Development of the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2R based on the JENDL-3.2
Chiba, G
2002-01-01
It is reported that the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2 based on the newest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL3.2 has a serious error in the process of applying the weighting function. As the error affects greatly nuclear characteristics, and a corrected version of the reactor constant set, JFS-3-J3.2R, was developed, as well as lumped FP cross sections. The use of JFS-3-J3.2R improves the results of analyses especially on sample Doppler reactivity and reaction rate in the blanket region in comparison with those obtained using the JFS-3-J3.2.
Development of the adjusted nuclear cross-section library based on JENDL-3.2 for large FBR
Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto; Numata, Kazuyuki
1999-04-01
JNC (and PNC) had developed the adjusted nuclear cross-section library in which the results of the JUPITER experiments were reflected. Using this adjusted library, the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of FBR cores had been achieved. As a recent research, JNC develops a database of other integral data in addition to the JUPITER experiments, aiming at further improvement for accuracy and reliability. In 1991, the adjusted library based on JENDL-2, JFS-3-J2 (ADJ91R), was developed, and it has been used on the design research for FBR. As an evaluated nuclear library, however, JENDL-3.2 is recently used. Therefore, the authors developed an adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 which is called JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). It is known that the adjusted library based on JENDL-2 overestimated the sodium void reactivity worth by 10-20%. It is expected that the adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 solve the problem. The adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) was produced with the same method as the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) and used more integral parameters of JUPITER experiments than the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). This report also describes the design accuracy estimation on a 600 MWe class FBR with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). Its main nuclear design parameters (multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity loss, breeding ratio, etc.) except the sodium void reactivity worth which are calculated with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) are almost the same as those predicted with JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). As for the sodium void reactivity, the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) estimates about 4% smaller than the JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) because of the change of the basic nuclear library from JENDL-2 to JENDL-3.2. (author)
Cross sections of the lumped fission products for the AMZ library
Ono, S.; Corcueca, R.P.; Nascimento, J.A.
1985-01-01
The preparation of the lumped fission product cross section for the AMZ library is described. For this purpose 100 nuclides were selected. The cross sections for each nuclide were generated by the NJOY code with evaluated nuclear data from ENDF/B-V, complemented with ENDF/B-IV data. A comparison is performed between the data obtained and the lumped fission product cross section of JFS-II [pt
Revision of fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J2
Takano, Hideki; Kaneko, Kunio.
1989-10-01
To improve the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J2 to be applicable for high burnup reactor calculations, group constants for 155 fission product nuclides and the lumped group cross sections for four mother fission isotopes of U-235, U-238, Pu-239 and Pu-241 have been generated. Furthermore, the group constants for higher actinides such as Am and Cm have been produced on the basis of the JENDL-2 nuclear data, so as to be able to use for TRU-transmutation calculations. Benchmark test of this revised set has been performed by analysing the 21 fast critical experimental assemblies. Benchmark calculation system based on one-dimensional Sn-method has been developed to investigate the accuracy of one-dimensional diffusion calculations. Significant difference between the results obtained with the diffusion and transport calculations was observed for small cores and the assemblies with iron or nickel reflector. (author)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...
Evaluated cross section libraries
Maqurno, B.A.
1976-01-01
The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report
Del Duca, V.
1992-11-01
Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons
Chiba, Gou
2001-12-01
The fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2 based on the newest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 has been widely used in the fast reactor analysis. However, it was recently found that there was a serious error in the process of applying the weighting function, a collision density spectrum in the inner core of ''MONJU'' as a representative of fast reactor spectrum. In this report, an effect of the error on nuclear characteristics was evaluated by a comparison with a new reactor group constant set which was produced by a standard reactor group constant set producing system of JNC with a correction of the weighting function. This report shows that the error of weighting function induces incorrect evaluation of neutron energy spectrum due to underestimation of scattering removal cross sections, and hence nuclear characteristics, such as criticality, sample Doppler reactivity, sodium void reactivity and reaction rate in a blanket region, are significantly affected. In addition, this report provides detailed information evaluated by separating ''an effect of new generation reactor group constant'' into more specific effects (i.e. an effect of correcting weighting function, an effect of differences in used cell codes and an effect of ultra fine group constant), which would be useful to investigate further on ''an effect of new generation reactor group constant''. (author)
Kaneko, Kunio
2000-03-01
The SLAROM code, performing fast reactor cell calculation based on a deterministic methodology, has been revised by adding the universal module PEACO of generating Ultra-fine group neutron spectra. The revised SLAROM, then, was utilized for evaluating reaction rate distributions in ZPPR-13A simulated by a 2-dim RZ homogeneous model, although actually ZPPR-13A composed of radially heterogeneous cells. The reaction rate distributions of ZPPR-13A were also calculated by the code MVP, that is a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation code based on a probabilistic methodology. By comparing both results, it was concluded that the module PEACO has excellent capability for evaluating highly accurate effective cross sections. Also it was proved that the use of a new fine group cross section library set (next generation set), reflecting behavior of cross sections of structural materials, such as Fe and 0, in the fast neutron energy region, is indispensable for attaining a better agreement within 1% between both calculation methods. Also, for production of a next generation set of group cross sections, the code NJOY97.V107 was added to the group cross section production system and both front and end processing parts were prepared. This system was utilized to produce the new 70 group JFS-3 library using the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2. Furthermore, to confirm the capability of this new group cross section production system, the above new JFS-3 library was applied to core performance analysis of ZPPR-9 core with a 2-dim RZ homogeneous model and analysis of heterogeneous cells of ZPPR-9 core by using the deterministic method. Also the analysis using the code MVP was performed. By comparison of both results the following conclusion has been derived; the deterministic method, with the PEACO module for resonance cross sections, contributes to improve accuracy of predicting reaction rate distributions and Na void reactivity in fast reactor cores. And it becomes clear
Floodplain Cross Section Lines
Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...
Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections
Turner, R.E.
1983-01-01
With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation
The JFS libraries and the effect of beryllium on the breeding
Ishiguro, Y.; Gouveia, A.S. de.
1981-02-01
The Japanese group constants libraries for fast reactor analysis JFS-25 and JFS-70 are compared. The effect of beryllium on the breeding characteristics of thorium cycle breeders is examined. The results show that the 25-group set predicts shorter reactor doubling times than the 70-group set and that the effect of Be(n,2n) reactions is negligible. (Author) [pt
Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael
2004-01-01
This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a
Carlson, A.D.
1984-01-01
The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)
Cross sections for atmospheric corrections
Meyer, J.P.; Casse, M.; Westergaard, N.
1975-01-01
A set of cross sections for spallation of relativistic nuclei is proposed based on (i) the best available proton cross sections, (ii) an extrapolation to heavier nuclei of the dependence on the number of nucleons lost of the 'target factor' observed for C 12 and O 16 by Lindstrom et al. (1975), in analogy with Rudstam's formalism, and (iii) on a normalization of all cross sections to the total cross sections for production of fragments with Asub(f) >= 6. The obtained cross sections for peripheral interactions are not inconsistent with simple geometrical considerations. (orig.) [de
NDS multigroup cross section libraries
DayDay, N.
1981-12-01
A summary description and documentation of the multigroup cross section libraries which exist at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are given in this report. The libraries listed are available either on tape or in printed form. (author)
XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database
SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access) A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
Doppler broadening of cross sections
Buckler, P.A.C.; Pull, I.C.
1962-12-01
Expressions for temperature dependent cross-sections in terms of resonance parameters are obtained, involving generalisations of the conventional Doppler functions, ψ and φ. Descriptions of Fortran sub-routines, which calculate broadened cross-sections in accordance with the derived formulae, are included. (author)
Photon-splitting cross sections
Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.
1980-01-01
The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy
Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium
Forsberg, Leif
1963-08-15
Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.
Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis
Rez, Peter
2002-01-01
To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a...
Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections
Zeller, G.P.
2004-01-01
Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy
JOYO MK-II core characteristics database. Update to JFS-3-J3.2R
Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Sekine, Takashi
2003-04-01
The 'JOYO' MK-II core characteristics database was compiled and published in 1998. Comments and requests from many users led to the creation of a revised edition in 2001. The revisions include changes to the MAGI calculation code system to use the 70 group JFS-3-J3.2 constant set processed from the JENDL-3.2 library. However, after the database was published, it was recently found that there were errors in the process of making the group constant set JFS-3-J3.2, and it was revised at JFS-3-J3.2R. Then, the group constant set was updated at JFS-3-J3.2R in this database. The MK-II core management data nad core characteristics data were recorded on CD-ROM for user convenience. The structure of the database is the same as in the first edition. The 'Configuration Data' include the core arrangement and refueling record for each operational cycle. The 'Subassembly Library Data' include the atomic number density, neutron fluence, burn-up, integral power of 362 driver fuel subassemblies and 69 irradiation test subassemblies. The 'Output Data' contain the calculated neutron flux, gamma flux, power density, linear heat rate, coolant and fuel temperature distribution of all the fuel subassemblies at the beginning and end of each operational cycle. The 'Core Characteristics Data' include the measured excess reactivity, control rod worth calibration curve, and reactivity coefficients of temperature, power and burn-up. The effect of updating the group constant set, the calculation results of excess reactivity decreased by about 0.15Δk/kk', and the effects to other core characteristics were negligible. (author)
Terahertz radar cross section measurements
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...
Barashenkov, V.S.
1990-01-01
The tables of inelastic and total cross sections of π ± mesons interactions with nuclei 4 He- 238 U are presented. The tables are obtained by theoretical analysis of known experimental data for energies higher some tens of MeV. 1 ref.; 1 tab
Neutron cross sections for fusion
Haight, R.C.
1979-10-01
First generation fusion reactors will most likely be based on the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction, which produces 14-MeV neutrons. In these reactors, both the number of neutrons and the average neutron energy will be significantly higher than for fission reactors of the same power. Accurate neutron cross section data are therefore of great importance. They are needed in present conceptual designs to calculate neutron transport, energy deposition, nuclear transmutation including tritium breeding and activation, and radiation damage. They are also needed for the interpretation of radiation damage experiments, some of which use neutrons up to 40 MeV. In addition, certain diagnostic measurements of plasma experiments require nuclear cross sections. The quality of currently available data for these applications will be reviewed and current experimental programs will be outlined. The utility of nuclear models to provide these data also will be discussed. 65 references
Negative ion detachment cross sections
Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.
1992-10-01
The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below
Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?
Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2010-07-01
The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)
Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?
Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.
2010-01-01
The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)
Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section
David Jenn
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.
[Fast neutron cross section measurements
1991-01-01
In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months
K+ nucleus total cross sections
Sawafta, R.
1990-01-01
The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon
Terahertz radar cross section measurements.
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-12-06
We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.
Neutron cross sections: Book of curves
McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.
1988-01-01
Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs
Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections
Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-11-08
The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.
JENDL gas-production cross section file
Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu
1992-05-01
The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)
Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections
Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.
2003-01-01
Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented
[Fast neutron cross section measurements
Knoll, G.F.
1992-01-01
From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase
Relativistic photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections
Wienke, B.R.; Lathrop, B.L.; Devaney, J.J.
