have been the key factor that caused

  5. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  6. Determination of production efficiency, color, glass transition, and sticky point temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Sajad Ahmad Wani; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the powder recovery, color characteristics, glass transition temperature (Tg), and sticky point (Ts) temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder as affected by different concentrations of maltodextrin (DE 20). Five different combinations of pomegranate juice and maltodextrin (95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 75:25 v/w) were prepared and spray dried in a laboratory-type spray dryer. Increase in concentration of maltodextrin significantly increased the...

  7. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  8. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  9. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  10. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. The food may contain one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  12. Electron concentration dependence of optical band gap shift in Ga-doped ZnO thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Tang, Wu, E-mail: tang@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhao, Junliang [Shanghai Juntech Co. Ltd., 1378 Xingxian Road, Shanghai 201815 (China)

    2014-08-28

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of the deposited GZO films were evaluated using an optical transmission measurement. The optical band gap increased from 3.32 eV to 3.45 eV with the increasing carrier density from 2.0 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} to 3.24 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Based on the experimental results, the optical band gap as a function of carrier density is systematically investigated with four available theoretical models taken into consideration. The blueshift of the optical band gap in GZO films can be well interpreted with a complex model which combines the Burstein–Moss effect, the band gap renormalization effect and the nonparabolic nature of conduction band. In addition, the BM contribution is almost offset by the BGR effect in both conduction band and valence band due to the approximate equality between electron and hole effective masses in GZO films with a nonparabolic conduction band. The tunability of optical band gap in GZO thin films by carrier density offers a number of potential advantages in the development of semiconductor optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • The effects of electron concentration on optical band gap were analyzed. • The measured optical band gap corresponded well with the calculated ones. • The Burstein–Moss (BM) and band gap renormalization (BGR) effects were considered. • Nonparabolic conduction band parameters were used in theoretical analysis. • The BM effect was offset by the BGR effect in both conduction band and valence band.

  13. Amperometric microsensor for direct probing of ascorbic acid in human gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Emily A; Pauliukaitė, Rasa; Hocevar, Samo B; Ogorevc, Božidar; Smyth, Malcolm R

    2010-09-30

    This article reports on a novel microsensor for amperometric measurement of ascorbic acid (AA) under acidic conditions (pH 2) based on a carbon fiber microelectrode (CFME) modified with nickel oxide and ruthenium hexacyanoferrate (NiO-RuHCF). This sensing layer was deposited electrochemically in a two-step procedure involving an initial galvanostatic NiO deposition followed by a potentiodynamic RuHCF deposition from solutions containing the precursor salts. Several important parameters were examined to characterize and optimize the NiO-RuHCF sensing layer with respect to its current response to AA by using cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods. With the NiO-RuHCF coated CFME, the AA oxidation potential under acidic conditions was shifted to a less positive value for about 0.2 V (E(p) of ca. 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl) as compared to a bare CFME, which greatly improves the electrochemical selectivity. Using the hydrodynamic amperometry mode, the current vs. AA concentration in 0.01 M HCl, at a selected operating potential of 0.30 V, was found to be linear over a wide range of 10-1610 μM (n=22, r=0.999) with a calculated limit of detection of 1.0 μM. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory with a relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) ranging from 4% to 5% (n=6), depending on the AA concentration, and with a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (r.s.d.) of 6.9% at 100 μM AA. The long-term reproducibility, using the same microsensor for 112 consecutive measurements of 20 μM AA over 11 h of periodic probing sets over 4 days, was 16.1% r.s.d., thus showing very good stability at low AA levels and suitability for use over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, using the proposed microsensor, additionally coated with a protective cellulose acetate membrane, the calibration plot obtained in the extremely complex matrix of real undiluted gastric juice was linear from 10 to 520 μM (n=14, r=0.998). These results

