WorldWideScience

Sample records for juglandifolia sect lycopersicon

  1. Notes on Cantharellus sect. Leptocantharellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1969-01-01

    Cantharellus sect. Leptocantharellus Peck is an earlier name for Cantharellus subgen. Phaeocantharellus Corner. The European species fall apart in two groups (Lepto-Plicati and Lepto-Phlebini) on the basis of the hymenophoral configuration. Most of the older names provided in profusion for the few

  2. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  3. Application of ISSR markers in the genus Lycopersicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikunov, Y.M.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Karlov, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    The level of polymorphism in tomato was studied using ISSR-PCR. Five tomato species: Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon pennellii, Lycopersicon cheesmanii, Lycopersicon humboldtii, Lycopersicon hirsutum and two Lycopersicon esculentum substitution lines IL 6-3 and WSL 6 were analyzed. ISSR-PCR

  4. Revision of Dorstenia sect. Nothodorstenia (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The African genus Craterogyne Lanjouw has to be united with Dorstenia L. Most species of Craterogyne can be included in Dorstenia sect. Nothodorstenia Engl. A revision of this section is presented. 5 species have been accepted, viz. D. elliptica Bureau, D. djettii J. L. Guillaumet, D. oligogyna

  5. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  6. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  7. Radiation Protection Ordinance 1989. Supplement with Radiation Protection Register Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. radiation passport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The addendum contains regulations issued supplementary to the Radiation Protection Ordinance: The Radiation Protection Register as of April 3, 1990 including the law on the setting up of a Federal Office on Radiation Protection; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 3, 1990 (AVV Radiation passport). The volume contains, apart from the legal texts, the appropriate decision by the Bundesrat, the official explanation from the Bundestag Publications as well as a comprehensive introduction into the new legal matter. (orig.) [de

  8. The significant event compilation tree-sect: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishack, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Significant Event Compilation Tree (SECT) is a computer programme that was developed by staff of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board during the period 1984-86. Its primary purpose is to link seemingly unrelated events, or parts of events, that could have occurred at different points in time at various nuclear power plants. Using such a software tool aids in the identification of potential paths and/or scenarios that: a. may not have been foreseen in the accident analysis (including fault tree verification), b. could lead to a certain failure; or c. could have been caused by a certain initiating event (which may have ended or been terminated at an earlier stage). This paper describes: a. the basic idea of SECT; b. the criteria whereby events are selected and coded; c. the options available to the user; d. an example of the programme's application in Canada; and e. a demonstration of its possible use in conjunction with the NEA-IRS

  9. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

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    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  10. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    mêmes sont plus performantes que la variété. Petomech. Mots clés : Performance, tomate, jaunisse en cuillère, flétrissement bactérien, nématodes, Côte d'Ivoire. Abstract. Performance of six cultivars of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mills. against ...

  11. Morphogical effects of sodium azide on tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill), varieties T106, T244 and T420 obtained from the Institute of Agriculture Research, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria were treated with sodium azide at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM aimed at determining the effects of the mutagen on the morphological ...

  12. The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Linger, P; van Heusden, AW; van Hasselt, PR; Brueggemann, W

    During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of

  13. QRLs for tomato powdery mildew resisance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 colocalize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Bonnema, A.B.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the powdery mildew Oidium lycopersici, but several wild relatives such as Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 are completely resistant. An F-2 population from a cross of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker x Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 was used

  14. Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect: Adopting a Better Strategy for Resolving the Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    ed. Thomas A. Imobighe and Agatha N. T. Eguavoen (Ibadan Nigeria: Heinemann Education Books PLC, 2006), 7; Benjamin Maiangwa and Ufo O. Uzodike, “The...sect were lined up and shot in the back. 111 Hakeem Onapajo and Ufo O. Uzodike, “Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: Man, the State, and the...of Management and Technology, 2008. Maiangwa, Benjamin and Ufo O. Uzodike. “The Changing Dynamics of Boko Haram Terrorism.” Aljazeera Centre for

  15. Begonia hosensis (sect. Reichenheimia, Begoniaceae, a new species from Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Begonia hosensis, a new species of sect. Reichenheimia from Sarawak, Malaysia is here described and illustrated. Begonia hosensis resembles B. andersonii, differing in the stipule prominently keeled and female flower 5- (vs. 4- tepaled. Ecologically, the two species are also separable: B. hosensis occurs on granitic cliffs ca. 400 km east of Kuching, the only known locality of B. andersonii, a limestone species.

  16. Prioritizing Identities: Cross Categorization of Ethnicity and Religious Sects in Turkey Identities: Ethnicity and/or Religion

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    Goklem Tekdemir Yurtdas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how different ethnic groups (Turkish/Kurdish and religious sects (Alevi/Sunni are perceived in Turkey. These groups have a long history of conflicts. In order to examine the perception of these conflicting group identities, we adopted the theoretical frameworks of simple and cross categorization developed by the Social Identity Theory and the Category Differentiation Model. Both theories converge on the idea of in-group favoritism in the case of simple categorization while they offer different explanations for cross categorization condition. In order to test these differing theoretical propositions, we asked our participants to evaluate simple and cross categorization conditions based on variables of ethnicity and sect.  Our sample consisted of 106 individuals from two ethnic groups (Kurdish/Turkish and two religious sects (Alevi/Sunni. The participants completed a questionnaire based on Zavalloni’s focused introspection technique. Within subjects repeated measures ANOVA analysis were carried out for both simple and cross categorization. The results of the analysis revealed that the participants emphasized in-group similarities and out-group differences both for ethnicity and religious sect in the simple categorization condition. Moreover, in-group similarities based on religious sects rather than ethnicity were prioritized in the cross categorization condition. The results confirmed the Social Identity Theory’s assumptions generally. Results were discussed in terms of relevant literature, and in relation to historical and political issues regarding ethnicity and sects in Turkey.

  17. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

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    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  18. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  19. STUDY ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST MONASTERIES IN KYÔTO

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    Antariksa Antariksa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 14th century, the Five Temples or Five Mountains (Gozan of Rinzai Zen sect were developed rapidly in the city of Kyôto. The ranking system of officially sponsored by Zen Buddhist monasteries were created by the Kamakura and Muromachi government. The Gozan system originally included three monasteries in Kyôto and three in Kamakura, but immediately spread to five monasteries in several cities. While the two great monasteries, are not members of the Gozan group, which belonged to the Rinka group of Rinzai Zen sect temples. The system, which corresponds to a Chinese hierarchical model, was established in Japan during the Kamakura period. The purpose of this study is to attempt to clarify the history and architecture of Rinzai Zen sect Buddhist monastery. The central functioning building of the Zen Buddhist monastery reflects the repetition, consistency, persistence, and order of the monastic ritual.

  20. Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae Anatomía del fruto en especies de Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae

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    Franco E. Chiarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mature fruits of 10 South American species of Solanum sect. Torva were studied. Cross and longitudinal microtome sections, stained with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were made for microscopic examination. All species present an epidermis formed by a unistrate layer of small, isodiametric cells, with dense content and cellulosic walls. Immediately below, a hypodermis is always found, consisting of a well-defined layer of lignified cells with a single calcium oxalate crystal occupying the whole lumen of each cell. This is followed by one layer of cellulosic, isodiametric cells with dense cytoplasm and then several collenchymatous layers, sometimes with sclerified cell walls. The mesocarp comprises two zones histologically differentiated: an external one (formed by regular, vacuolated, medium-sized cells with small intercellular spaces, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and developing proliferations among the seeds. The fruits analyzed are alike, and despite some particularities, they can be classified as berries in the conventional sense. All the traits examined agree with the ornithochorous dispersal syndrome. The homogeneity in fruit traits may be due to shared habit, habitat and sexual system.Se estudiaron los frutos maduros de 10 especies sudamericanas de Solanum sect. Torva. Se examinaron en microscopio cortes microtómicos transversales y longitudinales teñidos con azul astral/fucsina básica. Todas las especies presentaron una epidermis unistrata de células pequeñas, isodiamétricas, de contenido denso y paredes celulósicas. Inmediatamente por debajo se encontró siempre una hipodermis, formada por una capa bien definida de células lignificadas con un cristal de oxalato de calcio en el lúmen de cada célula. A continuación se halló otra capa de celulas isodiamétricas, celulósicas, de contenido denso, y luego varias capas de colénquima, en ocasiones con paredes esclerificadas. El mesocarpo presentó dos zonas histologicamente

  1. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  3. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  4. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL).

  5. Genotype dependant callogenic and morphogenic response of lycopersicon esculentum hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Sajid, G.M.; Ahmad, S.; Anwar, R.; Munir, M.

    2002-01-01

    Leaf explants from field grown F1 hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum, namely Bornia and Royesta were cultured on MS media containing 5 x 5 diallelic combinations of IAA and Kin at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 micro M/l each. Callogenesis, root and shoot regeneration potential of these hybrids were compared on these hormonal regimes. Royesta exhibited better callogenesis response (85%) than Bornia (72%). However, callogenesis on a given hormonal regime was genotype dependant. Root and shoot regeneration was better in case of Bornia than in Royesta. Hybrid Bornia produced shoots much more frequently (6-14%) on many diverse hormonal regimes than Royesta which produced shoots only rarely (5%) on a single hormonal regime. (author)

  6. SU-E-J-136: Investigation Into Robustness of Stopping Power Calculated by DECT and SECT for Proton Therapy Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Penfold, S [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the robustness of dual energy CT (DECT) and single energy CT (SECT) proton stopping power calibration techniques and quantify the associated errors when imaging a phantom differing in chemical composition to that used during stopping power calibration. Methods: The CIRS tissue substitute phantom was scanned in a CT-simulator at 90kV and 140kV. This image set was used to generate a DECT proton SPR calibration based on a relationship between effective atomic number and mean excitation energy. A SECT proton SPR calibration based only on Hounsfield units (HUs) was also generated. DECT and SECT scans of a second phantom of known density and chemical composition were performed. The SPR of the second phantom was calculated with the DECT approach (SPR-DECT),the SECT approach (SPR-SECT) and finally the known density and chemical composition of the phantom (SPR-ref). The DECT and SECT image sets were imported into the Pinnacle{sup 3} research release of proton therapy treatment planning. The difference in dose when exposed to a common pencil beam distribution was investigated. Results: SPR-DECT was found to be in better agreement with SPR-ref than SPR- SECT. The mean difference in SPR for all materials was 0.51% for DECT and 6.89% for SECT. With the exception of Teflon, SPR-DECT was found to agree with SPR-ref to within 1%. Significant differences in calculated dose were found when using the DECT image set or the SECT image set. Conclusion: The DECT calibration technique was found to be more robust to situations in which the physical properties of the test materials differed from the materials used during SPR calibration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the DECT and SECT SPR calibration techniques can Result in significantly different calculated dose distributions.

  7. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae

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    Alex D. Twyford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections.

  8. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

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    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  9. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  10. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  11. Phosphate Starvation Inducible Metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Baertlein, Dawn A.; McDaniel, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv VF 36) plants and suspension cultured cells show phosphate starvation inducible (psi) excretion of acid phosphatase (Apase). Apase excretion in vitro was proportional to the level of exogenous orthophosphate (Pi). Intracellular Apase activity remained the same in both Pi-starved and sufficient cells, while Apase excreted by the starved cells increased by as much as six times over unstressed control cells on a dry weight basis. At peak induction, 50% of total Apase was excreted. Ten day old tomato seedlings grown without Pi showed slight growth reduction versus unstressed control plants. The Pi-depleted roots showed psi enhancement of Apase activity. Severely starved seedlings (17 days) reached only one-third of the biomass of unstressed control plants but, because of a combination of psi Apase excretion by roots and a shift in biomass to this organ, they excreted 5.5 times the Apase activity of the unstressed control. Observed psi Apase excretion may be part of a phosphate starvation rescue system in plants. The utility of the visible indicator dye 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate-p-toluidine as a phenotypic marker for plant Apase excretion is demonstrated. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16666212

  12. Somatic hybrid plants between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L W; Nickels, R L; Cameron, M W; Moore, P P; Sink, K C

    1986-02-01

    Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Lycopersicon esculentum (2n=2x=24) were fused with suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Solanum lycopersicoides (2n=2x=24) and intergeneric somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following selective conditions. A two phase selection system was based on the inability of S. lycopersicoides protoplasts to divide in culture in modified medium 8E and the partial inhibition of L. esculentum protoplasts by the PEG/DMSO fusion solution. At the p-calli stage, putative hybrids were visually selected based on their hybrid vigor and lime-green coloration in contrast to slower growing parental calli characterized by a watery, whitish-brown coloration. Early identification of the eight hybrid plants studied was facilitated by isozyme analysis of leaf tissue samples taken from plants in vitro at the rooting stage. Regenerated plants growing in planting medium were further verified for hybridity by 5 isozymes marking 7 loci on 5 chromosomes in tomato. These included Skdh-1 mapped to chromosome 1 of tomato, Pgm-2 on chromosome 4, Got-2 and Got-3 on chromosome 7, Got-4 on chromosome 8, and Pgi-1 and Pgdh-2 both on chromosome 12. Fraction I protein small subunits further confirmed the hybrid nature of the plants with bands of both parents expressed in all hybrids. The parental chloroplasts could not be differentiated by the isoelectric points of the large subunit. Seven of the eight somatic hybrids had a chromosome number ranging from the expected 2n=4x=48 to 2n=68. Mixoploid root-tip cells containing 48, 53, 54 or 55 chromosomes for two of the hybrids were also observed.

  13. Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ahmadi Ashtiani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6, were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA. Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate -induced oxidative stress.

  14. Use of microsatellites to evaluate genetic diversity and species relationships in the genus Lycopersicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.; Wiel, van de C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine how informative a set of microsatellites from tomato is across the genus Lycopersicon, 17 microsatellite loci, derived from regions in and around genes, were tested on 31 accessions comprising the nine species of the genus. The microsatellite polymorphisms were used to estimate

  15. Introgressions of Lycopersicon pennellii improve growth and development of greenhouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manga Owona, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focused on the possibilities to improve greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) in terms of yield. The domestic tomato has a very narrow genetic base which makes breeding for better performance a difficult task. The wild, crossable relatives of tomato present the

  16. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aflitos, S.A.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Ridder, de D.; Smit, S.; Finkers, H.J.; Bakker, F.T.; Geest, van de H.C.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Haarst, van J.C.; Smits, L.W.M.; Koops, A.J.; Sanchez-Perez, M.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Visser, R.G.F.; Schranz, M.E.; Peters, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative for the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon, and Neolycopersicon groups which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new

  17. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aflitos, S.; Schijlen, E.; de Jong, H.; de Ridder, D.; Smit, S.; Finkers, R.; Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, N.; Mao, L.; Bakker, F.; Dirks, R.; Breit, T.; Gravendeel, B.; Huits, H.; Struss, D.; Swanson-Wagner, R.; van Leeuwen, H.; van Ham, R.C.H.J.; Fito, L.; Guignier, L.; Sevilla, M.; Ellul, P.; Ganko, E.; Kapur, A.; Reclus, E.; de Geus, B.; van de Geest, H.; te Lintel Hekkert, B.; van Haarst, J.; Smits, L.; Koops, A.; Sanchez-Perez, G.; van Heusden, A.W.; Visser, R.; Quan, Z.; Min, J.; Liao, L.; Wang, X.; Wang, G.; Yue, Z.; Yang, X.; Xu, N.; Schranz, E.; Smets, E.; Vos, R.; Rauwerda, J.; Ursem, R.; Schuit, C.; Kerns, M.; van den Berg, J.; Vriezen, W.; Janssen, A.; Datema, E.; Jahrman, T.; Moquet, F.; Bonnet, J.; Peters, S.

    2014-01-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new

  18. Desenvolvimento de protocolo para microenxertia do tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum Mill = Developmental of protocol for micrograffiting to tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Façanha Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é a principal doença vascular de plantas em todo o mundo. O agente causal é uma bactéria que ocorre em todas as regiões do Brasil, predominando em condições de umidade e temperatura elevadas, fatores propícios aodesenvolvimento do patógeno. Este agente causal é de difícil controle, pois sobrevive nos mais diversos hospedeiros, especialmente Solanaceas, além de outras famílias de importância alimentar, condimentar e medicinal. O uso de espécies do gênero Solanum na enxertia convencional e minienxertia em tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum é limitada em função da incompatibilidade. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se o método da microenxertia para obtenção de plantas resistentes a doenças como a murcha bacteriana, tendo como cavalo a espécie Solanum palinacanthum Dun. Utilizaram-se dois métodos de microenxertia: convencional em T-invertido e corte em bisel. Foram testados meios de culturas para execução das duas práticas demicropropagação; para isso, realizou-se experimento em diferentes condições ambientais, com presença e ausência de luminosidade e diferentes tratamentos correspondentes a teores de açúcares e sais, submetidos a cinco avaliações com intervalos semanais. Melhor resultado foi encontrado quando se utilizou microenxertia em T-invertido e meio de cultura constituído de sais de MS1/8 de força acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose.The bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is the most important vascular disease among plants in the world. The causal agent is a strain of bacteria found in all regions of Brazil, mainly in places with high humidity and temperature. This bacterium is difficult to control with chemical products, being able to survive in diverse hosts, especially in species of Solanaceae as well as other families of great food, condimental, or medicinal importance. The use of species of the genus Solanum has been attempted, but the

  19. Morfologia dos tricomas em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma (D. Don cogn. (melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae é a família que apresenta a maior diversidade de tricomas. Dr. Wurdack em seu "Atlas of hairs" reconheceu 46 tipos de tricomas para as Melastomataceae neotropicais com o uso de MEV, e referiu 17 destes para o gênero Tibouchina. Em Melastomataceae a morfologia dos tricomas tem sido extensivamente usada na delimitação dos táxons, assim como em estudos que antecederam ao trabalho de Cogniaux, a monografia das Melastomataceae brasileiras publicada em 1885. Em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma a morfologia dos tricomas foi substancial para a circunscrição de várias espécies. O uso da MEV permitiu uma caracterização dos 15 tipos diferentes de tricomas observados nas 41 espécies examinadas. Os diferentes tipos são descritos com base no aspecto morfológico tanto em MO como em MEV e ilustrados através de eletromicrografias de varredura e fotomicrografias.The Melastomataceae display greater trichome diversity. Dr. Wurdack, in his Atlas of hairs, recognized 46 types of trichomes for the Neotropical Melastomataceae through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and referred 17 of them to the genus Tibouchina. The trichome morphology has been extensively used in the delimitation of the taxa in Melastomataceae, as well as in previous studies by Cogniaux, the monograph of Brazilian Melastomataceae published in 1885. The morphology of the trichomes was essential for the delimitation of several species in Tibouchina section Pleroma. The use of SEM provided the best characterization of the 15 different types of trichomes recognized among the 41 species examined. These were described based on the morphological appearance, both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and photomicrographs.

  20. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  1. Geographical isolation caused the diversification of the Mediterranean thorny cushion-like Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardion, Laurent; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Abdel-Samad, Farah; Bou Dagher Kharrat, Magda; Surina, Bostjan; Affre, Laurence; Médail, Frédéric; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Baumel, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Mediterranean vascular flora within the long-term context of climate change requires a continuous study of historical biogeography supported by molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we provide new insights into the fascinating but often overlooked diversification of Mediterranean xerophytic plants. Growing in some of the most stressing Mediterranean environments, i.e. coastal and mountainous opened habitats, the circum-Mediterranean Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae) gathers several thorny cushion-like taxa. These have been the subjects of recent taxonomical studies, but they have not yet been investigated within a comprehensive molecular framework. Bayesian phylogenetics applied to rDNA ITS sequences reveal that the diversification of A. sect. Tragacantha has roots dating back to the Pliocene, and the same data also indicate an eastern-western split giving rise to the five main lineages that exist today. In addition, AFLP fingerprinting supports an old east-west pattern of vicariance that completely rules out the possibility of a recent eastern origin for western taxa. The observed network of genetic relationships implies that contrary to what is widely claimed in the taxonomic literature, it is range fragmentation, as opposed to a coastal-to-mountain ecological shift, that is likely the main driver of diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effet de l'irradiation gamma des semences de tomate ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) résistantes au NaCl grâce à l'irradiation gamma. Son but est d'évaluer l'effet de l'irradiation des graines de tomate sur leur résistance au NaCl et de confirmer celle-ci par l'évaluation de la concentration en proline ...

  3. Stable carbon isotope composition (δ{sup 13}C), water use efficiency, and biomass productivity of Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon pennellii, and the F{sub 1} hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.; Thorstenson, Y. R.

    1988-09-01

    Three tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv UC82B, a droughttolerant wild related species, Lycopersicon pennellii (Cor.) D'Arcy, and their F{sub 1}, hybrid, were grown in containers maintained at three levels of soil moisture. Season-long water use was obtained by summing over the season daily weight losses of each container corrected for soil evaporation. Plant biomass was determined by harvesting and weighing entire dried plants. Season-long water use efficiency (gram dry weight/kilogram H{sub 2}O) was calculated by dividing the dry biomass by the season-long water use. The season-long water use efficiency was greatest in the wild parent, poorest in the domestic parent, and intermediate (but closer to the wild parent) in the F, hybrid. Instantaneous water-use efficiency (micromole CO{sub 2}/millimole H{sub 2}O) determined by gas exchange measurements on individual leaves was poorly correlated with season-long water use efficiency. However, the relative abundance of stable carbon isotopes of leaf tissue samples was strongly correlated with the season-long water use efficiency. Also, the isotopic composition and the season-long water use efficiency of each genotype alone were strongly negatively correlated with plant dry weight when the dry weight varied as a function of soil moisture. (author)

  4. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  5. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-04: Evaluating DECT Vs SECT Range Differences in Proton Therapy Using Clinical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudobivnik, N; Dedes, G; Parodi, K; Landry, G [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Schwarz, F; Johnson, T; Thieke, C; Belka, C; Sommer, W [LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Tessonnier, T [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Verhaegen, F [Maastro Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. Methods: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 head trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients. Phantom materials were characterized in terms of SPR in a particle beam to obtain reference values. IMPT treatment plans were generated on the basis of SECT and DECT SPR images for hypothetical brain tumors using a short and a long beam path. Range differences between SECT and DECT from plan recalculations were evaluated in beam-eye-view (BEV) by comparing the 80% isodose. Results: For the 18 phantom materials the SECT RMS SPR errors were 2.6% compared to 1.1% for DECT. Group median relative range differences between SECT and DECT plans were −1.0% for the short beam path over the 5 patients investigated in this study. For the long beam path the median difference was −1.4%. These relative range differences corresponded to −0.5 mm and −1.4 mm shifts respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study performing proton therapy treatment planning on DECT patient images. Important range differences of more than 1 mm were observed between SECT and DECT treatment plans, and DECT SPR accuracy was found superior on the basis of phantom measurements. While the patients investigated in this study did not have brain tumors, the findings we observed should apply to cancer patients. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)

  6. Cytotaxonomy of North African species of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanché, César

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Both chromosome numbers and karyotype structure from 15 wild North-African populations of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium were studied. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, with a more symmetrical karyotype, appears as a possible perennial ancestor of' the remaining annuals with highly asymmetrical and shorter karyotype. A taxonomical reorganization of this section is proposed: two new series (ser. Macropetala ser. nova and ser. Balansae ser. nova. and two new nomenclatural combinations (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum are proposed.

    S'han estudiat els nombres cromosòmics i l'estructura deis cariotipus de 15 poblacions nordafricanes de Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, amb cariotipus mes simètric, apareix com a possible ancestre perenne de la resta d’espècies anuals amb cariotipus més asimètric i més curt. Es proposa una reorganització taxonòmica de la secció, d'on es descriu en dues series noves (ser. Macropetala ser. nova i ser. Balansae ser. nova. i es proposen dues combinacions noves (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum.

  7. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  8. Herpetomonas spp. isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Fabre, Sandrine; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Dollet, Michel

    2007-05-01

    A flagellate of the family Trypanosomatidae was isolated from fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in southeastern Spain. The isolate was successfully adapted to in vitro culture in monophasic media. The morphology showed the kinetoplast to be positioned towards the middle of the body, and the typical opistomastigote form characteristic of members of the genus Herpetomonas. Amplification of the mini-exon gene was negative, whilst for the 5S ribosomal rRNA gene the result was positive. The DNA sequence was obtained and its alignment with other trypasomatids, obtained using the BLAST algorithm, suggested it was closely related to Herpetomonas samuelpessoai.

  9. Article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 (air pollution control) as a competent fundament for Renewable Energy Resources Act and thermal energy law; Art. 74 Abs. Nr. 24 GG (Luftreinhaltung) als Kompetenzgrundlage fuer EEG und EEWaermeG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soesemann, F. [Kammergericht, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany); Ecologic gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the reform of federalism, no examination of requirement is necessary in accordance with article 72 sect. 2 Basic Law in order to support federal laws on article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 Basic Law. It is in the interest of the federal law giver to legislate the climate protection such as Renewable Energy Resources Act and thermal energy law alone on the basis of the authority standard in order to avoid the examination of requirement. In the sense of the article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 Basic Law, the climate protection is considered as air pollution control and serves to the reduction of greenhouse gases.

  10. Report from AmSECT's International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion: American Society of Extracorporeal Technology Standards and Guidelines for Perfusion Practice: 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A; Bronson, Shahna L; Dickinson, Timothy A; Fitzgerald, David C; Likosky, Donald S; Mellas, Nicholas B; Shann, Kenneth G

    2013-09-01

    One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT's new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current "Essentials and Guidelines." Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT's Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of institutional

  11. Phylogenetic analyses of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum and allied limestone species of China shed light on the evolution of Sino-Vietnamese karst flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Fang; Leong, Wai-Chao; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Repin, Rimi; Kiew, Ruth; Liu, Yan; Peng, Ching-I

    2014-12-01

    The picturesque limestone karsts across the Sino-Vietnamese border are renowned biodiversity hotspot, distinguished for extremely high endemism of calciphilous plants restricted to caves and cave-like microhabitats that have functioned as biological refugia on the otherwise harsh habitats. To understand evolutionary mechanisms underlying the splendid limestone flora, dated phylogeny is reconstructed for Asian Begonia, a species-rich genus on limestone substrates represented by no less than 60 species in southern China, using DNA sequences of nrITS and chloroplast rpL16 intron. The sampling includes 94 Begonia species encompassing most major Asian clades with a special emphasized on Chinese species. Except for two tuberous deciduous species and a species with upright stems, a majority of Sino-Vietnamese limestone Begonia (SVLB), including sect. Coelocentrum (19 species sampled) and five species of sect. Diploclinium, Leprosae, and Petermannia, are rhizomatous and grouped in a strongly supported and yet internally poorly resolved clade (Clade SVLB), suggesting a single evolutionary origin of the adaptation to limestone substrates by rhizomatous species, subsequent species radiation, and a strong tendency to retain their ancestral niche. Divergence-time estimates indicate a late Miocene diversification of Clade SVLB, coinciding with the onset of the East Asian monsoon and the period of extensive karstification in the area. Based on our phylogenetic study, Begonia sect. Coelocentrum is recircumscribed and expanded to include other members of the Clade SVLB (sect. Diploclinium: B. cavaleriei, B. pulvinifera, and B. wangii; sect. Leprosae: B. cylindrica and B. leprosa; sect. Petermannia: B. sinofloribunda). Because species of Clade SVLB have strong niche conservatism to retain in their ancestral habitats in cave-like microhabitats and Begonia are generally poor dispersers prone to diversify allopatrically, we propose that extensive and continuous karstification of the

  12. TAI vacuolar invertase orthologs: the interspecific variability in tomato plants (Solanum section Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugina, M A; Shchennikova, A V; Kochieva, E Z

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon. The average level of interspecific polymorphism in TAI genes was 8.58%; however, in the green-fruited tomatoes, the TAI genes contained 100 times more SNPs than those in the red-fruited accessions. The TAI proteins demonstrated 8% variability, whereas the red-fruited species had none. A TAI-based phylogenetic tree revealed two main clusters containing self-compatible and self-incompatible species, which concurs with the previous crossability-based division and demonstrates that the TAI genes reflect the evolutionary relationships between the red- and green-fruited tomatoes. Furthermore, we detected differential expression patterns of the TAI genes in the fruits of wild and cultivated tomatoes, which corresponded to sugar composition. The polymorphism analysis of the TAI acid invertases of Solanum section Lycopersicon species will contribute to the understanding of the genetic potential of TAI genes to impact tomato breeding through genetic engineering of the carbohydrate composition in the fruit.

  13. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed.

  14. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  15. UV irradiation as a tool for obtaining asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahova, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Frulleux, F.; Claeys, M.; Atanassov, A.; Jacobs, M.

    1997-01-01

    UV-irradiated kanamycin-resistant Lycopersicon esculentum leaf protoplasts were fused with wild-type Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaf protoplasts. Hybrid calli were recovered after selection in kanamycin-containing medium and subsequently regenerated. Cytological analysis of these regenerants showed that several (2–4) tomato chromosomes, or chromosome fragments, were present in addition to a polyploid Nicotiana genome complement. All lines tested had neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) activity and the presence of the kanamycin gene was shown by Southern blotting. In two cases a different hybridization profile for the kanamycin gene, compared to the tomato donor partner, was observed, suggesting the occurence of intergenomic recombination events. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was further confirmed by Southernblotting experiments using either a ribosomal DNA sequence or a tomato-specific repeat as probes. The hybrids were partially fertile and some progeny could be obtained. Our results demonstrate that UV irradiation is a valuable alternative for asymmetric cell-hybridization experiments. (author)

  16. Acetylcholine causes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Shrish Chandra; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    The animal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) induces rooting and promotes secondary root formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby), cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's medium. The roots originate from the midrib of leaf explants and resemble taproot. ACh at 10(-5) M was found to be the optimum over a wide range of effective concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-3) M. The breakdown products, choline and acetate were ineffective even at 10(-3) M concentration. ACh appears to have a natural role in tomato rhizogenesis because exogenous application of neostigmine, an inhibitor of ACh hydrolysis, could mimic the effect of ACh. Neostigmine, if applied in combination with ACh, potentiated the ACh effect.

  17. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed. (author)

  18. Estudios de eficacia de trichoderma cepa G008 sobre el complejo “marchitez del tomate” (lycopersicon esculentum mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos Maridueña, Soraya Efigenia

    2010-01-01

    El tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., es uno de los cultivos de importancia económica entre las hortalizas en Ecuador. Datos estadísticos en el país del año 2006 dan a conocer que la superficie sembrada con tomate fue 677.59 ha, con una producción de 1848.123 Tm (INEC, 2006).

  19. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and b...

  20. INTENSIDAD DE LOS SABORES BÁSICOS DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ INTENSITY OF BASIC TASTES OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum IN SIX MATURITY STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN CASTRO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, la hortaliza más sembrada en Colombia, es considerada una de las más importantes por su volumen de producción y demanda. La exigencia del consumidor en sus características organolépticas hace necesario un estudio detallado acerca de sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales. El análisis sensorial se realizó con un panel entrenado de cinco jueces y las muestras de tomate fueron escogidas de acuerdo con parámetros físicos de color (Cuadro 1 y calidad en los seis estados de madurez del fruto. Se empleó el método de perfil descriptivo, con una escala de respuesta de 0 a 10 puntos, con el fin de cuantificar la intensidad de los sabores básicos (dulce, ácido, amargo, salado y umami. Se realizó un diseño aleatorizado en bloques con seis réplicas por cada tratamiento y un nivel de significancia del 5%. Este indicó la inexistencia de diferencias significativas en las intensidades para cada estado de madurez (p≤ 0,05, y la existencia de diferencias significativas en las intensidades para cada sabor básico evaluado (p>0,05. Mediante el perfil sensorial, se logró establecer que en los estados de madurez 1 y 2, el atributo de mayor intensidad fue el ácido, en los estados de madurez 3, 4 y 5, el atributo que sobresalió fue el dulce y en el estado 6, el atributo percibido en mayor grado fue el umami. Los sabores amargo y salado, se percibieron en una baja intensidad, en los diferentes estados de madurez.The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, the vegetable more seeding in the country, is considered one of most important by its volume of production and demand. The exigency of the consumer in sensory characteristics makes necessary a detailed study about its physicochemistry and sensory properties. The sensory analysis was made with a trained panel of five judges and the tomato samples were chosen according to parameters of color and quality in the six ripeness stages of the fruit. Was made using the

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-08-16

    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  2. Multiple and asymmetrical origin of polyploid dog rose hybrids (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) involving unreduced gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, V; Ritz, C M

    2017-08-01

    Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses ( Rosa sect. Caninae ) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4 x ) and haploid sperm cells (1 x ). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5 x ) producing 6 x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1 x ) sperm cells. We tested whether hybrids arose by independent multiple events or via a single or few incidences followed by a subsequent spread of hybrids. Population genetics of 45 mixed stands of dog roses across central and south-eastern Europe were analysed using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry. Hybrids were recognized by the presence of diagnostic alleles and multivariate statistics were used to display the relationships between parental species and hybrids. Among plants classified to subsect. Rubigineae , 32 % hybridogenic individuals were detected but only 8 % hybrids were found in plants assigned to subsect. Caninae . This bias between reciprocal crossings was accompanied by a higher ploidy level in Rubigineae hybrids, which originated more frequently by unreduced egg cells. Genetic patterns of hybrids were strongly geographically structured, supporting their independent origin. The biased crossing barriers between subsections are explained by the facilitated production of unreduced gametes in subsect. Rubigineae . Unreduced egg cells probably provide the highly homologous chromosome sets required for correct chromosome pairing in hybrids. Furthermore, the higher frequency of Rubigineae hybrids is probably influenced by abundance effects because the plants of subsect. Caninae are much more abundant

  3. Comparison of regeneration potentials in tissue cultures of primitive and cultivated tomato species (Lycopersicon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration capacities of two tomato cultivars: Potentat and Rutgers, and of three accessions of wild tomato species: Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 128650, L. peruvianum var. dentatum PI 128655 and L. glandulosum were studied using an universal medium suitable for regeneration of those plants from leaf pieces in tissue culture. Fragments of leaf blades were taken from plants raised in greenhouse conditions and placed on a modified MS medium containing 0.3 mg/l IAA and 3.0 mg/l BAP solidified with 1% agar. The explants were transferred every 4-5 weeks on fresh medium of the same composition. It was shown that all the three primitive tomato species revealed much higher multiplication coefficients than the two cultivars. Appropriate values were: 11 - for L. glandulosum, 8 - for L. peruvianum, 7 - for L. peruvianum var. dentatum, 4 - for L. esculentum cv. Potentat and 2 - cv. Rutgers. Completely regenerated plants were obtained from all the tested species, but organogenesis occurred almost two weeks earlier in wild tomatoes than in the culitivated varieties of L. esculentum.

  4. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  5. Nitrogen management in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 15N-enriched fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivananda, T.N.; Iyengar, B.R.V.; Kotur, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1991 to study nitrogen management using 15 N-enriched fertilizer, to achieve economy in fertilizer N input by reduction and postponement of the basal dose in Arka Vikas tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller nom. cons). Application of 90 kg N/ha in 3 equal splits at 10, 30 and 50 days after transplanting did not show any reduction in total N uptake, dry-matter and fruit yields compared with 120 kg N/ha applied in 3 splits (60 kg N/ha basal and 30 kg top-dressed 20 and 40 days after transplanting). Band application of the basal dose and top-dressing at 20 days after transplanting resulted in higher N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), its uptake and utilization. Top-dressing of 30 or 40 kg N/ha at 10 days after transplanting resulted in better utilization than broadcasting the basal dose of 60 kg N/ha. Application at 40-50 days after transplanting showed poor uptake and utilization of applied N. The succeeding Arka Kalyan onion (Allium cepa L.) utilized 2.95-6.37% residual N, the highest being from the split application at 40 days after transplanting. Thus there was economy in fertilizer N input and higher carry-over of residual N for determinate cultivar of tomato be delaying as well as reducing the basal dose and confining the top-dressing to 30 days after transplanting. (author)

  6. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  8. Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jogendra; Sastry, E V Divakar; Singh, Vijayata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted using ten genetically diverse genotypes along with their 45F1 (generated by diallel mating) under normal and salt stress conditions. Although, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is moderately sensitive to salinity but more attention to salinity is yet to be required in the production of tomato. In present study, germination rate, speed of germination, dry weight ratio and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in root and shoot, were the parameters assayed on three salinity levels; control, 1.0 % NaCl and 3.0 % NaCl with Hoagland's solution. Increasing salt stress negatively affected growth and development of tomato. When salt concentration increased, germination of tomato seed was reduced and the time needed to complete germination lengthened, root/shoot dry weight ratio was higher and Na(+) content increased but K(+) content decreased. Among the varieties, Sel-7 followed by Arka Vikas and crosses involving them as a parent were found to be the more tolerant genotypes in the present study on the basis of studied parameters.