1986-01-01
Temperature corrected cross sections, complementing the Klein-Nishina set, are developed for astrophysical, plasma, and transport applications. The set is obtained from a nonlinear least squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections, using the static formula as the asymptotic basis. Two parameters are sufficient (two decimal places) to fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0-100 keV in electron temperature, and 0-1 MeV in incident photon energy. The fit is made to the total cross sections, yet the parameters predict both total and differential scattering cross sections well. Corresponding differential energy cross sections are less accurate. An extended fit to (just) the total cross sections, over the temperature and energy range 0-5 MeV, is also described. (author)
Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters
Yamamoto, Toshihisa
2003-01-01
A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Myagmarjav Odsuren
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
Scattering cross section for various potential systems
Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
2017-08-15
We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.
Cross-section methodology in SIMMER
Soran, P.D.
1975-11-01
The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated
Cross-section methodology in SIMMER
Soran, P.D.
1976-05-01
The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated
High ET jet cross sections at CDF
Flaugher, B.
1996-08-01
The inclusive jet cross section for p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the Σ E T cross section at √s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at √s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown
Measurements of neutron capture cross sections
Nakajima, Yutaka
1984-01-01
A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)
Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)
Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.
1984-01-01
The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)
Total neutron cross section of lead
Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.
1976-01-01
The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes
Curves and tables of neutron cross sections
Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi
1990-07-01
Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)
Electron collision cross sections of mercury
Suzuki, Susumu; Kuzuma, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Haruo
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new collision cross section set for mercury which revises the original set summarized by Hayashi in 1989. Hanne reported three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) determined from an electron beam experiment in 1988. As a matter for regret, no attentive consideration was given to combining these three excitation cross sections with the cross section set of Hayashi. Therefore we propose a new set where these three excitation cross sections are included. In this study, other two excitation cross sections (6 1 P 1 , 6 3 D 3 ) except for the three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) are taken from the original set of Hayashi. The momentum transfer cross section and the ionization collision cross section are also taken from Hayashi. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is applied for evaluating our new cross section set. The present results of the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient are compared to experimental values. Agreement is secured in relation to the electron drift velocity for 1.5 Td 2 ) is the reduced electric field, E (V/cm) is the electric field, N (1/cm 3 ) is the number density of mercury atoms at 0degC, 1 Torr, E/N is also equal to 2.828 x 10 -17 E/p 0 from the relation of the ideal gas equation, p 0 (Torr) is gas pressure at 0degC, 1 Torr=1.33322 x 10 -2 N/cm -2 and 10 -17 V/cm 2 is called 1 Td. Thus it is ensured that our new cross section set is reasonable enough to be used up to 100 eV when considering with the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient. (author)
First measurement of the Rayleigh cross section
Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.
2000-01-01
Rayleigh cross section for N2, Ar and SF6 was performed using the technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The experiment was based on the assumption that scattering cross section is equal to the extinction in the absence of absorption. The theory explains the molecular origin of
Total cross section of highly excited strings
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-01-01
The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1
Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.
1983-01-01
A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)
Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration
Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.
1976-01-01
Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors
Model cross section calculations using LAHET
Prael, R.E.
1992-01-01
The current status of LAHET is discussed. The effect of a multistage preequilibrium exciton model following the INC is examined for neutron emission benchmark calculations, as is the use of a Fermi breakup model for light nuclei rather than an evaporation model. Comparisons are made also for recent fission cross section experiments, and a discussion of helium production cross sections is presented
Vibrational enhancement of total breakup cross sections
Haftel, M.I.; Lim, T.K.
1984-01-01
This paper considers the role of multi-two-body bound states, namely vibrational excitations, on total three-body breakup cross-sections. Total cross-sections are usually easy to measure, and they play a fundamental role in chemical kinetics. (orig.)
Interference analysis of fission cross section
Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.
1976-01-01
The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration
Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4
Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.
1987-01-01
This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)
Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section
Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)
Comparative analysis among several cross section sets
Caldeira, A.D.
1983-01-01
Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author) [pt
Activation cross section data file, (1)
Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.
1989-09-01
To evaluate the radioisotope productions due to the neutron irradiation in fission of fusion reactors, the data for the activation cross sections ought to be provided. It is planning to file more than 2000 activation cross sections at final. In the current year, the neutron cross sections for 14 elements from Ni to W have been calculated and evaluated in the energy range 10 -5 to 20 MeV. The calculations with a simplified-input nuclear cross section calculation system SINCROS were described, and another method of evaluation which is consistent with the JENDL-3 were also mentioned. The results of cross section calculation are in good agreement with experimental data and they were stored in the file 8, 9 and 10 of ENDF/B format. (author)
Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography
Farkas, M.L.
1988-01-01
This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations
Is the quasielastic pion cross section really bigger than the pion-nucleus reaction cross section
Silbar, R.R.
1979-01-01
It is shown that soft pion charge exchanges may increase the inclusive (π + ,π 0 ') cross section, relative to the total quasielastic (π + ,π + ') cross section, by as much as a factor of two. 4 references
Partial cross sections near the higher resonances
Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.
1961-07-01
As a continuation of the report given at the 10. Rochester Conference, recent measurements of charge-exchange cross section and π 0 production in π - -p interactions are presented here. Section 1 gives a summary of the known results for the elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections. Section 2 presents the behavior of the cross sections in the T=1/2 state, in order to discuss the resonances at 600 and 890 MeV. Section 3 discusses the charge-exchange scattering and the interference term between the T=1/2 and T=3/2 states. Section 4 presents some comments on inelastic processes. This report is reprinted from 'Reviews of Modern Physics', Vol. 33, No. 3, 362-367, July, 1961
Electron-impact cross sections of Ne
Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.
2000-01-01
Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.
2010-06-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)
Differential Top Cross-section Measurements
Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.
Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies
Yodh, G.B.
1987-01-01
A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, Gabor; Trocsanyi, Zoltan
2010-01-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Calculation of the resonance cross section functions
Slipicevic, K.F.
1967-11-01
This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions ψ and χ which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables
Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies
Laptev, Alexander
2005-01-01
The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)
Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections
Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.
Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei
Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.
2017-09-01
Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.
Calculation of the resonance cross section functions
Slipicevic, K F [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)
1967-11-15
This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions {psi} and {chi} which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables.
Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation
Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.
1990-01-01
Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs
Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections
Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.
1992-01-01
Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes
Tachyonic ionization cross sections of hydrogenic systems
Tomaschitz, Roman [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagami-yama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)
2005-03-11
Transition rates for induced and spontaneous tachyon radiation in hydrogenic systems as well as the transversal and longitudinal ionization cross sections are derived. We investigate the interaction of the superluminal radiation field with matter in atomic bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Estimates are given for Ly-{alpha} transitions effected by superluminal quanta in hydrogen-like ions. The tachyonic photoelectric effect is scrutinized, in the Born approximation and at the ionization threshold. The angular maxima occur at different scattering angles in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, which can be used to sift out longitudinal tachyonic quanta in a photon flux. We calculate the tachyonic ionization and recombination cross sections for Rydberg states and study their asymptotic scaling with respect to the principal quantum number. At the ionization threshold of highly excited states of order n {approx} 10{sup 4}, the longitudinal cross section starts to compete with photoionization, in recombination even at lower levels.
a cross-sectional analytic study 2014
Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...
Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei
Tonchev A.P.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.
Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections
Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.
1985-01-01
The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)
Heisenberg rise of total cross sections
Ezhela, V.V.; Yushchenko, O.P.
1988-01-01
It is shown that on the basis of the original idea of Heisenberg on the quasiclassical picture of extended particle interactions one can construct a satisfactory description of the total cross sections, elastic cross sections, elastic diffractive slopes and mean charged multiplicities in the cm energy range from 5 to 900 GeV, and produce reasonable extrapolations up to several tens of TeV. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards
Bhat, M.R.
1980-01-01
Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables
A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology
Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Gougar, Hans
2009-01-01
A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.
Top quark production cross-section measurements
Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...
Homogenized group cross sections by Monte Carlo
Van Der Marck, S. C.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.
2006-01-01
Homogenized group cross sections play a large role in making reactor calculations efficient. Because of this significance, many codes exist that can calculate these cross sections based on certain assumptions. However, the application to the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, the limitations of such codes imply that the core calculations would become less accurate when using homogenized group cross sections (HGCS). Therefore we developed a method to calculate HGCS based on a Monte Carlo program, for which we chose MCNP. The implementation involves an addition to MCNP, and a set of small executables to perform suitable averaging after the MCNP run(s) have completed. Here we briefly describe the details of the method, and we report on two tests we performed to show the accuracy of the method and its implementation. By now, this method is routinely used in preparation of the cycle to cycle core calculations for HFR. (authors)
Photoproton cross section for /sup 19/F
Tsubota, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Kawamura, N; Oikawa, S; Uegaki, J I
1975-02-01
Proton energy spectra have been measured at 90/sup 0/ for the /sup 19/F(e,e'p)/sup 18/O reaction in the giant resonance region. The (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) differential cross sections are extracted from the proton energy spectra by using virtual-photon spectra. The integrated differential cross section of the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) reactions are 1.80+-0.27 and 0.50+-0.45 MeV-mb/sr, respectively. The results are discussed with the shell model theory by comparing with the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) cross section of the neighboring 4n-nucleus /sup 20/Ne. A significant increase of the proton yield leaving the non-ground states is found at 25 MeV of the incident electron energy. This is discussed in terms of the core excitation effect.
Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements
Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab
2016-01-28
The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN PH-TH, on leave from University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of HAS, H-4001 P.O.Box 51 (Hungary)
2010-08-15
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.
2010-01-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties
Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.
2009-10-05
Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.
Cross sections for charm production by neutrinos
Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S
1983-02-03
The production of charmed particles has been measured using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative cross section for charged current charmed particle production is sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/c)/sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/) = 6.5 +- 1.9/1.8%, and the energy dependence of the cross section is presented. One event with charm pair production was observed. A limit of sigma(v -> ..mu..canti c)/sigma(v -> ..mu..c) < 6% (90% CL) is found for the ratio of charged current pair and single charm production.
Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections
Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.
2008-09-01
We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.
Kaise, Yoichiro; Osada, Hiroo
2003-03-01
Various critical experiments have been analyzed and evaluated in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to improve the accuracy of prediction for nuclear characteristics of fast breeder reactors. This report describes update of the analysis of Monju Zebra Assembly Reactor Test (MOZART) reflecting a recent development of JNC analysis scheme. The main results are as follows: (1) Compilation of spectrum measurements: Spectrum measurement data are newly compiled including energy structure and geometrical information. (2) Reevaluation of atomic number density data: Atomic number density data were reevaluated considering impurities that had been neglected in the past analysis and reflecting a JNC standard analysis scheme. The revision of the data successfully reduces core type dependence of C/E values for criticality from 0.4%dk to 0.1%dk. (3) Analyses using JFS-3-J3.2R group constant set: The base-calculation and correction factors were fully reevaluated suing JFS-3-J3.2R group constant set and the results were compared with those using JFS-3-J3.2. For criticality, C/E values become smaller by 0.1%dk, which tendency is consistent with that observed in the analysis of JUPITER experiment. Reduction of B-10 concentration dependence from 7% to 1% is observed in C/E values for control rod worth, and 10% improvement are for Na void reactivity. These improvements are attribute to the revision of the group constant set and analysis scheme. The correction factors are confirmed to be insensitive to the revision of group constant sets. (author)
Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections
Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans
2004-01-01
This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these
Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections
Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.
2008-01-01
Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)
Stability of tokamaks with elongated cross section
An, C.H.; Bateman, G.