  14. Investigation of optimum ohmic heating conditions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-19

    Control of foodborne pathogens is an important issue for the fruit juice industry and ohmic heating treatment has been considered as one of the promising antimicrobial interventions. However, to date, evaluation of the relationship between inactivation of foodborne pathogens and system performance efficiency based on differing soluble solids content of apple juice during ohmic heating treatment has not been well studied. This study aims to investigate effective voltage gradients of an ohmic heating system and corresponding sugar concentrations (°Brix) of apple juice for inactivating major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes) while maintaining higher system performance efficiency. Voltage gradients of 30, 40, 50, and 60 V/cm were applied to 72, 48, 36, 24, and 18 °Brix apple juices. At all voltage levels, the lowest heating rate was observed in 72 °Brix apple juice and a similar pattern of temperature increase was shown in18-48 °Brix juice samples. System performance coefficients (SPC) under two treatment conditions (30 V/cm in 36 °Brix or 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix juice) were relatively greater than for other combinations. Meanwhile, 5-log reductions of the three foodborne pathogens were achieved after treatment for 60 s in 36 °Brix at 30 V/cm, but this same reduction was observed in 48 °Brix juice at 60 V/cm within 20 s without affecting product quality. With respect to both bactericidal efficiency and SPC values, 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix was the most effective ohmic heating treatment combination for decontaminating apple juice concentrates.

  15. Tracking the degradation of fresh orange juice and discrimination of orange varieties: an example of NMR in coordination with chemometrics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Clayton R; Carneiro, Renato L; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is currently the largest exporter of concentrated orange juice and, unlike the other exporter countries, the domestic consumption is mainly based on the fresh orange juice. The quality control by evaluating the major chemical constituents under the influence of the most important factors, such as temperature and storage time of the product, is very important in this context. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and time on the degradation of fresh orange juice for 24h, by using (1)H NMR technique and chemometric tools for data mining. The storage conditions at 24h led to the production of the formic, fumaric and acetic acids; and an increase of succinic and lactic acids and ethanol, which were observed at low concentration at the initial time. Furthermore, analysis by PCA has successfully distinguished the juice of different species/varieties as well as the metabolites responsible for their separation.

  16. Anatomical mercury speciation in bay scallops by thio-bearing chelating resin concentration and GC-electron capture detector determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Yang, Guipeng

    2014-01-01

    The highly toxic methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury species that may exist in the three main anatomical parts - the adductor muscle, the mantle and the visceral mass - of bay scallops (Argopecten irradias) were quantitatively released by cupric chloride, zinc acetate, sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid (HCl) under ultrasonic extraction. After centrifugation, the mercury species in the supernatant were concentrated by thio (SH)-bearing chelating resins, eluted with HClO4 and HCl and extracted with toluene. Separation was achieved by capillary GC equipped with programmed temperatures, a constant nitrogen flow and detected by a micro-electron capture detector (μECD). Under optimised conditions, the LODs for methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury in bay scallop samples were 1.1, 0.65 and 0.80 ng g(-1), respectively. The maximum RSD for three replicate determinations of methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury in bay scallop samples were 13.7%, 14.0% and 11.2%, respectively. In the concentration range of 4-200 ng g(-1) in bay scallop samples, the calibration graphs were linear with correlation coefficients not less than 0.997. Recoveries for spiked samples were in the range of 92.7-103.5% (methylmercury), 87.5-108.3% (ethylmercury) and 91.6-106.0% (phenylmercury), respectively. The method was verified by the determination of methylmercury in a CRM GBW10029 (Total Mercury and Methyl Mercury in Fish Tissue), with results in good agreement with the certified values. Methylmercury - the only existing species in bay scallops - was successfully determined by the method.

  17. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, R. M.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter.