  9. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  10. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  11. Morphogenetic Potential of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Arka Ahuti’ to Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura K. NAMITHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly reproducible in vitro regeneration method for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar ‘Arka Ahuti’ was established by using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones 6-Benzylamino purine (2 to 4 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid (0.1 to 1 mg/L. The medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid was found to be the best for inducing direct shoot regeneration and multiple shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants. Callus induction was observed in all the explants and regeneration of shoots was also promoted by all these combinations. Shoots were transferred to the elongation medium which also induced 100% rooting. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established for ‘Arka Ahuti’ cultivar of tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon as explants.

  12. Increase in the rate of recombinants in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) after in vitro regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, M; Biglary, M; Demarly, Y

    1984-07-01

    Modification to the cross-over (C. O.) rate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was attempted by using in vitro plant regeneration. F1 hybrids with the same genetical homozygous background were compared at two loci: "bs-ms32" on chromosome I, and "aa-d" on chromosome II. For each, the genetic distance separating the two markers was about 20 to 30 map units. One cotyledon of each F2 hybrid seedling was used as in vitro tissue culture material, while the rest of the plantlet was grown as a control. Recombination rates of the selfed progenies from each regenerated and matched control couple were compared. For the first set of markers 59,000 seeds were analysed (5 controls' and 7 regenerated progenies), and for the second, 11,000 (5 controls' and 8 regenerated progenies). There were significant increases in the genetic distance between markers in about half the regenerated individuals. For the first set the increases ranged from 6.07 to 6.91 units out of a control distance of the 19.84 to 25.65, corresponding to lengthenings of 30.59 to 35.29%. For the second set they ranged from 4.92 to 6.04 out of a control distance of 25.05 to 26.57, representing increases of 19.64 to 22.75%. Such a phenomenon can be important either from a fundamental or practical viewpoint, regarding selection efficiency in plants, and potential for gene reassortment.

  13. Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Sheu, Fuu; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-02-24

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been identified as the causal agent of several disease epidemics in most countries of the world. Insect-mediated virus diseases, such as those caused by CMV, caused remarkable loss of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) production in Taiwan. With expression of the CMV coat protein gene (Cmvcp) in a local popular tomato cultivar L4783, transgenic tomato line R8 has showed consistent CMV resistance through T(0) to T(8). In this report, the allergenicity of the CMV coat protein (CMV cp) expressed in transgenic tomato R8 was assessed by investigation of the expression of the transgene source of protein, sequence similarity with known allergens, and resistance to pepsin hydrolysis. There is no known account for either the CMV or its coat protein being an allergen. The result of a bioinformatic search also showed no significant homology between CMV cp and any known allergen. The pepsin-susceptible property of recombinant CMV cp was revealed by a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay. Following the most recent FAO/WHO decision tree, all results have indicated that CMV cp was a protein with low possibility to be an allergen and the transgenic tomato R8 should be considered as safe as its host.

  14. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv `Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots. Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium. Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed. PMID:16664467

  15. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-11-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv ;Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots.Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium.Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed.

  16. Induction of multiple shoots from leaf segments, in vitro-flowering and fruiting of a dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kokkirala Venugopal; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Pavan, Umate; Sree, Telakalapalli Jaya; Rao, Alleni V; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2005-08-01

    Multiple shoots were induced from leaf explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar MicroTom, within 20-25d, on MS medium supplemented with 8.9 microM benzylaminopurine (BAP)+1.14 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For rooting, elongated microshoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 4.9 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Well-developed roots and flower raceme were obtained on d 7 and 13, respectively, upon transfer of the microshoots onto rooting medium. The flowers self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits in additional 15-17d of culture.

  17. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 2...

  18. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  20. Padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sila Mary Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O valor comercial do tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., é definido pelas características de identidade e qualidade presentes no fruto que podem ser avaliadas pela classificação do produto. A presente revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever o padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate de mesa, através da classificação. O tomate de mesa é classificado em grupos, subgrupos, classes e tipos. De acordo com o formato do fruto, o tomate é classificado em dois grupos: oblongo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é maior que o transversal e redondo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é menor ou igual ao transversal. Em função do estádio de maturação, o tomate é classificado em cinco subgrupos: verde maduro, pintado, rosado, vermelho e vermelho maduro. A classe é definida em função do maior diâmetro transversal do fruto em relação ao grupo a que pertença. O tomate oblongo é classificado em três classes: grande, médio e pequeno. O tomate redondo é classificado em quatro classes: gigante, grande, médio e pequeno. De acordo com os índices de ocorrência de defeitos graves e leves presentes nos frutos, o tomate é classificado também em tipo: extra, especial ou selecionado e comercial. São considerados defeitos graves: podridão, passado, queimado, dano por geada, podridão apical, e defeitos leves: dano, mancha, ocado, deformado e imaturo. A amostra de tomate que ultrapasse os índices de defeitos previstos pela legislação do Ministério da Agricultura é classificada como fora do padrão.

  1. Weed control in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) through mulching and herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, T.; Khan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012 and 2013 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.). Variety 'Roma' was planted on a plot size of 4.8m x 3m using a randomized complete block (RCB) design in split plot arrangements, having four replications. The experiment comprised of row spacing in main plots and ten treatments in the subplots that included five mulches viz., white polyethylene, black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust; three herbicide treatments i.e. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, s-metolachlor along with a hand weeding treatment and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m-2 at 20 days after treatments, plant height, fruit yield (kg ha-1). All the studied parameters were significantly affected by the row spacing (factor A) and weed management treatments (factor B); however, the interaction effects were non-significant. An increase in weed density was observed with increase in row spacing, having weed density of 3.39, 4.19 and 4.53 weeds m-2 for 40, 60 and 80 row spacing, respectively. The overall weed density m-2 ranged between 3.24 to 4.30 m-2. A maximum plant height of 62.44cm was recorded in weedy check and minimum 53.31cm plant height was observed in hand weeding treatments. As regards the fruit yield, a highest yield of 2.51 t ha-1 was recorded at row spacing of 60 cm (factor A) and the application of poly ethylene black plastic resulted in significantly highest fruit yield (4.04 t ha-1) among factor B treatments. (author)

  2. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitos, Saulo; Schijlen, Elio; de Jong, Hans; de Ridder, Dick; Smit, Sandra; Finkers, Richard; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Gengyun; Li, Ning; Mao, Likai; Bakker, Freek; Dirks, Rob; Breit, Timo; Gravendeel, Barbara; Huits, Henk; Struss, Darush; Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; van Leeuwen, Hans; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Fito, Laia; Guignier, Laëtitia; Sevilla, Myrna; Ellul, Philippe; Ganko, Eric; Kapur, Arvind; Reclus, Emannuel; de Geus, Bernard; van de Geest, Henri; Te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; van Haarst, Jan; Smits, Lars; Koops, Andries; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Visser, Richard; Quan, Zhiwu; Min, Jiumeng; Liao, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Guangbiao; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Xu, Na; Schranz, Eric; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger; Rauwerda, Johan; Ursem, Remco; Schuit, Cees; Kerns, Mike; van den Berg, Jan; Vriezen, Wim; Janssen, Antoine; Datema, Erwin; Jahrman, Torben; Moquet, Frederic; Bonnet, Julien; Peters, Sander

    2014-10-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inhibition of Cholinesterases and Some Pro-Oxidant induced Oxidative Stress in Rats Brain by Two Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, G.; Bakare, O.O.; Ademosun, A.O.; Akinyemi, A.J.; Olasehinde, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of two tomato varieties [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. esculentum (ESC) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (CER)] on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. Phenolics content, carotenoids characterisation, inhibition of Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate and NO* scavenging abilities were also assesed in addition to the AChE and BChE inhibition assays. There was no significant difference in the AChE inhibitory ability of the samples, while CER had significantly higher BChE inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the tomatoes inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced MDA production and further exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO* scavenging abilities. There was no significant difference in the phenolic content of the samples, while significantly high amounts of lycopene were detected in the tomatoes. The cholinesterase-inhibition and antioxidant properties of the “tomatoes” could make them good dietary means for the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  6. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  7. Toxicidade para lagartas de Phthorimaea operculella (Zell. dos aleloquímicos 2-tridecanona e 2-undecanona presentes em tomateiro (Lycopersicon spp. Toxicity of 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone allelochemicals present in tomato (Lycopersicon spp. for Phthorimaea operculella (Zell. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Ventura

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a toxicidade para Phthorimaea operculella (Zell. dos aleloquímicos 2-trídecanona e 2-undecanona, presentes nos exsudatos glandulares dos tricomas de Lycopersicon spp. Determinou-se a toxicidade dos exsudatos de L. hirsutum f. glabratum PI134417 (DL50, do 2-tridecanona (dose letal: DL50 e concentração letal: CL50 e do 2-undecanona (CL50 para lagartas de primeiro ínstar desse inseto. A DL50 foi de 5,54 glândulas e 775,53 ng por lagarta, respectivamente. Em relação à concentração letal, o 2-tridecanona foi mais tóxico do que o 2-undecanona. A toxicidade (CL50 do 2-tridecanona aumentou com a elevação da temperatura de 27 para 32°C e para o 2-undecanona ocorreu o inverso. Concluiu-se que estes compostos podem ter grande importância na resistência do tomateiro para esta praga.This research deals with the toxicity of 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone allelochemicals, present in the grandular trichomes of Lycopersicon spp., to Phthorimaea operculella (Zell.. The toxicity of the exsudates of L. hirsutum f. glabratum PI 134117 (LD50, of the 2-tridecanone (lethal dose: LD50and lethal concentration: LC50 and 2-undecanone (LC50 to first instar larvae of this pest were determined. The LD50value was 5.54 glands and 775.53 ng per larvae, respectively. With respect to the lethal concentration, the 2-tridecanone was more toxic than the 2-undecanone. The toxicity (CL50 of the 2-tridecanone increased with the elevation of the temperature from 27 to 32°C, but decreased with the 2-undecanone. It was concluded that these compounds can have great importance in the resistance of the tomato plant to this pest.

  8. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  9. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  11. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of some lines from cherry tomatoes lycopersicon esculentum mill. Var. Cerasiforme (dunal) and their ability for micropropagation in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Tomato production in the Republic of Macedonia is present on more than 5700 hectares, being the leading vegetable crop in the region of Strumica. Cherry tomato however, is poorly present at our fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, with different shapes and colors and it is used ma...

  13. Capítulo IV: caracterización morfo-agronómica de especies y variedades botánicas del genero Lycopersicon

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    Arango Angel Pedro A.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de invernadero se renovó la semilla de 58 introducciones del género Lycopersicon. En condiciones de campo se evaluaron cerca de 30 plantas de cada una de las introducciones viables. Además, se realizaron 5 cruzamientos, incluyendo los recíprocos, entre cada una de las introducciones viables y las variedades experimentales Chonto-109 y Napoli-1457. De 58 introducciones solo 16 produjeron semilla viable (L. hirsutum-1408, L. glandulusum   1403 y 1404, L. peruvianum-613 y 1409, L. pimpinellifolium-615, L. esculentum-633, L. pennelli- 632, L. esculentum var. ceraciforme- 183, 616. 923, 1140, 1506 Y 1508, L. esculentum varo grandifolium -1217, L. esculentum validum- 1110. Hubo gran variabilidad en emergencia, precocidad, duración de cosecha, cuajamiento de flores, rendimiento y sus componentes, análisis físico-químico de frutos entre las diferentes introducciones. L. peruvianum- 613 y 1409, L. glandulosum- 1403 y 1404 y L. pimpinellifolium 615 presentaron poco ataque de Scrobipalpula absoluta. Las variedades botánicas de L. esculentum presentaron mayores eficiencias de cruzamiento (84.3 % que las especies de Lycopersicon (27.7 %, cuyas eficiencias fueron: L. esculentum (75%, L. pimpinellifolium (50%, L. hirsutum (40%, L. glandulosum (5% y L. peruvianum (2.5%.

    The seeds from 58 introductions of the genus Lycopersicon were multiplied in the glasshouse. Thirty seeding of each introductions producing germinated seed were planted for to observe the characteristics of agronomical interest. Five reciprocal crosses were made with two experimental varieties (Chonto-1091 and Napoli-1457 with the purpose of to study the crossing efficiency of the introductions. From 58 introductions planted on1y 16 produced germinated seeds (L. hirsutum- 1408, L. g1andulosum- 1403 y 1404, L. peruvianum-613 y 1409 L. pimpinellifolium- 615, L. esculentum-633 S. pennelli- 632 L. esculentum var. ceraciforme- 183, 616. 923, 1140, 1506 y 1508 L

  14. EFEITO DE TRICOMAS, ALELOQUÍMICOS E NUTRIENTES NA RESISTÊNCIA DE LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM À TRAÇA-DO-TOMATEIRO EFFECT OF TRICHOMES, ALELLOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS ON THE RESISTANCE OF LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM TO TOMATO LEAF MINER

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    GERMANO LEÃO DEMOLIN LEITE

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de tricomas, aleloquímicos e nutrientes nas folhas de partes do dossel das plantas na resistência de Lycopersicon hirsutum à traça- do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Foram quantificados os teores de 2-tridecanona (2-TD, 2-undecanona (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca e Mg, densidade e tipos de tricomas e tamanho das folhas nos terços apical, mediano e basal do dossel de plantas de L. hirsutum e de L. esculentum e estudaram- se os efeitos destes fatores sobre características biológicas de T. absoluta. Observou-se elevação no teor de 2-TD da base para o ápice do dossel. Não se detectou diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos de T. absoluta ao longo do dossel de L. hirsutum, constatando-se em L. esculentum maior oviposição nos terços apical e mediano do que no basal. As folhas do terço apical de L. hirsutum apresentaram maior efeito deletério sobre as larvas de traça.The objective of this work was to study the effect of trichomes, alellochemicals and minerals in the leaves of different canopy heights on the resistance of Lycopersicon hirsutum to tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Effects of 2-tridecanone (2-TD, 2-undecanone (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca and Mg levels, density and types of trichomes and leaf area on apical, medium and basal parts of plant dossel of L. hirsutum and L. esculentum on the oviposition and mines number of T. absoluta was studied. Production of 2-TD increased from the bottom to the top of the canopy. The apical part of plants of L. hirsutum showed more antibiotic effect on the caterpillar. T. absoluta oviposited more on leaves of the apical and medium portion of the plants than in the basal parts of L. esculentum.

  15. Métodos de remoção da mucilagem e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. Methods of mucilage remotion and physiological quality of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum Mill. seeds

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    C. Cavariani

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estudar diferentes métodos de remoção da mucilagem e a qualidade de sementes de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., conduziu-se um experimento, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Após extração manual, sementes e mucilagens foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos de remoção: lavagem imediata, fermentação por três dias, ácido clorídrico a 2,5% (25 ml/kg, durante 2 horas, ácido acético a 10% (25 ml/kg de material e hidróxido de amônia a 2,5% (25 ml/kg, durante 2 horas. Seguiu-se a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes através das determinações de porcentagem de germinação e vigor, pela porcentagem de emergência em areia, condutividade elétrica e pesos das matérias verde e seca de plântulas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que os métodos de remoção por lavagem imediata, fermentação, ácido clorídrico e ácido acético comercial não afetaram a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de tomate; a porcentagem de germinação não foi afetada pelos diferentes métodos de remoção e o método hidróxido de amônia prejudica o vigor das sementes.Different methods of mucilage remotion and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. seeds were studied, in a complete randomized design experiment with four replications. After manual extraction, seeds and slimes were submitted to the following remotion treatments: immediate washing, three-day fermentation, hydrochloric acid at 2,5% (25 mg/kg for 2 hrs., acetic acid at 10% (25 ml/kg of material, and ammonia hydroxide at 2,5% (25 ml/kg, for 2 hrs.. A physiological quality evaluation of seeds was carried out through the percentage of germination and vigor, percentage of in-sand emergence, electrical conductivity, and weight of fresh and dry matters of seedlings. The results showed that the methods of immediate washing, fermentation, commercial hydrochloric and acetic acids do not affect the physiological quality of

  16. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

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    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  17. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

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    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  18. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  19. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

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    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  20. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  1. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contrasting evolutionary processes during Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies: a case study of the Japanese endemic primroses Primula sect. Reinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Ohtani, Masato; Kurata, Kaoruko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-11-28

    Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated. This study aimed to clarify the phylogenetic position and relationships of section Reinii, interpret the biogeographic and diversification patterns of this group and gain a better understanding of the role of climatic niche evolution in the Japanese endemic primroses. Dated phylogeny for Primula section Reinii is presented based on the sequences of six chloroplast genes and one nuclear gene. Biogeographic history was reconstructed using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis. Macro-evolutionary modelling of the climatic niche was combined with biogeographic inferences. Section Reinii was shown to be monophyletic based on chloroplast and nuclear sequences. Fossil-calibrated dating analysis estimated that this section diverged from its sister taxon, sect. Cortusoides, around 1.82 million years ago, and intraspecific diversification occurred within the last million years. This time frame was characterized by Quaternary climatic oscillations and uplift of high mountains in Japan. Biogeographic inference suggested that this section originated at the northern end of the Japanese Archipelago and then dispersed southward to other islands. Models of climatic niche evolution indicated that the closely related species P. reinii and P. tosanensis have contrasting niche optima and rates of niche evolution. Our results highlight that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the Japanese islands may play a significant role in the biogeographic history of Japanese endemic

  4. Cultivo de embriões de tomate in vitro visando a introgressão de genes de Lycopersicon peruvianum em L. esculentum Tomato embryo culture for introgression of genes of Lycopersicon peruvianum in L. esculentum

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    Fernando A. S. Aragão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se diferentes protocolos de germinação e manutenção de híbridos interespecíficos (Lycopersicon esculentum X L. peruvianum pela melhoria das condições de cultura in vitro bem como da aclimatação das plantas germinadas. Quanto à regeneração dos embriões, três formulações de meios de cultura para resgate de embrião foram avaliadas, em combinação com distintos períodos de tempo. A recuperação de híbridos interespecíficos foi influenciada pelo meio de cultura utilizado para o plaqueamento das sementes e pelo intervalo entre a polinização artificial e o plaqueamento. O meio HLH proporcionou os melhores resultados. O intervalo entre 25 e 35 dias após a polinização foi determinado como sendo o período ideal para recuperação. Para aclimatização, foram avaliadas plantas de L. esculentum, L. peruvianum, híbridos interespecíficos (F1 e das gerações RC1 e RC2. O processo de aclimatização foi influenciado pelo tamanho das gemas utilizadas na repicagem anterior à aclimatização, pelos materiais genéticos utilizados e pelo tempo de manutencão das plântulas em tubo de ensaio. A geracão F1 apresentou a melhor capacidade de aclimatização. O período ideal para aclimatização variou entre 26 e 35 dias após a repicagem em tubo de ensaio. As aclimatizações realizadas sob condições ambientais amenas, alcançaram êxito total quanto à sobrevivência das plântulas.Three culture media in combination with distinct accessions, crossing generations and periods of time after artificial pollination were evaluated in order to identify more efficient protocols to recover interspecific hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. peruvianum. Both type of media for seed plating and the interval time for fruit harvest after artificial pollination had significant influence on the recovery of interspecific hybrids. The HLH medium gave the best results. The interval between 25 and 35 days after the artificial

  5. Effects of Different Sources of Nutrition on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Lycopersicon esculentum under Ecological Cropping System

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    M.B. Amiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing usage of chemical fertilizers imposes irreparable damages to the environment. Disadvantages of chemical fertilizers has led to more attention to the application of organic fertilizers and manures. The use of organic fertilizers and livestock, especially in nutrient poor soils, it is necessary to maintain soil quality. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR occupy the rhizosphere of many plant species and have beneficial effects on the host plant. They may influence the plant in a direct or indirect manner. A direct mechanism would be to increase plant growth by supplying the plant with nutrients and hormones. Indirect mechanisms on the otherhand, include, reduced susceptibility to diseases, and activing a form of defese referred to as induces systematic resistance. Examples of bacteria which have been found to enhance plant growth, include Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Arthrobacter. Biofertilizers contain organic compounds that increase soil fertility either directly or as a result of their decay (9, 10. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The plant typically grow 1-3 meters in height and a weak stem. It is a perennial in its native habitat, although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams. Tomatoes contain the carotene lycopene, one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. In some studies, lycopene, especially in cooked tomatoes, has been found to help prevent prostate cancer. Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin’s ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Tomatoes might help in managing human neurodegenerative diseases. The lycopene has no effect on the risk of developing diabetes, but may help relieve the oxidative stress of people who already have diabetes. The purpose of this study was the possibility of replacing chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers, reducing production

  6. The effect of the lenght of storage on the amount of lycopene in the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

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    Anton Uher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on tomatoes for industrial processing due to its economical importance for its lycopene content. The objective of our research is to find the variation of lycopene content in tomato fruits depending upon the length of after harvest storage and thermic treatment, which is inevitable when being industrialy processed. From the point of view of nutritional qualities the most relevant contentual substance of tomatos are carotenoids, included lycopene.At average for tree following experimental years we learnt significant differences regarding the content of lycopene and the length of storage of tomato fruits. Immediately after the harvest and proccesing tomato fruits contained, at average for tree years, 103.24 mg of lycopene. After 14 days the content of lycopene declined to 46.76 mg . kg−1 of fresh mass. After 30 days the average value dropped to 29.26 mg . kg−1. This fact comfirms that boiling respectively thermic treatment increases the content of lycopene in tomato fruits, particulary in our experiment to the value 83.33 mg . kg−1. At varieties Ladislav, Peto 86, Prémium, Salus the content of lycopene has even risen in comparison with its content up to 48 hours after the harvest. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the most signifficant vegetable varieties either for its exploitation in processing industry as well as for its nutritional value with extraordinary beneficial effect for human organism.Although the content of lycopene is genetically stable attribute, its content in our experiment ranged from 45.39 mg . kg−1 (Prémium variety to 77.98 mg . kg−1 (Zámčan variety, which are significant differences.

  7. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  8. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

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    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  9. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Germination, Growth, Elements, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

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    M. Askary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and the transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their derivatives and ozone (O3. In addition to dry and wet deposition of these gases has been the major route of influx in ionic form into the ecosystem. This investigation was evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR with different pH (6.8 as control, 6.5, 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 on germination, growth, elements, protein, photosynthetic pigments contents of Lycopersicon esculentum in hydroponic culture. Experiments were conducted at research laboratory of arak university in summer of 1391. Results were showed that from pH=6.8 until pH=5/5 significantly increased P and K and protein content, root and shoot dry and wet weight. SAR exposure with high acidity (pH=5/5 until pH=2.5 significantly suppressed germination, growth index, measured elements as P and K, protein and photosynthetic pigments, while significant increased sulphur contect from 150% to 550% compared to controls. Maximal amounts sulphur were measured in pH=2/5. Acid rain in low pH were decrease plant growth and make protein and incearsed sulphur content in leaf. As regards, low acidity promoted the growth of tomato plants and high acidity inhibit, Therefore, it is recommended that tomato plants cultures in soils with low acidity.

  10. The behaviour of Bombus impatiens (Apidae, Bombini on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanaceae flowers: pollination and reward perception

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    Peter Kevan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The foraging behaviour of pollinators can influence their efficiency in pollinating certain plant species. Improving our understanding of this behaviour can contribute to an improvement of management techniques to avoid pollination deficits. We investigated the relationship between the number of visits of bumble bees (Bombus impatiensto tomato flowers (Lycopersicon esculentum and two variables related to the quality of the resulting fruits (weight, number of seeds, as well as the relationship between foragers’ thoracic weights, physical characteristics of thoracic vibrations (main frequency, velocity amplitude, amount of pollen removed from flowers, and the quality-related variables. In addition, we studied the capability of foragers to assess the availability of pollen in flowers. Tomato weight and seed number did not increase with the number of bee visits, neither were they correlated with the foragers’ thorax weight. Thorax weight also did not correlate with the amount of pollen removed from the flowers nor with the physical characteristics of vibration. Vibration characteristics did not change in response to the amount of pollen available on tomato flowers. Instead, foragers adjusted the time spent visiting the flowers, spending fewer time on flowers from which some pollen had already been removed on previous visits. The quantity and the production-related variables of tomatoes are not dependent on the number of bee visits (usually one visit suffices for full pollination; bigger foragers are not more efficient in pollinating tomato flowers than smaller ones; and B. impatiens foragers are capable of evaluating the amount of pollen on a flower while foraging and during pollination.

  11. Purification of extensin from cell walls of tomato (hybrid of Lycopersicon esculentum and L. peruvianum) cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownleader, M D; Dey, P M

    1993-01-01

    Extensin, a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein comprising substantial amounts of beta-L-arabinose-hydroxyproline glycosidic linkages is believed to be insolubilized in the cell wall during host-pathogen interaction by a peroxidase/hydroperoxide-mediated cross-linking process. Both extensin precursor and extensin peroxidase were ionically eluted from intact water-washed tomato (hybrid of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and L. peruvianum L. (Mill.) cells in suspension cultures and purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple procedure under mild and non-destructive experimental conditions. The molecular weight of native extensin precursor was estimated to be greater than 240-300 kDa by Superose-12 gel-filtration chromatography. Extensin monomers have previously been designated a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. Our results indicate that salt-eluted extensin precursor is not monomeric. Agarose-gel electrophoresis, Superose-12-gel-filtration, extensin-peroxidase-catalysed cross-linking, Mono-S ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), and peptide-sequencing data confirmed the homogeneity of the extensin preparation. Evidence that the purified protein was extensin is attributed to the presence of the putative sequence motif--Ser (Hyp)4--within the N-terminal end of the protein. Treatment of extensin with trifluoroacetic acid demonstrated that arabinose was the principal carbohydrate. The amino-acid composition of the purified extensin was similar to those reported in the literature. The cross-linking of extensin in vitro upon incubation with extensin peroxidase and exogenous H2O2 was characteristic of other reported extensins. Furthermore, Mono-S ion-exchange FPLC of native extensin precursor resolved it into two isoforms, A (90%) and B (10%). The amino-acid compositions of extensin A and extensin B were found to be similar to each other and both extensins were cross-linked in vitro by extensin peroxidase.

  12. The life cycle and yielding of Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Mill) pretreated with deuterium depleted water and nano magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Butnariu, Horia; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to reveal the effect of deuterium depleted water (DDW) upon the first (germination) and the last one (yield) life cycle of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomatoes) in water stress condition. Specifically, growth methods were applied. The obtained data were statistically processed (Ceapoiu, 1968). There were pointed out the differences and proportionality in germination dynamics when the seeds were pretreated with DDW and a mixture of DDW with NMP (Nano Magnetic Particles). The descendants of different fruits/plants were analyzed. In comparison to Control (H 2 O-d) in DDW the germination was repressed in one descendant (4.4%) or contrary it was stimulated on other descendant (12.7%). In presence of NMP suspended in DDW, the seed indices were higher: 13.1% for the basal fruit and 22% for the upper one. In the plants cultivated in water well supplied or under water stress conditions the yield was higher i.e. 94.68 t/ha and 62.76 t/ha, respectively. The difference of 31.92 t/ha emphasizes the favorable effect of initial treatment. The DDW pretreatment induced favorable biological effects expressed in a high yield in both groups (normal and stressed). The average yield/surface unit was the highest. The life cycle was prolonged in high yielding descendants. In their case after 105 days only 2% of total yield was gathered. Short phenophases developed the stressed plants. The maturity took place earlier on stressed plants yielding 8% from total production after 105 days.The pretreatment with DDW or DDW and NMPs is useful for practical purposes in case of tomatoes varieties in which technology nursery transplant is an important stage in cultivation. (authors)

  13. Investigation of the effects of aluminum stress on some macro and micro-nutrient contents of the seedlings of lycopersicon esculentum mill. by using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, G.; Catak, E.; Baykul, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area 50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series. Aluminum stress was found to tend to modify the plant nutritional element content of the cells and this was particularly of critical importance in terms of some macro- and micro-nutrients. The assessments performed at the level of epidermal cells of young seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum suggest that aluminum stress leads to an absolute change in the plant nutritional element composition of the cells and in the mobilization of some nutritional elements in the seedlings. (author)

  14. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauich, Orlando; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Macias-Macias, José Octavio; Reyes-Oregel, Vicente; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Parra-Tabla, Victor

    2004-04-01

    The acclimation, foraging behavior, and pollination efficiency of stingless bees of the species Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants cultivated in two greenhouses. The greenhouses were divided into three areas of 16 m2, and one of the following treatments was used for pollination: stingless bees (SB), mechanical vibration (MV), and no pollination (NP). Observations were conducted once a week from 0800 to 1600 hours during 2 mo. The acclimation of the bees to the greenhouses was estimated by the number of bees that did not return to the hive (lost bees) and by comparing the population of the colonies (brood and adults). The foraging activity of the bees across the day was evaluated by comparing the number of foragers per hour. The influence of environmental variables on the foraging activity was also analyzed. The pollination efficiency was compared among treatments through the percentage of fruit set, weight of individual fruit, kilograms of fruit produced per square meter, and the number of seed per fruit. The bees started foraging on the flowers approximately 7 d after the colonies were introduced to the greenhouse. There was a decline in the population of the colonies across the experiment, but colonies did not die out. Correlations of environmental variables with the foraging activity of the bees showed that none of them had a significant influence on pollen foraging. However, water collection was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the humidity inside the greenhouse. The estimation of the pollination efficiency per treatment showed that there were significant differences in fruit set in SB (83 +/- 4.2) and MV (78.5 +/- 6.4) compared with NP (52.6 +/- 7.6). However, the average weight of the fruit was similar for the three treatments (65 g). There were significant differences for seed number in SB (200 +/- 15.3) and MV (232 +/- 21.4) compared with NP (120 +/- 16

  15. Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Bacterial Colonization

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    H. Makarian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental problems such as water resource pollution and decrease in soil fertility. Organic matters are excellent sources of plant-available nutrients and their addition to soil could maintain high microbial populations and activities. In crop studies, Prabha et al. (2007 reported that there was excellent plant growth as well as yield in garlic plants that received vermicompost as nutrient in the field (28. Recent studies confirmed that, a number of bacterial species mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere, are found to be beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the growth promoting effects of organic and bio-fertilizers on tomato growth and yield. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood in 2011. Geographically, the site is located in Bastam (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l..The climate of this region is semi-arid. Treatments included three levels of organic fertilizers: vermicompost (1300 kgha-1, cow manure (3350 kgha-1, and control, biological fertilizer in four levels (Pseudomonas putyda, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chrococcum and control. The bacterial suspension for each species was applied at a rate of 3 liters per hectare. Metribuzin herbicide (wettable 80% powder was used at a rate of 1000 gr. ha-1. Petopride No. 2' variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was used in the present experiment. At the time of harvesting, the plant characteristics namely lengths and diameter of stem, number and weight of fruit, weight of stem and leaf were also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software Mstatc. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results

  16. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H 2 O 2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase ( LeADC. LeADC1 ), ornithine decarboxylase ( LeODC ), and Spd synthase ( LeSPDS ) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S -adenosylmethionine decarboxylase ( LeSAMDC ) and Spm synthase ( LeSPMS ), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase ( LeNCED1 ) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is

  17. Effects of recurrent irradiation and cross fertilization on improvement of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to determine the effects of recurrent irradiation and cross fertilization on the improvement of fruit quality and plant architecture of two tomato species (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) in Ghana. In the first experiment, a variant line of the wild tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) (SP 300/30.4.2.4) previously obtained through irradiation with gamma rays at 300 Gy was re-irradiated with gamma rays at 150 Gy and 300 Gy using gamma irradiation. The second experiment involved hybridization of the same variant line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) with five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L). Progeny were assessed in both M1 and M2 generations for the first experiment but only at the F 2 generation for the second experiment. Significant variations were observed in number of days to first flowering and 50% fruiting. Fruit size increased from 1.36 g and 1.67 g to 1.77 g and 2.66 g in the M 1 and M 2 generations respectively following re-irradiation at 300 Gy. Three 150 Gy treated plants at the M 1 generation and two 300 Gy treated plants at the M 2 generations exhibited erect growth habit compared to the parental line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) which was sprawling. A variant line among the 300 Gy treated plants had a fused fruit of fruit weight of 3.57 g with four locules. Also, hybridization involving five cultivars of the cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicon L.) as female parents and the variant line (SP 300/30.4.2.4) generated variability in several traits including plant architecture, days to flowering and fruiting, fruit weight and number of seeds per fruit in the F 2 generation. Variations in style-length, number of locules, fruit shape and colour were also observed among the plants in the F 2 generation. Generally, significant improvements were obtained with respect to plant architecture (that is reduced plant height), earliness and fruit quality (that is fruit size and colour). Although no

  18. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  19. Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

  20. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  1. Accumulation of New Polypeptides in Ri T-DNA-Transformed Roots of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during the Development of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, P; Louisy-Louis, N; Plenchette, C; Strullu, D G

    1994-06-01

    Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors.

  2. Teorías sobre la clasificación taxonómica de las papas cultivadas (Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.. Una revisión

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    Rodríguez Luis Ernesto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La presente revisión busca reunir diferentes propuestas utilizadas para clasificar las papas cultivadas y sus parientes silvestres (Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort., ya que históricamente se han presentado diferencias entre los taxónomos que han estudiado su clasificación. A la fecha no hay consenso, debido a que el límite entre especies no está definido, y las interrelaciones entre estas son frecuentes. Es importante generar una propuesta definitiva, coherente y práctica, que genere un consenso en la taxonomía de la papa. Esto permitiría conocer el número real de especies, el límite entre ellas y sus interrelaciones y continuos cambios. A su vez, esta información deberá facilitar un mejor aprovechamiento del germoplasma por parte de los programas de mejoramiento genético.

  3. Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L.