1978-08-01
Fixed boundary n = 1 MHD instabilities are studied computationally as a function of diamagnetism (β/sub pol/) and current profile in elongated toroidal equilibria (1 2) or a diamagnetic plasma (β/sub pol/ > 1) with only a mildly elongated cross section
Modelisation of the fission cross section
Morariu, Claudia
2013-03-01
The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+ 235 U, n+ 233 U, n+ 241 Am and n+ 237 Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235 U and 239 Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237 Np and 241 Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author) [fr
Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances
Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan
1992-01-01
Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.
(, 3) Differential cross section of He
The angular distribution of the ﬁve-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to ...
Precise relative cross sections for np scattering
Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.
1994-01-01
We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium
Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi
1995-03-01
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)
LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement
CERN PhotoLab
1970-01-01
A view of the apparatus used for the LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement at the time of its installation. The hyperons decaying into a proton and a pion in the conical tank in front were detected in the magnet spectrometer in the upper half of the picture. A novel detection technique using exclusively multiwire proportional chambers was employed.
Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production
Garrido, E.
2011-01-01
New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)
Neutron-induced fission cross sections
Weigmann, H.
1991-01-01
In the history of fission research, neutron-induced fission has always played the most important role. The practical importance of neutron-induced fission rests upon the fact that additional neutrons are produced in the fission process, and thus a chain reaction becomes possible. The practical applications of neutron-induced fission will not be discussed in this chapter, but only the physical properties of one of its characteristics, namely (n,f) cross sections. The most important early summaries on the subject are the monograph edited by Michaudon which also deals with the practical applications, the earlier review article on fission by Michaudon, and the review by Bjornholm and Lynn, in which neutron-induced fission receives major attention. This chapter will attempt to go an intermediate way between the very detailed theoretical treatment in the latter review and the cited monograph which emphasizes the applied aspects and the techniques of fission cross-section measurements. The more recent investigations in the field will be included. Section II will survey the properties of cross sections for neutron-induced fission and also address some special aspects of the experimental methods applied in their measurement. Section Ill will deal with the formal theory of neutron-induced nuclear reactions for the resolved resonance region and the region of statistical nuclear reactions. In Section IV, the fission width, or fission transmission coefficient, will be discussed in detail. Section V will deal with the broader structures due to incompletely damped vibrational resonances, and in particular will address the special case of thorium and neighboring isotopes. Finally, Section VI will briefly discuss parity violation effects in neutron-induced fission. 74 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-03-01
We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)
2014-11-28
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2
Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.
1997-03-01
Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)
Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections
DuBois, R.D.
1987-01-01
The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He + impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H 2 O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied
Electron-collision cross sections for iodine
Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.
2011-01-01
We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.
Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene
Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.
1991-07-01
Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.
Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2010-01-01
Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...
Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis
P. G. Giannaka
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.
Test of RIPL-2 cross section calculations
Herman, M.
2002-01-01
The new levels and optical segments and microscopic HF-BCS level densities (part of the density segment) were tested in practical calculations of cross sections for neutron induced reactions on 22 targets (40-Ca, 47-Ti, 52-Cr, 55-Mn, 58-Ni, 63-Cu, 71-Ga, 80-Se, 92-Mo, 93-Nb, 100-Mo, 109-Ag, 114-Cd, 124-Sn, 127-I, 133-Cs, 140-Ce, 153-Eu, 169-Tm, 186-W, 197-Au, 208-Pb). For each target all reactions involving up to 3 neutron, 1 proton and 1 α-particle emissions (subject to actual reaction thresholds) were considered in the incident energy range from 1 keV up to 20 MeV (in some cases up to 27 MeV). In addition, total, elastic, and neutron capture cross sections were calculated
Double differential cross sections of ethane molecule
Kumar, Rajeev
2018-05-01
Partial and total double differential cross sections corresponding to various cations C2H6+, C2H4+, C2H5+, C2H3+, C2H2+, CH3+, H+, CH2+, C2H+, H2+, CH+, H3+, C2+ and C+ produced during the direct and dissociative electron ionization of Ethane (C2H6) molecule have been calculated at fixed impinging electron energies 200 and 500eV by using modified Jain-Khare semi empirical approach. The calculation for double differential cross sections is made as a function of energy loss suffered by primary electron and angle of incident. To the best of my knowledge no other data is available for the comparison.
Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry
Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.
1980-01-01
The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies
Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II
Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.
1996-01-01
In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry
Hatano, Y.
1983-01-01
A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures
Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen
Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.
1985-01-01
The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.
Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei
Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire
1996-10-01
Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.
Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides
Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M
2002-01-01
A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.
Cross section of the CMS solenoid
Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN
2005-01-01
The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.
Cross sections for multistep direct reactions
Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan
2002-01-01
Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)
Capture cross sections for very heavy systems
Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Ntshangase, S.S.
2006-01-01
In intermediate-mass systems, collective excitations of the target and projectile can greatly enhance the sub-barrier capture cross section σ cap by giving rise to a distribution of Coulomb barriers. For such systems, capture essentially leads directly to fusion (formation of a compound nucleus (CN)), which then decays through the emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles). Thus the evaporation-residue (ER) cross section is essentially equal to σ cap . For heavier systems the experimental situation is significantly more complicated due to the presence of quasifission (QF) (rapid separation into two fragments before the CN is formed) and by fusion-fission (FF) of the CN itself. Thus three cross sections need to be measured in order to evaluate σ cap . Although the ER essentially recoil along the beam direction. QF and FF fragments are scattered to all angles and require the measurement of angular distribution in order to obtain the excitation function and barrier distribution for capture. Two other approaches to this problem exist. If QF is not important, one can still measure just the ER cross section and try to reconstruct the corresponding σ cap through use of an evaporation-model code that takes account of the FF degree of freedom. Some earlier results on σ cap obtained in this way will be re-analyzed with detail coupled-channels calculations, and the extra-push phenomenon discussed. One may also try to obtain σ cap by exploiting unitarity, that is, by measuring instead the flux of particles corresponding to quasielastic (QE) scattering from the Coulomb barrier. Some new QE results obtained for the 86 Kr + 208 Pb system at iThemba LABS in South Africa will be presented [ru
Inclusive jet cross section at D0
Bhattacharjee, M.
1996-09-01
Preliminary measurement of the central (|η| ≤ 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D null based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 pb -1 ) and 1994-1995 (90 pb -1 ) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made
Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections
Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.
2011-01-01
We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS-bar) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-to-next-to-leading order.
Atomic-process cross section data, 1
1974-12-01
Compiled by the Data Study Group, the data are intended for fusion plasma physics research. Cross sections of the latest experimental and theoretic studies cover the processes involving H,D,T as principal plasma materials as well as photons and electrons: emission and absorption of electromagnetic wave, electron collision, ion collision, recombination, neutral atom mutual collision, etc. Edition is so made to enable the future renewal by users. (J.P.N.)
Neutron capture cross section of ^243Am
Jandel, M.
2009-10-01
The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for neutron capture cross section measurement on ^243Am. The high granularity of DANCE (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables the efficient detection of prompt gamma-rays following neutron capture. DANCE is located on the 20.26 m neutron flight path 14 (FP14) at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The methods and techniques established in [1] were used for the determination of the ^243Am neutron capture cross section. The cross sections were obtained in the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to 400 keV. The resonance region was analyzed using SAMMY7 and resonance parameters were extracted. The results will be compared to existing evaluations and calculations. Work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] M. Jandel et al., Phys. Rev. C78, 034609 (2008)
MXS cross-section preprocessor user's manual
Parker, F.; Ishikawa, M.; Luck, L.
1987-03-01
The MXS preprocessor has been designed to reduce the execution time of programs using isotopic cross-section data and to both reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy of shielding-factor interpolation in the SIMMER-II accident analysis program. MXS is a dual-purpose preprocessing code to: (1) mix isotopes into materials and (2) fit analytic functions to the shelf-shielding data. The program uses the isotope microscopic neutron cross-section data from the CCCC standard interface file ISOTXS and the isotope Bondarenko self-shielding data from the CCCC standard interface file BRKOXS to generate cross-section and self-shielding data for materials. The materials may be a mixture of several isotopes. The self-shielding data for the materials may be the actual shielding factors or a set of coefficients for functions representing the background dependence of the shielding factors. A set of additional data is given to describe the functions necessary to interpolate the shielding factors over temperature
Neutron capture cross sections of Kr
Fiebiger Stefan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.
Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections
Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald
2003-01-01
The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility
Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances
Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.
2015-01-01
Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations
Total neutron cross section for 181Ta
Schilling K.-D.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104 n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron cross – section for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].
NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction
Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trócsányi, Z.
2010-08-01
We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), arXiv:hep-ph/0502226; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, (2006), arXiv:hep-ph/0609041; G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609042; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609043] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.
Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections
Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.
1967-01-01
The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)
LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section
CERN PhotoLab
1983-01-01
Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.
How to extract cross sections from TDHF
Le Tourneux, Jean
1979-01-01
In spite of all the recent progress in solving numerically TDHF (Time Dependent Hartree-Fock) equations for heavy-ion collisions, this method is still far from lending itself readily to the computation of cross sections, except in the case of fusion. The theory presented here is purely formal so far and would lead to fairly heavy calculations in practice. It solves the problem of channel identification in the outgoing asymptotic region of TDHF solutions. It throws a bridge between TDHF and more traditional theories of nuclear reactions, which are time-independent
Hyperon magnetic moments and total cross sections
Lipkin, H.J.
1982-06-01
The new data on both total cross sections and magnetic moments are simply described by beginning with the additive quark model in an SU(3) limit where all quarks behave like strange quarks and breaking both additivity and SU(3) simultaneously with an additional non-additive mechanism which affects only nonstrange quark contributions. The suggestion that strange quarks behave more simply than nonstrange may provide clues to underlying structure or dynamics. Small discrepancies in the moments are analyzed and shown to provide serious difficulties for most models if they are statistically significant. (author)
Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr
We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.
Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides
Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)
1997-03-01
The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)
Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium
Gould, H.; Greiner, D.; Lindstrom, P.; Symons, T.J.M.; Crawford, H.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.
1984-11-01
We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U 92+ reversible U 91+ and U 91+ reversible U 90+ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx. = 5% bare U 92+ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U 92+ at 962 MeV/nucleon. 7 references, 5 figures
Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium
Gould, H; Greiner, D; Lindstrom, P; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H; Thieberger, P; Wegner, H
1985-05-15
We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U/sup 92 +/reversibleU/sup 91 +/ and U/sup 91 +/reversibleU/sup 90 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx.=5% bare U/sup 92 +/ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U/sup 92 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon.
Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section
Huang Xiaolong; Han Xiaogang; Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong
2001-01-01
The thermal neutron capture cross sections of 71 Ga(n, γ) 72 Ga, 94 Zr(n, γ) 95 Zr and 191 Ir(n, γ) 192 Ir m1+g,m2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of 72 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector
Empirical continuation of the differential cross section
Borbely, I.
1978-12-01
The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)
L-shell photoelectric cross section measurements
Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.
1981-05-14
L-shell photoelectric cross sections in Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th and U at 59.5 keV have been determined using three different versions of Sood's method of measuring the absolute yield of fluorescent x-rays when a target is irradiated with a known flux of photons. The results obtained by all the methods agree with one another showing that no hidden systematic errors are involved in the measurements. The present results are found to compare well with the theoretical calculations of Scofield (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report No 51326).