  18. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2004-11-02

    Aromatic amines are metabolically activated into mutagenic compounds by both animal and plant systems. The 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP) is a well-known direct-acting mutagen whose mutagenic potential can be enhanced by plant metabolism; m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) is converted to mutagenic products detected by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain, and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) is the plant-activated promutagen most extensively studied. Plant cells activate both 2-AF and m-PDA into potent mutagens producing DNA frameshift mutations. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a common plant included in the Mexican diet, usually consumed uncooked. The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected antimutagenic effect. Protein content and peroxidase activity were also determined. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic inhibition could be involved. The negative correlation between chlorophyll content and mutagenic response of the promutagenic and direct-acting used amines allows us to deduce that a chemical interaction takes place between the two molecules

  19. Preparation of Soy Protein Fruit Juice%大豆蛋白果汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭睿; 杨晓泉; 杨熙

    2012-01-01

    The preparation method of high-protein fruit juice was studied. When added soy protein, the acidic beverages like fruit juice would have the phenomenon of precipitation. Use Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL) to induce soy protein to form the gelatin, then add this protein into the juice. Study the effect of different concentrations of GDL and protein on the stability of products, and illustrate the mechanism of this method on stabilizing the protein in fruit juice. The result showed that reducing the potential and Z-Average of protein was the main reason of stabilizing the protein in the fruit juice, and moderate concentration of GDL and protein, as well as homogenization pressure and number of times would play a significant improvement on the stability of the products.%研究了高蛋白果汁的制备方法。在果汁等酸性饮料中添加大豆蛋白,会导致产品中蛋白质的沉淀。利用葡萄糖酸内酯(GDL)诱导大豆蛋白形成凝胶,将蛋白加入到果汁中,研究了不同GDL诱导量和不同蛋白浓度对产品稳定性的影响,并阐明了此方法可以稳定果汁中蛋白的机理。研究表明,降低蛋白的荷电量和粒度是在果汁中稳定蛋白的主要原因,并且适度的GDL和蛋白的浓度,以及均质压力和次数,都会对产品的稳定性起到明显的改善作用。

  20. Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-10-15

    In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia.

  1. Determination of added dye in orange fruit juices of Citrus sinensis cultivar with a simple analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZIANA HOXHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice is a daily food randomly consumed and could be easily presented like an imitation of original products. Identification of its imitation has a big importance for juice authenticity. In some cases, it’s used the colouring agent Tartrazine (E102 a monoazo dye, permitted as food additive in EU, but hazardous for human health, due to allergic reactions and hyperactivity increasing especially of children in high levels. E102 consists essentially of trisodium 5-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonatophenyl-4-(4-sulfonato-phenylazo-H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate and subsidiary colouring matters together with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate as the principal uncoloured components. The intention of this study was evaluation of a new simple method to determine the presence and the quantity of synthetic colour added in commercial imported fruit juice. By a spectrophotometer UV-VIS was measured absorbance in maximal wavelength, 426 nm, of five commercial orange juices samples, using as reference control sample an orange fresh juice sample. The concentration of tartrazine in some samples were found from 50-170mg/L, while the maximal permitted level of E102 concentration is 100 mg/L (Referred to EU standards, 2011. This study is an advanced step for a quick determination of tatrazine level; otherwise need to profound this argument in the future.

  2. Controlling the martensitic transformation temperature at constant valence electron concentration in Heusler based Ni-Mn-In alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda; Acet, Mehmet; Krenke, Thorsten; Wassermann, Eberhard [Experimentalphysik (AG- Farle), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Moya, Xavier; Manosa, Lluis; Planes, Antoni [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Although the martensitic transformation temperature M{sub s} increases linearly with increasing valence electron concentration e/a in Ni-Mn-X Heusler alloys (X: group III or IV element), the slope varies depending on the X-species, i.e., M{sub s} vs. e/a is not universal. This aspect can be favorably exploited to control Ms by holding e/a constant and replacing X{sup *} by an isoelectronic X{sup *}, where X and X{sup *}, are elements within the same group. Using this property we have substituted In in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} (M{sub s}{proportional_to}200 K) with Ga to bring M{sub s} close to room temperature. Here, we show how magnetic field induced phase transition properties and associated magnetocaloric effects in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} are modified in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}(In,Ga){sub 16}.