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    R Mirzaei Talarposhti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although using animal manures and crop residues as a traditional method for increasing soil fertility and crop yield has a long history but Conventional agricultural systems rely on the use of chemical fertilizer due to its immediate availability of nutrients. In many of modern agricultural systems using chemical fertilizers as a fast and easiest way to reduce nutrient deficiency and increasing soil fertility is considered. Intensive and continuous use of chemical fertilizers leads to decreasing the stability and sustainability of agricultural systems and also poses major threat to environment and human health. Organic fertilizers have positive effects on physiochemical and biological attributes of soil and could be classified in three different groups (i.e. Animal manures, green manure and composts.Using animal manure not only increase soil fertility but also could result in increasing infiltration, aeration and water holding capacity of soil. The main role of these fertilizers is related to physical change in soil. Different types of composts such as municipal waste compost and vermicompost also have similar positive effects, but usually the farmers observe the main effect of these organic fertilizers in long term. In order to investigate the effects of different types of organic fertilizers on growth indexes, yield and yield component of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L. current experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and six treatments in the research station of Shahid Beheshti University. The experimental treatments were: Control or no fertilizer (NF, chemical fertilizer (CF, cow manure (CM, poultry manure (PM, vermicompost (VC and municipal waste compost (MC. Considering nitrogen concentration in all of the treatments different amounts of these fertilizers were used based on nitrogen recommendation for the field, so in

  4. Study of Androgenesis Ability and Callus Induction in Four Varieties of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill by Anther Culture

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    R. Najib

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill is one of the most important vegetables which in addition of its importance as a food, is utilized as a model plant for cytological and cytogenetic studies. Tomato breeding programs are often based on the production and selection of hybrid plants. Producing hybrid plants and application of features that is needed to breed pure lines with high specific combining abilities, is highly required.New technologies such as doubled haploid can be an effective strategy to provide pure lines in tomato. Generation of homozygous doubled haploid lines through induction of androgenesis is a promising alternative method to the classical breeding programs. However, this technology is poorly developed in tomato so that some improvements in methodology are required. Genotype and stages of microspore development are critical factors for induction of androgenesis in tomato. Among them, the genotype is more important than other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of callus induction from anthers in some tomato genotypes. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the androgenic response and callus induction through anther culture in tomato, four varieties including Mobil-Netherlands, Baker, U. S. Agriseed and Khoram were chosen. To determine the appropriate stage of microspore development for anther culture, cytologycal studies were accomplished at different size length of flower buds (2-7.9 mm. Flower buds were incubated at 4oC for 15 minutes and stained in acetocarmin %4 solution. Based on cytological studies in four tested cultivars, flower buds with size length 4-4.9 mm were chosen, as they had the highest frequency of meiotic microspores to microspores mid uninucleate. Pretreatments were colchicine solution (250 mgr/L at 4 °C for 48 h. The anthers were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mgr/L IAA and 1 mgr/L 2ip. All changes in frequency of callus induction and diameter of

  5. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Glomus intraradice on Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in Cultivated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba zafarian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the most popular and highest symbiotic relationship in plant kingdom. Most plants (about 80% of vascular plant species have at least one type of mycorrhiza. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies are the most important endomycorhiza fungi that play an important role in agriculture. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradice symbiosis to control Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. growth, a glasshouse experiment was conducted in CRD design with four replications in Shahrekord university in summer 2014. Treatments consisted of four arbuscular mycorrhizal levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 and two control treatments of weed free and weed infested treatments, respectively. In this experiment, seeds of speedy tomato cultivar planted in the bed that consisted of coco peat and peat moss were transplanted to the pots. Pots with diameter 20 and height 15 cm were filled with soil in the ratio 4: 1: 1 manure, sand and clay respectively and with 50 mg of Orobanche seeds that were collected in the previous year. It should be noted that the soil combination was disinfected at a temperature of 80OC for 72 h to reduce the potential effects of soil microbial population in reducing Orobanche germination. The fungal inoculation, containing sandy soil fungal body parts and organs fungal root was then added to each pot. Fungi strain was provided from the plant protection clinic located in Hamadan. Also, nutrition of tomato after being transplanted to pots was carried out with foliar application of complete micronutrient of 20-20-20 every 7 days under glasshouse condition. At the end of the season, were measured number of stems, number of nodules on the roots of tomato, time of emergence of orobanche flower on the soil surface, orobanche dry weight and tomato root and shoot dry weight. Statistical analysis of

  6. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

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    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-05

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2'-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm(-1), being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  9. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  10. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  11. Polyhydroxyalcanoates of strains of Azospirillum spp. isolated of roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomato” and Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was determined the concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs of Azospirillum strains isolated from roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill "tomato" and Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative to accumulation of petroleum-based plastics. Previously disinfected root were plated in Nfb semisolid medium where nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense on tomato and rice. Batch fermentation was performed with broth Azotobacter modified feeding a saturated solution of malic acid every 12 hours and were stained with Sudan Black B. Strains were selected with the greatest number of PHAs granules (in tomato, 18 of A. lipoferum and 2 of A. brasilense; in rice, 10 of A. lipoferum and 10 of A. brasilense and quantified the biomass and PHAs. PHAs concentration reached 0.661 gL-1 in A. lipoferum KM(T-73 and 0.738 gL-1 in A. brasilense KM(T-19, both isolated from tomato. Strains of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense isolated from tomato reached a higher concentration of biomass and PHAs against the strains of rice.

  12. Biosynthesis of 14C-phytoene from tomato cell suspension cultures (Lycopersicon esculentum) for utilization in prostate cancer cell culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2006-02-08

    This work describes the development and utilization of a plant cell culture production approach to biosynthesize and radiolabel phytoene and phytofluene for prostate cancer cell culture studies. The herbicide norflurazon was added to established cell suspension cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry), to induce the biosynthesis and accumulation of the lycopene precursors, phytoene and phytofluene, in their natural isomeric forms (15-cis-phytoene and two cis-phytofluene isomers). Norflurazon concentrations, solvent carrier type and concentration, and duration of culture exposure to norflurazon were screened to optimize phytoene and phytofluene synthesis. Maximum yields of both phytoene and phytofluene were achieved after 7 days of treatment with 0.03 mg norflurazon/40 mL fresh medium, provided in 0.07% solvent carrier. Introduction of 14C-sucrose to the tomato cell culture medium enabled the production of 14C-labeled phytoene for subsequent prostate tumor cell uptake studies. In DU 145 prostate tumor cells, it was determined that 15-cis-phytoene and an oxidized product of phytoene were taken up and partially metabolized by the cells. The ability to biosynthesize, radiolabel, and isolate these carotenoids from tomato cell cultures is a novel, valuable methodology for further in vitro and in vivo investigations into the roles of phytoene and phytofluene in cancer chemoprevention.

  13. Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Fernandez-Becerra, C; Mascaro, C; Rosales, M J; Dollet, M; Osuna, A

    1995-01-01

    Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia) and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia, but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.

  14. Lectin conjugates as biospecific contrast agents for MRI. Coupling of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin to linear water-soluble DTPA-loaded oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkunova-Martic, Irena; Kremser, Christian; Galanski, Markus; Schluga, Petra; Arion, Vladimir; Debbage, Paul; Jaschke, Werner; Keppler, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires synthesis of contrast media bearing targeting groups and numerous gadolinium chelating groups generating high relaxivity. This paper explores the results of linking the gadolinium chelates to the targeting group, a protein molecule, via various types of linkers. Polycondensates of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with either diols or diamines were synthesised and coupled to the targeting group, a lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin, tomato lectin) which binds with high affinity to specific oligosaccharide configurations in the endothelial glycocalyx. The polycondensates bear up to four carboxylic groups per constitutive unit. Gd-chelate bonds are created through dative interactions with the unshared pair of electrons on each oxygen and nitrogen atom on DTPA. This is mandatory for complexation of Gd(III) and avoidance of the severe toxicity of free gadolinium ions. The polymer-DTPA compounds were characterised by (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. The final lectin-DTPA-polycondensate conjugates were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The capacity for specific binding was assessed, and the MRI properties were examined in order to evaluate the use of these oligomers as components of selective perfusional contrast agents.

  15. Polihidroxialcanoatos de cepas de Azospirillum spp. aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la concentración de polihidroxialcanoatos (PH As de cepas de Azospirillum aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz”, como una alternativa ante la acumulación de plásticos derivados del petróleo. R aíces previamente desinfectadas se sembraron en medio Nfb se misólido, donde las bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno se reconocieron por una película blanquecina bajo la superficie y el viraje del indicador al azul. El género Azospirillum se identificó en medio rojo de Congo, obteniéndose 96 cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense en tomate y arroz. Se realizó una fermentación discontinua con caldo Azotobacter modificado, alimentando con una solución saturada de ácido málico cada 12 horas y se realizaron tinciones con Sudán Negro B. Se seleccionaron las cepas con mayor nú mero de gránulos de PHAs (en tomate , 18 de A. lipoferum y 2 de A. brasilense y en arroz, 10 de A. lipoferum y 10 de A. brasilense y se cuantificó la biomasa y PHAs. La concentración de PHAs alcanzó 0 . 661 gL - 1 en A. lipoferum KM(T - 73 y 0 . 738 gL - 1 en A. br asilense KM(T - 19. Las cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense aisladas de tomate alcanzaron una mayor concentración de biomasa y PHAs frente a las cepas aisladas de arroz.

  16. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  17. Caracterización de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. y su efecto en el desarrollo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracterizar y determinar el efecto de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. en el desarrollo vegetativo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate”, como una alternativa al uso indiscriminado de fertilizantes químicos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico de hortalizas con las que se realizaron diluciones (10-4 en caldo Ashby-Sacarosa y se incubaron a 30 ºC hasta observar un color amarillo, turbidez y película superficial. El género Azotobacter se identificó en agar mineral sin nitrógeno y Ashby-Benzoato, obteniéndose 96 cepas con una producción de 7.10 a 57.99 mgL-1 de ácido indolacético, 0.13 a 1.64 mgL-1 de nitrógeno fijado como amonio y hasta 1.61 % de eficiencia en la solubilización de roca fosfórica de Bayóvar. Se obtuvo una suspensión celular (108 de cada una de las cuatro cepas con los mayores valores y se inocularon independientemente y en consorcio, así como una combinación con 50 % de urea-100 % de roca fosfórica, en la rizósfera de tomate cv. Río Grande, en un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Todas las cepas nativas incrementaron la altura, volumen radicular, materia seca total, parte aérea y radicular frente al testigo absoluto.

  18. β(1,3 GLUCANASAS DE LOS ESPACIOS INTERCELULARES DE HOJAS DE TOMATE LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM CERACIFORME DESPUES DE INFECCIÓN CON PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto M. Zamora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis en líquido de lavado intercelular de Lycopersicon esculentum ceraciforme L1568 perteneciente al germoplasma nacional con resistencia en campo a P. infestans mostró la presencia de cuatro   β (1,3 glucanasas después de infección con el patógeno. Las plantas se inocularon con el patógeno para inducir aumento en la concentración de las proteínas PR. Después de 15 días de inoculadas, se extrajo el líquido de lavado intercelular de los foliolos de la planta utilizando agua destilada. Las proteínas extraídas se liofilizaron, se  resuspendieron en buffer, se purificaron utilizando cromatografía de intercambio iónico y electroforesis preparativa,  esto permitió la  caracterización parcial de una β (1,3  glucanasa básica con peso molecular  de 36,8 kDa y PI  9,2 y tres ácidas de  35.4, 30.1 y 7.2 kDa  con puntos isoeléctricos de 3.8; 3.6 y 5.0 respectivamente. Además se determinaron las propiedades cinéticas de cada enzima, KM, Vmax, Eo y K3 encontrando que la proteína básica no ha sido reportada en la literatura hasta ahora.

  19. THE CLAPHAM SECT LESSON Kanayo N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    It is now history that the 18th century Europe witnesses a rise in the ... people of different categories to be passionately and emotionally .... British North America had carried on, as far as ... Leadership is lifting of man's vision to higher sights, the raising of ... enduring values especially among the defenseless in our society. It.

  20. El efecto de la disponibilidad de agua durante el crecimiento de Lycopersicon chilense sobre la capacidad de sus semillas para germinar a distintas temperaturas y concentraciones de manitol y NaCl Effect of water availability during the growth of Lycopersicon chilense on the capacity of their seeds to germinate at different temperatures and concentrations of manitol and NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MALDONADO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El número de semillas producidas por una planta puede estar limitada por factores ambientales adversos, los cuales también pueden afectar el desarrollo, originando semillas no viables. En la Primera Región de Chile hemos observado que Lycopersicon chilense, una especie de tomate endémica del Desierto de Atacama, presenta una alta producción de frutos y de semillas, sin embargo se observa una escasa regeneración de nuevos individuos. Se plantea que esto se debe a dos factores: (a las plantas madres, producto de las condiciones adversas donde crecen desarrollan semillas no viables o (b las semillas son viables pero las condiciones ambientales son desfavorables para la germinación. Se estudió la capacidad germinativa de semillas de Lycopersicon chilense sometidas a distintas temperaturas y concentraciones de manitol y NaCl, provenientes de plantas madres que crecieron con buen abastecimiento hídrico (+H2O y de otro grupo que creció con un abastecimiento hídrico deficiente (-H2O. El nivel de riego tuvo un efecto sobre el número de semillas germinadas y sobre el tiempo que necesitan las semillas para germinar frente a distintas temperaturas y diferentes potenciales hídricos. Las semillas de plantas -H2O fueron capaces de germinar a potenciales hídricos más negativos y en menor tiempo que las semillas provenientes de plantas +H2O en el caso de manitol. Una relación inversa ocurrió respecto a NaCl, en que un mayor porcentaje de germinación y un menor tiempo de germinación se presentó en las semillas provenientes de plantas +H2O. La germinación de L. chilense disminuye progresivamente a potenciales hídricos menores de -0,5 MPa siendo esta disminución más notoria con NaCl, en ambos casos se observó un retraso en la germinación. El óptimo de temperatura para la germinación se encontró entre los 15 y los 25 °C. Lycopersicon chilense no germinó a temperaturas menores de 8 °C y mayores de 35 °C. Los datos mostraron que las

  1. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Solanum lycopersicon L. in Response to an Alfalfa-Protein Hydrolysate Using Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L. plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L-1 to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L-1. This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes. EM also up-regulated a number of genes implied in the secondary metabolism that leads to the synthesis of compounds (phenols and terpenes functioning in plant development and interaction with the environment. Concomitantly, phenol content was enhanced in EM-treated plants. Several new genes have been identified in tomato as potential targets of EM action, like those involved in detoxification processes from reactive oxygen species and xenobiotic (particularly glutathione/ascorbate cycle-related and ABC transporters, and defense against abiotic and biotic stress. The model hypothesized is that elicitors present in the EM formulation like auxins, phenolics, and amino acids, may trigger a signal transduction pathway via modulation of the intracellular levels of the hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and abscissic acid, which then further prompt the activation of a cascade events requiring the presence and activity of many kinases and transcription factors to activate stress-related genes. The genes identified suggest these kinases and transcription factors as players involved in a complex crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways. We conclude that EM acts as a biostimulant in tomato due to its capacity to

  2. Identificação de genótipos do gênero Solanum (secção Lycopersicon com resistência a Stemphylium solani e S. lycopersici Identification of Solanum (section Lycopersicon accessions with resistance to Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo C de Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-de-estenfílio do tomateiro, causada pelos fungos Stemphylium solani e S. lycopersici, foi considerada, por muito tempo, como uma doença secundária devido à utilização combinada de fungicidas e variedades resistentes. Recentemente, severas epidemias da mancha-de-estenfilio têm sido relatadas nas várias regiões produtoras sugerindo a necessidade de retomar o emprego de cultivares com resistência a esta enfermidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos cultivados e silvestres de tomateiro [Solanum (secção Lycopersicon] frente a isolados destas duas espécies de Stemphylium. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, 109 genótipos de Solanum (secção Lycopersicon foram avaliados via inoculação com uma suspensão de 10(4 conídios/mL dos isolados 'EH-1740' (S. solani e 'EH-1749' (S. lycopersici. As plantas foram transplantadas aos 18 dias da semeadura e inoculadas sete dias depois. A avaliação da resposta dos genótipos foi feita 15 dias após a inoculação. Cinqüenta e oito genótipos considerados promissores foram novamente avaliados (com os mesmos isolados em um segundo experimento. Neste experimento a reação dos genótipos foi avaliada cada dois dias utilizando como critérios o período de incubação e a severidade da doença através de uma escala de notas de 0 a 5. Com os valores de severidade, nas diferentes leituras, foi calculada a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença e o índice de doença. Foram identificadas 35 fontes de resistência às duas espécies de Stemphylium em genótipos das espécies S. lycopersicum, S. habrochaites, S. peruvianum e S. pimpinellifolium. Os genótipos de S. lycopersicum e S. pimpinellifolium resistentes possuem, provavelmente, o gene de resistência Sm. No entanto, os genótipos de S. peruvianum e S. habrochaites podem representar fontes de novos genes/alelos que conferem resistência às duas espécies fúngicas. Esta potencial diversidade de fatores

  3. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    35mm and below, the material was able to withstand high pressure force radially than axially before yielding. Keywords: axial .... Critical stresses of Compressed Biomaterials under. Transportation' ... Consumer risk in shipping of raw fruit and.

  4. Fontes de resistência em acessos de Solanum (secção Lycopersicon a Verticillium dahliae raças 1 e 2 Sources of resistance to Verticillium dahliae races 1 and 2 in accessions of Solanum (section Lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo C de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A murcha-de-verticílio (Verticillium dahliae é uma das doenças mais severas do tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Duas raças fisiológicas de V. dahliae foram caracterizadas infectando o tomateiro e ambas estão presentes no Brasil. A estratégia de controle mais efetiva para isolados da raça 1 tem sido a utilização de cultivares resistentes em associação com práticas culturais. Entretanto, não existem cultivares comerciais de tomate resistentes à raça 2 do patógeno. Neste contexto, torna-se importante a identificação de novas fontes de resistência que sejam efetivas contra as duas raças de V. dahliae. Buscou-se fontes de resistência a isolados de V. dahliae (raças 1 e 2. Cem acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma contendo espécies cultivadas e selvagens de Solanum (secção Lycopersicon foram inicialmente inoculados pelo método de imersão de raízes com um isolado de V. dahliae raça 1 (5 mL de uma suspensão de 10(6 conídios/mL em condições de casa de vegetação. A avaliação foi feita aos 30 dias após a inoculação, usando uma escala de notas variando de 1 (planta sadia a 5 (planta morta. Foram considerados resistentes os acessos que apresentaram nota média entre 1 e 2. Um grupo composto por 38 acessos classificados como resistentes neste primeiro ensaio foi reavaliado para resistência a outros quatro isolados de V. dahliae pertencentes às raças 1 e 2. As cultivares Ponderosa e Floradade foram utilizadas como controles. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 5 x 40, com três repetições (vasos com quatro plantas. A avaliação foi feita baseada nos parâmetros epidemiológicos: período de incubação e índice de doença. Foram identificados acessos com resistência raça-específica e também com resistência a ambas as raças. Estes acessos podem ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento genético visando incorporar

  5. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Gao Peng; Gao Ya; Yang Zhirong; Sun Qun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 10 4 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  7. Incorporation of disease resistance from Lycopersicon peruvianum L. to cultivated tomatoes, 1: Breeding of new varieties ''Ryugyoku'' etc., having resistance to Fusarium root rot and tobacco mosaic virus inherited from L. peruvianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, K.; Yasui, H.; Mochizuki, T.; Hida, K.; Komochi, S.

    1987-01-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCR) resistance and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) resistance (Tm-2) of a wild tomato (Lycopersicon peruvianum) were incorporated into cultivated tomatoes (L. esculentum). With this material, F1 hybrid varieties 'Kagyoku, Ryugyoku' and their parental lines 'Tomato parental lines No. 4, -No. 5' were developed. In addition, 'Kagyoku, Ryugyoku' possess Fusarium wild (J1), Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and TMV (Tm-2a) resistance introduced from the other varieties. Among the resistances introduced from L. peruvianum, TMV resistance is simply inherited and stable enough. FCR resistance is basically monogenic, but the strong influence of the genetic background hinders the development of FCR resistant varieties with high quality and yield. Whereas 'Ryugyoku' which is highly resistant to FCR has less attractive fruit characters, 'Kagyoku' yields fruits of high quality with a comparatively low FCR resistance. In this report, the breeding process from interspecific hybridization to the development of F1 varieties and the methods of selection applied were described. Also the difficulties which arose in the process of incorporation of the resistance from the wild species were discussed

  8. Efecto de la concentración y presión sobre la elevación del punto de ebullición de pasta de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Ortega Quintana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades térmicas de las pulpas concentradas juegan un papel importante en el diseño y optimización de evaporadores de múltiple efecto, entre estas propiedades se encuentra la elevación del punto de ebullición. En esta investigación se determinó la elevación del punto de ebullición de pastas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de las variedades colombianas Chonto, Milano y Río Grande variando las concentraciones de sólidos solubles desde 5 hasta 35ºBrix y las presiones de vacío desde 49,33 hasta 949,26mbar. Cada tratamiento fue realizado por triplicado para cada variedad de tomate y se evaluó el ajuste de los datos obtenidos a los modelos matemáticos: Dühring, Antoine y Crapiste-Lozano. La concentración, la presión, la variedad de tomate y las diferentes interacciones de estas variables tuvieron efecto estadísticamente signifi cativo al 5% de signifi cancia en la temperatura de ebullición de las pastas de tomate. Finalmente, para las tres variedades de tomate se encontró un buen ajuste de los datos experimentales a los diferentes modelos matemáticos.

  9. Third-party access zu district-heating grids. Considerations to the range of paragraph 19 sect. 4 no. 4 GWB and to the relation of antitrust law and energy law; Drittzugang zu Fernwaermenetzen. Ueberlegungen zur Reichweite des paragraph 19 Abs. 4 Nr. 4 GWB und zum Verhaeltnis von Kartell- und Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, Torsten

    2011-07-01

    The establishment of a sector-specific network access regulation significantly contributes to the development of vigorous competition in telecommunications services. Even in the sectors of electricity and natural gas hopes are placed on a regulation. Recognising this, in early 2010, a contract for a legal opinion concluded on behalf of the Energieeffizienzverband fuer Waerme, Kaelte und KWK e.V. (Frankfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany). This legal opinion should examine the following questions: (1) To what extent can the effect of the substitution ban also be used for the enforcement of access requirements?; (2) Is the heat supply system a key organization in line with paragraph 19 Sect. 4 No 4 GWB (GWB = Restriction of Competition)? (3) May the network access be denied on economic grounds in the way of objective justification? (4) How far may in particular environmental and beyond considerations of economic standing aspects be used? Based on these particular issues, especially, grid access requirements are traced. The author of the contribution under consideration investigates the following issues: (a) To what extent can claims on supply with or acceptance of district heating be derived from anti-trust standards?; (b) What are the impacts of the specialties of district heating on the application of the antitrust law? (d) To what extent does the antitrust law interact with the regulations of energy law and its objectives?.

  10. Regeneração de plantas híbridas entre Lycopersicon esculentum e L. peruvianum a partir de calos com dois anos de cultura in vitro Regeneration of Lycopersicon esculentum X L. peruvianum hybrid plants from two year old callus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Siqueira

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Calos obtidos da cultura in vitro de embrião imaturo do cruzamento interespecífico L. esculentum x L. peruvianum, praticamente perderam a capacidade morfogenética, após dois anos de subcultura. Na tentativa de recuperação do processo de organogênese desses calos, realizaram-se dois experimentos, utilizando-se os fitorreguladores ácido indolacético (IAA e 6-benziladenina (6-BA, cujas concentrações foram combinadas em dialélicos de 5 x 5 e 3 x 3. A composição de sais minerais e vitaminas baseou-se no meio de Murashige e Skoog, adicionando-se sacarose a 3% e ágar a 0,8%, e ajustando-se o pH final dos meios de cultura para 5,5. As condições para o dialélico 5 x 5 foram fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz a 600 lux e temperatura de 25 ± 3°C. No dialélico 3 x 3, os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara de crescimento a 2.000 lux, sob a mesma variação de temperatura e fotoperíodo. Em cada frasco, inoculou-se um calo com cerca de 1 cm³, totalizando quinze repetições. Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento de calos, atribuindo-se uma escala de notas de 1 a 5, e a presença de plantas (organogênese após 30 dias de cultura. Observou-se o número total de plantas por tratamento, bem como o desenvolvimento das plantas em centímetro. No dialélico 5 x 5, a organogênese foi apenas incipiente em três tratamentos, porém as melhores combinações para o desenvolvimento dos calos foram de 0,5, 2,5 e 5,0µM de IAA com 2,5µM de 6-BA. No dialélico 3 x 3, houve a indução de plantas em sete tratamentos, sendo mais eficientes 25 e 50µM de 6-BA, sem auxina. O tratamento de 0,5 e 10,0µM de IAA e 6-BA, respectivamente, permitiu simultaneamente o crescimento de calos e a regeneração de plantas. Nota-se a influência das condições ambientais de manutenção das culturas, principalmente da intensidade de luz.Callus from Lycopersicon esculentum x L. peruvianum interespecific hybrids cultured in vitro lost their morphogenetic abilities after two

  11. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  12. Análisis de la heterosis y de la habilidad combinatoria entre diferentes cultivares de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a partir de un cruzamiento dialélico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis de la heterosis y de la habilidad combinatoria entre 21 cultivares de tomate, para el carácter producción por planta y sus componentes a partir de un cruzamiento dialélico (6 progenitores, 15 híbridos F1, sin incluir los recíprocos: utilizando el método experimental 2, modelo I propuesto por Griffing (1956. Se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas para los efectos de hcg y de hce para todos los caracteres a excepción del carácter producción de frutos de primera (frutos de más de 180 g. Los híbridos Motelle x Ángela I 5100, Motelle x Zambao y Licapal 21 x Zambao presentaron altos efectos de h c e para el carácter producción por planta. Los anteriores efectos asociados con altas heterobeltiosis hacen que estos híbridos sean promisorios para una posterior comercialización.An analysis of heterosis and combining ability of traits related with per plant production was carried out using a diallele crossing between different tomate cultivars, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (six parent and 15 F1 hybrids from as possible crossing in one direction, according to the methodology proposed by Griffing (1956, selecting experimental method 2, and model 1. In the genetic variation of all traits related to per plant production, except in first class fruit trait, the general combining ability (gen non addite action effects participate jointly and in highly significant manner. Hybrids Motelle x Angela I 5100, Motelle x Zambao y Licapal21 x Zambao, exhibited high s c a effects for the trait per plant production. Former effects related to high heterobeltyosis make these hybrids promising for later marketing.

  13. combined with caesarean sectIon Low spinal anaesthesia local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... The disadvantages of this technique are that no retractor can be used in the lower end of the ... big light' or 'the baby crying'. It was graded as .... in analysing these data and to Dr M. V. Gumede, Secretary for. * Following ...

  14. Unusual iridoid glycosides in Veronica sects. Hebe and Labiatoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    iridoids common to the genus. The chemical profile of V. perfoliata is similar to that of Northern hemisphere species of Veronica because of the presence of characteristic 6-O-catalpol esters. The profile of V. derwentiana is unique, since 6-O-esters of aucubin rather than of catalpol dominate, however......In a chemosystematic investigation of three Southern hemisphere species of Veronica, namely the Australian V. derwentiana Andrews and V. perfoliata R.Br. (formerly Derwentia species), and the New Zealand V. catarractae G. Forster (formerly a species of Parahebe), the water-soluble constituents were...

  15. New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Fechner, Nigel; Arora, David; Soytong, Kasem; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2014-01-01

    Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Phenylpropanoid glycosides in Italian Orobanche spp., sect. Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, M; Corazzi, G; Poli, F; Piccin, A; Tomassini, L; Foddai, S

    2005-09-01

    We studied the occurrence of phenylpropanoid glycosides (PhG) in five species of the genus Orobanche L., collected in the Latium region of Italy. The presence of orobanchoside and verbascoside in all four species confirms that these PhGs are taxonomic markers of the genus. The results suggest that O. gracilis form. citrina could be a diverse entity.

  17. Mycena sect. Hygrocyboideae in the mountains of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; B.A. Perry; D.E. Desjardin

    2004-01-01

    A collection of Mycena epipterygia from montane cloud forest in the Dominican Republic was found to have one-fourth to one-half monosporous basidia mixed with bisporous basidia. It is described as a new variety, M. epipterygia var. domingensis Lodge, differing from M. epipterygia var. epipterygioides and other two-spored varieties in having smaller dimensions of spores...

  18. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The development of a cost effective and efficient protocol for mass propagation of high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per seedling. A good in vitro plant regeneration system may also assist in further improvement of the commercially important cultivars for disease.

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... in fructose content between 6 and 9°C. Under low night temperature, sucrose phosphate synthase ..... between 9 and 6°C throughout the experiment; exclusive .... grade and composite index of deformed fruits and the types of ...

  20. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of a new method based on color image analysis and the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for the diagnosis of nitrogen deficiencies of tomato seedlings, a field experiment was conducted. In this study, five levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen ...

  1. Response of Pratylenchus spp Infected Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...

  2. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considered to be less attacked by fungal diseases and use ... In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced ... Results show that, the average of 9 fruits/plant harvested in the plots applied with of ...

  3. Estudios genéticos básicos para la creación de nuevos cultivares de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., adaptados a las condiciones de Colombia: interpretación in6tegral de la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El Programa de investigación: "Mejoramiento Genético y Producción de Semillas de Hortalizas" se viene desarrollando en la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de Palmira, desde 1985. Busca crear y seleccionar cultivares (variedades o híbridos adaptados a las condiciones, necesidades y recursos del horticultor colombiano y a la formación de investigadores en la carrera de Agronomía y en sus diferentes Programas de Posgrados, en las áreas de Producción Vegetal, Mejoramiento Genético, Sistemas de Semillas y Suelos y Aguas. El Programa involucra cuatro hortalizas (tomate, pimentón, zapallo y cilantro las cuales se  consideran importantes y/o promisorias para la  agricultura colombiana. No se descarta que, en el futuro, el programa incluya otras especies. En el presente trabajo se entregan los resultados de la investigación relacionados, con la especie tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

  4. Potentiel infectieux des sols de cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sous abri et incidence de l'âge de repiquage sur la vigueur des plants vis-à-vis de Pythium sp. à Songon-Dabou en Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koné, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiel Infectious of Soils Fields of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Greenhouse and the Age Incidence Facing Pythium sp. on the Plants at Songon-Dabou in Ivory Coast. Songon-Dabou area represents one of the spheres activities of tomato in Ivory Coast. The production of tomato is strongly influenced by some of viruses, bacteria and soil born fungi. A study was conducted on the soils of different fields with three varieties of tomato (Caraïbo, Mongal and Tropimech to identify the most susceptible variety to soil born fungi at Songon-Dabou. By baiting with 20 days old seedlings, 4 genus fungi of Pythium, Fusarium, Sclerotium and Macrophomina have been isolated. Pythium sp. presented the greatest attack (32% while Macrophomina phaseoli was isolated for the first time on market gardening in Ivory Coast. Tomato plants have been inoculated by Pythium at different stages obtained from seedling to 25 days old nursery seedlings. That experiment was repeated three times. This work was conducted in greenhouse during 26 days after transplantation of the plants in the pots. These results confirm that Pythium sp. is a fungus of damping off (100% and that age of transplantation reduces the rate of mortality (less than 20%.

  5. Mycorrhizal fungi in tomatoplantless Lycopersicon esculentum Miller Efecto de hongos micorrizogenos en tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Prager Marina

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Two soils from Cauca Department (Colombia were pasteurized; soil analysis showed that they contained 3.0 and 9.0 ppm P, pH 4.8 and 6.2, respectively. They were fertilized with 0, 30 and 60 kg P/ha. Tomato plantlets var. Chonto Santa Cruz were inoculated with 11 VAM isolates of the CIAT VAM fungal germplasm and one VAM native fungi. Plantlets were grown in pots. Fifty two days after plants were harvested and height, dry matter, tissue analysis tor N, P, K, Ca, Mg and B was performed; fungus infection and health were determined. The statistical analysis showed that the major differences in this bioassay were due to a type of soils and their nutritional conditions. Plant dry matter and height increased with the increased levels of fertilizer. Best grow results were obtained with 60 kg P/ha. Dry matter, heigth and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca and B were significantly different between introduced VAM and the native fungi. VAM fungi isolates had different behavior in each soil. This confirmed the soil influence in the symbiosis effectiveness.

    En condiciones de invernadero, en dos suelos del Departamento del Cauca (Colombia, previamente pasteurizados, con contenidos de P de 3.0 y 9.0 ppm y pH de 4.8 y 6.2 respectivamente, sujetos a fertilización con O, 30 y 60 kg de P/ha, se probaron 11 cepas de hongos micorrizógenos provenientes de diferentes regiones del país y con la flora nativa de cada suelo. Las plantas se cosecharon a los 52 días de transplante y se les determinó altura, materia seca, análisis foliar de N, P, K. Ca, Mg y B, infección por hongos micorrizógenos y sanidad del cultivo. Las mayores diferencias en este ensayo se debieron al tipo de suelo y sus condiciones nutricionales. La materia seca y altura de las plantas aumentaron en ambos suelos, al incrementarse la fertilización, los mejores resultados en desarrollo vegetativo y reproductivo ocurrieron con 60 kg de P/ha. En materia seca, altura y absorción de N, P, K, Ca, y B, hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre cepas introducidas y flora nativa. Las cepas variaron en su comportamiento en los 2 suelos, lo cual corrobora la alta influencia de este factor en la efectividad de la simbiosis.

  6. Refuge Begonias : taxonomy, phylogeny and historical biogeography of Begonia sect. Loasibegonia and sect. Scutobegonia in relation to glacial rain forest refuges in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Begonia is a genus of + 1000 species and is represented in all tropical areas. In Wageningen, under the guidance of dr J.J.F.E. de Wilde, the continental African begonias are being studied. Continental Africa has some 120

  7. A revision of names in Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa and T. sect. Erythrosperma (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) published by C. E. Sonck from Greece, with nomenclatural comments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Jan; Kirschner, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 137-144 ISSN 0511-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flora of Balkan Peninsula * typification * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2014

  8. MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN TOMAT (Lycopersicon esculentum DENGAN SISTEM BUDIDAYA HIDROPONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is vegetable that has high economic and nutritional value. Hydroponics is the cultivation of plants without soil but using rice husk charcoal, rockwool, pumice, sand, gravel, perlite water and air media. This research aims to study the effect of nutrients and polybag size on growth and yield of hydroponic tomatoes. The experiment was conducted in Kassa House of Agroekoteknologi Departement Faculty of Agriculture Trunojoyo University. Fertilizers used were Hidrogroup and Greentonik while polybag size are 30x30 cm, 30x40 cm and 40x40 cm. The design of this study using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The result showed that this research affect to the vegetative phase. No interaction between type of nutrition and polybag size on plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, number of flowers, flowering time of tomato. Type of nutrition significantly affect plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, flower number and wet and dry weight of stems and leaves, whereas the size of polybags significantly affects in the number of leaves, wet and dry weight of stems and leaves of tomato.

  9. Characterization of LeCOP1 gene in Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    mechanisms of stress tolerance (Yamaguchi and. Shinozaki, 2005 .... reverse transcribed in the presence of Oligo(dT) and 9-mer random primer in a volume ..... Engineering drought tolerance in plants: discovering and tailoring genes to unlock ...

  10. The incorporation gene of tomato fruit firmness (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit firmness is a polygenetic trait and depends on firmness components pericarp thickness, firmness of epidermis and firmness of flash. The accumulation of favourable traits ratio for each component (towards the increase of expression the fruit firmness can be increased. This paper deals with aspects of increasing fruit firmness by increasing firmness of epidermis and thickness of pericarp. By using genotypes with rin (ripening inhibitor gene, we were able to accomplish great firmness of fruits, especially firmness of flash. The expression of these traits cause the asynchronization of maturing process so the fruits do not over mature or soften. Genetic effects have been evaluated by researching the average values of fruit firmness in six diallel parent lines (D-150, S-49, S-35, H-52, Kg-z and SP-109 and progeny (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by applying additive dominant model with three and six parameters (Mather and Jinks, 1982. Mean values of fruit firmness for parents and progeny were significantly different. Firmness of fruits is a trait influenced first of all by additive gene since they were found in all researched combinations. Epystatic gene effect was important in inheriting process for all three two-gene interactions. The stabile duplicate type of epystsase was found, which in this case reduces the unfavourable effects of dominant genes of parents with soft fruits. .

  11. Genetic diversity in 14 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... 1Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State,PMB 21244, Ikeja,. Nigeria. 2Department of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 6 ...

  12. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  13. Regulation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandena

    2012-06-26

    dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) ... disease and insect pest complex, heat stress) are solved ... among which light, temperature, nutrition, hormonal .... Interaction effects of variety and 2, 4-D on number of fruits per flower cluster of tomato plants.

  14. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven accessions and one locally approved variety were crossed in half diallel fashion and the resulting F1 progeny along with their parents were evaluated in a 6 × 6 Tripple Lattice Design at Agricultural Research Institute, Mingora (NWFP), Pakistan during 2007 - 2008 crop season. Highly significant differences were ...

  15. Taraxacum nigricans, T. alpestre and allies in the Taraxacum sect. Alpestria: taxonomy, geography and conservation status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Jan; Kirschner, Jan; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Kirschnerová, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2011), s. 537-564 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/1555; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : agamosperly * geografical parthenogenesis * typification Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2011

  16. The South American species of Hibiscus sect. Furcaria DC. (Malvaceae-Hibisceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus section Furcaria from South America is revised. Ten new species from Brasil are described: H. Andersonii, H. capitalensis, H. chapadensis, H. Gregoryi, H. Hochreutineri, H. itirapinensis, H. matogrossensis, H. Nanuzae, H. Saddii, H. Windischii, and a new one from Perú: H. Chancoae. Two new names are proposed: H. Hilarianus from Brasil and H. amambayensis from Paraguay. A key is provided to distinguish the 40 species of section Furcaria known from South America

  17. Generic report on health effects for the US Gaseous Diffusion Plants. Sect. 8, Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, R.A.; Emler, V.S.