Atlas of photoneutron cross sections obtained with monoenergetic photons
Dietrich, S.S.; Berman, B.L.
1988-01-01
Photoneutron cross-section and integrated cross-section data obtained with monoenergetic photons are presented in a uniform format. All of the measured partial photoneutron cross sections, the total photoneutron cross section, and the photoneutron yield cross section are plotted as functions of the incident photon energy, as are the integrated photoneutron cross sections and their first and second moments. The values of the integrated cross sections and the moments of the integrated total cross section up to the highest photon energy for which they were measured are tabulated, as are the parameters of Lorentz curves fitted to the total photoneutron cross-section data for medium and heavy nuclei (A>50). This compilation is current as of June 1987. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
ZZ SNLRML, Dosimetry Cross-Section Recommendations
1996-01-01
Description of program or function: Format: SAND-II; Number of groups: 640 group SAND-II group structure. Nuclides: Cd, B, Au, S, Ni, Li, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Ag, In, I, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am. Origin: ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-V, IRDF-90, JENDL-3, JEF 2.2 and GLUCS data with special modifications from private communications. Weighting spectrum: flat. SNLRML is a reactor dosimetry library that draws upon all available evaluated cross section libraries and selects the best evaluation for application to research reactor spectrum determinations. Many of the components of the SNLRML come from the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 (DLC-0161) libraries. The library format was selected for easy interface with spectrum determination codes such as SAND-II (CCC-0112 and LSL-M2 (PSR-233) and the new PSR-0345/SNL/SAND-II has been enhanced to interface with SNLRML. The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross section in wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-0547) and MCNP (CCC-0200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities for benchmark reactor experiments
Pion production cross sections and associated parameters
Bradbury, J.N.
1985-01-01
Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs
Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections
Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.
1978-03-01
As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis
Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor
Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham
2008-01-01
The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)
K sup + nucleus total cross sections
Sawafta, R.
1990-01-01
The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.
Differential cross section of atomic hydrogen photoionization
Kondratovich, V.D.; Ostrovskij, V.N.
1986-01-01
Differential cross-section of atomic hydrogen photoeffect in external electric field was investigated in semiclassical approximation. Interference was described. It occurred due to the fact that infinite number of photoelectron trajectories leads to any point of classically accessible motion region. Interference picture can reach macroscopic sizes. The picture is determined by location of function nodes, describing finite electron motion along one of parabolic coordinates. The squares of external picture rings are determined only by electric field intensity in the general case at rather high energies. Quantum expression for photocurrent density was obtained using Green function in superposition of Coulomb and uniform field as well as semiclassical approximation. Possible applications of macroscopic interference picture to specification of atom ionization potentials, selective detection of atoms or particular molecules, as well as weak magnetic field and observation of Aaronov-Bom effect are discussed
Angle-averaged Compton cross sections
Nickel, G.H.
1983-01-01
The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV
Plasma-based radar cross section reduction
Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...
ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES
Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.
2010-04-30
We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.
Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment
Halka, M.
1993-04-01
This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H - photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1 P 0 H -** (n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H - beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame
Angle-averaged Compton cross sections
Nickel, G.H.
1983-01-01
The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.
Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections
Bonciani, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P
2003-01-01
We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbirtrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell--Yan and prompt-photon production.
Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections
Bonciani, Roberto; Catani, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Nason, Paolo
2003-01-01
We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbitrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell-Yan and prompt-photon production
Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements
The ATLAS collaboration
2009-01-01
This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efﬁciency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the ﬁnal state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...
Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes
Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.
2012-01-01
In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model
Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections
Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.
1980-12-01
Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study
Neutron scattering cross sections of uranium-238
Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Marcella, T.V.; Barnes, B.K.; Couchell, G.P.; Egan, J.J.; Mittler, A.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.
1979-01-01
The University of Lowell high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure angular distributions and 90-deg excitation functions for neutrons scattered from 238 U in the energy range from 0.9 to 3.1 MeV. This study was limited to the elastic and the first two inelastic groups, corresponding to states of 238 U at 45 keV (2 + ) and 148 keV (4 + ). Angular distributions were measured at primary neutron energies of 1.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.1 MeV for the same three neutron groups. Whereas the elastic data are in fair agreement with the evaluation in the ENDF/B-IV file, there is substantial disagreement between the inelastic measurements and the evaluated cross sections. 12 figures
Fission cross-section normalization problems
Wagemans, C.; Ghent Rijksuniversiteit; Deruytter, A.J.
1983-01-01
The present measurements yield σsub(f)-data in the neutron energy from 20 MeV to 30 keV directly normalized in the thermal region. In the keV-region these data are consistent with the absolute σsub(f)-measurements of Szabo and Marquette. For the secondary normalization integral I 2 values have been obtained in agreement with those of Gwin et al. and Czirr et al. which were also directly normalized in the thermal region. For the I 1 integral, however, puzzling low values have been obtained. This was also the case for σsub(f)-bar in neutron energy intervals containing strong resonances. Three additional measurements are planned to further investigate these observations: (i) maintaining the actual approx.2π-geometry but using a 10 B-foil for the neutron flux detection (ii) using a low detection geometry with a 10 B- as well as a 6 Li-flux monitor. Only after these measurements definite conclusions on the I 1 and I 2 integrals can be formulated and final σsub(f)-bar-values can be released. The present study also gives some evidence for a correlation between the integral I 2 and the neutron flux monitor used. The influence of a normalization via I 1 or I 2 on the final cross-section has been shown. The magnitude of possible normalization errors is illustrated. Finally, since 235 U is expected to be an ''easy'' nucleus (low α-activity high σsub(f)-values), there are some indications that the important discrepancies still present in 235 U(n,f) cross-section measurements might partially be due to errors in the neutron flux determination
Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He
Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C
2009-01-01
The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections
Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He
Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.
2009-11-01
The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections
Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections
Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.
1970-01-01
Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.
Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons
Antony, B K; Joshipura, K N; Mason, N J
2005-01-01
Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF 4 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 and CF 3 I and the CF x (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF x (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species
Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons
Alrefae, Majed Abdullah
2013-01-01
-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform
Photoionization cross section of atomic and molecular oxygen
Pareek, P.N.
1983-01-01
Photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen and dissociative photoionization cross sections of molecular oxygen were measured from their respective thresholds to 120 angstrom by use of a photoionization mass spectrometer in conjunction with a spark light source. The photoionization cross sections O 2 + parent ion and O + fragment ion from neutral O 2 were obtained by a technique that eliminated the serious problem of identifying the true abundances of O + ions. These ions are generally formed with considerable kinetic energy and, because most mass spectrometers discriminate against energetic ions, true O + abundances are difficult to obtain. In the present work the relative cross sections for producing O + ions are obtained and normalized against the total cross sections in a spectral region where dissociative ionization is not possible. The fragmentation cross sections for O + were then obtained by subtraction of O 2 + cross sections from the known total photoionization cross sections. The results are compared with the previously published measurements. The absolute photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen sigma 8 /sub +/ was measured at 304 A. The actual number density of oxygen atoms within the ionization region was obtained by measuring the fraction of 0 2 molecules dissociated. This sigma/sub +/ at 304 angstrom was used to convert the relative photoinization cross sections, measured as a function of wavelength using a calibrated photodiode, to absolute cross sections. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculated cross sections. angstrom Rydberg series converging to the OII 4 P state was observed
Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections
Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.
1987-01-01
Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei
Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format
Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.
1978-01-01
A comparison of some integral cross section values for several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross section values are calculated with aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. (author)
Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.
1980-05-01
Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ν, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given
Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.
1980-06-01
Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ν-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes
Accurate measurements of neutron activation cross sections
Semkova, V.
1999-01-01
The applications of some recent achievements of neutron activation method on high intensity neutron sources are considered from the view point of associated errors of cross sections data for neutron induced reaction. The important corrections in -y-spectrometry insuring precise determination of the induced radioactivity, methods for accurate determination of the energy and flux density of neutrons, produced by different sources, and investigations of deuterium beam composition are considered as factors determining the precision of the experimental data. The influence of the ion beam composition on the mean energy of neutrons has been investigated by measurement of the energy of neutrons induced by different magnetically analysed deuterium ion groups. Zr/Nb method for experimental determination of the neutron energy in the 13-15 MeV energy range allows to measure energy of neutrons from D-T reaction with uncertainty of 50 keV. Flux density spectra from D(d,n) E d = 9.53 MeV and Be(d,n) E d = 9.72 MeV are measured by PHRS and foil activation method. Future applications of the activation method on NG-12 are discussed. (author)
[Fast neutron cross section measurements]: Progress report
1988-01-01
As projected in our previous proposal, the past year on the cross section project at the University of Michigan has been one primarily of construction and assembly of our 14 MeV pulsed Neutron Facility. All the components of the system have now been either purchased or fabricated in our shop facilities and have been assembled in their final configuration. We are now in the process of testing the rf components that have been designed to deliver voltage to both the pulser and buncher stages. We expect that the system will be operational by the end of the current contract year. We have also accomplished the design and construction of several other major pieces of equipment that are needed to begin fast neutron time-of-flight measurements. These include the primary proton recoil detector, and a californium fission chamber needed in the efficiency calibration of the primary detector. We have also added considerable concrete shielding designed to lower the neutron background in the experimental area. 10 figs., 5 tabs
Neutron cross section measurements at ORELA
Dabbs, J.W.T.
1979-01-01
ORELA (Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator) has been for the last decade the most powerful and useful pulsed neutron time-of-flight facility in the world, particularly in the broad midrange of neutron energies (10 eV to 1 MeV). This position will be enhanced with the addition of a pulse narrowing prebuncher, recently installed and now under test. Neutron capture, fission, scattering, and total cross sections are measured by members of the Physics and Engineering Physics Divisions of ORNL, and by numerous guests and visitors. Several fundamental and applied measurements are described, with some emphasis on instrumentation used. The facility comprises the accelerator and its target(s), 10 evacuated neutron flight paths having 18 measurement stations at flight path distances 8.9 to 200 meters, and a complex 4-computer data acquisition system capable of handling some 17,000 32-bit events/s from a total of 12 data input ports. The system provides a total of 2.08 x 10 6 words of data storage on 3 fast disk units. In addition, a dedicated PDP-10 timesharing system with a 250-megabyte disk system and 4 PDP-15 graphic display satellites permits on-site data reduction and analysis. More than 10 man-years of application software development supports the system, which is used directly by individual experiments. 12 figures, 1 table
Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb
Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.
2006-01-01
The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.
Josephson cross-sectional model experiment
Ketchen, M.B.; Herrell, D.J.; Anderson, C.J.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the electrical design and evaluation of the Josephson cross-sectional model (CSM) experiment. The experiment served as a test vehicle to verify the operation at liquid-helium temperatures of Josephson circuits integrated in a package environment suitable for high-performance digital applications. The CSM consisted of four circuit chips assembled on two cards in a three-dimensional card-on-board package. The chips (package) were fabricated in a 2.5-μm (5-μm) minimum linewidth Pb-alloy technology. A hierarchy of solder and pluggable connectors was used to attach the parts together and to provide electrical interconnections between parts. A data path which simulated a jump control sequence and a cache access in each machine cycle was successfully operated with cycle times down to 3.7 ns. The CSM incorporated the key components of the logic, power, and package of a prototype Josephson signal processor and demonstrated the feasibility of making such a processor with a sub-4-ns cycle time
Female medical leadership: cross sectional study.