  3. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmasry, F. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, S. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H., E-mail: hoht@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  4. Polyphenols in apple fruits and their derived products, an overview of their variability, reactivity and properties in relation to organoleptic qualities of French juices and ciders

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    World apple production accounted for 80 million tons per year (1.7 and 3.1 Mts in France and Poland, respectively). Most of this production corresponds to dessert apples. However, in France, ciders (fermented apple juices) are famous beverages produced from specific apple varieties classified according to two main criteria: polyphenol concentration and acidity of the crude juice (i.e. the must). Indeed, polyphenols are divided into six main classes: phenolic acids, catechins, procyanidins (i....

  5. Effect of clarified Brazilian native fruit juices on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balisteiro, Diully Mata; Araujo, Renata Luise de; Giacaglia, Luciano Ricardo; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2017-10-01

    Brazilian native fruits have been shown as excellent sources of polyphenols which are associated with multiple biological activities including inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Postmeal blood glucose elevations and high glycemic index diets can play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes, therefore alternative approaches to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia are of growing interest in order to reduce diabetes risk. Here we investigated the effect of six Brazilian native clarified fruit juices from Amazon, Savannah and Atlantic Forest biomes on postprandial glycemia after consumption of a carbohydrate meal. For this, 23 healthy subjects were selected to consume seven meal tests, with a 1-week interval among them, consisting in 50g white bread plus 300mL of water (control) or cambuci, cagaita, maracujá-alho, cupuaçu, camu-camu and jaboticaba clarified fruit juices. The results showed that serum glucose concentrations were significantly lower after consumption of cambuci, cagaita, camu-camu and jaboticaba juices, whereas maracujá-alho and cupuaçu juices did not decrease the amount of glucose absorbed, compared to control (pfruits may be considered as adjuvant treatment for reduction of postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in milk and orange juice by ultrahigh-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñez, Wilfido José; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Hernández Herrero, M Manuela; Guamis López, Buenaventura

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH) against Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 inoculated into milk and orange juice. We also intended to study the effect of inlet temperature on the lethality and production of sublethal injuries in this microorganism and its ability to survive, repair, and grow in refrigerated storage after UHPH treatment. Samples of ultrahigh-temperature whole milk and ultrahigh-temperature orange juice inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log (CFU per milliliter) were immediately pressurized at 300 MPa on the primary homogenizing valve and at 30 MPa on the secondary valve, with inlet temperatures of 6.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and 20 +/- 1.0 degrees C. L. innocua viable counts and injured cells were measured 2 h after UHPH treatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of storage at 4 degrees C for milk and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days of storage at 4 degrees C for orange juice. Both the inlet temperature and the food matrix influenced significantly (P milk at the 20 degrees C inlet temperature. The UHPH treatment caused few or no sublethal injuries in L. innocua. During storage at 4 degrees C after treatments, counts increased by approximately 2 logarithmic units from day 0 to 9 in whole milk, whereas in orange juice counts diminished by approximately 2.5 logarithmic units from day 0 to 18.

  7. In Vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic studies of Thai Noni fruit juice by chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange assays in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treetip Ratanavalachai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Noni fruit juice produced in Thailand have been studied in human lymphocytes for chromosome aberration assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE assay in vitro. Treatment of Noni fruit juice(3.1-50 mg/ml alone for 3 h did not significantly induce chromosomal aberration or SCE (p<0.05. Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml is the optimum dose for cell survival and cell replication as demonstrated by the highest value of mitotic index and proliferation index (P.I.. Interestingly, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at the same concentration of 6.2 mg/ml for 2 hfollowed by mitomycin C treatment at 3 μg/ml for 2 h significantly reduced SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05. However, these treatments did not show significant decrease in chromatid-type aberrations. Our data indicate that Thai Noni fruit juice is not genotoxic against human lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml demonstrated no anticlastogenic effect while had some antigenotoxic effects as demonstrated by significant decrease in the SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05. Therefore, the optimum dose of Noni fruit juice used as a traditional medicine is required and needs to be studied further for the benefit of human health.