    1984-06-01

    Toxic substances present in uranium enrichment plants include uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), hydrogen fluoride (HF), uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ), chlorine (Cl 2 ), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ), fluorine (F 2 ), uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), and technetium (Tc). The current knowledge of the expected health effects of acute exposures to these substances is described. 10 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  18. Marked hybridization and introgression in Ophrys sect. Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Helena; Monteiro, Filipa; Sousa, Eva; Pinto, Manuel J; Fay, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Orchids in the genus Ophrys represent extraordinary cases of tight coevolution between plants and their pollinators, and as a result, they present opportunities for studying hybridization, or a lack thereof, during speciation. However, few studies assess the real effect of hybridization in diversification. The three most representative species of section Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula-O. dyris, O. fusca, and O. lutea-were chosen to study evolutionary relationships and examine speciation. Using eight specific nuclear microsatellite loci, 357 individuals from 28 locations were studied; 142 of these samples were also studied with four plastid microsatellite loci. Data were analyzed using Bayesian cluster analysis, a median-joint network, and multivariate analysis. Many O. dyris and O. fusca specimens had three or four alleles and were therefore treated as tetraploid. Ophrys dyris is poorly genetically separated from O. fusca, and pure populations are rare. Ophrys fusca and O. lutea are distinct, but hybrids/introgressed individuals were detected in most of the populations and supported by plastid haplotypes. Ophrys fusca is subdivided into three well-delimited genetic lineages with a strict geographic correspondence confirmed by plastid haplotypes. Because postzygotic barriers are weak, leakage in this highly specialized orchid-pollinator system contributes to hybridization and introgression. These leakages may have occurred during periods of past climate change, promoting homogenization and the potential for generations of new biodiversity via production of novel genotypes/phenotypes interacting with pollinators. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Taraxacum sect. Orientalia (Compositae-Crepidinae) and the West Himalayan dandelions: A new interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan; Zeisek, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-27 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : taxonomy * new sections and species * nrDNA ITS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  20. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jurjevič, Ž.; Peterson, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-208 ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus flavipes * cave mycobiota * Fennellia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2015

  1. Four new morel (Morchella) species in the Elata Subclade (sect. Distantes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Turkish Morchella species identified in published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses are described here as new, using detailed macro- and microscopic data: M. mediterraneensis (Mel-27), M. fekeensis (Mel-28), M. magnispora (Mel-29), and M. conifericola (Mel-32). A distribution map of m...

  2. Sharp at any Age: Moho boundary thickness estimates along a trans-sect through 2 Ga of tectonic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Levin, V. L.; VanTongeren, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluate crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath seismic stations in three different tectonic units of the North American continent: the Archean Superior Province, the Proterozoic Grenville Province, and the Paleozoic Appalachian Orogen. Our analysis involves two steps. First, for each site, we produce P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) organized by backazimuth and epicentral distance, and use them to identify the phase most likely representing a conversion from the Moho. Second, we construct averaged RFs for groups of telesismic events located in a similar geographic region, which we employ to examine shapes of Moho P-to-S converted phases in time series with maximum frequencies increasing from 0.25Hz to 2-3 Hz. At some sites we observe a progressive narrowing of a simple Moho converted phase with an increase in frequency, typical of a vertically instantaneous boundary, while at others the converted phase becomes progressively more complex, typical of a diffuse Moho. Thus, we adopt this difference in converted wave shape dependence on increasing frequency as a measure of Moho thickness. Our estimates of Moho thickness range from less than 300 m to over 2 km, with some locations showing evidence for multiple converting boundaries in the 35-50 km depth range. In this study we define "sharp" Moho at those sites where its vertical thickness is less than 1 km. Our results show that sharp Moho is universal in the Archean terranes regardless of surface lithology, likely due to higher Moho temperatures facilitating wide-spread delamination of dense lower crustal rocks. While a sharp Moho is not unique to the Superior Province, all Grenville and Appalachians sites where we find sharp Moho are in regions of granitic plutonism, suggesting a possible general association with reworking and density sorting of the crustal material (e.g. volcanic arc).

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Essential Oil Composition of Five Sideritis taxa of Empedoclia and Hesiodia Sect. from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Koutsaviti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried aerial parts of five taxa of Greek Sideritis were subjected to hydrodistillation and the oils obtained were analyzed by using GC and GC-MS. A total of 82 compounds were identified and the analysis showed important differences between the samples not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the essential oils were determined using the broth microdilution method against eight laboratory strains of bacteria - Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Еnterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a nd two strains of the yeast Candida albicans. The tested essential oils exhibited considerable activity against certain strains of the microorganisms tested, with S. lanata oil presenting MIC values to S. aureus and M. luteus comparable to those of the reference antibiotics. .

  4. Development of molecular markers for determining continental origin of wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke Schroeder; Richard Cronn; Yulai Yanbaev; Tara Jennings; Malte Mader; Bernd Degen; Birgit Kersten; Dusan Gomory

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica...

  5. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  6. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  7. Cupreoboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), a new monotypic genus segregated from Boletus sect. Luridi to reassign the Mediterranean species B. poikilochromus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, Matteo; Simonini, Giampaolo; Ercole, Enrico; Davoli, Paolo; Vizzini, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cupreoboletus is erected as a new monospecific genus of Boletaceae to accommodate the thermophilic southern European species Boletus poikilochromus, characterized by discoloration toward copper-red tints overall, hymenophore forming tiny crystals on drying, a pervasive and long lasting sweet odor and presence of pseudocystidia. Macro- and microscopic descriptions of the species based on re-examination of the type material and recent Italian collections including additional topotypical samples are provided and accompanied by photos and line drawings of the main anatomical structures. In addition, an epitype specimen is selected. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from multigene molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the nuc rDNA 28S D1/D2 (28S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and genes for ribosomal RNA polymerase II subunits 1 (rpb1) and 2 (rpb2) and translation-elongation factor 1-α (tef1α). Ecological context, geographical range and delimitation from closely allied taxa also were elucidated. B. martaluciae is treated as a synonym of C. poikilochromus according to the morphological and molecular comparative study. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. The development of the fruit-body of Marasmius cornelii (Agaricales) and of a new species of Marasmius sect. Gloiocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The gymnocarpic development of the very small and gill-less fruit-body of Marasmius cornelii is directed by intrinsic factors until the lengthening stem becomes geotropic. The primordium is covered from a very early stage by a hymenioderm of clavate encrusted cells with a few lanceolate

  9. Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Petersonii sect. nov encompassing indoor and soil-borne species with predominant tropical distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurjevič, Ž.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hubka, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 10 (2015), s. 2441-2462 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus arenarius * Multilocus phylogeny * Scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2015

  10. A revision of Taraxacum sect. Atrata, a dandelion group centred in the Middle Asia, and the problem of Taraxacum brevirostre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 305, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-261 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Taraxacum * taxonomy * Middle Asia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  11. Microsatellite variation, sexual reproduction and taxonomic revision of Taraxacum sect. Dioszegia: relationships at a large spatial scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeisek, Vojtěch; Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan; Rad, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2015), s. 55-85 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10143 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 613697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : autogamy * Europe * Iran * isolation by distance * population var iation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2015

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of some species of Anthemis sect. Anthemis (Asteraceae) from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobono, Luana; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Raimondo, Francesco Maria

    2017-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Anthemis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis, Anthemis cretica subsp. messanensis (Brullo) Giardina & Raimondo and from flowers and leaves of Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae (Ten.) Frezén were determinated by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Torreyol (85.4%) was recognised as the main constituent of the Anthemis arvensis subsp. arvensis essential oil, while in the essential oils of Anthemis cretica subsp. messanensis, collected on the rock and cultivated in Hortus Botanicus Panormitanus, (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.8 and 24.2% resp.), 14-hydroxy-α-humulene (8.1 and 5.3% resp.), santolina triene (8 and 5.8% resp.) and α-pinene (6.7 and 5.4% resp.) prevailed. 18-cineole (13.3 and 12.2% resp.), was the main component of both flower and leaf oils of Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae together with δ-cadinene (9.0 and 8.2% resp.) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.3 and 5.6% resp.).

  13. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    Full Text Available To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 189 insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America, and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites and Q. robur (346 variant sites. Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.

  14. Microorganismos benéficos como biofertilizantes eficientes para el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill Beneficial microorganisms as efficient biofertilisers for tomato crops (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Annia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el uso y manejo de biofertilizantes en la agricultura, uno de los principales problemas es el desconocimiento de las especies presentes en los agroecosistemas y en la rizosfera de los cultivos, para su posible utilización eficiente. Desde el punto de vista ecológico, es importante conocer los integrantes de la comunidad bacteriana que favorecen su aplicación como inoculantes y propician un efecto agrobiológico positivo en los cultivos agrícolas. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad agrobiológica de Azospirillum sp, en el crecimiento, desarrollo y rendimiento en el cultivo del tomate. Para ello, se partió de seleccionar el género microbiano predominante en la rizosfera del cultivo y posteriormente se evaluó el efecto de su inoculación a partir de la respuesta del cultivo. Los resultados demostraron que los géneros Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus y Streptomyces, forman parte de la comunidad microbiana de la rizosfera del tomate, en las condiciones estudiadas, y que Azospirillum es el género dominante. La inoculación artificial de esta rizobacteria causó un efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de las plántulas, así como en el estado nutricional de las plantas, con un rendimiento agrícola superior a un 11 % con respecto a las plantas testigo. Se obtuvo un alto nivel poblacional en la rizosfera de las plantas inoculadas. Palabras clave: rizosfera, inoculante, crecimiento, rendimiento.One of the main problems regarding the efficient use and management of biofertilizers in agriculture lies in the unknown species present in agro-ecosystems and crop rhizospheres. From the ecological point of view, it is important to know the members of the bacterial population allowing them to be applied as inoculants and enable a positive agro-biological effect on agricultural crops. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the agro-biological effectiveness of Azospirillum sp. on tomato growth, development and yield. The predominating microbial genus in the crop rhizosphere was thus selected and the effect of inoculating it was then evaluated, judging by the crop's response. Results showed that Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Streptomyces belonged to the microbial population of the tomato rhizosphere under the studied conditions, Azospirillum being the most prominent genus. Artificial inoculation of this rhizobacteria caused a positive effect on seedling growth as well as on plant nutritional stage, the agricultural yield being higher in 11% compared to control plants. A high microbial population level was recorded in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants. Key words: rhizosphere, inoculant, growth, yield.

  15. RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum AO PATÓGENO Alternaria solani RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum TO Alternaria solani PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de resistência de variedades comerciais de tomateiro ao patógeno Alternaria solani. Os genótipos são pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma do CNPH-Embrapa, compreendendo híbridos F1, que foram avaliados em condições de campo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia-GO, a uma altitude de 730 m, latitude de 16° 41'S e longitude de 49° 17'W. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 e 85 dias após o transplantio, combinando-se escala diagramática e de notas. As variedades Ohio 4013 e CNPH 738 foram as mais resistentes entre os materiais tutorados. Entre os materiais rasteiros os mais resistentes foram o híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense e Rotam 4. O genótipo Ohio 4013 e híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense foram os que mais se destacaram para resistência a este patógeno, podendo ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomateiro; resistência; Alternaria solani.

    The main objective of this study was to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the germoplasm bank of CNPH-Embrapa and hibrids F1 of tomat to Alternaria solani, in field condition. The trials were conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brasil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41'S and longitude of 49° 17'W. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting, combining diagramatic scale and grades. Among indeterminate cultivars Ohio 4013 and CNPH 738 were the most resistants. Among determined ones the most resistant were F1 hibrid Hawaii 7998 x Monense and Rotam 4. The genotypes Ohio 4013 and the F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense hibrid were the ones that more stood out for resistance to these pathogen and could be suitable for future breeding programs.

    KEY-WORDS: Tomato; resistance; Alternaria solani.

  16. Comparative genetics of hybrid incompatibility: sterility in two Solanum species crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2008-07-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid sterility can provide insight into the genetic and evolutionary origins of species barriers. We examine the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two diploid plant species in the plant clade Solanum sect. Lycopersicon. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing the wild species Solanum pennellii (formerly Lycopersicon pennellii) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato S. lycopersicum (formerly L. esculentum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on a modest number of loci, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number, and seed-infertility QTL act additively or recessively. These findings are remarkably consistent with our previous analysis in a different species pair, S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites. Data from both studies contrast strongly with data from Drosophila. Finally, QTL for pollen and seed sterility from the two Solanum studies were chromosomally colocalized, indicating a shared evolutionary history for these QTL, a nonrandom genomic distribution of loci causing sterility, and/or a proclivity of certain genes to be involved in hybrid sterility. We show that comparative mapping data can delimit the probable timing of evolution of detected QTL and discern which sterility loci likely evolved earliest among species.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND LYCOPENE IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. AND THEIR RETENTION IN TOMATO JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In this work we investigated the effect of variety and processing on the content of carotenoids and lycopene in fruits and Tomato juice from the fruit after heat treatment. The experiment included four varieties are edible tomato for industrial processing (Báb, Žiara PK, Šampion and Roti PK. The concentration of total carotenoids and lycopene were determined spectrophotometrically on UV-VIS spectrophotometer Jenway at a wavelength of 445 and 472 nm. The highest average content of carotenoids in fruits were recorded at a variety Roti PK (7.0 mg/100 g-1 and lowest in variety Báb (4.8 mg/100 g-1. Heat treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the lycopene content, changes in carotenoid content were not significant. Effect of genotype (variety for the content of the endpoint was significantly important.doi:10.5219/195 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  18. Characterization of an ethylene-related small multigene family from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, M

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones derived from a tomato ripening-related cDNA library were used in RNA dot-blot experiments to investigate changes in the abundance of ripening related mRNAs during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening. Accumulation of the ripening-related mRNAs during natural ripening began at the time of autocatalytic ethylene production by the fruit, reached a maximum in orange fruit and declined as they became red. Analysis of the induction kinetics of these mRNAs revealed several patterns of expression as tomatoes ripened. The pTOM 13 cDNA insert was sequenced and used to identify related sequences in a tomato genomic library. 21 hybridizing genomic clones were isolated and divided into three groups of similar sequences based on their restriction maps. The DNA sequences of two of these groups of genomic clones that hybridized to pTOM 13 were determined. This allowed the identification of an incomplete pTOM 13-homologous gene, and a closely related complete gene. Nuclei were isolated from unwounded and wounded leaves and were used in run-off transcription experiments in the presence of (..cap alpha../sup 32/P)UTP. (/sup 32/P)-labelled RNA obtained from transcription experiments was used in dot-blot experiments against pTOM 13 and related genomic subclones. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of pTOM 13-related genes in leaves may be controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  19. Heat tolerance in Field Grown Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Semi Arid Conditions of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K

    2013-01-01

    One major reason for extremely low production of tomato in Ghana is that the length of the growing season last only for a few months due to the high temperature influx during the remaining months. The temperatures recorded during these months are above the optimum for tomato flowering and fruiting...... and this consequently affects yield. To solve this problem a number management practices may be undertaken such has growing heat tolerant tomato varieties or providing shade to mitigate the devastating effect of high temperatures. Therefore the present study was conducted outside the normal growing season from June...... to October, which has a mean temperature of 23°C. Heat tolerant tomato cultivars were grown from April to July with a mean temperature of 25°C to evaluate their performance under these conditions and to assess the effect of shading on the production of one of the genotypes. Fruiting percentage...

  20. Evaluación de densidades de siembra en tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Cruz Carrillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó de junio a diciembre del 2001 en el módulo de horticultura protegida del Instituto Tecnológico Agropecuario de Oaxaca No. 23 ubicado en la ex Hacienda de Nazareno, Xoxocotlan, Oax., con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tres densidades de plantación en el desarrollo vegetativo y producci ón de diferentes híbridos de tomate con crecimiento indeterminado cultivados bajo invernadero. Los híbridos de tomate fueron el SXT, DRW3410 y SXT0289. No hubo diferencia estad ística para los híbridos, sólo para densidades de plantación, obteniendo los mejores rendimientos 5,3 plantas/m2 y 4 plantas/ m2 con 17,52 y 17,37 kg/m2, respectivamente, lo que represent ó en promedio un rendimiento de 151,6 t/ha.

  1. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  2. Organically grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Afrah E; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Keutgen, Anna J; Horneburg, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    Tomato fruits are characterized by a good nutritional profile, including different bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The objective of this study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds in the fruit and the infection by Phytophthora infestans of 28 tomato genotypes from organic outdoor production. The relationship between bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with P. infestans was estimated. Field experiments were carried out in 2004 and 2005 at two locations in central Germany. Significant variation among genotypes, locations and years was observed for the content of lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and the infection level of P. infestans. Antioxidant capacity seemed to be influenced mainly by the phenolics and was highest in small fruits, which were less infected with P. infestans. The large genetic variation among tomato genotypes for the content of bioactive compounds in their fruit allows for selection gains. None of the investigated bioactive compounds can be recommended for the indirect selection for increased field resistance against P. infestans. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Pre-meal tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) intake can have anti-obesity effects in young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pre-meal tomato intake in the anthropometric indices and blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid of a young women population (n = 35, 19.6 ± 1.3 years) was evaluated. During 4 weeks, daily, participants ingested a raw ripe tomato (∼90 g) before lunch. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured repeatedly during the follow-up time. At the end of the 4 weeks, significant reductions were observed on body weight (-1.09 ± 0.12 kg on average), % fat (-1.54 ± 0.52%), fasting blood glucose (-5.29 ± 0.80 mg/dl), triglycerides (-8.31 ± 1.34 mg/dl), cholesterol (-10.17 ± 1.21 mg/dl), and uric acid (-0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dl) of the participants. The tomato pre-meal ingestion seemed to interfere positively in body weight, fat percentage, and blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid of the young adult women that participated in this study.

  4. Effect of drought stress on growth, yield and seed quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayub, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth is seriously affected by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity or temperature. Drought is one of the most important limiting factors for agricultural crops and vegetable production in particular all around the world. Drought stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds, seed size and seed quality. To assess the effect of drought stress on seed yield, seed quality and growth of tomato, the experiment was conducted in green house in plastic pots at Pen-y-Fridd field station, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K. during 2003-2004. Tomato cv. Moneymaker was used as a test crop. There were four treatments i.e. early stress (when first truss has set the fruits), middle stress (when fruits in first truss were fully matured and started changing their colour), late stress (when fruits on first truss were ripened fully), whereas in control no stress was imposed. Analysis of data regarding various attributes (fruit weight and shoot dry weight per plant, number of seeds per fruit, total number of seeds and seed weight per plant and vigour of seed) showed that drought stress had non-significant effect on vigour, quality and yield of tomato seed. Plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits per plant showed significant results toward drought stress signifying drought effects on growth of tomato. (author)

  5. Dissipation and decontamination of bifenthrin residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Reena; Monga, Samriti; Kumari, Beena

    2012-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of CCS HAU, Hisar to study the dissipation and decontamination behavior of bifenthrin on tomato crop following the application of 25 g a.i ha(-1) (T(1)) and 50 g a.i ha(-1) (T(2)). Samples were collected periodically on the sampling days after applications. Residues were reached below detectable level of 0.005 mg kg(-1) on 10(th) day after application showing half-life period of 1.83 and 2.05 days at room temperature and 2.02 and 2.32 days under refrigerated condition for single and double dose, respectively. Processing was found effective in reducing the residues of bifenthrin in tomato fruits. Maximum reduction (42.10-45.23 %) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (16.66-19.04 %). Reduction was slightly less when samples were stored under refrigerated conditions as compared to room temperature conditions.

  6. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  7. Changes in antioxidant and phyto chemical properties of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.K.; Kumar, R.; Rai, P.K.; Rai, M.; Rai, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Duration of storage increased TSS and pH of tomato juice, while ascorbic acid content decreased gradually during storage. Carotenoids content increased approximately 3.5 times during storage in tomato because of advancement of ripening stage. During ripening chlorophyll gradually degrades and the carotenoid synthesis is enhanced. Increased levels of lycopene in tomato during storage might also be due to ripening of tomato fruits. The spoilage in fruits gradually increased in all cultivars with the advancement of storage period. Spoilage of fruits started on sixth day of storage in all cultivars except Avinash-2. The average shelf life of tomato fruits ranged from 6-12 days among cultivars based on 40% spoilage. The lowest shelf life of 6 days was noted in H-86 and highest of 12 days in Avinash-2. It was concluded that the tomato harvested at breaker stage may be utilized for almost one week along with increased contents of carotenoids and lycopene compensated for the decreased levels of acidity and ascorbic acid contents. (author)

  8. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  10. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or lycopene supplementation attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction through different mechanistic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Reis, Patrícia P; Severino, Fábio E; Felix, Tainara F; Braz, Mariana G; Nogueira, Flávia R; Silva, Renata A C; Cardoso, Ana C; Lourenço, Maria A M; Figueiredo, Amanda M; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tomato or lycopene supplementation on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: the sham group (animals that underwent simulated surgery) that received a standard chow (S; n=18), the infarcted group that received a standard chow (MI; n=13), the infarcted group supplemented with lycopene (1 mg of lycopene/kg body weight/day) (MIL; n=16) and the infarcted group supplemented with tomato (MIT; n=16). After 3 months, morphological, functional and biochemical analyses were performed. The groups MIL and MIT showed decreased interstitial fibrosis induced by infarction. Tomato supplementation attenuated the hypertrophy induced by MI. In addition, tomato and lycopene improved diastolic dysfunction evaluated by echocardiographic and isolated heart studies, respectively. The MI group showed higher levels of cardiac TNF-α compared to the MIL and MIT groups. Decreased nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 was measured in the MIL group. Lipid hydroperoxide levels were higher in the infarcted groups; however, the MIT group had a lower concentration than did the MI group [S=223±20.8, MI=298±19.5, MIL=277±26.6, MIT=261±28.8 (nmol/g); n=8; Ptomato or lycopene supplementation attenuated the cardiac remodeling process and improved diastolic function after MI. However, the effect of lycopene and tomato supplementation occurred through different mechanistic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of irradiation on the shelf life and nutritional quality of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon L.) powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuobi-Yeboah, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycoersicon L.) is a major horticultural crop with an estimated global production of over 153 million metric tons. It is the most important fruit vegetable and the second most widely cultivated crop in the world after potato, with a total production of about 141 million tons. In 2009, the average total yield in Ghana was 7.5 Mt ha -1 compared to the achievable yield of 15.0 Mt ha -1 . The tomato industry in Ghana for the past decade has been bedevilled by a myriad of problems of which post-havest losses range between 30% and 70% in the major season of production, hence a study was conducted into the preservation of S. lycoersicon L. through drying and packaging to reduce post-havest losses. Two drying methods comprising of solar and freeze drying were employed for three varieties of tomato which are cultivated locally. The methods were compared to determine the more efficient for the three varieties used for the study and the impact of drying and radiation on some physio-chemical properties, microbial load as well as shelf-life of the samples. Evaluation of the packaging material for the dried samples was also carried out. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation at 0 kGy, 1 kGy, 2kGy, 3 kGy. The parameters determined included moisture content, pH, titratable acidity; total soluble solids carotenoids, lycopene, lutein and beta carotene. Microbial analysis carried out included total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count, total coliform count and moulds and yeast using standard methods. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Storage had significant effect (p 00.05) the moisture content, total soluble solids of Akoma variety irrespective of the drying method used. However gamma irradiation had a significant effect (p<0.05) effect on pH, colour, total aerobic mesophilic counts, total coliforms, moulds and yeast, total carotenoid content, lutein and beta carotene. Storage had significant (p<0.05) effect on the colour, total carotenoid content, and lycopene of the powders from the two drying methods. The packaging material used was suitable for the solar dried powder but not the freeze dried powder. Varietal differences (p<0.05) existed between the tomatoes in terms of moisture content, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, colour, total aerobic mesophilic counts, total coliform count and total moulds and yeast counts. (au)

  12. Secagem de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) para conserva : estudo de parametros com base na qualidade final

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Anne Camargo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: o tomate seco tem apresentado crescente aplicação na culinária brasileira, principalmente, como ingrediente de massas, pizzas e também no consumo imediato. Com a finalidade de estudar a influência de parâmetros de secagem sobre a eficiência do processo e sobre a qualidade do produto final, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa utilizando tomates de duas variedades: uma variedade industrial (Rio Grande) e outra de tomate de mesa (Debora Plus). Cada uma das variedades foi analisada quanto ao co...

  13. Mode of inheritance of irradiation induced dwarfism and male sterility in the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Seedlings of the Louisiana tomato cultivar ''Pelican'' were irradiated in the cotyledonary stage with 10,000 roentgen (R) of gamma radiation from 60 Co at 1.67 R/min by Dr. Milton J. Constantin, Comparative Animal Research Laboratory operated by the University of Tennessee for the Atomic Energy Commission. From these irradiated plants one dwarf and six stamenless mutants were selected and propagated. In 1973 to 1974 a genetic study was conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of these mutant characters. Also a combining ability study was conducted to determine the potential value of the dwarf mutant as a parent in the production of F 1 hybrid seed. The results of the genetic study showed that the induced dwarf character was simply inherited and recessive. Results indicate that this gene is probably located at a locus different from that of genes controlling dwarfism in other tomato lines. The combining ability study showed that this dwarf mutant is of little value as a breeding parent. The genetic study of the stamenless lines showed this character to be simply inherited and recessive. It was also shown that the gene controlling male sterility is located at the same locus in the lines L 39 and L 43, and it is assumed that the same locus is involved in all six lines. The stamenless lines have, as far as has been observed, retained the good combining ability of the original parent cultivar ''Pelican''

  14. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  15. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZOUBEL Patricia Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w at room temperature (25°C was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  17. Mitotic and meiotic irregularities in somatic hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Schoenmakers, H C; Kamstra, S; Eden, J; Koornneef, M; Jong, J H

    1994-10-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined in metaphase complements of root-tip meristems of 107 tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids, obtained from five different combinations of parental genotypes. Of these hybrids 79% were aneuploid, lacking one or two chromosomes in most cases. All four hybrids that were studied at mitotic anaphase of root tips showed laggards and bridges, the three aneuploids in a higher frequency than the single euploid. Hybrid K2H2-1C, which showed the highest percentage of aberrant anaphases, possessed 46 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with total genomic DNA showed that this hybrid contained 23 tomato, 22 potato, and 1 recombinant chromosome consisting of a tomato chromosome arm and a potato chromosome arm. The potato parent of K2H2-1C was aneusomatic in its root tips with a high frequency of monosomic and trisomic cells and a relatively high frequency of cells with one fragment or telosome. Meiotic analyses of three tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids revealed laggards, which occurred most frequently in the triploid hybrids, and bridges, which were frequently present in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at anaphase I of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C. We observed putative trivalents in PMCs at diakinesis and metaphase I of eutriploid A7-82A and quadrivalents in part of the PMCs of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C, suggesting that homoeologous recombination between tomato and potato chromosomes occurred in these hybrids. All three hybrids showed a high percentage of first division restitution, giving rise to unreduced gametes. However, shortly after the tetrad stage all microspores completely degenerated, resulting in exclusively sterile pollen.

  18. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  19. Methodology for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growth and plant productivity stimulation, thought seeds irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Camejo Serrano, Yanelis; Licea Castro, Luis; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Porras Leon, Elia; Perez Espinosa, Anabel

    2001-01-01

    Based in the obtained results by several authors and the experience accumulated by the group of Nuclear Techniques of the Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov about the irradiation techniques; the methodology for tomato growth and productivity stimulation through the seeds irradiation was established. This methodology includes the preparation, irradiation and material selection to irradiate; as well as the sows of the material under field conditions. With her application the seedlings of good quality is guaranteed, what facilitates its transplant from the nursery to field conditions with 7 days in advance comparing to the control treatment, that contributes to the saving of material and human resources. Their fundamental contribution is given in the increment of the agricultural yield that reaches maximum values about 30% for some of the applied treatments. It is also recommended, the application of response- surface analysis among the plant yield (dependent variable) and the irradiation doses (independent variable) for determine the better stimulation doses in each one of the four varieties, as well as the time repeatability parameter of the growth and productivity were calculated, that which endorses the practical application of the proposed methodology

  20. Evaluation of uptake and systemicity of 14C - fosthiazate in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Srivastava, Anjana; Kumar, Surendra; Srivastava, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nematodes are round worm species that are found in almost all habitats. Beneficial species are usually referred to free living nematodes, other nematode species are parasitic and harmful to plants, animals and humans. Soil provides an excellent habitat for nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes may live within plant roots or inhabit in the rhizosphere. The percent yield loss due to root knot nematodes in vegetable crops has been studied under All India Co-ordinated Research Project (Nematodes). The fosthiazate is a new compound incorporated in the market. The uptake and systemicity of fosthiazate in intact tomato plants was studied through 14 C-labeled fosthiazate in presence and absence of DNP. It was found that fosthiazate function as a systemic nematicide in tomato, the accumulation rate of fosthiazate was found higher in roots and shoots part upto 15 hrs. uptake period and after that accumulation slowly becomes saturated in the absence of DNP. In the presence of DNP (10 -2 mM) the amount of fosthiazate in roots as well as shoots was found to be decreased with respect to the uptake time.There was more inhibition on the uptake of fosthiazate in shoots than roots by DNP. (author)

  1. Nondestructive detection of water stress in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] plants using microwave sensing, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Takemasa, T.; Kurata, K.; Takakura, T.

    2004-01-01

    The physiological accommodation response to environmental stress of a plant can induce changes in physiological and physical conditions of the plant. These changes influence the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by measuring microwave complex dielectric properties of plant materials such as leaves and stems. The objective of this research was to detect these responses of plants to water deficiency stress nondestructively. The complex dielectric properties of tomato leaves during water stress were measured with an Open-ended Coaxial Probe from 0.3 to 3 GHz, as well as changes in gravimetric moisture, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and water potential which reflect the physiological condition of the plants. Experimental results showed that the complex permittivity (both permittivity and loss factor) of tomato leaves increased during water stress. Of the parameters measured the highest correlation was observed between complex permittivity and water potential. In order to confirm these results, control and water deficient tomato leaves were crushed, and the complex permittivity was measured and compared. The results showed quite similar tendencies compared with the results from the nondestructive microwave measurements. A physiochemical model to describe the complex permittivity of crushed non-stressed and stressed tomato leaves was constructed with pure water, pulp, glycine, and KN03, and the complex dielectric measurements of crushed tomato leaves were reproduced quite accurately from 0.3 to 3 GHz

  2. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. protoplast yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kuźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to transfer to enzyme mixture increased 4-fold the number of isolated protoplasts. Glycine and bovine serum albumin in the isolation medium did not significantly influence the protoplast yield.

  3. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) protoplast yield

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Kuźniak; Marzena Wielanek; Urszula Małolepsza; Henryk Urbaniak

    2013-01-01

    The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to t...

  4. Selection of tomato mutants (lycopersicon esculentum mill) under conditions of drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria Caridad; Mansoor, Ali; Suarez, Lorenzo; Mukandama, Jean P.; Rodriguez, Yanet

    2001-01-01

    At the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences were evaluated under conditions of drought estres an M5 population obtained starting from the irradiation of seeds of the Amalia and INCA 9-1varieties with dose of 300 and 500 Gy of rays gamma of 60 Co. The number of clusters for plant, mass average of the fruits, number of fruits for plant and yield for plant, the content of total soluble solids and the acidity of the fruits was evaluated observing differ highly significant among the different ones lines and the respective donating studied. Promissory genotipos of high productive potential was selected under this condition

  5. Biotechnological strategies for enhancing the nutritive and nutraceutical values of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ojo OLAIYA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are a unique functional food and a natural reservoir of many health promoting nutrients, antioxidants, dietary fibres and chemopreventive nutraceuticals. They are particularly rich in lycopene which has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers of the prostate and the gastrointestinal tract. As an important vegetable worldwide, tomatoes have drawn the attention of many researchers. Thus, numerous investigations have been conducted and various improvement strategies applied for enhancing the functionality of this medicinal food geared towards disease prevention, global health and well-being. Molecular breeding has produced a number of tomato lines with enhanced levels of lycopene, β-carotene and xanthophylls. Over expression of certain genes have generated tomato fruits with enhanced ascorbic acid levels and folate accumulation up to 25-fold. Plant hormone technology has been used to enhance tomato minerals, antioxidant vitamins, lycopene, β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in tomato fruit tissues. Manipulation in soilless culture solutions is valuable for enhancing the antioxidative capacity of tomatoes, vitamin C, flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotene in fresh fruits. In addition, the spraying of nutrients, such as potassium, in field conditions has a strong stimulatory effect on lycopene contents of tomatoes. Transgenic strategies are also being adopted. These strategies offer a rapid way to introduce desirable traits into the phenotype and differ from other approaches in that novel genetic information is introduced directly into the plant’s genome. An important and current trend in the improvement of functional foods is to shift from enhancing single nutritional compounds towards enhancing multiple nutrients and phytochemicals in order to harness their synergistic interactions. This could be achieved by the use of strategies having pleitropic effects such as bioregulators, multigene engineering and regulative genetic elements. However, the full potential of these technologies has not been realised and the relative gap between risk assessment and regulatory threshold desires much attention. These biotechnological strategies for enhancing the nutritive and nutraceutical values of the tomato food crop are discussed in this article.

  6. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  7. Effect of EC and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Stanghellini, C.; Challa, H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that manipulating water out-flow of a plant through the shoot environment (potential transpiration, ET0) in a glasshouse could modulate the effect of salinity/osmotic potential in the root environment upon yield of tomatoes. Contrasting root-zone salinity treatments

  8. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  9. The asymmetric meiosis in pentaploid dogroses (Rosa sect. Caninae) is associated with a skewed distribution of rRNA gene families in the gametes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovařík, Aleš; Werlemark, G.; Leitch, A.R.; Skalická, Kamila; Lim, Y.K.; Crhák Khaitová, Lucie; Koukalová, Blažena; Nybom, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, - (2008), s. 359-367 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polyploids * meiosis * rDNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2008

  10. Revision of .i.Aspergillus./i. section .i.Flavipedes./i.: seven new species and proposal of section .i.Jani./i. sect. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, V.; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, M.; Jurjevič, Ž.; Peterson, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-208 ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0536 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aspergillus flavipes * cave mycobiota * Fennellia * multilocus phylogeny * PCR fingerprinting * soil fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2015

  11. Ultra-esquerdistas e sectários, anotações para uma história do extremismo de esquerda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valério Arcary

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available International socialist movement, through the last one hundred and fifty years, did not divide only in reformist and revolutionaries. These have been the two decisive programmatic fields in marxism, but, as well as those claimed as gradualists or reformists, imprisoned in their orbit - to the left - a specter, the centrism, the radical or revolutionary tendencies needed to differentiate themselves from their ultra-left shadows. Reformism, centrism, revolutionarism and ultra-leftism are concepts that might seem insults, but they had been seriously considered in the marxist tradition as theoretical categories with necessary meanings. Historians of the left organizations that surprise themselves with the splits of the socialist left, should not ignore them in their investigations on the factors that could explain the divisions of socialists

  12. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  13. Raël, fils de Yahvé et messager des Elohim: les soubassements délirants d'une secte " Ufologique".

    OpenAIRE

    Lamote, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    International audience; La réflexion sur les phénomènes « sectaires », généralement organisée autour de quelques notions qui présupposent le charlatanisme et l’escroquerie, échoue à saisir aussi bien les logiques qui animent ces mouvements que les questions qu’ils soulèvent quant à l’état du lien social dans nos démocraties libérales. Ce sont ces logiques que nous tenterons de discerner dans les linéaments du système délirant édifié par Claude Vorilhon, le leader du groupe. Nous découvrirons ...