Kvaerner, K J; Aasland, O G; Botten, G S
1999-01-09
To assess the relation between male and female medical leadership. Cross sectional study on predictive factors for female medical leadership with data on sex, age, specialty, and occupational status of Norwegian physicians. Oslo, Norway. 13 844 non-retired Norwegian physicians. Medical leaders, defined as physicians holding a leading position in hospital medicine, public health, academic medicine, or private health care. 14.6% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 15.4%) of the men were leaders compared with 5.1% (4.4% to 5.9%) of the women. Adjusted for age men had a higher estimated probability of leadership in all categories of age and job, the highest being in academic medicine with 0.57 (0.42 to 0.72) for men aged over 54 years compared with 0.39 (0.21 to 0.63) for women in the same category. Among female hospital physicians there was a positive relation between the proportion of women in their specialty and the probability of leadership. Women do not reach senior positions as easily as men. Medical specialties with high proportions of women have more female leaders.
New resonance cross section calculational algorithms
Mathews, D.R.
1978-01-01
Improved resonance cross section calculational algorithms were developed and tested for inclusion in a fast reactor version of the MICROX code. The resonance energy portion of the MICROX code solves the neutron slowing-down equations for a two-region lattice cell on a very detailed energy grid (about 14,500 energies). In the MICROX algorithms, the exact P 0 elastic scattering kernels are replaced by synthetic (approximate) elastic scattering kernels which permit the use of an efficient and numerically stable recursion relation solution of the slowing-down equation. In the work described here, the MICROX algorithms were modified as follows: an additional delta function term was included in the P 0 synthetic scattering kernel. The additional delta function term allows one more moments of the exact elastic scattering kernel to be preserved without much extra computational effort. With the improved synthetic scattering kernel, the flux returns more closely to the exact flux below a resonance than with the original MICROX kernel. The slowing-down calculation was extended to a true B 1 hyperfine energy grid calculatn in each region by using P 1 synthetic scattering kernels and tranport-corrected P 0 collision probabilities to couple the two regions. 1 figure, 6 tables
Neutron cross section libraries for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments
Kosako, Kazuaki; Oyama, Yukio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoo
1988-03-01
We have prepared two computer code systems producing neutron cross section libraries to analyse fusion neutronics experiments. First system produces the neutron cross section library in ANISN format, i.e., the multi-group constants in group independent format. This library can be obtained by using the multi-group constant processing code system MACS-N and the ANISN format cross section compiling code CROKAS. Second system is for the continuous energy cross section library for the MCNP code. This library can be obtained by the nuclear data processing system NJOY which generates pointwise energy cross sections and the cross section compiling code MACROS for the MCNP library. In this report, we describe the production procedures for both types of the cross section libraries, and show six libraries with different conditions in ANISN format and a library for the MCNP code. (author)
Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3
Kaneko, Kunio
2002-03-01
This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)
Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format
Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.
1976-09-01
A comparison of some integral cross-section values for several cross-section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross-section values are calculated with the aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross-section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. Discrepancies between cross-sections in the different libraries are indicated but not discussed
Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
Fiel, Joao Claudio B.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)
Average cross sections for the 252Cf neutron spectrum
Dezso, Z.; Csikai, J.
1977-01-01
A number of average cross sections have been measured for 252 Cf neutrons in (n, γ), (n,p), (n,2n), (n,α) reactions by the activation method and for fission by fission chamber. Cross sections have been determined for 19 elements and 45 reactions. The (n,γ) cross section values lie in the interval from 0.3 to 200 mb. The data as a function of target neutron number increases up to about N=60 with minimum near to dosed shells. The values lie between 0.3 mb and 113 mb. These cross sections decrease significantly with increasing the threshold energy. The values are below 20 mb. The data do not exceed 10 mb. Average (n,p) cross sections as a function of the threshold energy and average fission cross sections as a function of Zsup(4/3)/A are shown. The results obtained are summarized in tables
Criticality benchmark comparisons leading to cross-section upgrades
Alesso, H.P.; Annese, C.E.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Lloyd, W.R.; Lent, E.M.
1993-01-01
For several years criticality benchmark calculations with COG. COG is a point-wise Monte Carlo code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It solves the Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutrons and photons. The principle consideration in developing COG was that the resulting calculation would be as accurate as the point-wise cross-sectional data, since no physics computational approximations were used. The objective of this paper is to report on COG results for criticality benchmark experiments in concert with MCNP comparisons which are resulting in corrections an upgrades to the point-wise ENDL cross-section data libraries. Benchmarking discrepancies reported here indicated difficulties in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Livermore (ENDL) cross-sections for U-238 at thermal neutron energy levels. This led to a re-evaluation and selection of the appropriate cross-section values from several cross-section sets available (ENDL, ENDF/B-V). Further cross-section upgrades anticipated
Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material
Liu Ping; Xu Yiping
2015-01-01
The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.
Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA
Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G
1995-01-01
We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.
Compact fitting formulas for electron-impact cross sections
Kim, Y.K.
1992-01-01
Compact fitting formulas, which contain four fitting constants, are presented for electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections of atoms and ions. These formulas can fit experimental and theoretical cross sections remarkably well, when resonant structures are smoothed out, from threshold to high incident electron energies (<10 keV), beyond which relativistic formulas are more appropriate. Examples of fitted cross sections for some atoms and ions are presented. The basic form of the formula is valid for both atoms and molecules
Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation
Avila L, J.
1987-08-01
Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained
Precise measurements of neutron capture cross sections for FP
Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio
2000-01-01
The thermal neutron capture cross sections (σ 0 ) and the resonance integrals (I 0 ) of some fission products (FP), such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs, were measured by the activation and γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the cross section measurements were done for other FP elements, such as 127 I, 133 Cs and 134 Cs. This paper provides the summary of the FP cross section measurements, which have been performed by authors. (author)
Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view
Turner, R.E.
1982-01-01
For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method
Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity
Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.
1976-10-01
Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended
A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections
Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.
2005-03-01
An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle
Discussion of electron cross sections for transport calculations
Berger, M.J.
1983-01-01
This paper deals with selected aspects of the cross sections needed as input for transport calculations and for the modeling of radiation effects in biological materials. Attention is centered mainly on the cross sections for inelastic interactions between electrons and water molecules and the use of these cross sections for the calculation of energy degradation spectra and of ionization and excitation yields. 40 references, 3 figures, 1 table
Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region
Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-03-01
The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)
Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime
Sümmerer, K
2003-01-01
The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.
Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements
Scielzo N.D.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.
Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares
Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.
1999-01-01
A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented
Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements
Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J
2011-10-18
Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.
Adjustement of multigroup cross sections using fast reactor integral data
Renke, C.A.C.
1982-01-01
A methodology for the adjustment of multigroup cross section is presented, structured with aiming to compatibility the limitated number of measured values of integral parameters known and disponible, and the great number of cross sections to be adjusted the group of cross section used is that obtained from the Carnaval II calculation system, understanding as formular the sets of calculation methods and data bases. The adjustment is realized, using the INCOAJ computer code, developed in function of one statistical formulation, structural from the bayer considerations, taking in account the measurement processes of cross section and integral parameters defined on statistical bases. (E.G.) [pt
Neutron cross section measurements for the Fast Breeder Program
Block, R.C.
1979-06-01
This research was concerned with the measurement of neutron cross sections of importance to the Fast Breeder Reactor. The capture and total cross sections of fission products ( 101 102 104 Ru, 143 145 Nd, 149 Sm, 95 97 Mo, Cs, Pr, Pd, 107 Pd, 99 Tc) and tag gases (Kr, 78 80 Kr) were measured up to 100 keV. Filtered neutron beams were used to measure the capture cross section of 238 U (with an Fe filter) and the total cross section of Na (with a Na filter). A radioactive neutron capture detector was developed. A list of publications is included
Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact
Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)
2014-03-15
An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.
Corporate Social Responsibility: A Cross Sectional Examination of Incentivization.
1995-09-01
which address organizational behavior: Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ), Expense Preference Approach (EPA), Resource Dependency Theory (RDT...i V *>V CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF INCENTIVIZATION THESIS Jennifer A. Block, B.S. First Lieutenant, USAF...Distribution/ Availability Codes Dist m Avail and/or Special \\&\\W 0\\1 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF
238U subthreshold neutron induced fission cross section
Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.; De Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Ingle, R.W.
1976-01-01
High resolution measurements of the 238 U neutron induced fission cross section are reported for neutron energies between 600 eV and 2 MeV. The average subthreshold fission cross section between 10 and 100 keV was found to be 44 +- 6 μb
Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models
Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon
2009-01-01
We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…
Photoionization cross sections: present status and future needs
Manson, S.T.
1988-01-01
The existing experimental data situation for photoionization cross section of ground-state atoms, excited states and positive ions is reviewed. The ability of theory to predict these cross sections is also discussed. The likely progress for the near future is presented [pt
Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections
Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando
2015-01-01
Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)
Tearing mode stability of tokamak plasmas with elliptical cross section
Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.
1981-02-01
The effect of the ellipticity of the plasma cross section on tearing mode stability is investigated. The induced coupling between modes is shown to be destabilizing; however, the modification of the equilibrium tends to stabilize the tearing modes. The net effect depends on the manner in which the equilibrium is modified as the plasma cross-section shape is changed
Simplified polynomial representation of cross sections for reactor calculation
Dias, A.M.; Sakai, M.
1985-01-01
It is shown a simplified representation of a cross section library generated by transport theory using the cell model of Wigner-Seitz for typical PWR fuel elements. The effect of burnup evolution through tables of reference cross sections and the effect of the variation of the reactor operation parameters considered by adjusted polynomials are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt
Graphs of neutron cross section data for fusion reactor development
Asami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shigeya
1979-03-01
Graphs of neutron cross section data relevant to fusion reactor development are presented. Nuclides and reaction types in the present compilation are based on a WRENDA request list from Japan for fusion reactor development. The compilation contains various partial cross sections for 55 nuclides from 6 Li to 237 Np in the energy range up to 20 MeV. (author)
Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...
mental data cross-section with the theoretical codes, to study the quality of the theoretical ... the cross-section, angular distribution, double differential data, gamma ..... TALYS. TENDL. Figure 6. Excitation function of the 87Sr(p, 2n)86Y reaction.
Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies
Olsen, Haakon A.
2003-01-01
Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections
Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update
Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M
2002-01-01
Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.
pp production cross sections and the constraint method
Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.
1983-01-01
A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt
1997-01-01
The data base relevant to an evaluation of the 10 B(n,α) standard cross sections have been improved through interlaboratory collaboration. Changes in the evaluated 10 B(n,α) cross sections resulted form the measurements made since the ENDF/B-VI evaluation have been estimated. 12 refs, 4 figs
Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles
Chen, C.X.; Guzik, T.G.; McMahon, M.; Wefel, J.P.; Flores, I.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Tull, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Cronqvist, M.; Crawford, H.J.
1996-02-01
New isotopic production cross sections from 22 Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.)
Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles
Chen, C X; Guzik, T G; McMahon, M; Wefel, J P [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Tull, C E [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Cronqvist, M; Crawford, H J [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.; and others
1996-02-01
New isotopic production cross sections from {sup 22}Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.). 9 refs.
Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays
Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.
1988-01-01
The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)
The effect of the decay data on activation cross section
Huang Xiaolong
2002-01-01
The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data
Tables of RCN-2 fission-product cross section evaluation
Gruppelaar, H.