  8. Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó Influence of drying air temperature and carrier agent concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valeriano Tonon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó produzido por spray drying foi avaliada. O processo foi realizado em um mini spray dryer de bancada e maltodextrina 10DE foi utilizada como agente carreador. A temperatura do ar de secagem variou de 138 a 202 °C e a concentração de maltodextrina variou de 10 a 30%. As características analisadas foram: umidade, higroscopicidade, retenção de antocianinas, cor, distribuição do tamanho de partículas e morfologia. O aumento da temperatura resultou em partículas maiores, menos úmidas, mais higroscópicas e com menor retenção de antocianinas, além de provocar uma diminuição do parâmetro de cor L* e do ângulo de tom H*. O aumento na concentração de maltodextrina resultou em partículas maiores e menos higroscópicas, com maior luminosidade (L*, menores valores de C* e maiores valores de H*. Em relação à morfologia, o aumento da temperatura levou à formação de uma maior quantidade de partículas com superfície lisa, fato atribuído à maior transferência de calor e, consequentemente, à formação mais rápida de uma membrana ao redor da gota atomizada.The objective of this work was to study the influence of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder produced by spray drying. The process was carried out in a mini spray dryer and the maltodextrin 10DE was used as carrier agent. Inlet air temperature varied from 138 to 202 °C and maltodextrin concentration varied from 10 to 30%. The characteristics analyzed were: moisture content, hygroscopicity, anthocyanin retention, color, particle size distribution, and morphology. The increase in the temperature resulted in particles with larger size, less moisture content, more hygroscopy and with lower anthocyanin retention, besides promoting a reduction in the color

  9. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  10. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  12. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  13. Determination of carrier concentration dependent electron effective mass and scattering time of n-ZnO thin film by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Tay, C. B. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Deng, L. Y. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, X. H.; Chai, J. W. [Institute of Materials and Research Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Qin, H. [Department of Chemical and Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Liu, H. W. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chua, S. J., E-mail: elecsj@nus.edu.sg [Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Materials and Research Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2014-01-21

    We demonstrated a novel and widely accessible method for determining the electron effective mass and scattering time of ZnO films with different carrier concentrations by combining terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with Hall measurement. The terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) transmission spectra (0.1–2THz) were well described by Drude model. It is found that electron effective mass varied from 0.23m{sub 0} to 0.26m{sub 0} as the electron concentration changes from 5.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} to 4.0 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The carrier concentration dependent characteristic is ascribed to the non-parabolicity of conduction band. Free carrier localization mechanism explained the discrepancy in mobilities obtained from THz-TDS and Hall measurements.

  14. Relationships between the precipitation of α2 ordered phase and alloying elements/electron concentration in α+α2 titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Yu Zhang; Li Li; Chunli Wang; Qingjiang Wang; Yuyin Liu

    2005-01-01

    Some experimental α+α2 alloys were prepared by the addition of tin or aluminum elements into Ti-55 alloy. These alloys were designed with varied electron concentration values and named as Sn-rich alloys and Al-rich alloys, respectively. The precipitation and growth of α2 ordered phase in the tested alloys under various heat treatment conditions were investigated. Some comparisons among the experimental results were performed and discussed in detail. Stronger precipitation and growth of α2 ordered phase were caused in Al-rich alloys but relatively weak change in Sn-rich alloys with increasing the electron concentration. The precipitation of α2 ordered phase in Al-rich alloys is stronger than that in Sn-rich alloys when the electron concentration value is the same for the two alloys.