  14. Phylogeny of the 'orchid-like' bladderworts (gen. Utricularia sect. Orchidioides and Iperua: Lentibulariaceae) with remarks on the stolon-tuber system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodrigues, F. G.; Marulanda, N. F.; Silva, S. R.; Płachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Miranda, V.F.O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 5 (2017), s. 709-723 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : molecular phylogeny * anatomy * tubers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  15. Emissão e expansão foliar em três genótipos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Leaf emergence and expansion in three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Rejane Pivetta

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono na haste principal e em hastes laterais de primeira ordem e estimar a área foliar a partir do número de folhas em três genótipos de tomateiro cultivados em estufa plástica. Um experimento foi conduzido em estufa plástica na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. Foram utilizados três genótipos de tomate: "Kátia", "Durino" e "Emperor". O transplante das mudas com 3-4 folhas definitivas foi realizado em 31/10/2005. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, compostas de duas fileiras de oito plantas. Em seis plantas de cada repetição foram realizadas observações do número de folhas na haste principal e em hastes laterais de primeira ordem e em duas plantas de cada repetição foram medidos o comprimento e a largura das folhas na haste principal. O filocrono foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão linear entre o número de folhas acumuladas na haste e a soma térmica acumulada após o transplante. O filocrono da haste principal foi menor do que o filocrono das hastes laterais de primeira ordem. A área foliar do tomateiro em uma haste pode ser estimada através do número de folhas acumuladas nesta haste.This study was aimed at estimating the phyllochron on the main stem and on first order lateral branches, and estimate leaf area from leaf number in three tomato genotypes grown inside a plastic green-house. An experiment was conducted inside a plastic greenhouse at the experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Three tomato genotypes were used: 'Kátia', 'Durino', and 'Emperor'. Three to four-leaf seedlings were transplanted on 10/31/2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications composed of two 8-plants rows. The number of leaves on the main stem and on first order lateral branches was counted in six plants of each replication. Leaf length and width were measured on two plants per replication. The phyllochron was estimated as the inverse of the slope of the linear regression of leaf number against accumulated thermal time from transplanting. The phyllochron on the main stem was greater than on the first order lateral branches. Leaf area on a stem of the tomato plant can be estimated from the number of accumulated lateral leaves on this stem.

  16. APLICACIÓN FOLIAR DE ÁCIDO GLUTÁMICO EN PLANTAS DE JITOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reynaldo Serna-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ácido glutámico es un aminoácido que participa en diversos procesos metabólicos en la planta. El objetivo fue determinar si la aplicación foliar de ácido glutámico produce mejor desarrollo de la planta de jitomate y un incremento en la producción de frutos. El experimento fue desarrollado bajo condiciones de invernadero e hidroponia. Las variables en las cuales hubo respuesta positiva a la aplicación de ácido glutámico fueron: contenido de clorofila b, peso de frutos frescos, peso de frutos secos y actividad de la enzima glutamina sintetasa.

  17. A system for fertigation management in soilless culture of tomato to reduce water consumption and nitrogen discharge [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, L.; Battista, P.; Rapi, B.; Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Carmassi, G.

    2005-01-01

    In Italy, most greenhouse growers apply fertigation in open-loop system (free drainage), but recent laws on environmental pollution are forcing them to introduce new management approaches, namely the recirculation of drain water (closed-loop). The development of a specific support system (SGx) is in progress in order to aid the growers in selecting low impact growing systems and in reducing water use. Currently, the software integrates three models for the simulation of tomato growth, transpiration and nutrient concentration in the fertigation water. The system can run both in real time, using meteorological and water consumption data automatically collected by sensors located in the greenhouse, and off-line, using data sets archived in the database. Choosing real time option, SGx follows plant growth and the modifications of nutrients in the recycling solution, suggesting the most effective practices for water and nutrient management. The off-line option allows the comparison between different productive strategies from different viewpoints: production, water and nutrient consumption, radiation and water use efficiency, environmental impact [it

  18. TÉ DE COMPOSTA COMO FERTILIZANTE ORGÁNICO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. EN INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ochoa-Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la aportación de nitrógeno (N y otros nutrimentos en el té de composta para producir tomate en invernadero. Se evaluaron cuatro tipos de fertilización en tres genotipos. Los tipos de fertilización fueron: solución nutritiva, té de composta, té de composta diluido y aplicación fraccionada de composta. Los genotipos fueron Bosky, Romina y PX01636262. La evaluación se realizó hasta el octavo racimo cosechado. El efecto del tipo de fertilización y del genotipo fue significativo en el rendimiento, en tanto que la interacción de ambos factores no fue significativa. Las plantas con solución nutritiva obtuvieron el mayor rendimiento con 21.8 kg·m-2, mientras que el té de composta rindió 17 % menos; esta reducción se relacionó con una mayor conductividad eléctrica (CE en la solución del sustrato. El té de composta también redujo 21 % el peso por fruto y aumentó 19 % los sólidos solubles. Las variedades Bosky y PX01636262 rindieron cerca de 20 kg·m-2, en tanto Romina rindió significativamente menos, debido a un menor peso por fruto. La concentración de N foliar al inicio de floración e inicio de cosecha fue similar con solución nutritiva y con té de composta; además, no se observaron síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos, lo que significa que el té de composta abasteció las necesidades de N y otros nutrimentos, logrando producir más de 18 kg·m-2 de fruto extra grande con más de 4 oBrix de sólidos solubles, a un menor costo de fertilización.

  19. Evapotranspiration modelling of horticultural crops grown with soilless culture [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Adlam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, L.; Carmassi, G.; Malorgio, F.; Pardossi, A.; Tognoni, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work aims at validating the evapotranspiration model developed by Baille (1994) on tomato and gerbera grown with different concentration of NaCl. Relevant to tomato, the original Baille model was adapted on daily scale and a Boltzman equation for estimating the LAI as a function of thermal day degrees was used. The model was calibrated on data collected in Spring 2004 from a soilless closed-loop tomato culture and validated on datasets collected in 2001 and 2002. Hourly data collected in Spring and Autumn 2005 from a soilless closed-loop gerbera culture grown with different irrigation water quality (0 and 10 meq lE-1 NaCl) were used. Evapotranspiration in gerbera was influenced by different water quality and by radiation levels, while in tomato those factors were negligible. In both crops a good correspondence between estimated and measured data was observed. The developed models will be implemented in a Decision Support System in order to help growers to manage the soilless closed-loop cultivation [it

  20. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  1. Accumulation of cell wall-bound phenolic metabolites and their upliftment in hairy root cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2008-07-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of cell wall material of tomato hairy roots yielded ferulic acid as the major phenolic compound. Other phenolics were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and 4-coumaric acid. The content of phenolics was much higher at the early stage of hairy root growth. The ferulic acid content decreased up to 30 days and then sharply increased to 360 microg/g at 60 days of growth. Elicitation of hairy root cultures with Fusarium mat extract (FME) increased ferulic acid content 4-fold after 24 h. As the pathogen-derived elicitors have specific receptors in plants, FME may thus be used for inducing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

  2. Comparative analysis on the effect of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in reducing cadmium, mercury and lead accumulation in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Aneto, Imaria; Obi, Joshua; Udekweleze, Damian C; Olatunde, Bukola; Owu, Daniel U; Iwuala, Moses O

    2012-06-01

    L. esculentum (tomato) contain compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, able to synthesize metal chelating proteins. We examined the ability of fruit extract to protect against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Rats were fed on tomato mixed with rat chow (10% w/w), while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Tomato was administered together with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure (group 3) or a week before metal exposure (group 4) for a period of six weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. There was a significant (Ptomato to Cd and Hg accumulation but not to Pb (PTomato reduces uptake while enhancing the elimination of these metals in a time dependent manner. The highest hepatoprotective effect was to Cd followed by Hg and least to Pb. Its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H 2 O 2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  4. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyimah, L. A

    2013-07-01

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl 2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl 2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl 2 . Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl 2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl 2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl 2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly with days of storage. Storage at 10±1°C better preserved the antioxidants properties of the fruits better than storage at 28±1°C. Elemental composition (Na, K, Zn. Cu, and Mn) of the tomato fruits analysed on the initial and final days of storage showed K to be the element with the highest concentration whilst Zn was the least. Generally, gamma radiation led to an increased in the concentration of Na and K for all doses whilst CaCl 2 coating significantly decreased the concentration of the same element at both storage temperatures. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Mn reduced significantly in the tomato fruits by the final day of storage for all treatments following storage at 10±1°C whilst there were inconsistencies in the contents of the elements in the tomato fruits stored at 28±1°C. Gamma radiation and CaCl 2 significantly reduced the microbial load in the tomato at both temperatures compared to the control. The reduction was proportional to increasing dose of irradiation and concentration of CaCl 2 . However, CaCl 2 significantly reduced Total Aerobic Mesophiles as well as Mould and Yeast growth in tomato fruits compared to gamma irradiation at both temperatures. In general, treated tomato fruits stored at lower temperature (10±1°C) had more suitability and longer shelf life as well as the ability to maintain nutritional properties than those stored at 28±1°C. (au)

  6. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  8. Evaluation of Low Pressure Fogging System for Improving Crop Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.: Grown under Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Shilo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions, many tomato plants are grown throughout the hot summer period (May–September in sheltered cultivation, mainly for plant protection reasons. Most of the shelters that are used are low cost net houses covered with 50 mesh insect proof net. In most cases these net houses have a flat roof and no ventilation or climate control measures. This insufficient ventilation during the hot summer leads to above optimal air temperatures and causes moderate heat stress inside the shelters, which leads to yield reduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a simple and inexpensive low pressure fogging system installed in a naturally ventilated net house to lower temperatures and improve the yield during the summer. The study showed that in areas where relative air humidity (RH during the daytime is less than 60%, tomato plants improved their performance when grown through the summer in net houses under moderate heat stress. Under fogging conditions pollen grain viability and fruit set were significantly improved. This improvement influenced the yield picked during September (104–136 DAP. However, total seasonal yield was not affected by the fogging treatment.

  9. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  11. Influence of simulated Quinclorac drift on the accumulation and movement of herbicide in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Michael L; Hoagland, Robert E; Talbert, Ronald E; Scherder, Eric F

    2009-07-22

    Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is a herbicide commonly used in rice, and its drift has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of single and multiple simulated quinclorac drift applications on tomato plant growth and development. Residues extracted from tomato plants treated with 0.42 g of ai ha(-1) were below the detection limit of liquid chromatography-double mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quinclorac residue levels and half-lives in tomato tissue increased as the application rate and number of applications increased. From 3 to 72 h after (14)C-quinclorac treatment of plants, most of the absorbed (14)C was retained in the treated leaf, and translocations of (14)C out of the treated leaf of vegetative and flowering tomato plant tissues were similar. Of the (14)C that translocated out of the treated leaf, the greatest movement was acropetally. The flower cluster contained 1% of the total absorbed (14)C, which suggests the potential for quinclorac translocation into tomato fruit. More extensive research will be required to understand the impact that quinclorac may have on tomato production in the area.

  12. Folate content in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, and pasteurization and storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, M Dolores; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar; Periago, M Jesús

    2009-06-10

    The effects of cultivar, on-vine ripening, and year of harvest on the folate content of raw tomatoes were studied. Folate content in hot-break tomato puree (HTP) subjected to pasteurization at different temperatures and its evolution during the shelf life of tomato juice were also investigated. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate) was the only folate compound identified in raw tomatoes and HTP, but tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate) was 10% of the folate detected in tomato juice. The content of folates in raw tomatoes ranged from 4.1 to 35.3 microg/100 g of fresh weight and was highly influenced by all of the factors studied. No clear trend of folate content with ripening stage was observed. The extractability of 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate from HTP increased significantly after pasteurization at 98 degrees C for 40 s, but higher temperatures decreased its content. Tomato juice showed folate losses during storage independent of the storage temperature. Folate losses were higher when tomato juice was packed in glass bottles than in Tetra Pak.

  13. Effects of exogenous epibrassinolide on photosynthetic characteristics in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) seedlings under weak light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jiang, Weijie; Yu, Hongjun

    2010-03-24

    The effects of three concentrations (0.1, 0.01, 0.001 mg/kg) of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and parameters of light response curve in tomato seedlings under 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) weak light stress were studied, with two tomato cultivars, 'Zhongza9', tolerant, and 'Zhongshu6', sensitive to weak light stress. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximal photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (Rd) decreased remarkably under weak light, but the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b (chlb) content, increased obviously compared with normal light intensity control. However, exogenous 24-epibrassinolide alleviated the decrease of leaf Pn and Fv/Fm and induced the further increase of chlb content as well as the further decrease of Rd and chla/chlb under weak light stress, which indicated that exogenous 24-epibrassinolide could enhance plant tolerance to weak light and diminish damage from weak light. However, the optimum concentrations were different between the two cultivars; 0.1 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide showed the best induction effects in 'Zhongshu6', and the best level for 'Zhongza9' was 0.01 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide.

  14. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-03-01

    The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer' varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values≤1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), α-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer' varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the Northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as cancer and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. BAJO ESTRESES ABIÓTICOS EN DIFERENTES FOTOPERIODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar y seleccionar genotipos de tomate capaces de germinar bajo estreses abióticos. El experimento se realizó, en el laboratorio del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena (UPSE, donde se probaron semillas de tomate provenientes del agricultor y certificadas, la germinación se realizó en varios días y en diferentes concentraciones de Manitol; 0 (Control, 125, 175, 225, 275 y 325mM y NaCl 0 (Control, 75, 125 y 175 mM, con dos fotoperiodos diferentes, considerando 8 y 24 horas de oscuridad, la variable evaluada fue porcentaje de germinación, cuyos datos fueron transformados a raíz de equis más uno, para luego ser procesados mediante un análisis combinado. En lo que respecta a los resultados, en las pruebas con Manitol, el Análisis de Varianza (ANDEVA, muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas al nivel del 1% de probabilidades para localidades (Días a germinación, Factor A (Concentraciones y para la Interacción AxB, pero no para Factor B (Fotoperiodos, que fue no significativo. En cuanto al porcentaje de germinación, cuando se probó la solución de manitol, a los días 6, 10, 13 y 15 los resultados fueron similares, tanto para la semilla certificada como la proveniente del agricultor, pues en ambos casos respondieron con porcentajes superiores al 7% en bajas concentraciones, mientras que en altas concentraciones de manitol fue la semilla proveniente del agricultor la que tuvo una germinación de hasta el 3%. Así también, cuando se analizó la influencia de los fotoperiodos, se encontró que el mayor porcentaje de germinación se dio para semilla proveniente del agricultor con el 6% y en la certificada con el 4%, a 24 horas de oscuridad en ambos casos, encontrándose un aumento del 2% de germinación entre el primer y último día de la evaluación. En lo que se refiere a las pruebas realizadas con la solución NaCl, los resultados del ANDEVA, muestran que el Factor A (concentraciones, fue diferente estadísticamente al nivel del 1% de probabilidad, es decir que los genotipos de tomate se comportaron de manera diferente, bajo el efecto de distintas concentraciones, donde la semilla certificada con el 8% de germinación respondió mejor en bajas concentraciones 0 y 75mM, mientras que, altas concentraciones con 125mM, sobresalió la semilla proveniente de agricultor con una germinación inferior al 3%. Además, la diferencia en germinación a los 10, 12 y 14 días en que fueron evaluados los genotipos, solamente se observó el 1% entre días y no se vio un incremento significativo en el porcentaje de germinación. Por lo tanto, queda demostrado que la germinación más eficiente se presenta al día 14, en donde la semilla proveniente del agricultor tiene la capacidad de germinar en altas concentraciones de Manitol y NaCl a 24 horas de oscuridad.

  16. Caracterización de 14 genotipos de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivados bajo invernadero en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eladio Monge-Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 14 genotipos de tomate producidos bajo invernadero, tanto a nivel cualitativo como cuantitativo. Los datos muestran una amplia variabilidad entre genotipos y brindan información útil a los productores en el proceso de selección del genotipo a utilizar en su sistema productivo, según el nicho de mercado de interés. Se destacan varios genotipos de tomate tipo “cherry! y “uva” por su alto contenido de sólidos solubles, que pueden ser opciones para los consumidores que demandan un producto de alta calidad.

  17. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  18. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  19. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Intensity and Exposure Duration of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

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    Hassan FEIZI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of seed hydro priming and magnetic field on tomato seed germination an experiment was conducted in laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. The experimental treatments were all combinations of two levels of hydro priming (use of dry seed and soaked seed for five h in distilled water and eight levels of magnetic field treatments (pretreatment of seeds in 15 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, pretreatment of seeds in 25 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, continuous magnetic field with 3 mT and control with four replications. Results indicated that hydro priming of seeds reduced mean germination time significantly. Root length increased by 14 percent in seed hydro priming treatment in comparison with dry seed treatment. Shoot length, seedling length and vigor index of hydro primed seeds increased by 7, 12 and 13 percent, respectively compared with dry seeds. Exposure of seeds with 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min increased root length by 29 and 25 percents, respectively in comparison with control. The highest shoot length, seedling length and vigor index were obtained in 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min.

  1. Clay pot irrigation for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in the north east semiarid region of Ethiopia

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    Kebede Woldetsadik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is one of the major constraints for production of horticultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment was conducted to determine irrigation water and fertilizer use efficiency, growth and yield of tomato under clay pot irrigation at the experimental site of Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center, Lalibela, Ethiopia in 2009/10. The experiment comprised of five treatments including furrow irrigated control and clay pot irrigation with different plant population and fertilization methods, which were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The highest total and marketable fruit yields were obtained from clay pot irrigation combined with application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water irrespective of difference in plant population. The clay pot irrigation had seasonal water use of up to 143.71 mm, which resulted in significantly higher water use efficiency (33.62 kg m-3 as compared to the furrow irrigation, which had a seasonal water use of 485.50 mm, and a water use efficiency of 6.67 kg m-3. Application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water in clay pots improved fertilizer use efficiency of tomato by up to 52% than band application with furrow or clay pot irrigation. Thus, clay pot irrigation with 33,333 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer application with irrigation water in clay pots was the best method for increasing the yield of tomato while economizing the use of water and nitrogen fertilizer in a semiarid environment.

  2. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spanning the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped on

  4. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spannig the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.J.F.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternaria in stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped

  5. An in vitro method for screening for the presence of thepat-2 gene in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T E; Juvik, J A; Sullivan, J G; Skirvin, R M

    1990-01-01

    Under field conditions,pat-2, the gene which conditions parthenocarpy in tomatoes, is recessive. A simple method has been devised for distinguishing the heterozygote from the two homozygotes using tissue culture. Ovaries of plants segregating for thepat-2 gene were excised and cultured on a medium containing 100 ppm gibberellic acid. After three weeks in culture, three distinct ovary sizes could be seen. It was shown, using F 3 progeny tests, that the largest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for thepat-2 gene, the smallest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for the wild type allele, and the intermediate sized ovaries were the heterozygotes. The ability to identify the heterozygote would greatly simplify a backcross breeding program aimed at incorporating thepat-2 gene into commercial cultivars by eliminating the need for an F 3 progeny test to determine the genotype of a plant.

  6. Effect of Shoot Pruning and Flower Thinning on Quality and Quantity of Semi-Determinate Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali HESAMI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many constraints of space, light and availability of fruits to harvest in tomatoes greenhouse. Therefore, two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of shoot pruning and flower thinning on quality and quantity of fruits of semi-determinate tomato in a greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Experimental design was randomized complete block designs in which the effect of shoot pruning (single branch pruning, double branch pruning, pyramidal pruning and control or flower thinning (Cluster with 4 and 5 remained flowers and control were studied separately. Results showed that, leaf area and plants yield were higher in treatments which were pruned than control. Yields from pyramidal pruning and cluster thinning with 5 remaining flowers were significantly higher than other treatments. On the other hand, qualitative study identified that pyramidal pruning increases vitamin C in fruits, but had no significant effect on total soluble solids.

  7. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-graduation program in Energetics and Nuclear Tecnologies; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Lab. of Chromatographic Analysis and Flavor; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Antibiotics; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting counts higher (10{sup 5-6} CFU/g) than the limit recommended for commercialization (10{sup 4} CFU/g) and significantly larger than those in irradiated samples. Also, only samples irradiated with 2 kGy had number of counts below such limit. Thus, it can be concluded that appropriate decontamination of tomatoes can be achieved by using a 2.0 kGy dose. (author)

  8. Hormonal control of seed development in gibberellin- and ABA-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Developing seeds of tomato gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib1 and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient sitw mutants enabled us to analyze the role of GA in the regulation of embryo histo-differentiation, and the role of ABA in the regulation of maturation and quiescence. Our data show that DNA synthesis and

  9. RESPUESTA DIFERENCIAL A LA SALINIDAD DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. EN PRIMERAS ETAPAS FENOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La salinidad afecta tanto el crecimiento vegetativo como el desarrollo reproductivo de las plantas: puede reducir el número de flores, incrementar la esterilidad y alterar la duración de la floración y la maduración. En México, el tomate es una de las especies hortícolas de mayor importancia económica y social, en virtud del valor de su producción y por la demanda de mano de obra que genera, por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en variables morfológicas, en dos etapas fenológicas (germinación y crecimiento vegetativo inicial, de ocho genotipos de tomate, “Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Río Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita y Floradade”, los cuales fueron expuestos a estrés salino mediante la adición de NaCl en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 mM, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. En la etapa de germinación se midieron las variables morfométricas: porcentaje de germinación, peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, peso fresco de raíces. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se midieron: longitud de tallo, peso fresco de tallo, numero de hojas y área foliar. Los resultados de la etapa de germinación muestran que conforme se incrementó la concentración salina, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó, siendo “Tropic y Yaqui” los que mostraron valores superiores. Por su parte, “Tropic y Missouri” mostraron el mayor peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia en esta etapa fueron “Feroz, Vita y Ace”. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se determinó que los cultivares que presentaron mejor respuesta o mayor tolerancia al estrés salino fueron “Missouri, Tropic, Feroz y Vita”, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia a la salinidad en esta etapa fueron “Floradade y Ace”. Se concluye que en ambas etapas fenológicas existe un diferencial potencial entre los genotipos de tomate como respuesta al estrés por salinidad (NaCl, lo que permite observar que la tolerancia a la salinidad en el cultivo de tomate se encuentra asociada a la etapa fenológica de la planta, dado que algunos genotipos evaluados, mostraron menor tolerancia a la salinidad en la etapa de germinación, sin embargo, incrementaron su tolerancia en la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial.

  10. Essential Oils as Biocides for the Control of Fungal Infections and Devastating Pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad Alam, Samira; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Tabti, Boufeldja; Gaouar Benyelles, Nassira; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and Al. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of Al. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55% to 80% with essential oil of Th. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while Te. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against Al. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0.4 μl/l air. The insecticidal activity of Th. capitatus and Te. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μl/ml air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of Th. capitatus, Te. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Direct determination of lycopene content in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Yuwana; Schwartz, Steven J; Francis, David; Baldauf, Nathan A; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2006-01-01

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to play critical roles in disease prevention. Efficient assays for detection and quantification of lycopene are desirable as alternatives to time- and labor-intensive methods. Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was used for quantification of lycopene in tomato varieties. Calibration models were developed by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using quantitative measures of lycopene concentration from liquid chromatography as reference method. IR spectra showed a distinct marker band at 957 cm(-1) for trans Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) deformation vibration of lycopene. PLSR models predicted the lycopene content accurately and reproducibly with a correlation coefficient (sigma) of 0.96 and standard error of cross-validation ATR-IR spectroscopy allowed for rapid, simple, and accurate determination of lycopene in tomatoes with minimal sample preparation. Results suggest that the ATR-IR method is applicable for high-throughput quantitative analysis and screening for lycopene in tomatoes.

  12. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting counts higher (10 5-6 CFU/g) than the limit recommended for commercialization (10 4 CFU/g) and significantly larger than those in irradiated samples. Also, only samples irradiated with 2 kGy had number of counts below such limit. Thus, it can be concluded that appropriate decontamination of tomatoes can be achieved by using a 2.0 kGy dose. (author)

  13. Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pease

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.

  14. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sklenář

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  15. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    OpenAIRE

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-01-01

    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  16. Aplicación de marcadores genéticos en la conservación de taxones vegetales insulares amenazados: géneros "Crambe" L. (sect. "Dendrocrambe" DC.) y "Ruta" L.

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Medina, Moisés E.

    2015-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Ecología y gestión de los recursos vivos marinos. En port.: Jardín Botánico Canario "Viera y Clavijo" En esta tesis doctoral se ha estudiado la variabilidad genética y su estructuración mediante el análisis de 12 loci isoenzimáticos en las especies vegetales endémicas de Gran Canaria del género Crambe (C. pritzelii y C. tamadabensis), y las relaciones resultantes del análisis filogenético y filogeográfico de las secuencias de 4 regiones del ADN plastidial en las e...

  17. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  18. Frequent silencing of rDNA loci on the univalent-forming genomes contrasts with their stable expression on the bivalent-forming genomes in polyploid dogroses (Rosa sect. caninae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crhák Khaitová, Lucie; Werlemark, G.; Nybom, H.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2010), s. 113-120 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : polyploidy * rDNA genes * Rosaceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2010

  19. Root and leaf abscisic acid concentration impact on gas exchange in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants subjected to partial root-zone drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valerio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a deficit irrigation technique with great potential for water saving. A split-root experiment was conducted on tomato in controlled environment in order to test the response of two long-time storage cultivars to PRD. Ponderosa tomato, a cultivar with yellow fruits, was compared to Giallo tondo di Auletta, a local cultivar from southern Campania (Italy. Plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: plants receiving an amount of water equivalent to 100% of plant evapotranspiration (V100; plants in which 50% of the amount of water given to V100 was supplied (V50; and plants where one root compartment was irrigated at 50% of water requirements and the other compartment was allowed to dry, and thereafter every side was rewetted alternatively (PRD. The highest levels of leaf abscisic acid (ABA [on average equal to 104 ng g–1 fresh weight FW] were measured in PRD and V50, at 70 days after transplantation. Root ABA concentration in both PRD and V50 reached mean values of 149 ng g–1 FW. There were differences for the irrigation regime in root ABA biosynthesis and accumulation under partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation (V50. Assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in relation to the irrigation regime by 22, 36 and 12%, respectively, in PRD, V50 and V100 at 50 days after transplantation. Ponderosa variety accumulated 20% more dry matter than Auletta and significant differences were observed in leaf area. In both PRD and V50 of the two varieties, it was possible to save on average 46% of water. Our results indicate that there is still space to optimise the PRD strategy, to further improve the cumulative physiological effects of the root-sourced signaling system.

  20. Effect of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles on the growth and development of Lycopersicon lycopersicum (tomato plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Martha L; Avilés, Leany Lugo; Pérez, Nitza Guzmán; Irizarry, Bianca Álamo; Perales, Oscar; Cedeno-Mattei, Yarilyn; Román, Félix

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthetized and studied to be incorporated in many industrial and medical applications in recent decades. Due to their different physical and chemical properties compared with bulk materials, researchers are focused to understand their interactions with the surroundings. Living organisms such as plants are exposed to these materials and they are able to tolerate different concentrations and types of NPs. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs are being studied for their application in medical sciences because of their high coercivity, anisotropy, and large magnetostriction. These properties are desirable in magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and cell labeling. This study is aimed to explore the tolerance of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) plants to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were grown in hydroponic media amended with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a range from 0 to 1000mgL(-1). Exposure to CoFe2O4 NPs did not affect germination and growth of plants. Uptake of Fe and Co inside plant tissues increased as CoFe2O4 nanoparticle concentration was increased in the media. Mg uptake in plant leaves reached its maximum level of 4.9mgg(-1) DW (dry weight) at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure and decreased at high CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations. Similar pattern was observed for Ca uptake in leaves where the maximum concentration found was 10mgg(-1) DW at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure. Mn uptake in plant leaves was higher at 62.5mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs compared with 125 and 250mgL(-1) treatments. Catalase activity in tomato roots and leaves decreased in plants exposed to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were able to tolerate CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations up to 1000mgL(-1) without visible toxicity symptoms. Macronutrient uptake in plants was affected when plants were exposed to 250, 500 and 1000mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Ventomod: a dynamic model for leaf to fruit transfer of radionuclides in processing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) following a direct contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Strebl, F.; Carini, F.; Gerzabek, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results on the calibration and validation of a model (Ventomod) for leaf to fruit transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 65 Zn in processing tomato plants after leaf contamination. Several models (e.g FARMLAND) that deal specifically with the transfer of radionuclides to fruits are adaptations of models that were developed for agricultural crops such as leafy green vegetables. 'Ventomod' represents a dynamic evaluation model exclusively built for the short-term behaviour of radionuclide depositions. It forecasts the level of radionuclide contamination in ripe processing tomato fruits following an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. A validation of the developed model by data sets from an independent experiment showed that the model successfully reproduced the observed radionuclide distribution and dynamics in tomato fruits. The level of uncertainty was within the normal range of similar assessment models. Fo a more general use of this model further testing with independent data sets from experiments obtained under different environmental conditions and data from other horticulturally important plant species would be desirable

  2. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. B. Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415–539; T group: 273 (258–297 µm2; p = 0.004. Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039 in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  3. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  4. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu

    2014-06-04

    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years.

  5. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Jun Kang, Yi; Li Wang, Huan; Sheng Zhang, Xiang; Xin Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of three PGPRs on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato under simulated seawater irrigation, a two consecutive seasons' field experiment was conducted in Yancheng Teachers University plot from April to June and August to October, 2011. The results showed that Erwinia persicinus RA2 containing ACC deaminase exhibited the best ability compared with Bacillus pumilus WP8 and Pseudomonas putida RBP1 which had no ACC deaminase activity to enhance marketable yields of fresh and dried fruits in tomato under simulated seawater irrigation especially under HS condition. B. pumilus WP8 had significant effects on improving tomato fruit quality under the conditions of irrigating with 1.0% NaCl solution (MS) and with 2.0% NaCl solution (HS). Na(+) contents were generally accumulated much more in tomato plant mid-shoot leaves than in fruits whatever the salt concentration. More sodium accumulation in leaves of E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 treatments under HS condition were found than in control. E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 can promote tomato growth, improve fruit quality more firmly than P. putida RBP1 during two consecutive seasons. Our study suggested that E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 are considered to be promising PGPR strains which are suited for application in salt marsh planting, ACC deaminase activity was not unique index on screening for PGPRs with the aim of salt stress tolerance, and plant growth promoting activities may be relevant to different growth indices and different stress conditions.

  6. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3'- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H 2 O 2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H 2 O 2 . The reduction in CAT activities after 48 h post inoculation demonstrate that the biochemical defense programming shown by the host against the pathogen is not well efficient resulting in the compatible host-pathogen interaction. The elicitor (toxins) induced biochemical changes depends on the potential toxic effects (extent of ROS accumulation, amount of H 2 O 2 produced). Thus, a fine tuning occurs for the defense related antioxidative enzymes against detoxification of key ROS molecules and effectively regulated in tomato plant against the pathogen infected/toxin treated oxidative stress. The study well demonstrates the acute pathological effects of A. alternata in tomato over its phytotoxic metabolites.

  8. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (Ptomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  9. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Evaluation of salt tolerance in ectoine-transgenic tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in terms of photosynthesis, osmotic adjustment, and carbon partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Nakamura, Akiko; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-01-01

    Ectoine is a common compatible solute in halophilic bacteria. Its biosynthesis originates from L-aspartate β-semialdehyde and requires three enzymes: L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (gene: ect B), L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyl transferase (gene: ect A) and L-ectoine synthase (gene: ect C). Genetically engineered tomato plants expressing the three H. elongata genes (ectA, ectB, and ectC) generated showed no phenotypic abnormality. Expression of the ectoine biosynthetic genes was detected in the T3 transgenic plants by Northern blot analysis. The ectoine accumulating T3 plants were evaluated for salt tolerance by examining their photosynthestic activity, osmotic adjustment and carbon partitioning. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected the accumulation of ectoine. The concentration of ectoine increased with increasing salinity. The transgenic lines showed higher activities of peroxidase, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased under salinity stress condition. In addition, preservation of higher rates of photosynthesis and turgor values as compared to control was evident. Within a week of ( 13) CO 2 feeding, salt application led to increases in the partitioning of ( 13) C into roots at the expense of ( 13) C in the other plant parts. These results suggest that under saline conditions ectoine synthesis is promoted in the roots of transgenic plants, leading to an acceleration of sink activity for photosynthate in the roots. Subsequently, root function such as water uptake is improved, compared with wild-type plants. In this way, the photosynthetic rate is increased through enhancement of cell membrane stability in oxidative conditions under salt stress.

  11. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  12. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  13. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypersensitivity to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Peach-Allergic Patients: rPrup 3 and rPrup 1 Are Predictive of Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheri, A; Farioli, L; Pravettoni, V; Piantanida, M; Stafylaraki, C; Scibilia, J; Mirone, C; Preziosi, D; Nichelatti, M; Pastorello, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of allergens in the severity of tomato allergy symptoms has not yet been studied. To evaluate the relationship between severe allergic reactions to peach and tomato and between tomato allergy symptoms and the pattern of IgE positivity for rPru p 1, rPru p 3, rPru p 4, rBetv 1, rBetv 2, rBetv4, rPhl p 1, and rPhl p 12 in order to identify the role of recombinant allergens in the severity of reactions to tomato. We studied peach-allergic patients with clinical reactions to tomato by performing an open food challenge, skin prick test, and determination of serum specific IgE to tomato and to recombinant peach, birch, and grass allergens. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the severity of tomato symptoms and IgE positivity to the different allergens and to peach-induced symptoms. We found a significant association between severe reactions to tomato and severe reactions to peach (P = .01 7) and levels of IgE to rPru p3 (P = .029) and between mild tomato allergy symptoms and levels of IgE to rPru p1 (P = .047), anti-rBetv 1 (P = .0414), anti-rBetv 2 (P = .0457), and Phleum pratense (P = .0022). We observed a significant relationship between peach and symptoms of tomato allergy. IgE positivity for rPru p3 seems to be a surrogate biochemical marker for severe tomato allergy, whereas the presence of anti-rPru p 1 IgE may be an indicator of mild tomato allergy.

  15. The influence of al-madinah al-munawwara treated and untreated domestic wastewater on growth and physiology of three tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhkha, A.; Boutraa, T.; Shoaibi, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of irrigation with Al-Madinah Al-Munawwara domestic wastewater on three tomato genotypes (AL, P and VF) was investigated. Five treatments including Tap water, untreated (TN), primary (T1), secondary (T2) and tertiary (T3) treated wastewaters were used for irrigation. The physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater were determined. Leaves were analysed for N, P, K and heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Nickel). The growth parameters assessed were % germination, plant height, shoot and root dry weights, and total leaf dry weight. Some physiological parameters such as photosynthetic light response curve, maximum gross photosynthesis (Amax), dark respiration (DR), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm and Fv / Fm), chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were detected. % germination was decreased in both A1 and P genotype, with no effect on VF genotype. Most growth parameters were increased in genotype A1, followed by VF then P genotype which had a sensitive leaf dry weight to T2 and T3. Photosynthesis was mainly increased in A1 genotype with a decrease in VF genotype. DR was negatively affected in VF genotype with no response of A1 genotype. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed an increase in Fo in VF genotype but a decrease in Fv / Fm in both A1 and VF genotypes. Chlorophyll content index was decreased but only in A1 and VF genotypes under TN. Treatment with TN and / or T1 decreased stomatal conductance in all genotypes. The levels of heavy metals in wastewaters used were lower than the standard limits; however, plant chemical analysis showed that the leaves of the three tomato genotypes accumulated heavy metals but differently with higher levels at TN and lower levels at T3. (author)

  16. The reorganization of root anatomy and ultrastructure of syncytial cells in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected with potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of anatomical and ultrastructural events leading to the syncytium development in tomato roots infected with Globodera rostochiensis was examined. The syncytia were preferentially induced in cortical or pericyclic cells in the elongation zone of root. They developed towards the vascular cylinder by incorporation of new cells via local cell wall breakdown. After surrounding primary phloem bundle and reaching xylem tracheary elements syncytia spread along vascular cylinder. Roots in primary state of growth seemed to be the best place for syncytium induction as syncytia formed in the zone of secondary growth were less hypertrophied. At the ultrastructural level syncytial elements were characterized by strong hypertrophy, breakdown of central vacuole, increased volume of cytoplasm, proliferation of organelles, and enlargement of nuclei. On the syncytial wall adjoining vessels the cell wall ingrowths were formed, while the syncytial walls at interface of phloem were considerably thickened. They lacked of functional plasmodesmata and did not form any ingrowths. Using immunofluorescent-labelling and immunogold-labelling methods tomato expansin 5 protein was localized in nematode infected roots. The distribution of LeEXP A5 was restricted only to the walls of syncytia. The protein distribution pattern indicated that LeEXP A5 could mediates cell wall expansion during hypertrophy of syncytial elements.