1979-05-01
This report (continuation of ECN-13 and ECN-33) describes the third part of the RCN-2 evaluation of neutron cross sections for fission product nuclides in KEDAK format. It contains evaluated data for nine nuclides, i.e. 142 Nd, 143 Nd, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 146 Nd, 147 Nd, 148 Nd, 150 Nd and 147 Pm. Most emphasis has been given to the evaluation of the radiative capture cross section, in order to provide a data base for adjustment calculations using results of integral measurements. Short evaluation reports are given for this cross section. The evaluated capture cross sections are compared with recent experimental differential and integral data. Graphs are given of the capture cross sections at neutron energies above 1 keV, in which also adjusted point cross sections, based upon integral STEK and CFRMF data have been plotted. Moreover, the results are compared with those of the well-known ENDF/B-IV evaluation for fission product nucleides. Finally, evaluation summaries are given, which include tables of other important neutron cross sections, such as the total, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering cross sections
Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities
Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1998-03-01
The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)
Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections
Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori
1995-01-01
Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)
Q.C.D. estimates of hadronic cross sections
Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.
1983-03-01
Estimates for hadron-hadron cross-sections are made using the leading log approximation of Q.C.D. The rise of the total inelastic pp cross-sections at high energy is reproduced, thanks to the competition between the small parton-parton interaction and the large multiplicity of gluons predicted by Q.C.D
Second order effects in adjustment processes of cross sections
Silva, F.C. da; D'Angelo, A.; Gandini, A.; Rado, V.
1982-01-01
An iterative processe, that take in account the non linear effects of some integral quantities in relation to cross sections, is used to execute an adjustment of cross sections of some elements that constitute the fast reactors shielding. (E.G.) [pt
Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections
James, G.D.; Lynn, J.E.; Michaudon, A.; Rowlands, J.; de Saussure, G.
1981-01-01
A general presentation of current knowledge of the fission process is given with emphasis on the low energy fission of actinide nuclei and neutron induced fission. The need for and the required accuracy of fission cross section data in nuclear energy programs are discussed. A summary is given of the steps involved in fission cross section measurement and the range of available techniques. Methods of fission detection are described with emphasis on energy dependent changed and detector efficiency. Examples of cross section measurements are given and data reduction is discussed. The calculation of fission cross sections is discussed and relevant nuclear theory including the formation and decay of compound nuclei and energy level density is introduced. A description of a practical computation of fission cross sections is given.
Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE
Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL
2010-01-01
Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.
Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)
Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir
2013-01-01
A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...
ENDF/B-5 fission product cross section evaluations
Schenter, R.E.; England, T.R.
1979-12-01
Cross section evaluations were made for the 196 fission product nuclides on the ENDF/B-5 data files. Most of the evaluations involve updating the capture cross sections of the important absorbers for fast and thermal reactor systems. This included updating thermal values, resonance integrals, resonance parameter sets, and fast capture cross sections. For the fast capture results generalized least-squares calculations were made with the computer code FERRET. Input for these cross section adjustments included nuclear models calculations and both integral and differential experimental data results. The differential cross sections and their uncertainties were obtained from the CSIRS library. Integral measurement results came from CFRMF and STEK Assemblies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000. Comparisons of these evaluations with recent capture measurements are shown. 15 figures, 10 tables
Electron collision cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours
Kawaguchi, S.; Takahashi, K.; Satoh, K.; Itoh, H.
2017-05-01
Reliable and detailed sets of electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4] and tetraethoxysilane [TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4] vapours are proposed. The cross section sets of TMS and TEOS vapours include 16 and 20 kinds of partial ionization cross sections, respectively. Electron transport coefficients, such as electron drift velocity, ionization coefficient, and longitudinal diffusion coefficient, in those vapours are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using the proposed cross section sets, and the validity of the sets is confirmed by comparing the calculated values of those transport coefficients with measured data. Furthermore, the calculated values of the ionization coefficient in TEOS/O2 mixtures are compared with measured data to confirm the validity of the proposed cross section set.
Cross sections for hadron and lepton production processes
Bhattacharya, R.
1976-01-01
Charged heavy lepton production in proton-proton collisions is studied. Motivated by recent experimental results from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center a parton model analysis is given of the reaction p + p → L + + L - + x → μ +- + e/ -+ / + neutrinos + x. Results are presented for the total cross section and the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the final charged leptons and the transverse momenta of each one of them. The two-photon mechanism for pair production in colliding beam exeriments is considered. Through the use of mapped invariant integration variables, a reliable exact numerical calculation of the cross section for the production of muon and pion pairs by the two-photon mechanism is provided. Results are given for the exact total cross sections and also the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the pair. These are compared to the results obtained from the equivalent photon approximation method
Classical scattering cross section in sputtering transport theory
Zhang Zhulin
2002-01-01
For Lindhard scaling interaction potential scattering commonly used in sputtering theory, the authors analyzed the great difference between Sigmund's single power and the double power cross sections calculated. The double power cross sections can give a much better approximation to the Born-Mayer scattering in the low energy region (m∼0.1). In particular, to solve the transport equations by K r -C potential interaction given by Urbassek few years ago, only the double power cross sections (m∼0.1) can yield better approximate results for the number of recoils. Therefore, the Sigmund's single power cross section might be replaced by the double power cross sections in low energy collision cascade theory
Dielectronic recombination cross sections for H-like ions
Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.; Griffin, D.C.
1990-01-01
Dielectronic recombination cross sections for several H-like atomic ions are calculated in an isolated-resonance, distorted-wave approximation. Fine-structure and configuration-interaction effects are examined in detail for the O 7+ cross section. Hartree-Fock, intermediate-coupled, multiconfiguration dielectronic recombination cross sections for O 7+ are then compared with the recent experimental measurements obtained with the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg. The cross-section spectra line up well in energy and the shape of the main resonance structures are comparable. The experimental integrated cross sections differ by up to 20% from theory, but this may be due in part to uncertainties in the electron distribution function
Target dependence of K+-nucleus total cross sections
Jiang, M.F.; Ernst, D.J.; Chen, C.M.
1995-01-01
We investigate the total cross section and its target dependence for K + -nucleus scattering using a relativistic momentum-space optical potential model which incorporates relativistically normalized wave functions, invariant two-body amplitudes, covariant kinematics, and an exact full-Fermi averaging integral. The definition of the total cross section in the presence of a Coulomb interaction is reviewed and the total cross section is calculated in a way that is consistent with what is extracted from experiment. In addition, the total cross sections for a nucleus and for the deuteron are calculated utilizing the same theory. This minimizes the dependence of the ratio of these cross sections on the details of the theory. The model dependence of the first-order optical potential calculations is investigated. The theoretical results are found to be systematically below all existing data
Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor
Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.
1988-01-01
Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.
Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design
Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))
1982-01-01
Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.
Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides
Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.
Evaluation of kerma in carbon and the carbon cross sections
Axton, E.J.
1992-02-01
A preliminary simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma in carbon, and carbon cross sections taken from the ENDF/B-V file was carried out. In the calculation the shapes of the total cross section and the various partial cross sections were rigid but their absolute values were allowed to float in the fit within the constraints of the ENDF/B-V uncertainties. The construction of the ENDF/B-V file imposed improbable shapes, particularly in the case of the (12)C(n,n'3(alpha)) reaction, which were incompatible with direct measurements of kerma and of the reaction cross sections. Consequently a new evaluation of the cross section data became necessary. Since the available time was limited the new evaluation concentrated particularly on those aspects of the ENDF/B-V carbon file which would have most impact on kerma calculations. Following the new evaluation of cross sections new tables of kerma factors were produced. Finally, the simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma and the new cross section file was repeated
Neutron standard cross sections in reactor physics - Need and status
Carlson, A.D.
1990-01-01
The design and improvement of nuclear reactors require detailed neutronics calculations. These calculations depend on comprehensive libraries of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Most of the cross sections that form the data base for these evaluations have been measured relative to neutron cross-section standards. The use of these standards can often simplify the measurement process by eliminating the need for a direct measurement of the neutron fluence. The standards are not known perfectly, however; thus the accuracy of a cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross section relative to which it is measured. Improvements in a standard cause all cross sections measured relative to that standard to be improved. This is the reason for the emphasis on improving the neutron cross-section standards. The continual process of measurement and evaluation has led to improvements in the accuracy and range of applicability of the standards. Though these improvements have been substantial, this process must continue in order to obtain the high-quality standards needed by the user community
Density-dependent expressions for photoionization cross-sections
Sun Weiguo; Ma Xiaoguang; Cheng Yansong
2004-06-07
Alternative expressions for photoionization cross-sections and dielectric influence functions are suggested to study the photoionization cross-sections of atoms in solid system. The basic picture is that the photoionization cross-section of atoms in a real system can be described as the coupling between quantum quantity (QQ) and classical quantity (CQ) parts. The QQ part represents the photoionization cross-sections of an isolated particle, while the CQ part may represent most of the important influence of the macroscopic effects (e.g., the interactions of all surrounding polarized particles, and the dielectric property, etc.) on the photoionization cross-sections. The applications to the barium system show that the number-density-dependent new photoionization formula not only obtains the same cross-sections as those from the first order approximation for ideal gas, but also can generate the cross-sections for solid barium by transforming those of ideal gas of the same species using the dielectric influence function.
Parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor
Fiel, João Cláudio Batista; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Leal, Luiz C.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • This work describes a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor. • Parameterization enables a quick determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. • This work allows generating group cross-section data to perform PWR core calculations without computer code calculations. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Chebyshev polynomials, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 92 U enrichment. The cross-section data analyzed are fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. The parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few group calculations. The methodology presented in this paper will allow generation of group cross-section data from stored polynomials to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by the proposed methodology when compared with results from the SCALE code calculations show very good agreement
Density-dependent expressions for photoionization cross-sections
Sun Weiguo; Ma Xiaoguang; Cheng Yansong
2004-01-01
Alternative expressions for photoionization cross-sections and dielectric influence functions are suggested to study the photoionization cross-sections of atoms in solid system. The basic picture is that the photoionization cross-section of atoms in a real system can be described as the coupling between quantum quantity (QQ) and classical quantity (CQ) parts. The QQ part represents the photoionization cross-sections of an isolated particle, while the CQ part may represent most of the important influence of the macroscopic effects (e.g., the interactions of all surrounding polarized particles, and the dielectric property, etc.) on the photoionization cross-sections. The applications to the barium system show that the number-density-dependent new photoionization formula not only obtains the same cross-sections as those from the first order approximation for ideal gas, but also can generate the cross-sections for solid barium by transforming those of ideal gas of the same species using the dielectric influence function
Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides
Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.
Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma
Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby
2018-05-01
This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.
The total collision cross section in the glory region
Biesen, J.J.H. van den.
1982-01-01
Chapter 1 presents a calculation of approximate total cross sections in the glory region from noble gas potentials. The relations between the main features of the total cross section and the properties of the potential to which these are sensitive are extensively investigated in chapter II. A beam apparatus has been developed, which allows for accurate measurements on the total cross section. All effects due to the finite angular and velocity resolution of the apparatus can be eliminated from the data to yield actual total cross sections as a function of the relative velocity. This facilitates a comparison to total cross sections predicted by potentials available in the literature. A brief description of the apparatus and of the data reduction is given in chapter III. The total cross section data obtained for various noble gas combinations are presented and analysed in chapter IV, where also a large number of potentials proposed in the literature is tested. In chapter V the quenching of the glories in the case of a non-spherical interaction is analysed. Subsequently, total cross section data for some atom-molecule systems are discussed. (Auth.)