  15. Anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory evaluation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi juice and seed extract on bacteria isolated from urine and catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwole Osungunna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The in vivo use of grapefruit seed in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs has been reported but the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Aims: Evaluate the anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory activities of grapefruit seed extract and juice as their possible mechanisms of action. Methods: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/mL as well as 10.3 and 5.15 mg/mL of grapefruit seed extract and juice respectively were evaluated for modulatory activity of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid against one hundred and twenty seven bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine (MSU (100, catheter-stream urine (CSU (14 and catheter tips (CT (13 using the agar dilution method. Anti-adhesion activity of grapefruit seed extract and juice at sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 1.03 mg/mL respectively was evaluated against twenty three (23 moderately adherent bacterial isolates from MSU (10, CSU (7 and CT (6 using the tissue culture plate method. Results: The results revealed that grapefruit juice (5.15 mg/mL showed more effect on nalidixic acid activity than seed extract (2.5 mg/mL. Grapefruit juice showed more anti-adhesion activity than grapefruit seed extract at the concentration tested. Conclusions: The study concluded that grapefruit seed extract and juice had anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory effects on bacteria associated with UTIs.

  16. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, Paul M., E-mail: schlosser.paul@epa.gov; Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.

  17. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  18. Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Campiglia, Pietro; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Di Pietro, Angela; Calapai, Gioacchino; Navarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer. A lot of evidences highlight that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer including CRC. In this study we demonstrate that Citrus bergamia juice extracts (BJe) reduces CRC cell growth by multiple mechanisms. Low BJe concentrations inhibit MAPKs pathway and alter apoptosis-related proteins, that in turn induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Instead, high concentrations of BJe induce oxidative stress causing DNA damage. Our study highlights the role of BJe as modulator of cell apoptosis in CRC cells and strengthens our previous hypothesis that the flavonoid fraction of bergamot juice may play a role as anti-cancer drug.

  19. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver advice in relation to „toothkind‟ juice drinks. The Panel was requested to consider whether conclusions for the substantiation of the beneficial effect, i.e. reduction...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...

  20. Two weeks of watermelon juice supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability but not endurance exercise performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, Jamie R; Williams, Ewan; Vanhatalo, Anni; Wylie, Lee J; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-09-30

    This study tested the hypothesis that watermelon juice supplementation would improve nitric oxide bioavailability and exercise performance. Eight healthy recreationally-active adult males reported to the laboratory on two occasions for initial testing without dietary supplementation (control condition). Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned, in a cross-over experimental design, to receive 16 days of supplementation with 300 mL·day(-1) of a watermelon juice concentrate, which provided ∼3.4 g l-citrulline·day(-1) and an apple juice concentrate as a placebo. Participants reported to the laboratory on days 14 and 16 of supplementation to assess the effects of the interventions on blood pressure, plasma [l-citrulline], plasma [l-arginine], plasma [nitrite], muscle oxygenation and time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. Compared to control and placebo, plasma [l-citrulline] (29 ± 4, 22 ± 6 and 101 ± 23 μM), [l-arginine] (74 ± 9, 67 ± 13 and 116 ± 9 μM) and [nitrite] (102 ± 29, 106 ± 21 and 201 ± 106 nM) were higher after watermelon juice supplementation (P juice (130 ± 11) and placebo (131 ± 9) conditions compared to the control condition (124 ± 8 mmHg; P juice condition than the placebo and control conditions (P juice: 550 ± 143 s) was not significantly different between conditions (P juice supplementation increased baseline plasma [nitrite] and improved muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise, it increased resting blood pressure and did not improve time-to-exhaustion during severe-intensity exercise. These findings do not support the use of watermelon juice supplementation as a nutritional intervention to lower blood pressure or improve endurance exercise performance in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    ). In addition, we identified a number of proteins that have not been previously described in pancreatic juice (e.g., tumor rejection antigen (pg96) and azurocidin). Interestingly, a novel protein that is 85% identical to HIP/PAP was identified, which we have designated as PAP-2. The proteins identified...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  2. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  3. Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Janković, Teodora; Vulić, Todor; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively.