  17. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  18. Analysis of low-temperature tolerance of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cybrid with chloroplasts from a more chilling-tolerant L-hirsutum accession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Eekhof, M; van Hasselt, PR

    Growth and photosynthesis of an alloplasmic tomato (cybrid), i.e. line AH47, containing the nuclear genome of the chilling-sensitive cytoplasmic albino mutant of L. esculentum Mill. 'Large Red Cherry' (LRC) and the plastome of a more chilling-tolerant high-altitude accession of the related wild

  19. Capítulo VIII: heredabilidad del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.; correlaciones genéticas y ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Arias Mario

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se desarrolló con el fin de determinar la heredabilidad, en sentido amplio, del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate y a la vez describir las relaciones genotípicas y ambientales para dichos componentes en una población constituida por tres líneas endocriadas (Ponderosa Red, Chonto y Red Cherry como progenitores y las F1 provenientes de los cruzamientos entre los progenitores en una sola dirección. La heredabilidad se estimó en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y las correlaciones genotípicas y ambientales en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y productos cruzados medios del análisis de covarianza. Para el rendimiento se estimó una heredabilidad de 79.3%, para el número total de frutos de 93.107%, para peso promedio de de fruto de 4.25%. Los coeficientes de correlación genotípicos estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.985; para número de inflorescencias por planta y número de frutos por inflorescencia de 0,541; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de 0.826. Los coeficientes de correlación ambiental estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.512; para rendimiento y número de frutos por planta de -0.065; para rendimiento y peso promedio de frutos de 0.613; para número de inflorescencias y número de frutos por inflorescencias de -0.878; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de -0.779. Lo anterior indica que el método de mejoramiento para rendimiento, dentro de la población estudiada, seria la selección, tomando como índice de selección apropiado el peso promedio de frutos pero sin descuidar el número de frutos. Se debe maximizar las condiciones favorables de suelo y manejo de cultivo para permitir una adecuada manifestación de los dos componentes primarios del rendimiento.

    This study intended to determine heritability, in the wide sense, of tomato yield and its components and their genotypic and environmental correlations in a population composed of three inbred lines (Ponderosa Red, Chonto y Red Cherry and the F1 from one direction crosses. Heritability was estimated from the expected mean squares and genotypic and environmental correlations were calculated from E.M.S. and cross products from the analysis of covariance. For total yield, number of fruits per plant and mean fruit weight calculated heritability were 79.3%, 93.107% and 94.25%, respectively. Genotypic correlation coefficients were: between number of fruits per plant and mean fruit weight -0.985; between number of clusters and fruits per cluster 0.541; between locules por fruit and mean weight of locule 0.826. Environmental correlations were: between number of fruits per plant and mean weight of fruits 0.512; between yield and number of fruits per plant 0.065; between yield and mean weight of fruits 0.613; between number of clusters and fruits per cluster 0.878; between number of locules per fruit and mean locule weight 0.779. The results indicate that the best method to improve yields would be a selection index considering mean weight of fruits and giving some consideration to number of fruits per plant. In order to let these characteristics to express themselves maximum soil and crop management should be provided.

  20. Depth of dormancy in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds is related to the progression of the cell cycle prior to the induction of dormancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Bino, R.J.; Jing, H.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell cycle activities are initiated following imbibition of non-dormant seeds. However, it is not known whether cell cycle related events other than DNA replication also remain suppressed in imbibed dormant seeds. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the transitions between the

  1. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  2. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  3. Parámetros genéticos y heredabilidad en calidad fisiológica de semilla de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar los parámetros genéticos y heredabilidad en caracteres de calidad fisiológica de semilla de jitomate, se generó un dialélico completo con 10 líneas experimentales; con la semilla obtenida se realizaron: prueba de germinación estándar a 25 oC y 24 horas de luz en germinadora, y prueba de emergencia en almácigo bajo invernadero. Los componentes de varianza se obtuvieron considerando endogamia de 7/8 en las líneas. Los efectos genéticos fueron principalmente dominantes, excepto en germinación inicial y semillas muertas donde fueron aditivos y dominantes. Los valores de heredabilidad en sentido estrecho fueron bajos. Además se presentaron efectos maternos en germinación total y semillas muertas; y efectos recíprocos en velocidad de emergencia y en todas las variables de germinación, excepto plántulas anormales. Las mejores líneas por aptitud combinatoria general fueron CPJL-1-2-1 y CPJL-24-5-4; y por sus efectos maternos fueron CPJL-1-2-1, CPJL-3-2-1, CPJL-7-8-4 y CPJL-25-8-4. Por su aptitud combinatoria específica, en germinación los mejores híbridos fueron CPJL-7-8-4 X CPJL-22-4-4, y CPJL-1-2-1 X CPJL-2-2-1; y en emergencia CPJL-2-2-1 X CPJL-21-1-4 y CPJL-2-2-1X CPJL-22-4-4. Por los efectos recíprocos en germinación, las mejores cruzas fueron CPJL-25-8-4 X CPJL-10-1-4 y CPJL-22-4-4 X CPJL-7-8-4; y en emergencia CPJL- 24-5-4 X CPJL-10-1-4 y CPJL-10-1-4 X CPJL-2-2-1.

  4. Effects of Various Substrates and Foliar Application of Humic Acid ‎on Growth and some Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Pourghasemian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Successful greenhouse and nursery production of plants is largely dependent on the chemical and physical properties of the growing substrate. An ideal potting substrate should be free of weeds and diseases, heavy enough to avoid frequent tipping over and yet light enough to facilitate handling and shipping. The substrate should also be well drained and yet retain sufficient water to reduce the frequency of watering. Other parameters to consider include cost, availability, consistency between batches and stability in the media over time. Greenhouse crops in general, have higher nutrient demands than field grown crops. Therefore, in order to optimize production it is essential to focus on the growing substrate and fertilization. The physical properties of the growing medium are important parameters for successful plant growth, as these are related to the ability to adequately store and supply air and water to plants. Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus, peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water. It is produced by biodegradation of dead organic matter. It is not a single acid, but it is a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups so that the mixture behaves functionally as a dibasic acid or occasionally as a tribasic acid. Humic acids can form complexes with ions that are commonly found in the environment creating humic colloids. Humic and fulvic acids (fulvic acids are humic acids with lower molecular weight and higher oxygen content than other humic acids are commonly used as a soil supplement in agriculture. Humic Plus contains humic acid, fulvic acid, macro micro nutrients and proprietary constituents essential for plant growth. Organic matter soil amendments have been known by farmers to be beneficial to plant growth for longer than recorded history. However, the chemistry and function of the organic matter have been a subject of controversy since humans began their postulating about it in the 18th century. Selection of the proper media components is critical to the successful production of plants. So, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of humic acid foliar application and various substrate on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tomato seedling. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Bardsir Faculty of Agriculture , Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2015, as a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with five replications. The experimental treatments were substrate in 7 levels (peat, coco-peat, leaf-soil, compost, vermi-compost, manure and clay soil, humic acid in two levels (foliar application and non- foliar application. After preparation of substrates, plastic boxes with 12 cm diameter and 10 cm height were chosen. After extracting gravity water, tomato (cv. Canyon seeds were sown in pots. Rain irrigation was done daily. Foliar application of humic acid with concentration of 0.001 liter was performed from seedling emergence to transplanting every two days. The germinated seeds was daily counted and number and rate of seed emergence was estimated. Plant height, stem diameter, number of internodes, leaf area, shoot and root dry matter and chlorophyll contents were calculated at transplanting time of seedling. Results and Discussion: The substrate treatment had a significant effect on rate and percent of germination, plant height, shoot dry matter, leaf area, number of internodes and, chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents. According to the results, the greatest and smallest rate and percent of germination ‎was found in peat and manure treatments, respectively. Also the greatest shoot dry matter (1.17 g, leaf area (125.9 ‎cm plant-1, number of internodes (6.19, plant height (13.51 cm and chlorophyll a concentration (2.55 µg/ml ‎were observed for peat substrate. Manure and clay soil substrates showed the smallest of ‎these measurements and carotenoid contents. It seems that physical characteristics of peat was better than other substrates. Plant height, shoot dry matter, leaf area, number of internodes, chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents showed a significant effect by humic acid application. Foliar application of humic acid significantly increased the mentioned traits. Conclusion: The results illustrated that between substrates in this study, peat was the best for seedling production of tomato. Foliar application of humic acid had a positive effect in improving growth characteristics of tomato seedling.

  5. NUTRICIÓN MINERAL CON N, P Y K EN LA SIMBIOSIS HONGOS MICORRIZÓGENOS-TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) EN FERRALSOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Desirée Llonín; N. Medina

    2002-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes relaciones de nutrientes con N, P y K y la inoculación con dos cepas de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares-HMA- (G. clarum y G. fasciculatum), como fuentes de suministro de nutrientes aplicadas solas o en combinación, en fase de campo, sobre los incrementos de los rendimientos y la absorción de nutrientes. Para ello se determinaron el rendimiento del cultivo, la absorción de nutrientes y la colonización por HMA. Los resultados indican que la inoculación con hon...

  6. Reúso del tezontle: efecto en sus características físicas y en la producción de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los cambios en las propiedades físicas del Tezontle por efecto de su reúso como sustrato para el cultivo de tomate (primer uso T0, primer reúso T1 y segundo reúso T2, así como la influencia de dichos cambios en la producción. La investigación se realizó en Tlajomulco, Jalisco bajo invernadero, en un sistema hidropónico, de agosto de 2009 a septiembre de 2010. La variedad de tomate fue la SUN 7705. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y se evaluaron las propiedades físicas del sustrato (granulometría, densidad aparente, retención de humedad y aireación al inicio y al final de cada ciclo de cultivo; asimismo, la redistribución del tamaño de partículas, así como algunas variables de respuesta del cultivo (peso de fruto, grados Brix, altura de planta y diámetro de tallo. Se observó un aumento en la capacidad de retención de humedad del tezontle de 43% en T0, 46% en T1 y 48% en T2, una disminución de la capacidad de aireación de 12% en T0, 9% en T1 y 8% en T2, debido a cambios en la distribución del tamaño de partícula por el reúso; dichos cambios no afectaron agronómicamente las variables de peso de fruto y grados Brix; las diferencias estadísticas, solo fueron significativas en altura de planta y diámetro de tallo. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el tezontle como sustrato puede utilizarse durante tres ciclos consecutivos de cultivo de tomate hidropónico sin demeritar su productividad, permitiendo un ahorro aproximado de ciento sesenta mil pesos por hectárea por cada reúso.

  7. {8-14C}-Adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate - precursors for root-produced cytokinins in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Following the detection of reasonable levels of biologically active cytokinin-like compounds in one-month-old tomato plants, the possible involvement of {8- 14 C}-adenine and {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives, was studied. Intact tomato plants were used for a time-course study involving the uptake of {8- 14 C}-adenine and the tentative identification of compounds into which the 14 C became incorporated. Using high performance liquid chromatography, radioactive trans-zeatin was identified as being present in the Dowex 50 root extract. The 12-hour time interval was used and the roots of the tomato plants were immersed in a more heavily radiolabelled medium. Modified separation techniques were used to achieve enhanced radioactivity recovery rates. This experiment demonstrated the presence of relatively high levels of tentatively identified radioactive zeatin in the Dowex 50 root and stem extracts. Radioactivity in the aqueous extracts was found not to be contributed by cytokinin nucleotides. A final experiment was carried out using decapitated root systems to determine if the root tissue alone could be implicated in the synthesis of cytokinins. Decapitated tomato root systems were supplied with either {8- 14 C}-adenine or {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The ratio of incorporation of {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate into identified cytokinins was higher than for {8- 14 C}-adenine. It was concluded that both adenine and isopentenyl pyrophosphate are involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives in tomato roots

  8. Metabolite profiling of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR spectroscopy as a tool to detect potential unintended effects following a genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Colquhoun, Ian J; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E

    2003-04-23

    The maize transcription factors LC and C1 were simultaneously overexpressed in tomato with the aim of producing lines with increased amounts of flavonols. The metabolite composition of these genetically modified tomatoes has been compared with that of azygous (nonmodified) controls grown side-by-side under the same conditions. It has been possible to observe metabolic changes in both types at different stages of maturity. (1)H NMR spectra showed that the levels of glutamic acid, fructose, and some nucleosides and nucleotides gradually increase from the immature to the ripe stage, whereas some amino acids such as valine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were present in higher amounts in unripe tomatoes. Apart from the significantly increased content of six main flavonoid glycosides (mainly kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, with additional increases in kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, a dihydrokaempferol-O-hexoside (3), and naringenin-7-O-glucoside), the levels of at least 15 other metabolites were found to be different between the two types of red tomato. Among them were citric acid, sucrose, phenylalanine, and trigonelline. However, although statistically significant, these changes in mean values were relatively minor (less than 3-fold) and within the natural variation that would be observed in a field-grown crop. Nevertheless, this study clearly showed that NMR combined with chemometrics and univariate statistics can successfully trace even small differences in metabolite levels between plants and therefore represents a powerful tool to detect potential unintended effects in genetically modified crops.

  9. Acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide attenuate decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents and membrane thermo- stability in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Hui, C.Z.; Ghazanfar, B.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exogenous application of varying levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0.75, 1.5 and 3 micro M) and acetyl salicylic acid (0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 micro M) for induction of heat tolerance in terms of their effect on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, membrane integrity and survival in four weeks old tomato (cultivar: Mei Jie Lo) seedlings under high temperature stress (46 degree C/4 h daily) for 21 days was investigated. The daily heat stress treatment had deleterious effects on seedlings but chemical treatments significantly reduced the magnitude of losses to different extents. 24-epibrassinolide (3 micro M) was over all the best treatment to improve survival (86.11%), photosynthesis (39.4%) and chlorophyll contents (26.12%) accompanied with initiation of flower buds and improved vegetative growth. Whereas acetyl salicylic acid (1.25 mM) best improved photosynthetic activity (40.6%) as compared to the untreated heat stressed control seedlings. Moreover, 3 micro M 24-epibrassinolide and 0.75 micro M acetyl salicylic acid reduced cell membrane injury to 8.3 and 6.9% respectively as compared with 22.4% in heat stressed control seedlings. However lower doses of acetyl salicylic acid (0.25 and 0.75 micro M) had slight (5.6 and 12.8%) inhibition effect on the photosynthesis than the heat stressed controls. Overall both acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide up regulated basal heat tolerance in tomato seedlings and studied concentrations demonstrated signature affect upon different parameters. Thus both chemical agents can be potential candidates for further investigations for exogenous application aiming at extension of tomato growth season in summer. (author)

  10. Identification of Lycopersicon spp. hybrids on the basis of morphological and molecular (RAPD properties as well as evaluation of resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rusinowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the plants obtained as a result of cultivated tomato crosses with wild species meant to transfer resistance to TSWV. Six viable plants were obtained from L. esculentum x L. chilense and L. esculentum x L. peruvianum crosses after the application of in vitro embryo culture. In terms of such morphological traits as growth habit of plants, size and shape of leaves, the length and colour of internodes in branching stems, the plants displayed intermediate traits, resembling, nonetheless, the wild form. RAPD analysis with 8 primers revealed that all the hybrids had bands typical of the paternal forms. This confirms the paternal component in hybrid development. As far as the resistance to Polish TSWV isolates is concerned, two hybrids exhibited a high level of resistance, similar to negative control, three hybrids - enhanced resistance and one hybrid was susceptible to TSWV infection.

  11. The Effects of Planting Distances and Different Stages of Maturity on the Quality of Three Cultivars of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh TABASI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the effects of cultivar, row spacing and different stages of maturity on qualitative characteristics of tomato (ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS, β-carotene and lycopene have been evaluated. Experiment was performed by factorial analysis with 3 replicates in completely randomized design (CRD. First treatment was three cultivars of tomato, second treatment was four planting distances and third treatment was different stages of maturity. The results showed that all treatments had significant influence on the levels of ascorbic acid, soluble solids, β-carotene and lycopene. Generally, wider spacing and deep red fruits had the highest quality. Therefore, choosing appropriate cultivars, special planting distances and suitable stage of maturity can increase fruit quality of tomato.

  12. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  13. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  14. Utilização do Ozônio no Tratamento Pós-Colheita do Tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Simão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento de hortaliças no período pós-colheita é fator preocupante na logística de produtos perecíveis no ramo do agronegócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo mostrar o emprego do gás Ozônio (O3 para o aumento de vida de prateleira de frutos de tomate a fim de mantê-los adequados por mais tempo para a comercialização. Exemplares da cultivar Débora foram tratados com 1 ppm (vol/vol de Ozônio durante 24 horas a 25°C e 65% de umidade relativa. Qualidades físicas como perda de massa, estádio de maturação, injúria e senescência foram avaliadas após 15 dias de armazenamento. Comparados com uma amostra de controle, os frutos tratados com Ozônio apresentaram menos perda de massa, menor porcentagem de injúrias causada por fungos e maior retardamento no apodrecimento, mas pouca diferença quanto ao nível de maturação.

  15. Plasma membrane potential depolarization and cytosolic calcium flux are early events involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plant-to-plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon A; Matsui, Kenji; Ozawa, Rika; Maffei, Massimo E

    2012-11-01

    Tomato plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are released into the surrounding atmosphere. We analyzed the tomato herbivore-induced VOCs and tested the ability of tomato receiver plants to detect tomato donor volatiles by analyzing early responses, including plasma membrane potential (V(m)) variations and cytosolic calcium ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) fluxes. Receiver tomato plants responded within seconds to herbivore-induced VOCs with a strong V(m) depolarization, which was only partly recovered by fluxing receiver plants with clean air. Among emitted volatiles, we identified by GC-MS some green leaf volatiles (GLVs) such as (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the monoterpene α-pinene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. GLVs were found to exert the stronger V(m) depolarization, when compared to α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, V(m) depolarization was found to increase with increasing GLVs concentration. GLVs were also found to induce a strong [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase, particularly when (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was tested both in solution and with a gas. On the other hand, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene, which also induced a significant V(m) depolarization with respect to controls, did not exert any significant effect on [Ca²⁺](cyt) homeostasis. Our results show for the first time that plant perception of volatile cues (especially GLVs) from the surrounding environment is mediated by early events, occurring within seconds and involving the alteration of the plasma membrane potential and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) flux. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous and individual quantitative estimation of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pyriforme) and Serrano peppers (Capsicum annuum) using an MPN technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Díaz, E; Martínez-Chávez, L; Sánchez-Camarena, J; Muñiz-Flores, J A; Castillo, A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; González-Aguilar, D G; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2018-08-01

    Simultaneous and individual enumeration of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes was compared on inoculated Roma tomatoes and Serrano peppers using an Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Samples consisting of tomatoes (4 units) or peppers (8 units) were individually inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella, Shigella or L. monocytogenes, or by simultaneous inoculation of three strains of each pathogen, at low (1.2-1.7 log CFU/sample) and high (2.2-2.7 log CFU/sample) inocula. Samples were analyzed by an MPN technique using universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth at 35 °C for 24 ± 2 h. The UP tubes from each MPN series were transferred to enrichment and plating media following adequate conventional methods for isolating each pathogen. Data were analyzed using multifactorial analysis of variance (p  simultaneous), type of bacteria (Salmonella > Shigella and L. monocytogenes), type of sample (UP broth > pepper and tomato), and inoculum level (high > low). The MPN technique was effective for Salmonella on both commodities. Shigella counts were higher on tomatoes compared to peppers, (p < 0.05), and for L. monocytogenes on peppers (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  18. Reaction of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum], cucumber [Cucumis sativus] and eggplant [Solanum melongena] cultured under the film altered the ratio of red and far-red photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Y.; Hayashi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of covering films which altered the ratio of red (R 600-700nm) and far-red (FR 700-800nm) photon flux to control succulent growth of seedlings on character of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings Were determined. Also the effects on growth and yield of eggplant cultured in plastic greenhouse covered with the same films were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) The stem length of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film which intercepted far-red photon flux in the greenhouse got shorter than for cheesecloth (1.00) which had sane level of photosynthetic photon flux transmittance, especially evident on eggplant. There was no difference in the number of leaves on these seedlings between tested film and the cheesecloth, but the top and root dry weight of these seedlings cultured under tested film got lighter than the one using cheesecloth. The leaves got smaller in eggplant too. 2) The stem of eggplant cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film got shorter and thicker than the control PVC film; but there was no difference on the yield. But eggplant cultured under the low R/FR ratio (0.66) film which intercepted red photon flux grew similarly as control, but its yield decreased

  19. Evaluación del crecimiento y productividad del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill bajo cultivo protegido en tres localidades de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un experimento, se evaluó el crecimien- to y la productividad de tres genotipos de tomate en tres localidades de Costa Rica con un sistema de cultivo protegido (San Blas de Carrillo en la pro- vincia de Guanacaste; Santa Clara de San Carlos en la Provincia de alajuela y también en Zapote de Zarcero en la provincia de alajuela. Se evaluaron 19 variables fisiológicas de crecimiento y produc- tividad para nueve tratamientos o interacciones. A los datos obtenidos se les hizo un análisis de com- ponentes principales y como resultado de este aná- lisis se seleccionaron los dos primeros componentes que explican más del 70% de la variabilidad total, también se determinó que el componente princi- pal 1 explica el crecimiento del cultivo, y su variable representativa fue el peso seco de tallos; mientras que el componente 2 representa el rendimiento, y su variable representativa fue el peso seco de frutos. Se encontró también interacción de los genotipos con los ambientes pese a ser cultivados en inverna- dero, lo que demuestra una adaptación específica de los genotipos a las localidades que mostraron datos climáticos diferentes. La productividad de los geno- tipos también fue influenciada por los ambientes, sin embargo, no superaron los diez kilogramos de fruta fresca por planta.

  20. Application of a LED-based reflectance sensor for the assessing in situ the lycopene content of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Tuccio, Lorenza; Agati, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Nondestructive in situ determination of the antioxidant lycopene of fresh tomato fruits is of large interest for the growers, willing to optimize the harvest time for high quality products. For this, we developed a portable LED-based colorimeter which was able to measure reflectance spectra of whole tomatoes in the 400-750 nm range. The tomato skins from the same samples were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, extracted with an acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture and analyzed by means of a spectrophotometer for their lycopene content. Concentration of lycopene was varying between 70 and 550 mg/Kg fresh weight skin. Partial Least Square regression was used to correlate spectral data to the tomato lycopene content. The multivariate processing of the reflectance data showed that lycopene content could be nicely predicted with a coefficient of determination R2=0.945 and a root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=57 mg/Kg skin fresh weight. These results suggest that portable, low-cost and compact LED-based sensors appear to be promising instruments for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene even in the field.

  1. Callus induction and plant regeneration of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5 via anther culture Indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir do cultivo in vitro de anteras de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rabello Brasileiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Different growth regulators combinations were tested on the production of anther callus in tomato cultivar IPA 5. Calli were induced on media supplemented with 1.0mgL-1 gibberellic acid (GA3, 0.05mgL-1 alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA plus 0.1mgL-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 1.0mgL-1 BAP plus 1.0mgL-1 NAA. The medium containing 1.0mgL-1 BAP and 1.0mgL-1 NAA produced the highest calli frequency, and promoted plant regeneration by indirect organogenesis, when calli were transferred to 0.01mgL-1 BAP and 0.001mgL-1 NAA. Plants regenerated presented tetraploid cells and rare diploid cells. These tetraploid plants could be used as source for further obtainment of trisomic lines, for the purpose of genic localization studies and protein compounds analysis.Diferentes combinações de reguladores de crescimento foram testadas na produção de calos a partir do cultivo de anteras de tomate cultivar IPA 5. Calos foram induzidos no meio suplementado com 1,0mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 + 0,05mgL-1 de alfa-ácido naftalenoacético (ANA + 0,1mgL-1 de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, ou com 1,0mgL-1 de BAP + 1,0mgL-1 de ANA. O meio contendo 1,0mgL-1 de BAP e 1,0mgL-1 de ANA produziu a maior freqüência de calos e promoveu a regeneração de plantas através de organogênese indireta, quando os calos foram transferidos para 0,01mgL-1 de BAP e 0,001mgL-1 de ANA. As plantas regeneradas apresentaram células tetraplóides e, raramente, células diplóides. Estas plantas tetraplóides podem servir como fonte para posterior obtenção de linhagens trissômicas, para serem utilizadas em estudos de localização gênica e em análises de compostos protéicos.

  2. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the parasitoid in different phases of development (egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa were treated by immersion in aqueous dilutions of the products. The insecticides triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, deltamethrin, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacyalothrin, abamectin, cartap and methamidophos, did not decrease the longevity of females T. pretiosum in F1 generation independently of the parasitoid strain. Abamectin, cartap, methamidophos and lambdacyalothrin affected the sexual ratio in F1, and did not decrease the emergence of parasitoids in F2 generation, independently of stage of development and origin. The L10 strain was more susceptible to all pesticides as compared to L9. The pupal stage of T. pretiosum was more tolerant to the products, independently of its origin. It is recommended new tests with other strains of this parasitoid which may respond differently to the products used, before field recomendations are made.

  3. EFICIÊNCIA DE NOVO INSETICIDA CARBAMATO NO CONTROLE QUÍMICO DA TRAÇA (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Meyric1917 SOBRE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill THE EFFICIENCY OF NEW INSECTICIDE CARBAMATE IN CHEMICAL CONTROL OF TOMATO LEAFMINER (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta MEYRIC, 1917 IN TOMATO PLANTS (Lycopersicon esculentum, MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros de Macêdo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento foi realizado na área de horticultura da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, visando ao controle químico da traça do tomateiro (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Meyric, 1917, no período de setembro a dezembro de 1995, para avaliar a eficiência do inseticida Onic 300 (Alanycarb nas dosagens de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 litros do produto formulado por ha, comparando-o com Cartap 500 BR (Cartap na dosagem de 2,4 kg/ha, Vertimec 18 CE (Abamectin na dosagem de 1,0 l/ha misturado a um óleo mineral e uma testemunha. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que todos os inseticidas utilizados controlaram eficientemente a traça em tomateiro até 8 dias após aplicação e que todos os tratamentos promoveram aumento de produtividade.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Traça; Scrobipalpuloides absoluta; controle químico; tomateiro.

    The tomato leafminer (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta, a common pest of tomato plants, is known in many regions in Brazil. In order to determine the efficiency of new insecticide alanycarb, to control the tomato leafminer a field experiment was carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The treatments and dosage of the insecticides per hectare were: alanycarb 300: 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l; cartap 500 BR: 2.0 kg; abamectin 18 CE: 1.0 1 plus an untreated check. The results obtained in this experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the tomato leafminer until 8 days after treatment application and they were able to increase productivity.

    KEY-WORDS: Scrobipalpuloides absoluta; tomato leafminer; chemical control.

  4. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

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    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  5. The strong CP problem and the visibility of invisible axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1986-12-01

    The main subject of these lectures are general properties of axions and recent suggestions of how to detect invisible axions. After a brief review of the strong CP problem and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in sects. 2 and 3, we discuss axion properties by means of an effective lagrangian approach in sect. 4. Experimental bounds on axion production and decays are reviewed in sect. 5. Sect. 6 deals briefly with the recently proposed variant axion models, and in sect. 7 we discuss the possible relevance of supersymmetry to the strong CP problem. In sect. 8 we then review the different proposals for the detection of invisible axions. Some conclusions are given in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)

  6. 40 CFR 52.1770 - Identification of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460 and the National Archives and Records Administration. For information... Emergency Generators 04/01/02 08/08/02, 67 FR 51461 Sect .0808 Peak Shaving Generators 07/01/99 10/22/02, 67... 8093. Sect. .0806 Cotton Gins 11/6/98 02/17/00, 65 FR 8093. Sect. .0807 Emergency Generators 11/6/98 02...

  7. Single- and dual-energy quantitative CT adjacent to acetabular prosthetic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    and to compare BMD measurements in single and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT). Methods and Materials: 10 male patients with uncemented hip prosthetics were scanned and rescanned using 120 kVp SECT and DECT with virtual monochromatic images reconstructed at 130 keV. Hemispherical ROIs were defined slice...... that the intraobserver agreement of the scan modes is equal. BMD cannot be measured interchangeably with SECT and DECT....

  8. Experimental tests and theoretical predictions for electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati

    1987-01-01

    In sect. 2, I will briefly recall the basic ingredients of the standard model and I will define the relevant parameters. Low-energy processes which enter into the determination of neutral-current couplings to fermions (in particular sin 2 θ W ) are presented in sect. 3. Radiative corrections to these processes are discussed in sect. 4. In sect. 5 the measurements of the W and Z 0 masses at the SPS collider are described and compared with theoretical predictions including one-loop radiative corrections. (orig./BBO)

  9. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  10. Molecular systematics of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae, Dendrobieae) from mainland Asia based on plastid and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Schuiteman, André; Li, De-Zhu; Huang, Wei-Chang; Chung, Shih-Wen; Li, Jian-Wu; Zhou, Hai-Lang; Jin, Wei-Tao; Lai, Yang-Jun; Li, Zhen-Yu; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Dendrobium is one of the three largest genera and presents some of the most intricate taxonomic problems in the family Orchidaceae. Based on five DNA markers and a broad sampling of Dendrobium and its relatives from mainland Asia (109 species), our results indicate that mainland Asia Dendrobium is divided into eight clades (with two unplaced species) that form polytomies along the spine of the cladogram. Both Dendrobium and Epigeneium are well supported as monophyletic, whereas sect. Dendrobium, sect. Densiflora, sect. Breviflores, sect. Holochrysa, are paraphyletic/polyphyletic. Many ignored phylogenetic relationships, such as the one of major clades formed by D. jenkinsii and D. lindleyi (two members of sect. Densiflora), the Aphyllum group, the Devonianum group, the Catenatum group, the Crepidatum group, and the Dendrobium moniliforme complex are well supported by both molecular and morphological evidence. Based on our data, we propose to broaden sect. Dendrobium to include sect. Stuposa, sect. Breviflores, and sect. Holochrysa and to establish a new section to accommodate D. jenkinsii and D. lindleyi. Our results indicated that it is preferable to use a broad generic concept of Dendrobium and to pursue an improved infrageneric classification at sectional level, taking into account both morphology and current molecular findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efecto de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae sobre la productividad de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cure José Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En varios países se utilizan con éxito especies de abejorros del género Bombus para la polinización de tomate, reportándose incrementos de productividad hasta del 40%. En la Sabana de Bogotá existen varias especies nativas del género, por lo que se planteó examinar su potencial, desde el punto de vista de su cría en cautiverio y de su utilización como polinizadores de tomate y otras solanáceas. En este trabajo se evaluó el potencial de la especie nativa Bombus atratus como polinizador de tomate, mediante la introducción al cultivo de colonias criadas en cautiverio. Se comparó la autopolinización espontánea de la planta, frente a la obtenida con ayuda de las obreras de B. atratus. Los frutos visitados por ellas presentaron incrementos significativos para las variables ‘peso fresco del fruto’ (40,9%, ‘número de semillas’ (103,3%, ‘diámetro ecuatorial’ (14,3% y ‘proporción de lóculos bien desarrollados’ (42,2%. La relativa facilidad para la cría de esta especie en cautiverio, y el potencial demostrado en el aumento de productividad del tomate bajo invernadero, muestran la necesidad de profundizar en estos estudios en Colombia.

  12. Métodos étodos de controle de lepidópteros na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. = Methods for caterpillars’ control in the culture of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Lebedenco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 5 métodos de controle das lagartas que atacam a cultura do tomateiro: método convencional de aplicação de produtos fitossanitários; manejo integrado de pragas (MIP com produtos sintéticos; MIP com o emprego de extrato de Azadirachta indica (Nim à 5%; ensacamento das pencas de tomate e testemunha. Os métodos queutilizaram produtos fitossanitários (convencional e MIP foram eficientes no controle das lagartas do tomateiro e, em conseqüência, promoveram um aumento na produtividade da cultura em 156 e 165% respectivamente, em comparação à testemunha. O número de pulverizações foi reduzido em até 66,7%, quando se adotou o MIP comparado ao convencional. O tratamento MIP-Nim foi significativamente igual à testemunha, denotando não ser eficiente no controle das lagartas broqueadoras. O ensacamento das pencas de frutos de tomate consistiu em uma alternativa promissora na produção de frutos sem a presença de inseticidas.Five methods for the control of caterpillars, which attack the culture of tomato, were analyzed: the conventional method of application of phytosanitary products; the integrated pest management (IPM; the IPM with the use of Azadirachta indica extract at 5% (Neem; the sacking of the tomato fruit immediately after flowering, and the control plants (without any treatment against pest. The methods that used phytosanitary products (conventional and IPM efficiently controlled the caterpillars on the tomato plants and, as a consequence, promoted an increase in the productivity of the culture of 156 and 165% respectively, if compared with the control plants. The number of pulverizations had a reduction of 66.7% when the IPM was used compared to the conventional. The performance of the IPMNeem treatment was significantly the same as the control, denoting poor efficiency in controlling the borer caterpillars. The method of sacking the tomato fruit consisted of a promising alternative in the production without the presence of insecticides.

  13. Re-evaluation of traditional Mediterranean foods. The local landraces of 'Cipolla di Giarratana' (Allium cepa L.) and long-storage tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.): quality traits and polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Avola, Giovanni; Patanè, Cristina; Riggi, Ezio; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The heightened consumer awareness for food safety is reflected in the demand for products with well-defined individual characteristics due to specific production methods, composition and origin. In this context, of pivotal importance is the re-evaluation of folk/traditional foods by properly characterizing them in terms of peculiarity and nutritional value. The subjects of this study are two typical Mediterranean edible products. The main morphological, biometrical and productive traits and polyphenol contents of three onion genotypes ('Cipolla di Giarratana', 'Iblea' and 'Tonda Musona') and three long-storage tomato landraces ('Montallegro', 'Filicudi' and 'Principe Borghese') were investigated. Sicilian onion landraces were characterized by large bulbs, with 'Cipolla di Giarratana' showing the highest bulb weight (605 g), yield (151 t ha(-1)) and total polyphenol content (123.5 mg kg(-1)). Landraces of long-storage tomato were characterized by low productivity (up to 20 t ha(-1)), but more than 70% of the total production was obtained with the first harvest, allowing harvest costs to be reduced. High contents of polyphenols were found, probably related to the typical small fruit size and thick skin characterizing these landraces. The present study overviews some of the most important traits that could support traditional landrace characterization and their nutritional value assessment. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Caracterización morfológica y evaluación de resistencia a Fusarium oxysporum en especies silvestres del género Solanum sección Lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natalia Morales Palacio

    2014-01-01

    Título corto: Caracterización morfológica y evaluación de resistencia a Fusarium oxysporum Resumen:  Con el objetivo de evaluar la variación morfológica y la resistencia a Fusarium oxysporum en la colección del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Loja (UNL, 146 accesiones de cuatro especies silvestres fueron seleccionadas (Solanum pimpinellifolium, S. neorickii, S. habrochaites, S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme; y, 20 accesiones de tomate cultivado (S. lycopersicum. Un total de 723 plántulas se transplantaron al campo y se evaluaron morfológicamente durante todo su ciclo biológico, con un descriptor que incluyó 20 caracteres cuantitativos y 25 cualitativos. Se estimó la variabilidad morfológica y se detectaron diferencias fenotípicas relacionadas con el fruto, características vegetativas de las plantas y los componentes del rendimiento. Las variables morfológicas mostraron que S. habrochaites es la especie más diferenciada con relación a las restantes. La podredumbre vascular causada por F. oxysporum es responsable de enormes pérdidas en la producción de tomate en el mundo; sin embargo, las especies silvestres que originaron las variedades cultivadas poseen genes de interés agronómico, utilizados por décadas para la generación de variedades resistentes. Por ello, entre 64 y 228 individuos por especie, se evaluaron por tres procedimientos de inoculación. Todas las especies fueron significativamente diferentes en los niveles de resistencia, tolerancia o susceptibilidad. S. neorickii fue más resistente y tolerante, seguida de S. pimpinellifolium y S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, mientras que todas las variedades cultivadas (S. lycopersicum fueron susceptibles. Tales circunstancias permitieron determinar sin lugar a dudas, que las plantas sobrevivientes y tolerantes poseen un genotipo particular que determina esa característica. Palabras clave:  Ecuador, tomate, tolerancia, susceptibilidad, inoculación. Abstract: In order to evaluate the morphological variation and Fusarium oxysporum resistance in the National University of Loja (UNL genebank collection, 146 wild accessions of four species were selected (Solanum pimpinellifolium, S. neorickii, S. habrochaites , S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and 20 accessions of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum. In total, 723 seedlings were transplanted to the field and evaluated morphologically throughout its life cycle, with a descriptor that included 20 quantitative and 25 qualitative characters. Morphological variability was estimated were detected phenotypic differences related to the fruit, plant vegetative characteristics and yield components. Morphological variables showed that S. habrochaites is the most differentiated type as compared with the others. Vascular rot caused by F. oxysporum is responsible for huge losses in tomato production in the world, but the wild species that gave rise to the cultivated varieties have agronomic interest genes used for decades to generate resistant varieties. Therefore, between 64 and 228 individuals per species were evaluated for three inoculation procedures. All species were significantly different between levels of resistance, susceptibility or tolerance. S. neorickii was more resistant and tolerant, followed by S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, while all cultivars (S. lycopersicum were susceptible. Such circumstances allowed undoubtedly to determine that survivors and tolerant plants have a particular genotype that determines that characteristic. Key words: Ecuador, tomatoe, tolerance, susceptibility, inoculation.