Poster - 18: New features in EGSnrc for photon cross sections
Ali, Elsayed; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Rogers, David W.O. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, National Research Council Canada, Carleton University (Canada)
2016-08-15
Purpose: To implement two new features in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. The first is an option to account for photonuclear attenuation, which can contribute a few percent to the total cross section at the higher end of the energy range of interest to medical physics. The second is an option to use exact NIST XCOM photon cross sections. Methods: For the first feature, the photonuclear total cross sections are generated from the IAEA evaluated data. In the current, first-order implementation, after a photonuclear event, there is no energy deposition or secondary particle generation. The implementation is validated against deterministic calculations and experimental measurements of transmission signals. For the second feature, before this work, if the user explicitly requested XCOM photon cross sections, EGSnrc still used its own internal incoherent scattering cross sections. These differ by up to 2% from XCOM data between 30 keV and 40 MeV. After this work, exact XCOM incoherent scattering cross sections are an available option. Minor interpolation artifacts in pair and triplet XCOM cross sections are also addressed. The default for photon cross section in EGSnrc is XCOM except for the new incoherent scattering cross sections, which have to be explicitly requested. The photonuclear, incoherent, pair and triplet data from this work are available for elements and compounds for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Results: Both features are implemented and validated in EGSnrc.Conclusions: The two features are part of the standard EGSnrc distribution as of version 4.2.3.2.
Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-11-01
Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.
Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4
James, G.D.
1981-01-01
The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)
Total cross section for relativistic positronium interaction with atom
Pak, A.S.; Tarasov, A.V.
1985-01-01
Total cross sections of interaction of positronium relativistic atoms with atoms are calculated. Calculations are conducted within the framework of potential theory in Born approximaton. Contributions in total cross section of coherent (σsub(coh)) and incoherent (σsub(inc)) parts are analyzed. It is shown that for light elements σsub(inc) value is comparable with σsub(coh), and for heavy ones the ratio σsub(inc)/σsub(coh) sufficiently exceeds Zsup(-1) (Z-charge of the atomic nucleus. Numerical calculation results are presented. A conclusion is made on importance of the coherent part account during the calculation of total cross sections
Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE
Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL
2010-01-01
Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions
Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region
Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1991-01-01
Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.
Drell-Yan cross section in the jet calculus scheme
Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu
2009-01-01
We calculate factorized cross sections for lepton pair production mediated by a virtual photon in hadron-hadron collisions using the jet calculus scheme, in which a kinematical constraint due to parton radiation is taken into account. This method guarantees a proper phase space boundary for subtraction terms. Some properties of the calculated cross sections are examined. We also discuss matching between the hard scattering cross sections and parton showers at the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). (author)
Habit, Production, and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns
Chen, Andrew Y.
2014-01-01
Solutions to the equity premium puzzle should inform us about the cross-section of stock returns. An external habit model with heterogeneous firms reproduces numerous stylized facts about both the equity premium and the value premium. The equity premium is large, time-varying, and linked with consumption volatility. The cross-section of expected returns is log-linear in B/M, and the slope matches the data. The explanation for the value premium lies in the interaction between the cross-section...
Use of nuclear reaction models in cross section calculations
Grimes, S.M.
1975-03-01
The design of fusion reactors will require information about a large number of neutron cross sections in the MeV region. Because of the obvious experimental difficulties, it is probable that not all of the cross sections of interest will be measured. Current direct and pre-equilibrium models can be used to calculate non-statistical contributions to neutron cross sections from information available from charged particle reaction studies; these are added to the calculated statistical contribution. Estimates of the reliability of such calculations can be derived from comparisons with the available data. (3 tables, 12 figures) (U.S.)
Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides
Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Iwamoto, Osamu
2003-01-01
The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals. (author)
LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets
Michielin, Emanuele
2017-01-01
Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.
Cross sections and transport properties for Na+ in (DXE gas
Nikitović Željka D.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we select most probable reactions of alkali metal ion Na+ with dimethoxyethane (DXE molecule. Appropriate gas phase enthalpies of formation for the products were used to calculate scattering cross section as a function of kinetic energy with Denpoh-Nanbu theory. Calculated cross sections were compared with existing experimental results obtained by guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry. Three body association reactions of ions with DXE is studied and compared to experimental results. Calculated cross sections were used to obtain transport parameters for alkali metal ion in DXE gas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 171037 i br. III 410011
Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-11-01
Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V
A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections
Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.
2005-01-01
An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle
Testing of cross section libraries for TRIGA criticality benchmark
Snoj, L.; Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.
2007-01-01
Influence of various up-to-date cross section libraries on the multiplication factor of TRIGA benchmark as well as the influence of fuel composition on the multiplication factor of the system composed of various types of TRIGA fuel elements was investigated. It was observed that keff calculated by using the ENDF/B VII cross section library is systematically higher than using the ENDF/B-VI cross section library. The main contributions (∼ 2 20 pcm) are from 235 U and Zr. (author)
Evaluation of fusion-evaporation cross-section calculations
Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Seis, F.; Delahaye, P.
2018-02-01
Calculated fusion-evaporation cross sections from five different codes are compared to experimental data. The present comparison extents over a large range of nuclei and isotopic chains to investigate the evolution of experimental and calculated cross sections. All models more or less overestimate the experimental cross sections. We found reasonable agreement by using the geometrical average of the five model calculations and dividing the average by a factor of 11.2. More refined analyses are made for example for the 100Sn region.
Cross-Sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Mediation Processes.
O'Laughlin, Kristine D; Martin, Monica J; Ferrer, Emilio
2018-01-01
Statistical mediation analysis can help to identify and explain the mechanisms behind psychological processes. Examining a set of variables for mediation effects is a ubiquitous process in the social sciences literature; however, despite evidence suggesting that cross-sectional data can misrepresent the mediation of longitudinal processes, cross-sectional analyses continue to be used in this manner. Alternative longitudinal mediation models, including those rooted in a structural equation modeling framework (cross-lagged panel, latent growth curve, and latent difference score models) are currently available and may provide a better representation of mediation processes for longitudinal data. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, we provide a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models; second, we advocate using models to evaluate mediation effects that capture the temporal sequence of the process under study. Two separate empirical examples are presented to illustrate differences in the conclusions drawn from cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation analyses. Findings from these examples yielded substantial differences in interpretations between the cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models considered here. Based on these observations, researchers should use caution when attempting to use cross-sectional data in place of longitudinal data for mediation analyses.
Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics
Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H
2013-01-01
Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota
Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine
Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J
2010-01-01
In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.
Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions
Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G
2012-01-01
This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.
Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization
McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)
2009-11-15
We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.
Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold
Ma Xiaoguang; Sun Weiguo; Cheng Yansong
2005-01-01
Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.
Models for Photon-photon Total Cross-sections
Godbole, RM; Grau, A; Pancheri, G
1999-01-01
We present here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. We shall show in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation.
Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS
Berta Peter
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The highlights of the measurements of top quark production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The inclusive measurements of the top-pair production cross section have reached high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. The differential cross section measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers. Measurements of the single top quark production cross section are presented in the t-channel and s-channel, and with associated production with a W boson. For the t-channel production, results on the ratio between top quark and antitop quark production cross sections and differential measurements are also included.
Total and partial recombination cross sections for F6+
Mitnik, D.M.; Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.
1999-01-01
Total and partial recombination cross sections for F 6+ are calculated using close-coupling and distorted-wave theory. For total cross sections, close-coupling and distorted-wave results, which include interference between the radiative and dielectronic pathways, are found to be in good agreement with distorted-wave results based on a sum of independent processes. Total cross sections near zero energy are dominated by contributions from low-energy dielectronic recombination resonances. For partial cross sections, the close-coupling and distorted-wave theories predict strong interference for recombination into the final recombined ground state 1s 2 2s 21 S 0 of F 5+ , but only weak interference for recombination into the levels of the 1s 2 2s2p configuration. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
New neutron cross sections for fusion materials studies
Greenwood, L.R.; Smither, R.K.
1985-01-01
Neutron cross sections are being developed for a variety of fusion-related applications including neutron dosimetry, fusion plasma diagnostics, the activation of very long-lived isotopes, and high-energy accelerator neutron sources
Density dependence of stopping cross sections measured in liquid ethane
Both, G.; Krotz, R.; Lohmer, K.; Neuwirth, W.
1983-01-01
Electronic stopping cross sections for 7 Li projectiles (840--175 keV) have been measured with the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method in liquid ethane (C 2 H 6 ) at two different densities. The density of the target has been varied by changing the temperature, and measurements have been performed at 0.525 g/cm 3 (199 K) and 0.362 g/cm 3 (287 K). At the higher density the stopping cross section is about 2% smaller. This result agrees with a calculation of the stopping cross section of liquid ethane, applying Lindhard's theory in the local-density approximation using a simple model of the liquid. It is also in agreement with various observations of the so-called physical-state effect, which show that the stopping cross section of the same substance is smaller in a condensed phase than in the gaseous one
Some sources of the underestimation of evaluated cross section uncertainties
Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.
2003-01-01
The problem of the underestimation of evaluated cross-section uncertainties is addressed. Two basic sources of the underestimation of evaluated cross-section uncertainties - a) inconsistency between declared and observable experimental uncertainties and b) inadequacy between applied statistical models and processed experimental data - are considered. Both the sources of the underestimation are mainly a consequence of existence of the uncertainties unrecognized by experimenters. A model of a 'constant shift' is proposed for taking unrecognised experimental uncertainties into account. The model is applied for statistical analysis of the 238 U(n,f)/ 235 U(n,f) reaction cross-section ratio measurements. It is demonstrated that multiplication by sqrt(χ 2 ) as instrument for correction of underestimated evaluated cross-section uncertainties fails in case of correlated measurements. It is shown that arbitrary assignment of uncertainties and correlation in a simple least squares fit of two correlated measurements of unknown mean leads to physically incorrect evaluated results. (author)
Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1980-06-01
Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table
Charge exchange cross-sections for multiply charged ions
Midha, J.M.; Gupta, S.C.
1990-01-01
A new empirical relation for charge exchange cross-section has been proposed for different charge states of C, N and O colliding with neutral hydrogen. Results are compared with the experimental data. (Author)
Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys
1996-06-20
The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...
Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements
Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.
1975-01-01
This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)
100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base
Gopalakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs
Scattering cross-section of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder
Jiaming Shi; Lijian Qiu; Ling, Y.
1995-01-01
Scattering of em waves by the plasma cylinder is of significance in radar target detection, plasma diagnosis, etc. This paper discusses the general method to calculate the scattering cross-section of em waves from a plasma cylinder which is radially inhomogeneous and infinitely long. Numerical results are also provided for several plasma density profiles. The effect of the electron density distribution on the scattering cross-section is investigated
Photoneutron cross sections for D2O and beryllium
Bowsher, H.F.; Woods, F.J.; Baumann, N.P.
1975-01-01
The photodissociation cross section by 24 Na gamma rays was measured for deuterium in order to resolve a discrepancy between earlier measurements (1.43 to 1.59 millibarns) and a more recently reported one (1.34 mb). The measurement of the beryllium (γ,n) cross section for 24 Na gamma rays was also included as a check. Results for deuterium (1.54 mb) are in agreement with the earlier values
Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition
Holden, N.E.