  4. Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Correa Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day. Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin ( p = 0.02, plasma uric acid ( p = 0.04, the functional capillary density ( p = 0.003, and the red blood cell velocity (p < 0.001 increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p,0.001, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity ( p = 0.04, and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia ( p = 0.04 decreased after organic grape juice intake. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes.

  5. Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  6. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  7. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  8. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  9. Effect of Fruit Juice on Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Methods A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Results Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: −1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and −0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: −2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further

  10. Effect of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in adults: a meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014 was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: -1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49 for fasting glucose concentrations and -0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: -2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44 for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to

  11. Effect of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in adults: a meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Kai; Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: -1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and -0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: -2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further clarify the association between fruit juice and

  12. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  13. Production of ethanol at high temperatures in the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke juice and a simple medium by Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.F.; Correia, I.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Temperatures as high as 36 degrees C and 40 degrees C did not negatively affect the ethanol productivity of Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice batch fermentation and the final concentrations of ethanol were close to those produced at lower temperatures. At higher process temperatures (36-40 degrees C), ethanol toxicity in Kluyveromyces marxianus was less important during the fermentation of J.a. juice as compared with a simple medium. In simple medium, the heat-sticking of fermentation was observed and the percentage of unfermented sugars steeply increased from 28 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. (Refs. 13).

  14. Effect of membrane property and operating conditions on phytochemical properties and permeate flux during clarification of pineapple juice

    KAUST Repository

    Laorko, Aporn

    2010-10-01

    The effects of membrane property on the permeate flux, membrane fouling and quality of clarified pineapple juice were studied. Both microfiltration (membrane pore size of 0.1 and 0.2 μm) and ultrafiltration (membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 30 and 100 kDa) membranes were employed. Membrane filtration did not have significant effects on the pH, reducing sugar and acidity of clarified juice whereas the suspended solids and microorganism were completely removed. The 0.2 μm membrane gave the highest permeate flux, total vitamin C content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity as well as the highest value of irreversible fouling. Based on these results, the membrane with pore size of 0.2 μm was considered to be the most suitable membrane for the clarification of pineapple juice. The optimum operating conditions for the clarification pineapple juice by membrane filtration was a cross-flow velocity of 3.4 ms-1 and transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 0.7 bar. An average flux of about 37 lm-2 h-1 was obtained during the microfiltration of pineapple juice under the optimum conditions using batch concentration mode. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of lime juice on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica inactivation during the preparation of the raw fish dish ceviche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurand, Prateek; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Ceviche is a raw fish dish common in Peru and other Latin American counties. The most characteristic feature of ceviche is the use of lime juice for marinating or "cooking" the raw fish. Confirmed cases of cholera in Peru, New Jersey, and Florida have been associated with ceviche. Although the effect of organic acids on pathogenic bacteria has been well characterized, few data exist on the effect of these acids in seafood systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of lime juice marination on pathogens likely to be present in ceviche. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet pieces were inoculated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica (>7 log CFU/g) and incubated at 25 and 4°C for 30 or 120 min in the presence of fresh lime juice at concentrations typical for the preparation of ceviche. Similar levels of cells were also inoculated into fresh lime juice without tilapia. Surviving cells were enumerated on selective (xylose lysine Tergitol 4 and thiosulfate-bile-citrate-sucrose) and nonselective (tryptic soy agar) media. V. parahaemolyticus levels were reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction) under all conditions studied. Salmonella strains on tilapia were much more resistant to inactivation and were only slightly reduced (∼1- to 2-log reduction). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus inoculated directly into lime juice without tilapia were all reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction). A typical ceviche recipe reduces V. parahaemolyticus risk significantly but is less effective for control of S. enterica.