  15. Photomorphogenic responses to UV radiation III: a comparative study of UVB effects on anthocyanin and flavonoid accumulation in wild-type and aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.; Giannini, A.; Lercari, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-mediated induction of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds was characterized in etiolated hypocotyls of wild-type and aurea (au) mutant tomato seedlings. Ultraviolet radiation induced significant increases of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds in hypocotyls of the au mutant and of its isogenic wild-type, but the differences in the time courses of UV-induced pigment accumulation indicate that different photoregulatory mechanisms are involved for each of these two groups of pigments. It appears that prolonged presence of adequate levels of UVB (290-320 nm) energy and consequently the action of a specific UVB photoreceptor are indispensable for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in UV-irradiated hypocotyl of the au mutant that is missing the labile phytochrome pool. The large difference found between the wild-type and the au mutant strongly indicate the involvement of labile phytochrome as the primary functional photoreceptor for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type tomato hypocotyls. (author)

  16. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives against pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum: a structure-activity evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaya, K; Kavitha, R; Ananda Kumar, C S; Benaka Prasad, S B; Chandrappa, S; Deepak, S A; Nanjunda Swamy, S; Umesha, S; Rangappa, K S

    2009-01-01

    Several 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine derivatives 8(a-j) were prepared by the treatment of substituted benzhydryl chlorides with 4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine followed by N-sulfonation with sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of dry methylene dichloride and triethyl amine. The synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents by artificial inoculation technique against standard strains of two important bacterial viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and Ralstonia solanacearum as well as and two fungal pathogens namely Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani of tomato plants. We have briefly investigated the structure-activity relation studies and reveal that the nature of substitutions on benzhydryl ring and sulfonamide ring influences the antibacterial activity. Among the synthesized new compounds 8b, 8d, 8g, 8h, 8i, and 8j were showed significant potent antimicrobial activities compared to the standard drugs chloramphenicol, mancozeb.

  17. İn Vitro Koşullarda Domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Bitkisinde Hipokotil ve Kotiledon Eksplantlarından Kallus ve Sürgün Oluşumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of various plant growth regulators and culture conditions on the callus induction and shoot regeneration in M-28 hybrid cultivar of tomato have been evaluated. The seeds were germinated in half strength (½ Murashige-Skoog (MS medium and the cotyledon (5x5 mm and hypocotyl (5 mm segments of the 10 day old seedlings were cultured on semi-solide MS medium containing different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The best result on callus formation, both explants (cotyledon and hypocotyl and both culture conditions (photoperiodic condition at 16 hours light8 hours dark ve 25 days dark condition after photoperiodic condition, was found MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP+1 mg/l NAA (%100 callus formation. At the adventitious shoot induction, under dark condition after photoperiodic condition, the best results were obtained from MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l Kin+0.2 mg/l IAA, only 2 mg/l BAP and only 3 mg/l TDZ and both explants (regenerated explant from %72 to %100. The highest number of shoots regenerated per explant (17.30±5.72 number, was found under dark condition after photoperiodic condition at MS medium supplemented with TDZ of cotyledon explants. The highest adventitious shoot length (33.00±0.57 mm and the number of leaf in shoot (3.00±0.00 number were obtained at MS supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP+1 mg/l NAA of hypocotyl explants and photoperiodic conditions

  18. Effects of cell suspension and cell·free culture filtrate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the control of root rot-root kont disease complex of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IE-6 was tested for antagonistic activity towards Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode and soilbome root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Cell-free culture filtrate of the bacterium caused significant reduction in egg hatching of M.javanica and inhibited radial growth of fungi in vitro. Cell-free culture filtrate also caused lyses in mycelium of F.solani. Under greenhouse conditions, soil drenches with the aqueous cell suspension or cell-free culture resulted in a considerable reduction in nematode population densities in soil and subsequent root-knot development due to M.javanica. In addition to nematode control, rhizobacterium application also inhibited root-infection caused by soilborne root~infecting fungi with significant enhancement of growth of tomato seedlings.

  19. The alteration of mRNA expression of SOD and GPX genes, and proteins in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill under stress of NaCl and/or ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham F. Alharby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of tomato having different levels of salt stress tolerance were exposed to different treatments of NaCl (0, 3 and 6 g L−1 and ZnO-NPs (0, 15 and 30 mg L−1. Treatments with NaCl at both 3 and 6 g L−1 suppressed the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX genes in all cultivars while plants treated with ZnO-NPs in the presence of NaCl, showed increments in the mRNA expression levels. This indicated that ZnO-NPs had a positive response on plant metabolism under salt stress. Superior expression levels of mRNA were observed in the salt tolerant cultivars, Sandpoint and Edkawy while the lowest level was detected in the salt sensitive cultivar, Anna Aasa. SDS–PAGE showed clear differences in patterns of protein expression among the cultivars. A negative protein marker for salt sensitivity and ZnO-NPs was detected in cv. Anna Aasa at a molecular weight of 19.162 kDa, while the tolerant cultivar Edkawy had two positive markers at molecular weights of 74.991 and 79.735 kDa. Keywords: Tomato, Salt stress, Nanoparticles, Gene expression, Real-time PCR, Polymorphism

  20. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from ¤Lycopersicon esculentum¤ and ¤Solanum tuberosum¤ uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, F.; Karandashov, V.; Chague, W.

    2005-01-01

    , is the transfer of phosphate (Pi) from the AM fungus to the plant, facilitated by plasma membrane-spanning Pi transporter proteins. The first mycorrhiza-specific plant Pi transporter to be identified, was StPT3 from potato [Nature 414 (2004) 462]. Here, we describe novel Pi transporters from the solanaceous...... species tomato, LePT4, and its orthologue StPT4 from potato, both being members of the Pht1 family of plant Pi transporters. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrates clustering of both LePT4 and StPT4 with the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter from Medicago truncatula [Plant Cell, 14 (2002) 2413] and rice......Solanaceous species are among the >200 000 plant species worldwide forming a mycorrhiza, that is, a root living in symbiosis with soil-borne arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. An important parameter of this symbiosis, which is vital for ecosystem productivity, agriculture, and horticulture...

  1. Anti-transpirant activity in xylem sap from flooded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants is not due to pH-mediated redistributions of root- or shoot-sourced ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Taylor, June M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    In flooded soils, the rapid effects of decreasing oxygen availability on root metabolic activity are likely to generate many potential chemical signals that may impact on stomatal apertures. Detached leaf transpiration tests showed that filtered xylem sap, collected at realistic flow rates from plants flooded for 2 h and 4 h, contained one or more factors that reduced stomatal apertures. The closure could not be attributed to increased root output of the glucose ester of abscisic acid (ABA-GE), since concentrations and deliveries of ABA conjugates were unaffected by soil flooding. Although xylem sap collected from the shoot base of detopped flooded plants became more alkaline within 2 h of flooding, this rapid pH change of 0.5 units did not alter partitioning of root-sourced ABA sufficiently to prompt a transient increase in xylem ABA delivery. More shoot-sourced ABA was detected in the xylem when excised petiole sections were perfused with pH 7 buffer, compared with pH 6 buffer. Sap collected from the fifth oldest leaf of "intact" well-drained plants and plants flooded for 3 h was more alkaline, by approximately 0.4 pH units, than sap collected from the shoot base. Accordingly, xylem [ABA] was increased 2-fold in sap collected from the fifth oldest petiole compared with the shoot base of flooded plants. However, water loss from transpiring, detached leaves was not reduced when the pH of the feeding solution containing 3-h-flooded [ABA] was increased from 6.7 to 7.1 Thus, the extent of the pH-mediated, shoot-sourced ABA redistribution was not sufficient to raise xylem [ABA] to physiologically active levels. Using a detached epidermis bioassay, significant non-ABA anti-transpirant activity was also detected in xylem sap collected at intervals during the first 24 h of soil flooding.

  2. Attempts of Reconciliation between the 20th Century Islamic Sects: Starting with the Reconciliation Society for Schools of Sharia Law%20世纪伊斯兰教派和解的尝试——从伊斯兰教法学派和解协会谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福泉

    2011-01-01

    二战后,教派和解运动在逊尼派和什叶派宗教界兴起,1 947年伊斯兰教法学派和解协会的成立便是其最重要的标志.在30多年的时间内,和解协会推动了两大教派的交流,取得了一些重要成果,但由于种种原因,最终走向解体.和解协会的兴衰历程为伊斯兰教后继的教派对话提供了宝贵的经验教训.

  3. Efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 nas gerações F1 e F2 em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 Effect of pesticides used on tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 in F1 and F2 generations on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas populações de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, provenientes de Alegre, ES = L9 e Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10, foram submetidas aos principais produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro, após serem multiplicadas em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller. Os ovos desse hospedeiro foram tratados e oferecidos ao parasitismo decorridas 0, 24 e 48 horas após o tratamento, e mantidos em câmaras climáticas a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os inseticidas deltametrina, abamectin e metamidofós, independentemente da linhagem de T. pretiosum, reduziram a longevidade de fêmeas da geração maternal. Triflumuron, clorfluazuron, benomil, clorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarbe, iprodiona, metamidofós e ciromazina não afetaram a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum na geração F1, independentemente da origem da população, e não afetaram a porcentagem de emergência dos indivíduos da geração F2, das duas linhagens.Two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 populations from Alegre ES = L9 and Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10 (Brazil were treated with the main pesticides used on tomato crop after reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller eggs. The eggs were treated and submitted to parasitism on 0, 24 and 48 hours and kept in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The longevity of T. pretiosum (mother females, independently of strain, was decreased for insecticides deltamethrin, abamectin and methamidophos. No influence was detected in the parasitism capacity in F1 generation of T. pretiosum with the products triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, benomyl, chlorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefate, pirimicarb, iprodione, methamidophos and ciromazine, and these compounds did not effected the emergence in F2 generation of this parasitoid, independently of the strain.

  4. Effect of pruning and trellising of tomatoes on red spider mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Arthropod pest, Lycopersicon esculentum, Tetranychus evansi. RÉSUMÉ La petite araignée rouge, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Prichard accidentellement introduite en Afrique Australe vers 1980 est une peste relativement nouvelle pour la tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) de l'Afrique. Depuis lors l'espèce ...

  5. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...

  6. Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Volume 11, Number 6, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-14

    Report," (NASA), Houston, Sect 3, 1973, pp 177-190. 3. Lutwak , L.; Whedon, G. D.; et al. J. CLIN. ENDOCR., Vol 28, 1969, p 1140. 4. Whedon, G. D... Lutwak , L.; Ranbauf, P. C; et al. in: "Skylab Preli- minary Biomedical Report," (NASA), Houston, Sect 3, 1973, pp 169-176. 5. Ilyushko, N. A.; Il’in

  7. 78 FR 27065 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Control Techniques Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.); is certified as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial...]. Waste. Sect .0943 Synthetic Organic 11/7/2007 5/9/2013 [Insert citation of Chemical and Polymer... Miscellaneous Metal 9/1/2010 5/9/2013 [Insert citation of and Plastic Parts publication]. Coatings. Sect .0968...

  8. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  9. Electron thermal diffusivity in ISX-B from observations of sawtooth oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    Section I contains background material on tokamaks and the interest in Chi/sub e/. In Sect. II, a description if given of sawtooth phenomena, and the basic technique for this measurement of Chi/sub e/ is explained in a review of previous work on this topic. The analysis scheme used in the current effort is more advanced than earlier ones and is described in detail in Sect. III; Sect. IV presents our results and comparisons with values for Chi/sub e/ from the Oak Ridge power balance analysis. Various sensitivities of the procedure used here are discussed in Sect. V, and Sect. VI lists conclusions and possible extensions of this work

  10. JURIDICAL REGIME OF THE INTEREST IN THE ROMANIAN LAW. PARTICULAR CASE. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE REGULATIONS OF THE REMUNERATORY INTEREST VERSUS THE PENALIZING INTEREST, IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia Cristea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a case where the rate of the conventional interest is not specified made me investigate what is the maximal limit that can be obtained in this case, under the regulation in force, in the Romanian law (sect.1!To formulate a solution, I considered as necessary to analyze : the provision on the moratory damages (according to the Roman Civil Code and the putting of the debtor in default, in order to know what is the date starting from which the moratory damages are calculated (according to the Roman Civil Code-sect.2; the juridical regime of the interest (according to the Roman Bankin Law-sect.3;comparison between the remuneratory interest and the penalizing interest (according to the Roman Banking Law-sect.4;solution for the case and conclusions-sect. 5.

  11. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2004-11-01

    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  12. Approaching equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain a consistent and precise understanding of the available data and the development of a model with few parameters and considerable predictive power. In the following section the nonequilibrium statistical treatment of the relative motion is outlined. The time scales which determine the validity of the approach are mentioned, and the moment equations are discussed. A classical model to evaluate the mean energy and angular-momentum loss as well as the interaction time is described in sect. 3. The nucleon exchange occurring during nuclear contact can also be treated as a transport process. In sect. 4 we discuss calculated element distributions and compare with experimental results. An observed retardation of the charge drift requires special attention. In sect. 5 we treat the shape relaxation as a dissipative process and present a model calculation. The angular-momentum transport is reconsidered in sect. 6, with emphasis on the statistical fluctuations of the dissipated angular momentum. Calculated multidifferential cross-sections are compared with experiment in sect. 7. Finally we discuss in sect. 8 how nuclear shell structure can possibly affect the nucleon diffusion process, and draw the conclusions in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)

  13. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  14. Introduction to integrable many-body systems III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajnok, Z.; Samaj, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third part of a three-volume introductory course about integrable systems of interacting bodies. The emphasis is put onto the method of Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz. Two kinds of integrable models are studied. Systems of itinerant electrons, forming a part of Condensed Matter Physics, involve the Hubbard lattice model of electrons with short-ranged one-site interactions (Sect. 20) and the s-d exchange Kondo model (Sect. 21), describing the scattering of conduction electrons on a spin-s impurity. Methods and basic concepts used in Quantum Field Theory are explained on the integrable (1 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model. We start with the classical description of the model in Sect. 22, analyze its finite energy field configurations (soliton, anti-soliton and breathers) and show its classical integrability. The model is quantized by using two schemes: the conformal (Sect. 23) and Lagrangian (Sect. 24) quantizations. The scattering matrix of the sine-Gordon theory is derived at the full quantum level in the bootstrap scheme and is compared to its classical limit in Sect. 25. The parameters of the scattering matrix are related to those of the Lagrangian by calculating the ground-state energy in an applied magnetic field in two ways: Conformal perturbation theory and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (Sect. 26). The relation of the sine-Gordon theory to the XXZ Heisenberg model, which provides a complete solution of the sine-Gordon model in a finite volume, is pointed out in Sect. 27. The obtained results are applied in Sect. 28. to the derivation of the exact thermodynamics for the (symmetric) two-component Coulomb gas; this is the first classical two-dimensional fluid with exactly solvable thermodynamics (Authors)

  15. USAFA/8086 - A State of the Art Microprocessor System. Volume II. Software Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    8217IDENT’ IS USED TO IDENTIFY WHICH OF THE TWO LINKIAGE MAP BlUFFERS (IDENT IS LINKI , IDENT-- IS LINK2) THAT IS TO BE USED. 4/ 32 1 LINKSIN$OUT...CALL DATSIN$OT(, FMDRIVE, LINKi (I). TRK, , - LINi(I). SECT, 9); /s WRITE NEW FILE s 429, 4 CALL DfITAINOUT(iTODRELINK2I). TRIG LINK2(I). SECT, 9); 439...CALL DATR$INSOU(B, DRIVE, RTRACK, RSECTOR, PTR); 559 4 END, /* GET NEXT LINKAGE WI SECTOR *i- 568 3 LINKECTO=INK W SECT; 561 3 LINKTRACK- LINKi (1

  16. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  17. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae, a new species from North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sennikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group H. sect. Aestiva (H. sect. Prenanthoidea × H. sect. Umbellata and is most similar to H. veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements.

  18. Rules and procedures for the design and operation of hazardous research equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The manual has been prepared for use by research personnel involved in experiments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. It contains rules and procedures for the design, test, installation, and operation of hazardous research equipment. Sect. I contains such information as responsibility of experimenters for safety, descriptions of the various Laboratory safety organizations, and enumeration of various services available to experimenters at the Laboratory. Sect. II describes specific rules for the setup and operation of experimental equipment at the Laboratory. Sect. III gives detailed design criteria and procedures for equipment frequently encountered in the high energy physics laboratory

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Edraianthus (Grassy Bells; Campanulaceae) based on non-coding plastid DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Sasa; Lakusic, Dmitar; Kuzmina, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is known as an ice-age refugium and an area with high rates of speciation and diversification. Only a few genera have their centers of distribution in the Balkans and the endemic genus Edraianthus is one of its most prominent groups. As such, Edraianthus is an excellent model...... divided into three sections: E. sect. Edraianthus, E. sect. Uniflori, and E. sect. Spathulati. We present here the first phylogenetic study of Edraianthus based on multiple plastid DNA sequences (trnL-F region and rbcL-atpB spacer) derived from a wide taxonomic sampling and geographic range. While...

  20. Genetic diversity and DNA fingerprint study in tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User_Name

    tomato (S. lycopersicon) that have different origin and grown under. Egyptian environment ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sia et al., 2000) up to 10-3 in the pipefish .... (2000). Analysis of microsatellite mutations in the mitochondrial DNA.

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  2. Screening for Total Carotenoids and β-Carotene in Some Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machinery and protect them against photo-damage. (Alexander, 1999). Carotenoids are notable for their wide distribution, structural diversity, and of various ... Squash (Curcurbita moschata), Spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus), Tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum) and. Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) were purchased from.

  3. The role of ethylene and wound signaling in resistance of tomato to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, J.; Have, ten A.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative

  4. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... on Vegetative Growth, Fruit Anatomy and Seed Setting of Tomato. (Lycopersicon .... have effects on seed germination, shoot and root growth, side branch ...... development of tomato: Studies with a gibberellin- deficient mutant.

  5. Detection of novel key residues of MnSOD enzyme and its role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    avoidance mechanism and morphological changes (Flowers ... The MnSOD proteins of different species available in salinity condition with their uniprot IDs and domain information ...... relative Lycopersicon pennellii to salt-dependent oxidative.

  6. The days anthesis in relation to the floral shapes, pollen size, and S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... ontogeny of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. sweet cherry) flowers was ... ment schedule can be used to analyse self-incompatibility of wild species ..... Brukhin V, Hernould M, Gonzalez N, Chevalier C, Mouras A. (2003).

  7. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  8. 78 FR 14771 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Termination of Suspension Agreement, Termination of Five-Year Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Lycopersicon esculentum. Important commercial varieties of fresh tomatoes include common round, cherry, grape... publishing this determination under section 733(f) and 734(i) of the Act. Dated: March 1, 2013. Paul Piquado...

  9. Drifting bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers in commercial greenhouses may be social parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birmingham, A.L.; Hoover, S.E.; Winston, M.L.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial greenhouses require high densities of managed bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis Greene, 1858 and Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863) colonies to pollinate crops such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller). We examined drifting, a behavioural consequence of introducing closely aggregated

  10. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to be a member of a peace church or any other church, religious organization, or religious sect to... need not use formal or traditional language in describing the religious, moral, or ethical nature of...

  11. Stochastic theories of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Pena, L.; Cetto, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The material of this article is organized into five sections. In Sect. I the basic characteristics of quantum systems are briefly discussed, with emphasis on their stochastic properties. In Sect. II a version of stochastic quantum mechanics is presented, to conclude that the quantum formalism admits an interpretation in terms of stochastic processes. In Sect. III the elements of stochastic electrodynamics are described, and its possibilities and limitations as a fundamental theory of quantum systems are discussed. Section IV contains a recent reformulation that overcomes the limitations of the theory discussed in the foregoing section. Finally, in Sect. V the theorems of EPR, Von Neumann and Bell are discussed briefly. The material is pedagogically presented and includes an ample list of references, but the details of the derivations are generally omitted. (Author)

  12. Regional Combatant Commanders and the Center of Gravity of Radical Islamic Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridings, Sr, Charles O

    2005-01-01

    ... his theater objectives in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The author begins with a brief history of Islam and selected sects, shedding insight as to the origin of the radical Islamic terrorist ideology...

  13. Main ring transition crossing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

    1990-10-01

    We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for bar p production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. The Cabal Theory in the Nigerian Politics, 1999-2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Keywords: Nigeria, cults, cabal theory, delinquent state. ... sect, cult is not in Western society associated with mainstream Christianity. It has no precise .... of the founders of PC emerged from the impact of the Eagle, a campus.

  15. Malesian and Australian Tournefortia transferred to Heliotropium and notes on delimitation of Boraginaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craven, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Boraginaceae is expanded to comprise seven subfamilies, two of which are based on Hydrophyllaceae and Lennoaceae, respectively. The type species of Tournefortia sect. Tournefortia is transferred to Heliotropium, as are its Malesian–Australian representatives.

  16. Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    .... This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities...

  17. Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2005-01-01

    .... This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities...

  18. Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    .... This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities...

  19. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  20. 75 FR 14190 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled Robotic Rehabilitation of Aging Water... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act''), Joint [[Page 14191

  1. Lateral retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for complicated adrenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sected completely, a self-made bag was used to dress up the adrenal ... were stable, and the patients had regained consciousness ... diet and normal ambulation as regards to the requirement ..... The Malaysian Journal of Medical Scienc-.

  2. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M .; Stielow, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  3. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Vries, de M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  4. Optimize pollutant emissions through adaptive highway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In this project, we investigated the possibility to reduce green house emission : (mainly CO2) from urban highways by adaptive ramp meter control. QUADSTONE : PARAMICS software was used to build a microscopic traffic model for a 4-lane highway : sect...

  5. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic : characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder : width, roadway sect...

  6. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  7. Legal admissibility of tests with radiopharmaceuticals and with pharmaceuticals marked radioactive for research purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Presentation of the present and future legal position: 1) Tests with radiopharmaceuticals and marked medicine are absolutely necessary in the interest of the protection of the patient. 2) According to the valid radiation protection law such tests must be allowed. Restrictions can be decreed according to sect. 17 of the Atomic Energy Act. 3) According to sthe draft of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, a licence may be refused in view of opposing primarily public interests. It is doubtful whether the rules provided in sect. 40 is covered by the autorizing standard. 4) The draft of a law for a reform of medicine law offers the possibility to issue detailed regulations on the testing of medicine. 5) The prohibition in sect. 7 of the medicine law also covers medicine, which is intended for experiments. The regulation according to sect. 7, however, admits release to hospitals and scientific research facilities. (orig./HP) [de

  8. 32 CFR 1645.7 - Evaluation of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... granted to members of such groups generally. (c) Preaching and teaching the principles of one's sect, if... calling or full-time profession. The mere fact of some secular employment on the part of a registrant...

  9. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  10. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  11. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  12. A model theory for tachyons in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is divided in two parts, the first one having nothing to do with tachyons. In fact, to prepare the ground, in part one (sect. 2) it is shown that special relativity, even without tachyons, can be given a form such to describe both particles and antiparticles. The plan of part two is confined only to a model theory in two dimensions, for the reasons stated in sect. 3

  13. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  14. The Bogolyubov renormalization group in theoretical and mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    This text follows the line of a talk on Ringberg symposium dedicated to Wolfhart Zimmermann 70th birthday. The historical overview (Part I) partially overlaps with corresponding text of my previous commemorative paper - see Ref. [6] in the list. At the same time the second part includes some fresh results in QFT (Sect. 2.1.) and summarizes (Sect. 2.4) an impressive recent progress of the 'QFT renormalization group' application in mathematical physics

  15. HALVETÎ ŞÂBANÎ İNANCINDA ADETLER VE MÜZİĞE YÖNELİK İNANÇ VE TUTUMLARIN İNCELENMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    Adar, Çağhan

    2014-01-01

    This study includes disciplines of sociology, social psychology and music sciences. It is thought that the study is important since with its subject and content; it analyzes the belief and attitude of Halveti Sect which is one of the leading sects in improvement and spread of Islamic culture in Turkey towards music; determines the perspective of individuals towards music in Halvetism; since it is an original and new study in determination of the place of music in Halvetism, primarily in perfo...

  16. The Fate of Saudi Arabia: Regime Evolution in the Saudi Monarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    well executed military operations and a clever strategy soliciting tacit approval from the British. In the end, the Hijaz, Asir , Nadj, and Hasa were...intolerant of other Islamic sects, which caused conflict as the kingdom spread beyond the Najd. Hasa, the Hijaz, and Asir practiced more liberal forms...destroyed age old Muslim shrines. The Ismaili sect in Asir faced the same treatment. The ruthless tactics of the mutawwaa, aided by the ikhwan

  17. FATWA MUI TENTANG ALIRAN SESAT DI INDONESIA (1976-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimyati Sajari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ruling of Indonesian Council of Ulama on Heretical Sects in Indonesia (1976-2010. The claims of truth and deception, even condemnation of unbeliever (takfir, still continue to happen to the present time. In Indonesia, the introduction of the Council of Ulama (MUI ruling or fatwa on misleading sect may proof the widespred claim. This paper attempts to trace the historical dynamics of acclaimed ambiguous sects by the MUI. However, the author argues that based on the study of the MUI fatwa section of Islamic faith and religious school of thoughts (1976-2010 it is revealed that such claim is purely a reflection of the MUI’s role as a safeguard and keeper of the faith of Islamic community. In addition, he further maintains that the thought of the misleading sects in Indonesia is deeply rooted in the history of Islamic thought and MUI fatwa of heretical sects in Indonesia is nothing more than a representation of a firm attitude of the majority throughout Islamic history against minorities of whom have been considered being misguided and go beyond the mainstreams, but nonetheless, it seems that such a sect will remain in the land of Indonesia.

  18. Moderasi Khawarij Ibadiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Choirul Rofiq

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally many historians depict Kharijite sect with nega­tive image as a group that has an extreme religious ideas and noncon­formist political attitudes. Furthermore Kharijite sect was regarded as an extremist faction and radical terrorist who prefers violence against any goverment that has deviated from Islamic doctrine according to Kharijite perspective. Similar to many religious sects, Kharijite sect also separated into many factions. This separation is usually caused by difference views that frequently arouse a dispute and conflict among them. In addition, they occasionally consider another faction as an un­believer and infidel group. Because of this schism, the Kharijite sect became very weak so that can be destroyed easily. One of the Kharijite factions is Ibadite faction that is assessed by scholars as the closest fac­tion to Sunnite sect because the Ibadites have moderate views so that can survive and exist until now whereas almost Kharijite factions tend to have extreme views and perform violent actions to achieve their aims. The successful indoctrination and thorough strategy might cause this moderation attitude.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, W J; Guetta, E; van de Wiel, C C; Vosman, B; van den Berg, R G

    1998-11-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequences from 97 accessions representing 23 species of Lactuca and related genera were determined and used to evaluate species relationships of Lactuca sensu lato (s.l.). The ITS-1 phylogenies, calculated using PAUP and PHYLIP, correspond better to the classification of Feráková than to other classifications evaluated, although the inclusion of sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae is not supported. Therefore, exclusion of subsect. Cyanicae from Lactuca sensu Feráková is proposed. The amended genus contains the entire gene pool (sensu Harlan and De Wet) of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The position of the species in the amended classification corresponds to their position in the lettuce gene pool. In the ITS-1 phylogenies, a clade with L. sativa, L. serriola, L. dregeana, L. altaica, and L. aculeata represents the primary gene pool. L. virosa and L. saligna, branching off closest to this clade, encompass the secondary gene pool. L. virosa is possibly of hybrid origin. The primary and secondary gene pool species are classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Lactuca. The species L. quercina, L. viminea, L. sibirica, and L. tatarica, branching off next, represent the tertiary gene pool. They are classified in Lactuca sect. Lactucopsis, sect. Phaenixopus, and sect. Mulgedium, respectively. L. perennis and L. tenerrima, classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae, form clades with species from related genera and are not part of the lettuce gene pool.

  20. Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Küçükdağ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Shah Ismail, when he was sheikh of Safevi sect established by Sheikh Safiyuddin, Ismail’s grandfather, established Safevi State in Azerbaijan taking Tebriz as the center at the beginning of XVI th.century. The followers of Safevi Sect were Turcomen originated from Anatolia. They helped Shah Ismail to establish state. Shah Ismail depending on Turcomen followers attempted to annex Anotolia which was under Otoman domination in his new state’s territory. He sent his caliphs to Anatolia to propagandize his sect. They tried to convince Anatolion people about Safevi sect. Ottoman state which understand that the main purpose of Shah Ismail was not the speading of Safevi sect took military, political, economical and cultural measures. In the war between two states, Shah Ismail was defeated by Ottoman army in Caldıran (1514 The relationship of Safevi’s followers with Iran was prevented. In order to prevent economical growth of Safevi State, economical embargo was put. By helping the organization of Halvetiyye which has Safevi sect orijin but accept’ s ottoman state outhority the spread of Safevism was prevented. Turcomen in Anatolia become hopeless when Sheikh Ismail was defeated by I. Selim. Ottoman State does not extinct Safevism

  1. Introduction to integrable many-body systems II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaj, L.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a three-volume introductory course about integrable systems of interacting bodies. The models of interest are quantum spin chains with nearest-neighbor interactions between spin operators, in particular Heisenberg spin- 2 models. The Ising model in a transverse field, expressible as a quadratic fermion form by using the Jordan-Wigner transformation, is the subject of Sect. 12. The derivation of the coordinate Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg chain and the determination of its absolute ground state in various regions of the anisotropy parameter are presented in Sect. 13. The magnetic properties of the ground state are explained in Sect. 14. Sect. 15 concerns excited states and the zero-temperature thermodynamics of the XXZ model. The thermodynamics of the XXZ Heisenberg chain is derived on the basis of the string hypothesis in Sect. 16; the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations are analyzed in high-temperature and low-temperature limits. An alternative derivation of the thermodynamics without using strings, leading to a non-linear integral equation determining the free energy, is the subject of Sect. 17. A nontrivial application of the Quantum Inverse Scattering method to the fully anisotropic XYZ Heisenberg chain is described in Section 18. Section 19 deals with integrable cases of isotropic spin chains with an arbitrary spin. (Author)

  2. Caracterización de los ácidos húmicos extraídos de cuatro lombricompuestos y su efecto sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz Zea mays L., algodón Gossypium hirsutum y tomate Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Zambrano Jairo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The work perfomed to characterize the elemental composition and functional groups of humic acids extracted from four lombricompost cow dung, filter press cake of sugar cane, coffee pulp and grass residue the total content of essential elements and its distribution in the humic and no humic fractions were determined. It was evalued the effect of two concentrations of humic acids (150 and 300 ppm upon seed germination of maize, cotton and tomat. There were found differences in the elemental composition (CHON and functional groups (COOH, OH phedic and carbony of the humic acids atributed to variations in composition of the original substrates. The lombricompost of cow dung showed higher oxidation values (O/H = 0.49 than the lombricompost of filter press cake of sugar cane (0.40 sugering a higher grade of humification of the first. The grass residue showed higher contribution to the CIC (COOH + OH = 9. O me/g than the coffe pulp (7. 1 me/g the total essential elements were concentrated in the remanent residue, with lower content in the water and 0.1M HCL solutions; the fulvic and humic fractions had very low content of these elements. The humic acid at the concentrations tested did not have any effect on the germination of maize and cotton, and depressed the germination of tomato seeds.

    El trabajo se realizó con el fin de caracterizar por su composición elemental y contenido de grupos funcionales, los acidos húmicos extraídos de cuatro lombricompuestos (bovinaza, cachaza, pulpa de café y residuo de prado. Se determinó el contenido y distribución de los elementos esenciales totales en las fracciones húmicas y no de acidos húmicas. Se evaluó el efecto de dos concentraciones de acidos húmicos (150 y 300 ppm sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz, algodón y tomate. Se encontraron diferencias en el contenido elemental (CHON y grupos funcionales (COOH, OH fenólico y carbonilo atribuido a variaciones en la composición de los materiales de origen. La bovinaza (O/H = 0.49 mostró mayor oxidación que la cachaza (0.40 sugiriendo mayor grado de humificación de la primera. El residuo de prado mostró la mayor contribución a la CIC (COOH + OH = 9. O m.e/g y la pulpa de café la menor (7.1 m.e/g. Los elementos esenciales totales se distribuyeron con preferencia en el residuo remanente y en las fracciones solubles en agua y HCL 0.1M, con muy bajos contenidos en los fulvatos yacidos húmicos. No se encontró respuesta a la acción de los acidos húmicos sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz y algodón y se produjo efectos depresivos en los de tomate.

  3. Efecto de tres abonos orgánicos: lombricomposta, bocashi y tierra de corral en un cultivo intercalado de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicon) y pepino (Cucumis sativus) bajo invernadero en el ejido El Limón, Tepalcingo, Morelos, México

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Tapia, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rivero,Libia Aidé; Corlay-Chee, Langen; Cruz Rodríguez, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluó una intercalación de jitomate y pepino bajo condiciones de invernadero, con un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con nueve tratamientos de abono en cuatro repeticiones (Bocashi, lombricomposta y tierra de corral con tres niveles de dosificación 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 kg/m2).Se evaluó rendimiento y,en el caso del jitomate número de frutos dañados. Se empleó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y pruebas de comparación de medias (Tukey α=.05). En el caso del pepino, con el tratamiento lombri...

  4. Evaluación de alternativas al uso del polietileno como cubierta del suelo para el manejo de malas hierbas y otros aspectos agronómicos en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill.) en España y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Anzalone Graci, Alvaro Luciano; Zaragoza Larios, Carlos; Aibar Lete, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo ensayos durante tres años en Zaragoza (España) y Quíbor (Venezuela) con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial uso de diferentes restos vegetales, plástico biodegradable y papel como cubiertas de suelo para el control de malas hierbas como alternativa al uso de polietileno no degradable, utilizando al tomate como cultivo modelo. Las cubiertas evaluadas en Zaragoza fueron paja de arroz, paja de cebada, restos de cosecha de maíz, restos frescos Artemisia absinthium, plástico bio...

  5. Anatomia do escapo floral de espécies brasileiras de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of the inflorescence scape of Brazilian species of the Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia dos escapos de 17 espécies de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon, sendo 10 da sect. Divisi e sete da sect. Conferti. O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar anatomicamente os escapos. como contribuição para o entendimento do grupo, uma vez que. morfologicamente, esse é o caráter laxonômico mais importante. Procurou-se, também, confirmar ou não o reconhecimento das duas seções dentro do subgênero. Para os estudos anatômicos utilizou-se material proveniente do Brasil, obtido de exsicatas de diferentes herbários e/ou coletado na Serra do Cipó, MG. Neste trabalho observou-se que Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon é caracterizado morfologicamente por apresentar escapos pluricapitulados no ápice. Anatomicamente, as espécies estudadas da sect. Divisi apresentam escapos com vários cilindros vasculares, na região mediana e, ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus vellozioides e P. spixianus, feixes vasculares corticais, características únicas na família. Diferentemente, as espécies avaliadas da sect. Conferti apresentam escapos com cilindro vascular único na região mediana, padrão análogo ao das demais Eriocaulaccae, e ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus itatiaiensis, P. planifolius e P. paulensis, feixes vasculares medulares, que até então não haviam sido referidos para a família.The scape anatomy of 17 taxa of Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon were studied, being 10 taxa of sect. Divisi and seven of sect. Conferti. The study was carried out to see whether scape morphology and anatomy provide valid taxonomic characters at the subgeneric level in Paepalanthus and to lest a proposal to recognize two sections within Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon: sect. Divisi and sect. Conferti. The material for anatomical study was collected in Brazil, partly from herbarium specimens and partly from fresh material collected in the field, from the Serra do Cipó. Minas Gerais State. In this work, we observe that

  6. Comparison of proton therapy treatment planning for head tumors with a pencil beam algorithm on dual and single energy CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudobivnik, Nace; Dedes, George; Parodi, Katia; Landry, Guillaume, E-mail: g.landry@lmu.de [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 85748 (Germany); Schwarz, Florian; Johnson, Thorsten; Sommer, Wieland H. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Agolli, Linda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377, Germany and Radiation Oncology, Sant’ Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome 00189 (Italy); Tessonnier, Thomas [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 85748, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht 6229 ET, the Netherlands and Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G4 (Canada); Thieke, Christian; Belka, Claus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) has recently been proposed as an improvement over single energy CT (SECT) for stopping power ratio (SPR) estimation for proton therapy treatment planning (TP), thereby potentially reducing range uncertainties. Published literature investigated phantoms. This study aims at performing proton therapy TP on SECT and DECT head images of the same patients and at evaluating whether the reported improved DECT SPR accuracy translates into clinically relevant range shifts in clinical head treatment scenarios. Methods: Two phantoms were scanned at a last generation dual source DECT scanner at 90 and 150 kVp with Sn filtration. The first phantom (Gammex phantom) was used to calibrate the scanner in terms of SPR while the second served as evaluation (CIRS phantom). DECT images of five head trauma patients were used as surrogate cancer patient images for TP of proton therapy. Pencil beam algorithm based TP was performed on SECT and DECT images and the dose distributions corresponding to the optimized proton plans were calculated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation platform using the same patient geometry for both plans obtained from conversion of the 150 kVp images. Range shifts between the MC dose distributions from SECT and DECT plans were assessed using 2D range maps. Results: SPR root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the inserts of the Gammex phantom were 1.9%, 1.8%, and 1.2% for SECT phantom calibration (SECT{sub phantom}), SECT stoichiometric calibration (SECT{sub stoichiometric}), and DECT calibration, respectively. For the CIRS phantom, these were 3.6%, 1.6%, and 1.0%. When investigating patient anatomy, group median range differences of up to −1.4% were observed for head cases when comparing SECT{sub stoichiometric} with DECT. For this calibration the 25th and 75th percentiles varied from −2% to 0% across the five patients. The group median was found to be limited to 0.5% when using SECT{sub phantom} and the 25th and 75th percentiles

  7. Dosimetric comparison of stopping power calibration with dual-energy CT and single-energy CT in proton therapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jiahua [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Penfold, Scott N., E-mail: scott.penfold@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of proton dose calculation is dependent on the ability to correctly characterize patient tissues with medical imaging. The most common method is to correlate computed tomography (CT) numbers obtained via single-energy CT (SECT) with proton stopping power ratio (SPR). CT numbers, however, cannot discriminate between a change in mass density and change in chemical composition of patient tissues. This limitation can have consequences on SPR calibration accuracy. Dual-energy CT (DECT) is receiving increasing interest as an alternative imaging modality for proton therapy treatment planning due to its ability to discriminate between changes in patient density and chemical composition. In the current work we use a phantom of known composition to demonstrate the dosimetric advantages of proton therapy treatment planning with DECT over SECT. Methods: A phantom of known composition was scanned with a clinical SECT radiotherapy CT-simulator. The phantom was rescanned at a lower X-ray tube potential to generate a complimentary DECT image set. A set of reference materials similar in composition to the phantom was used to perform a stoichiometric calibration of SECT CT number to proton SPRs. The same set of reference materials was used to perform a DECT stoichiometric calibration based on effective atomic number. The known composition of the phantom was used to assess the accuracy of SPR calibration with SECT and DECT. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment plans were generated with the SECT and DECT image sets to assess the dosimetric effect of the imaging modality. Isodose difference maps and root mean square (RMS) error calculations were used to assess dose calculation accuracy. Results: SPR calculation accuracy was found to be superior, on average, with DECT relative to SECT. Maximum errors of 12.8% and 2.2% were found for SECT and DECT, respectively. Qualitative examination of dose difference maps clearly showed the dosimetric advantages

  8. The ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene -ITS2 sequence variability during the divergence of sweet-grass species (gen us Glyceria R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Rodionov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the sequence ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 of the nuclear genome of 13 species of genus Glyceria, 4 species of Melica and a species of monotypic genus Pleuropogon showed that the species of the genus Glyceria have 3 haplotypes: 1 Haplotype A was found only in species of the subgenus Glyceria section Glyceria (G. septentrionalis, G. fluitans, G. declinata, G. occidentalis, G. notata, G. borealis, G. leptostachya and in Pleuropogon sabinii; 2 Haplotype C is characteristic of the subgenus Hydropoa, section Hydropoa (G. grandis, G. х amurensis, G. triflora, G. maxima and sect. Lithuanicae (G. leptolepis; 3 Haplotype B is found in the species of the subgenus Hydropoa sections Striatae (G. elata, G. striata, G. neogaea, G. canadensis, Scolochloiformes (G. alnasteretum, G. spiculosa and G. lithuanica of sect. Lithuanicae. Species carring haplotype B are located at the base of the phylogenetic tree of the genus Glyceria and/or clustered with low bootstrap indices. On the phylogenetic trees inferred by the analysis of the sequences ITS and 5.8S rDNA both sect. Glyceria and sect. Hydropoa represented two sister monophyly branches. The species Pleuropogon sabinii belong to the branch of subgenus Glyceria as a sister monotypic branch to the branch of the sect. Glyceria.

  9. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Thali, Michael John; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging.

  10. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filograna, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Thali, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  11. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Chen, Yousheng; Olsen, Richard T; Lutz, Sue; Wen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple) and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple), of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa , and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  12. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  13. LAS ESPECIES COLOMBIANAS DEL GÉNERO DIGITARIA (POACEAE: PANICOIDEAE: PANICEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIRALDO-CAÑAS DIEGO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sistemático, macro y micromorfológico de las especies colombianas del género Digitaria. Se analizan diversos aspectos relativos a la clasificación, la nomenclatura, las afinidades genéricas y la variación macro y micromorfológica de los caracteres, así como algunos aspectos anatómicos de la espiguilla y el antecio superior. El género Digitaria está representado en Colombia por 18 especies distribuidas en cinco secciones: Digitaria sect. Calvulae (una especie, Digitaria sect. Digitaria (siete especies, Digitaria sect. Ischaemum (tres especies, Digitaria sect. Ternatae (cuatro especies y Digitaria sect. Trichachne (tres especies. Dos especies son endémicas de Colombia (Digitaria cardenasiana y Digitaria andicola. Las especies Digitaria argillacea, Digitaria neesiana y Digitaria fragilis se excluyen de la flora de Colombia. Se presentan las claves para reconocer las secciones y las especies presentes en Colombia, así como también las descripciones de éstas, la iconografía, los usos, los nombres vulgares, la distribución geográfica y se comentan algunas observaciones morfológicas y ecológicas. Se documenta la presencia de espiguillas trifloras en el género Digitaria, situación observada en las especies Digitaria dioica y Digitaria nuda.

  14. The authority extensions of the regulation authority on the energy sector, planned by the commission, according to the outlines for the change of the guidelines 2003/54/EG and 2003/55/EG and their compatibility with art. 3 sect. 1 lit. g) EEC contract; Die von der Kommission geplanten Kompetenzerweiterungen der Regulierungsbehoerde auf dem Energiesektor nach den Entwuerfen zur Aenderung der Richtlinien 2003/54/EG und 2003/55/EG und deren Vereinbarkeit mit Art. 3 Abs. 1 lit. g) EG-Vertrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, U. [LL.M., London (United Kingdom)]|[OLG Duesseldorf (Germany)]|[Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    The guideline 2003/54/EG according to the common regulations for the internal electricity market and the guideline 2003/55/EG according to common regulations for the internal natural gas market contain the fundament for the control of market results for the gas market and electricity market. Thus, on the power market the protection of market structure and market behaviour shall be complemented by the office of fair trading in areas, in which competition predominates. This is to take place via control of market results to avoid disadvantages for the consumer. Such an approach fits into the current paradigm shift of the commission, is however competition-theoretically very precarious. It cannot be agreed with the market regulations-legal approach, which classically is taken as a basis for the rules of competition of the EEC contract. It will offend against the principle of the pure competition.

  15. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.; Bradley, R.A.; Weir, J.R. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of activities and accomplishsments of the division from October 1992 through December 1993; the division is organized to provide technical support, mainly in the area of high-temperature materials, for technologies being developed by DOE. Activities span the range from basic research to industrial interactions (cooperative research and technology transfer). Sections 1-5 describe the different functional groups (engineering materials, high-temperature materials, materials science, ceramics, nuclear fuel materials). Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines. Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative R and D programs and technology transfer functions. Finally, Sect. 8 briefly describes the division`s involvement in educational activities. Several organizational changes were effected during this period.

  16. New Microsatellite Markers for Tricyrtis macrantha (Convallariaceae and Cross-Amplification in Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ohki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in Tricyrtis macrantha (sect. Brachycyrtis, Convallariaceae, a vulnerable species endemic to Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven, and genetic diversity per locus ranged from 0.142 to 0.812. Four markers were successfully amplified in other species of sect. Brachycyrtis (T. ishiiana, T. ishiiana var. surugensis, and T. macranthopsis. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the vulnerable and endangered species of Tricyrtis sect. Brachycyrtis, to aid in the development of conservation strategies for each species.

  17. The concession contractual quantity limit agreements in the light of energy law and cartel law; Konzessionsvertragliche Mengengrenzvereinbarungen im Lichte von Energierecht und Kartellrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoech, Thomas; Kalwa, Feh [Kanzlei Hoech und Partner, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In the year 2009, the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reached to two decisions on the cartel legal validity of quantity limit agreements in franchise agreements and on their handling with the survey and calculation of concession deliveries. In both cases, the Federal Cartel Office proceeds from an offence against paragraph 19 sect. 1 GWB (law against the restriction of competition) and paragraph 19 sect. 2 GWB. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on different legal questions. The question arises whether paragraph 19 GWB is applicable to the decided facts at all, or whether the exclusion regulation paragraph 111 sect. 1 of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) intervenes. The authors describe the right of concession delivery and the two resolutions of the Federal Cartel Office. Afterwards, these resolutions are appreciated regarding to the raised legal questions.

  18. Taxonomic changes in Oenothera sections Gaura and Calylophus (Onagraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-recognized genus Gaura was shown recently to be deeply nested within one of two major clades of Oenothera. New molecular data indicate further taxonomic changes are necessary in Oenothera sect. Gaura. We make these changes here, including three new combinations, in advance of the Onagraceae treatment for the Flora of North America. The new phylogenetic studies show that several pairs of taxa treated as subspecies in the most recent revision by Raven and Gregory (1972 had independent origins within sect. Gaura, and are here elevated to species level (Oenothera nealleyi for Gaura suffulta subsp. nealleyi; Oenothera dodgeniana for Gaura neomexicana subsp. neomexicana; and Oenothera podocarpa for Gaura hexandra subsp. gracilis. Also, a nomenclatural problem in Oenothera sect. Calylophus is corrected by adopting the name Oenothera capillifolia Scheele for the species known previously, and nomenclaturally correct, as Calylophus berlandieri Spach. This problem necessitates a new combination Oenothera capillifolia subsp. berlandieri.

  19. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    in measuring bone density (BMD) in complex anatomic structures which might be overcome using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT).PurposeTo test inter- and intra-observer agreement and reliability of in-house segmentation software measuring BMD adjacent to acetabular cup and to compare measurements performed...... with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...

  20. Microsatellites for Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia (Onagraceae), and their utility in section Calylophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Emily M; Fant, Jeremie B; Moore, Michael J; Hastings, Amy P; Larson, Erica L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Skogen, Krissa A

    2016-02-01

    Eleven nuclear and four plastid microsatellite markers were screened for two gypsum endemic species, Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia, and tested for cross-amplification in the remaining 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus (Onagraceae). Microsatellite markers were tested in two to three populations spanning the ranges of both O. gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia. The nuclear microsatellite loci consisted of both di- and trinucleotide repeats with one to 17 alleles per population. Several loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which may be evidence of chromosomal rings. The plastid microsatellite markers identified one to seven haplotypes per population. The transferability of these markers was confirmed in all 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus. The microsatellite loci characterized here are the first developed and tested in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. These markers will be used to assess whether pollinator foraging distance influences population genetic parameters in predictable ways.

  1. Taxonomic changes in Oenothera sections Gaura and Calylophus (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Warren L; Krakos, Kyra N; Hoch, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The long-recognized genus Gaura was shown recently to be deeply nested within one of two major clades of Oenothera. New molecular data indicate further taxonomic changes are necessary in Oenothera sect. Gaura. We make these changes here, including three new combinations, in advance of the Onagraceae treatment for the Flora of North America. The new phylogenetic studies show that several pairs of taxa treated as subspecies in the most recent revision by Raven and Gregory (1972) had independent origins within sect. Gaura, and are here elevated to species level (Oenothera nealleyi for Gaura suffulta subsp. nealleyi; Oenothera dodgeniana for Gaura neomexicana subsp. neomexicana; and Oenothera podocarpa for Gaura hexandra subsp. gracilis). Also, a nomenclatural problem in Oenothera sect. Calylophus is corrected by adopting the name Oenothera capillifolia Scheele for the species known previously, and nomenclaturally correct, as Calylophus berlandieri Spach. This problem necessitates a new combination Oenothera capillifolia subsp. berlandieri.

  2. Microsatellites for Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia (Onagraceae), and their utility in section Calylophus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Emily M.; Fant, Jeremie B.; Moore, Michael J.; Hastings, Amy P.; Larson, Erica L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Skogen, Krissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Eleven nuclear and four plastid microsatellite markers were screened for two gypsum endemic species, Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia, and tested for cross-amplification in the remaining 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus (Onagraceae). Methods and Results: Microsatellite markers were tested in two to three populations spanning the ranges of both O. gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia. The nuclear microsatellite loci consisted of both di- and trinucleotide repeats with one to 17 alleles per population. Several loci showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, which may be evidence of chromosomal rings. The plastid microsatellite markers identified one to seven haplotypes per population. The transferability of these markers was confirmed in all 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci characterized here are the first developed and tested in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. These markers will be used to assess whether pollinator foraging distance influences population genetic parameters in predictable ways. PMID:26949578

  3. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  4. Limit load solution for electron beam welded joints with single edge weld center crack in tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Shi, Yaowu; Li, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yongping

    2012-05-01

    Limit loads are widely studied and several limit load solutions are proposed to some typical geometry of weldments. However, there are no limit load solutions exist for the single edge crack weldments in tension (SEC(T)), which is also a typical geometry in fracture analysis. The mis-matching limit load for thick plate with SEC(T) are investigated and the special limit load solutions are proposed based on the available mis-matching limit load solutions and systematic finite element analyses. The real weld configurations are simplified as a strip, and different weld strength mis-matching ratio M, crack depth/width ratio a/ W and weld width 2H are in consideration. As a result, it is found that there exists excellent agreement between the limit load solutions and the FE results for almost all the mis-matching ration M, a/ W and ligament-to-weld width ratio ( W-a)/ H. Moreover, useful recommendations are given for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structure with SEC(T). For the EBW joints with SEC(T), the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal, when M changing from 1.6 to 0.6. When M decreasing to 0.4, the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal only for large value of ( W-a)/ H. The recommendations may be useful for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structures with SEC(T). The engineering simplifications are given for assessing the limit loads of electron beam welded structure with SEC(T).

  5. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) placed by Sytin & Podlech in a section of its own (A. sect. Baldaccia) was described from a single specimen in the Barbey-Boissier Herbarium at Geneva. Our observations show that its placement in A. sect. Hololeuce would also be appropriate. The species was first co...... by Markgraf. Information on habitat, ecology and threat status are also detailed for the first time. Mt Tomor is designated as a protected National Park; however, some of the Astragalus populations may be affected by future road construction....

  6. Application of Polynomial Neural Networks to Classification of Acoustic Warfare Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    PNNTrain - PNN Trainer (command line version) [sect. 2.4.2] LookClass - Examines ". sel4 " exemplar files [sect. 2.4.3] ChangeClass - Edits ". sel4 " exemplar...accumulated in the local trining file). Use the file selection window to go to the directoriesI where the raw exemplar data (*. sel4 files) are stored...the exemplar files to the training database. UNIX wildcard characters may be used for convenience. For example, you may type "PNNTrain p*. sel4 " to

  7. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.

    2017-01-01

    -tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies......Cl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect...

  8. Word protocol of the public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus, June 21-29, 1983. Pt. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    According to the procedural regulations under atomic law (Sect. 9, Atomic Energy Act; Sect. 3, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Federal Construction Act), a public hearing concerning the projected interim storage facility at Ahaus was not mandatory. It was held, however, for political reasons in order to assure public acceptance of the project. The word protocol of the controversial discussions is presented in three volumes. The discussions covered the whole spectrum of the 15-year-old nuclear controversy in West Germany including the effects of low radiation doses and nuclear waste management. (HP) [de

  9. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Limestone Hills in southwestern Sarawak, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most species of Begonia in Borneo, like those of other areas, are narrowly distributed and site-specific. In this study we report three new species of Begonia, namely B. felis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng, B. kuchingensis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng (sect. Petermannia and B. serianensis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng (sect. Reichenheimia from the Padawan-Serian limestone hills in southwestern Sarawak. In addition to the taxonomic account, color plates, line drawings, a distribution map, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided to aid in identification.

  11. A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae from west coast of Baikal Lake (Irkutsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Stepantsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Astragalus rytyensis Stepantsova (Fabaceae, growing on the west coast of the lake Baikal, is described. Morphological differences from related taxa – A. versicolor Pall., A. austrosibiricus Schischk., and A. inopinatus Boriss., are discussed and uncertain position of the new species in the system of the genus is emphasized which is intermediate between subg. Phaca (L. Bunge sect. Hemiphaca Bunge and subg. Cercidothrix Bunge sect. Onobrychium Bunge. Ecological and phonological features of A. rytyensis are reported and chromosome numbers of the new (2n = 6x = 48 and related species are counted.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Monascus and new species from honey, pollen and nests of stingless bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, R. N.; Leong, Su-lin L.; Vinnere-Pettersson, O.

    2017-01-01

    on this polyphasic approach, the genus Monascus is resolved in nine species, including three new species associated with stingless bees (M. flavipigmentosus sp. nov., M. mellicola sp. nov., M. recifensis sp. nov., M. argentinensis, M. floridanus, M. lunisporas, M. pallens, M. purpureus, M. ruber), and split in two...... new sections (section Floridani sect. nov., section Rubri sect. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the xerophile Monascus eremophilus does not belong in Monascus and monophyly in Monascus is restored with the transfer of M. eremophilus to Penicillium (P. eremophilum comb. nov.). A list...

  13. Advanced Stellar Compass - Proposal for the SMART-1 Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    and autonomous Stellar Reference Unit designed, developed and produced by the Space Instrumentation Group of the Department of Automation of the Technical University of Denmark.The document is structured as follows. First we present the ASC - heritage, system description, performance - then we address more...... like manufacturing, transportation and storage, in section 10 the requirements imposed by the ASC on the system are given and to conclude we address the financial issues (sect. 11) and we review the ASC specifications against the SMART-1 requirements and provide the compliance matrices (sect. 12)....

  14. モンゴル時代の「道仏論争」の実像:クビライの中国支配への道

    OpenAIRE

    中村淳

    1994-01-01

    The disputes between one sect of Taoism Quan-zhen-jiao (全真教) and the Zen sect (禅宗) of Buddhism arose three times in the reign of the Emperor Möngke. According to the Zhi-yuan-bian-wei-lu (至元辯偽録) compiled by a Buddhist monk which have been regarded as the only relevant literature, it is reported that these disputes ended in a victory for Buddhism. As the result of examining relevant parts of a report of mission composed by William of Rubruck and a Tibetan chronicle Hu-lan-deb-ther, we have fou...

  15. Frankfurt Local Court: Decision of April 24, 1980 - legally binding - on the boycotting of electricity rate payment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With regard to payments due for electric energy supplied, electricity rate boycotters cannot derive the right fo refusal to pay from Art. 4 (1) of the Basic Law or from Sect. 242 of the German Civil code. Just a littel have electricity rate boycotters the right to withhold payments according to Sect. 273 of the German Civil Code. If electricity rate boycotters consistently withhold parts of the payments which are due, this refusal to pay rates will empower the electricity supply utility to cancel corresponding supply contracts without notice. This is also applicable if, in the individual case, it is a matter of small amounts. (orig.) [de

  16. Overexpression of homologous phytochrome genes in tomato: exploring the limits in photoperception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husaineid, S.H.; Kok, R.A.; Schreuder, M.E.L.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (=Solanum lycopersicum)] lines overexpressing tomato PHYA, PHYB1, or PHYB2, under control of the constitutive double-35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) have been generated to test the level of saturation in individual phytochrome-signalling

  17. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  18. Electrophoretic characterization of crude leaf proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ground in an eppendorf tube with 100 µl of lysis buffer. The mixtures were allowed to settle inside the eppendorf immersed in an ice bath for 1 h, and the supernatants were fractionated by. 7.5% SDS-PAGE (Laemmili, 1970). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Protein distribution patterns in three cultivars of. Lycopersicon and ...

  19. Assessing the nutritional potential of sodium in combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of sodium (Na) in combination with potassium (K) in the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) was studied in soil culture. Sodium was applied at 0, 5, 10, 20 mg / kg soil as NaCl and K at 0, 20, 40, 80 mg / kg soil as KCl. Records of components of growth and mineral nutrient uptake and ...

  20. Tomato consumption protected against gamma radiation–induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopically, radiation induced histological alterations in the cerebellum, dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 3. Co-treatment of radiation with TPP reduced the effect of radiation on the histological, haematological and, neurobehavioural alterations. In conclusion, Lycopersicon esculentum as tomato pomace powder ...

  1. Ethylene perception is required for the expression of tomato ripening-related genes and associated physiological changes even at advanced stages of ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Prisca) with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene action, delayed colour development, softening, and ethylene production in tomato fruit harvested at the mature green breaker, and orange stages. 1-MCP treatment also

  2. Dynamic modeling of the INAPRO aquaponic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimanzira, Divas; Keesman, Karel J.; Kloas, Werner; Baganz, Daniela; Rauschenbach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of modeling techniques to analyze aquaponics systems is demonstrated with an example of dynamic modeling for the production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon) using the innovative double recirculating aquaponic system ASTAF-PRO. For the management

  3. Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... behaviour) of 2 min-blanched samples (both treated and control) were the maximum among other corresponding puree samples. Thus, 2 min blanching time may be preferred for the preparation of this new type of turmeric-lime treated tomato puree product. Key words: Turmeric-lime, Lycopersicon ...

  4. Monitoring the occurrence of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper in the Czech Republic and development of new PCR primers for detection of Xanthomonas vesicatoria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, P.; Mráz, Ivan; Kokošková, B.; Bohatá, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2015), s. 617-621 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71229 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oligonucleotides * atpD * Xanthomonas euvesicatoria * Lycopersicon esculentum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2015

  5. Effect of packaging and chemical treatment on storage life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are inherently more liable to deterioration under tropical conditions characterized by high ambient temperatures and humidity. In determining the effects of chemical treatment on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Roma), fruits purchased at turning stage of ripening were packaged in low ...

  6. Review of optimum temperature, humidity, and vapour pressure deficit for microclimate evaluation and control in greenhouse cultivation of tomato: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse technology is a flexible solution for sustainable year-round cultivation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), particularly in regions with adverse climate conditions or limited land and resources. Accurate knowledge about plant requirements at different growth stages, and under vario...

  7. Assessment of changes in optical properties of fresh-cut tomato using video image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Theije, A.; Hogenkamp, M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Belissimo) at different stages of maturity were sliced in 7-mm thick transverse slices and stored at 5 °C. In a second experiment, slices obtained from fruit at the light-red stage were stored at temperatures from 5 to 13 °C. Intact control fruit were stored

  8. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  9. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  10. PHOTOSYNTHATE PARTITIONING IN TOMATO LEAVES AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKOOIJ, TAW; BRUGGEMANN, W; VANHASSELT, PR

    1992-01-01

    Temperature dependence of photosynthate partitioning in intact leaf tissue of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Abunda) was studied by using a temperature gradient cuvette system. At the low photon flux density (PFD, 85 mumol m-2 s-1) and saturated CO2 concentration, the total saccharides

  11. The effects of calcium on the expression of genes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium regulation of the genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene receptors in flower abscission zones (AZ) of wild-type tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated in this study. Calcium treatment delayed abscission of pedicel explants. However, verapamil (VP, calcium inhibitor) treatments ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Vol 14, No 2 (2011) - Articles Efficacy of Garlic and Other Plant Extracts In the Control of Septorial Leaf Spot of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Abstract · Vol 14, No 2 (2011) - Articles Field Evaluation of Various Plant Biocides in the Control of Black Sigatoka Disease in Plantians Abstract. ISSN: 1595-9716.

  13. Incorporation of turmeric-lime mixture during the preparation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New types of tomato puree products were developed by blanching matured tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 1 min, 2 min and 3 min individually with or without addition of the mixture of turmeric and lime during the blanching time. Soluble solid content and pH of the puree products were in therange of 11 - 12.6 Brix ...

  14. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  15. Induction of a leaf specific geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase and emission of (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene in tomato are dependent on both jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, K.; Schie, C.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) have been cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. LeGGPS1 was predominantly expressed in leaf tissue and LeGGPS2 in ripening fruit and flower tissue. LeGGPS1 expression was induced

  16. Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, K.; Kant, M.R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports,

  17. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  18. Genetic analysis of Phytophthora nicotianae populations from different hosts using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two hundred thirty-one isolates of P. nicotianae representing 14 populations from different host genera, including agricultural crops (Citrus, Nicotiana, and Lycopersicon), potted ornamental species in nurseries (Lavandula, Convolvulus, Myrtus, Correa and Ruta) and other plant genera of lesser econo...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 9851 - 9900 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 39 (2011), Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist activities, Abstract PDF. F Ali, I Ali, HU Khan, AU Khan, AH Gilani. Vol 9, No 22 (2010), Studies on Meloidogyne javanica infestation on roma tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) ...

  20. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    composition bias between sequences. Plant name. Musa acuminate. Diospyros kaki. 0.463. Malus domestica. 0.333. Momordica charantia. 0.383. Medicago truncatula. 0.263. Glycine max. 0.223. Populas canadensis. 0.450. Pyrus communis. 0.223. Cucumis melo. 0.497. Lycopersicon esculentum. 0.327. Persea americana.

  1. Inhibition of fungal colonization on the rhizoplane of the CS2 - producing plant, Mimosa pudica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Feng; P.G. Hartel; R.W. Roncadori; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1998-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless, volatile, foul-smelling, fungicidal liquid that is produced by some plants. The authors determined the ability of a model CS2-producing plant, Mimosa pudica, to affect the rhizoplane colonization of six species of soil fungi. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  2. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  3. Effects of magnetically treated water on germination and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopersicon Esculentum: variety UC82B) plant. The water was allowed to pass through magnetic treatment pipe for duration of 113 s. The mean magnetic flux density used was 719 gauss (G) measured inside the pipe. The treatments (T1 to T5) were ...

  4. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and

  5. Involvement of ethylene and lipid signalling in cadmium-induced programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakimova, E.T.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Laarhoven, L.J.J.; Harren, F.J.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-induced cell death was studied in suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells (line MsK8) treated with CdSO4. Within 24 h, cadmium treatment induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cultures showed recovery after 23 days which indicates the existence

  6. Involvement of ethylene and lipid signalling in cadmium-induced programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Laarhoven, L.J.; Harren, F.; Woltering, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-induced cell death was studied in suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cells (line MsK8) treated with CdSO4. Within 24 h, cadmium treatment induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cultures showed recovery after 2¿3 days which indicates the existence

  7. Signal transduction events in aluminum-induced cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, some of the signal transduction events involved in AlCl3-induced cell death in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells were elucidated. Cells treated with 100 ¿M AlCl3 showed typical features of programmed cell death (PCD) such as nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation.

  8. Purification, product characterization and kinetic properties of soluble tomato lipoxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Suurmeijer, C.N.S.P.; Pérez-Gilabert, M.; Hijden, H.T.W.M. van der; Veldink, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Soluble lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12) from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, var. Trust) was purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS-PAGE, and the products and kinetics of the enzyme were studied in order to clarify the contradictory results that were obtained with a less purified

  9. Deficit irrigation based on drought tolerance and root signalling in potatoes and tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Richardt; Battilano, Adriano; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is a big consumer of fresh water in competition with other sectors of the society. Within the EU-project SAFIR new water-saving irrigation strategies were developed based on pot, semi-field and field experiments with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon escule...

  10. Inhibition of chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in tomato fruits leads to decreased fruit size, but only small changes in carbohydrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obiadalla-Ali, H.; Fernie, A.R.; Lytovchenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    A potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) cDNA coding for the chloroplastic isoform of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cp-FBPase) was utilized to repress its activity in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using antisense techniques. The patatin B33 promoter was used to ensure fruit specificity of the a...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08441-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 64 5e-09 AF049900_1( AF049900 |pid:none) Lycopersicon esculentum gibberelli... 64 5e-09 AY622311_1( AY622311 |pid:none) Rhodotoru...la glutinis thymine dioxy... 64 5e-09 AB010953_1( AB0109

  12. Prospects for introgressing tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: An assessment through GISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garriga Calderé, F.; Huigen, D.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Ramanna, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    With a view to assess the possibility of homoeologous pairing and crossing-over between the chromosomes of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), a somatic fusion hybrid and two monosomic alien tomato addition genotypes were investigated through genomic in situ

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of Cf-9, a Receptor-Like Protein with Extracytoplasmic Leucine-Rich Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Wulff, B.B.H.; Rivas, S.; Durrant, M.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Jones, J.D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium) resistance protein Cf-9 belongs to a large class of plant proteins with extracytoplasmic Leu-rich repeats (eLRRs). eLRR proteins play key roles in plant defense and development, mainly as receptor-like proteins or receptor-like kinases, conferring

  14. Efficacité des champignons mycorhiziens contre les nématodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 mai 2015 ... Mots clés : Glomus sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, lutte biologique, Meloidogyne spp. Effectiveness of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the parasitic nematodes of tomato in Togo. ABSTRACT. Objectives : To find alternatives to the synthetic pesticides used against nematodes the present work aimed at.

  15. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2013-01-01

    sativum), Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), Bitter melon (Momordica charantea), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculeatum), Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) is more beneficial than our other treatments. The average benefit ratio of this treatment is 9.75 followed by 6.52 (TA), 5.45 (TB) and 5.17 (TC). Moreover, the findings...

  16. Improving the CROPGRO-Tomato model for predicting growth and yield to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boote, K.J.; Rybak, M.R.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Jones, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Parameterizing crop models for more accurate response to climate factors such as temperature is important considering potential temperature increases associated with climate change, particularly for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), which is a heat-sensitive crop. The objective of this work

  17. 2430-IJBCS-Article-Kouakou Theodore Kouadio+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Euphorbiaceae. 1. 2. Deeringiana pruerens. Fabaceae. 1. 1. Dioscorea alata. Dioscoreaceae. 6. 56. Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata. Dioscoreaceae. 5. 11. Glycine max. Fabaceae. 2. 16. Ipomea batatas. Convolvulaceae. 1. 10. Justicia tenela. Acanthaceae. 1. 1. Lactuca sativa. Asteraceae. 2. 11. Lycopersicon esculentum.

  18. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic drinks companies' ...

  19. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Ilyas, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been

  20. Effects of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici toxins on pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.; Franken, J.; Witsenboer, H.M.A.; Hille, J.; Dons, J.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the phytotoxic compounds (AAL-toxins) isolated from cell-free culture filtrates of Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici on in vitro pollen development were studied. AAL-toxins inhibited both germination and tube growth of pollen from several Lycopersicon genotypes. Pollen from

  1. Responses of three tomato cultivars to sea water salinity 1. Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sea water salinity (1500, 2500 and 3500 ppm) on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars (Trust, Grace and Plitz) was studied. The sea water salinity delayed seed germination and reduced germination percentage especially with increasing salinity level. Chlorophyll b content was higher than ...

  2. AFLPs reveal genomic regions not detected by RFLPs: a case study in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, G.; Berg, van den P.; Lindhout, P.

    2002-01-01

    A set of three tomato chromosome 7 introgression lines (ILs) containing overlapping segments of Lycopersicon pennellii DNA was screened with a set of 10 EcoRI–MseI and 10 PstI–MseI AFLP primer combinations. A large number of markers were identified that mapped to one of the four regions of

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uzosike, KC. Vol 14, No 2 (2011) - Articles Efficacy of Garlic and Other Plant Extracts In the Control of Septorial Leaf Spot of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Abstract. ISSN: 1595-9716. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  4. A critical role for ethylene in hydrogen peroxide release during programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.J.; Yakimova, E.T.; Kapchina, V.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Camptothecin, a topo isomerase-I inhibitor used in cancer therapy, induces apoptosis in animal cells. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells, camptothecin induces cell death that is accompanied by the characteristic nuclear morphological changes such as chromatin condensation and

  5. Altered Middle Lamella Homogalacturonan and Disrupted Deposition of (1¿5)-a -L-Arabinan in the Pericarp of Cnr, a Ripening Mutant of Tomato1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Seymour, G.B; Willats, William George Tycho

    2001-01-01

    Cnr (colorless non-ripening) is a pleiotropic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit ripening mutant with altered tissue properties including weaker cell-to-cell contacts in the pericarp (A.J. Thompson, M. Tor, C.S. Barry, J. Vrebalov, C. Orfila, M.C. Jarvis, J.J. Giovannoni, D. Grierson, G...

  6. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  7. THE USE OF SCRIPTURE IN THE LETTER OF JUDE Felix Opoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felogyy

    grouped into two: a) a passage or the books of the Bible and b) writings regarded as ... assertion is true not only in reference to the ancient religious sects but also within our present ...... VI (London: Harvard University, 1966), 594–595. 45.

  8. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  9. BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA: A PUBLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. EMEKA IKEZUE

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Mgbakoigba, Journal of African Studies. ... In the case of Boko Haram insurgency, members of the sect are willing to .... considerations, absence of central authority, poverty, ignorance, state sponsored terrorism and .... Critics however, attacked Merton‟s work for neglecting the power relationships in society.

  10. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met...

  11. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr ghorban Elmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century; the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society; and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership. Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared; and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  12. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorban Elmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership.   Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules.   In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  13. An interesting new Bulbophyllum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1935-01-01

    Bulbophyllum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) Jacobsonii J. J. S. n. sp. — Rhizoma repens, teres. Pseudobulbi remoti, oblique ovoidei, manifesto quadranguli cum lateribus concavis, 1.8 cm longi, 0.75 et 0.95 cm diam., 1-folii. Folium lanceolatum, apice recurvulum, basi brevissime

  14. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  15. Boko Haram : Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérouse, de Montclos M.-A.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to understand Boko Haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the Nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the on-going

  16. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    Cervical myelopathy from traditional bonesetters' treatment of spinal injury. O.E. Idowu1,2, O.C. ... patient management by this sect of health providers are still a burden in our society. ... rotation of the cervical spine takes place at this joint2.

  17. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  18. Strategic Forum Number 208: Turbulent Transition in Iraq: Can It Succeed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    ministers including a prime minister, and a judiciary. There is separation of powers —legislative, executive, and judicial. The assembly will elect the... separation of powers based on geographic and historical realities and not race, ethnicity, nationality, or religious sect (confession). Formulation of

  19. Turbulent Transition in Iraq: Can It Succeed? (Strategic Forum, Number 208, June 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    council, a council of ministers including a prime minister, and a judiciary. There is separation of powers —legislative, executive, and judicial. The...defined as a system of separation of powers based on geographic and historical realities and not race, ethnicity, nationality, or religious sect

  20. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…