1981-01-01
This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: 55 Mn(n,γ), 59 Co(n,γ) and 197 Au(n,γ). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed
Electromagnetic-gravitational conversion cross sections in external electromagnetic fields
Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan Tran, A.
1994-09-01
The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condenser and the magnetic field of the solenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario. (author). 11 refs
The γ total cross section and the photon structure functions
Alexander, G.
1986-01-01
A review on the current experimental status of the photon-photon total hadronic cross section as a function of energy and Q 2 is given in addition to the results obtained for the leptonic and hadronic photon structure functions. The results are discussed in terms of the point-like part of the photon and non-perturbative VDM part. It is shown that the cross section at Q 2 = 0 is well described by VDM derived models
Determination of molecular ionization cross sections in an ICR spectrometer
Takashima, K.; Riveros, J.M.
1976-01-01
Ionization cross sections have been determined for simple gases at 75eV in an ICR spectrometer. Results obtained using a calibrated ion gauge as a pressure indicator yield values which are consistently higher than accepted values by as much as 15%. These results suggest that a more convenient way to measure pressure in ICR experiments might be to record the total ion current and to use the tabulated ionization cross sections where available [pt
Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory
Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development
Triply differential cross sections for ionization of helium by electrons
Brauner, M.; Briggs, J.S.; Broad, J.T.
1991-01-01
A correlated three-body continuum wavefunction, already successfully employed to describe hydrogen atom impact ionization, is used to calculate the triply-differential cross section for electron impact ionization of helium. A good description is obtained of all the major structure in the differential cross sections in both symmetric and asymmetric geometries. It is demonstrated how interference between the various projectile-target interactions is necessary to reproduce the experimentally observed structure. (author)
Cross section and linear polarization of tagged photons
Asai, J.; Caplan, H.S.; Skopik, D.M.; DelBianco, W.; Maximon, L.C.
1988-01-01
Formulae for bremsstrahlung cross sections and polarizations are usually presented in coordinate systems not very suitable for application by experimental physicists to devices such as photon-tagging monochromators. In this paper the transformations between the different coordinate systems are presented, along with examples of the calculated cross sections and polarizations in a form convenient from the experimental standpoint. These examples also give the predicted characteristics of the photon tagger currently under construction at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. (16 refs., 19 figs., tab.)
Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12C
Kolbe, E.
1996-01-01
Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12 C are calculated within the (continuum) random phase approximation model. The charged current (ν e ,e - ) and (ν μ ,μ - ) capture reactions on 12 C are measured by the LSND Collaboration at LAMPF. We investigate and discuss the merits of such studies, especially the information that can be extracted from data for differential neutrino scattering cross sections. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Low energy total cross section of 36Ar
Mughabghab, S.F.; Magurno, B.A.
1975-01-01
To compare the predictions of the valence model with measured partial radiative widths of 36 Ar an accurate knowledge of the bound-level parameters is required. This is achieved by carrying out a Breit-Wigner parameter fit to the total cross section of 36 Ar measured by Chrien et al and renormalized to the recommended values of the thermal capture and scattering cross sections. (1 figure, 1 table) (U.S.)
Measurements of the electron and muon inclusive cross-sections
We present the measurements of the differential cross-sections for inclusive electron and muon production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s = 7 TeV, using ∼ 1.4 pb-1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The muon cross-section is measured as a function of muon ...
Inelastic neutron spectra and cross sections for 238 U
Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.V.
1994-01-01
The report discusses the experimental facilities of IPPE, results of spectra and cross sections investigations. The problems of existing data libraries were highlighted. Some of these problems for example, inelastic spectra at high energy may be solved by correct theoretical calculation. Others like level cross sections at E > 2 MeV and the possible structure of excitation function for group levels between 0.5 to 0.85 MeV demand new experimental efforts. 21 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs
MINERvA - neutrino nucleus cross section experiment
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
Recent results from MINERvA, a neutrino cross section experiment at Fermilab, are presented. MINERVA has the goal of providing precision results which will have important impact on oscillation experiments. Initial data runs for muon neutrino and antineutrino beams of ~3.5 GeV have produced a large number of new results. This seminar will introduce the experiment and describe results for quasielastic, pion production, and inclusive cross sections.
Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence
Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.
2010-01-01
Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...
An Ada environment for relativistic cross section calculations
Nilsson, E.
1990-01-01
We have developed an Ada environment adapted to relativistic cross section calculations. Objects such as four-vectors, γ- matrices and propagators are defined as well as operations between these objects. In this environment matrix elements can be expressed in a compact and readable way as Ada code. Unpolarized cross sections are calculated numerically by explicitly summing and averaging over spins and polarizations. A short presentation of the technique is given
Cross sections of the interactions of He nuclei with protons
Glagolev, V.V.; Lebedev, R.M.; Pestova, G.D.; Shimansky, S.S.; Kravcikova, M.; Seman, M.; Sandor, L.; Dirner, A.; Hlavacova, J.; Martinska, G.; Urban, J.; Khairetdinov, K.U.; Braun, H.; Gerber, J.P.; Juillot, P.; Michalon, A.; Kacharava, A.K.; Menteshashvili, Z.P.; Nioradze, M.S.; Salukvadze, Z.R.; Sobczak, T.; Stepaniak, J.
1993-01-01
4 He-p collisions at two values of 4 He momenta 8.6 GeV/c and 13.6 GeV/c as well as the 3 He-p collisions at 13.5 GeV/c have been studied using the one-meter JINR hydrogen bubble chamber. Total, elastic, topological and reaction cross sections have been measured. The cross sections have been determined on a sample of minimum biased events. (orig.)
Summary of activation cross section measurements at FNS
Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kasugai, Y.; Kumar, A.
1996-01-01
Neutron activation cross sections around 14 MeV for seventeen reactions have been measured at the FNS facility in JAERI in order to provide experimental data meeting the requirement in the radioactive wastes disposal assessment in the D-T fusion reactor. This report summarizes contributing data measured in several phases of experiments to the IAEA-CRP on ''Activation Cross sections for the Generation of Long-Lived radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab
Ideal gas scattering kernel for energy dependent cross-sections
Rothenstein, W.; Dagan, R.
1998-01-01
A third, and final, paper on the calculation of the joint kernel for neutron scattering by an ideal gas in thermal agitation is presented, when the scattering cross-section is energy dependent. The kernel is a function of the neutron energy after scattering, and of the cosine of the scattering angle, as in the case of the ideal gas kernel for a constant bound atom scattering cross-section. The final expression is suitable for numerical calculations
Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes
Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; Egidy, T. von; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.
2003-01-01
New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122 Te, 124 Te, 125 Te, 126 Te, 128 Te, and 130 Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial γ-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and γ intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given
Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes
Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; Egidy, T. von; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.
2004-01-01
New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given
Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes
Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.
2004-03-01
New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.
Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section
Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-03-01
We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)
Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections
Greynat, David; Rafael, Eduardo de; Vulvert, Grégory
2014-01-01
We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log 2 s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π + π − , π ± π 0 and π 0 π 0 scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N c and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N c QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N c counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ π ± π 0 total (s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N c Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections
Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP
Maekawa, Fujio; Sakurai, Kiyoshi
1999-01-01
A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)
Total cross sections for electron scattering by He
De Heer, F.J.; Jansen, R.H.J.
1977-01-01
A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no inelastic processes occur, the total cross sections for scattering are equal to those for elastic scattering. Above 19.8 eV total cross sections for scattering of electrons have been evaluated by adding those for ionisation, excitation and elastic scattering. The total cross sections thus obtained are probably accurate to about 5% over a large part of the energy range. They appear to be in very good agreement with the recent experimental results of Blaauw et al. (J. Phys. B.; 10:L299 (1977)). The present results have already proved useful for application in the dispersion relation for forward scattering in electron-helium collisions. (author)
Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies
Maninder Singh Setia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.
Setia, Maninder Singh
2016-01-01
Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite
Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N
2009-01-01
Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es
Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu
Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan
2017-10-01
The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.
Utilization of cross-section covariance data in FBR core nuclear design and cross-section adjustment
Ishikawa, Makoto
1994-01-01
In the core design of large fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essentially important to improve the prediction accuracy of nuclear characteristics from the viewpoint of both reducing cost and insuring reliability of the plant. The cross-section errors, that is, covariance data are one of the most dominant sources for the prediction uncertainty of the core parameters, therefore, quantitative evaluation of covariance data is indispensable for FBR core design. The first objective of the present paper is to introduce how the cross-section covariance data are utilized in the FBR core nuclear design works. The second is to delineate the cross-section adjustment study and its application to an FBR design, because this improved design method markedly enhances the needs and importance of the cross-section covariance data. (author)
ACTIV87 Fast neutron activation cross section file 1987
Manokhin, V.N.; Pashchenko, A.B.; Plyaskin, V.I.; Bychkov, V.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Schwerer, O.
1989-10-01
This document summarizes the content of the Fast Neutron Activation Cross Section File based on data from different evaluated data libraries and individual evaluations in ENDF/B-5 format. The entire file or selective retrievals from it are available on magnetic tape, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)
Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data
Lawrence E Raffalovich
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.
Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)
Hofmeyer, H.
2005-01-01
Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This
Photoneutron and Photonuclear Cross Sections According to Packed cluster Model
El-Mekkawi, L.S.; El-Bakty, O.M.
1998-01-01
Photonuclear gross sections have been estimated for 232 Th, 237 Np, 239 Pu, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV, by perturbation balance in Packed Cluster. The Packed Cluster (gamma, f) and (gamma, n) cross sections require complete absence of any (gamma,2n) or (gamma,nf) cross sections for 233 U and 234 U as in experiment. It also explains the early (gamma,n) and gamma,nf) reactions in 235 U
Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides
Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi
1998-01-01
Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)
View-CXS neutron and photon cross-sections viewer
Subbaiah, K.V.; Sunil Sunny, C.
2004-01-01
A graphical user-friendly interface is developed in Visual Basic (VB)-6 to view the variation of neutron and photon interaction cross-sections of different isotopes as a function of energy. VB subroutines developed read the binary data files of cross-sections created in MCNP-ACE (Briesmeister, J.F., 1993. MCNP - a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. Version 4A. LANL, USA), ANISN-DLC (Engle W.W. Jr., 1967, A User's Manual for ANISN, K-1693; ORNL, 1974. 100 group neutron cross section data based on ENDF/B-III. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) and KENO-AMPX (Petrie, L.M., Landers, N.F., 1984 KENO-Va- An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program with Super Grouping. RSICC-CCC-548, USA) formats using LAHEY-77 Fortran Compiler. The information on isotopes present in each library will be displayed with the help of database files prepared using Micro-Soft ACESS. The cross-section data can be viewed in different presentation styles namely, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms etc., with different color and symbol options. The cross-section plots generated can be saved as Bit-Map file to embed in any other text files. This software enables inter comparison of cross-sections from different type of libraries for isotopes as well as mixtures. Provision is made to view the cross-sections for nuclear reactions such as (n,γ), (n,f), (n,α), etc. The software can be obtained from Radiation Safety Information and Computational Centre (RSICC), ORNL, USA with the code package identification number PSR-514. The software package needs a hard disk space of about 80 MB when installed and works in WINDOWS-95/98/2000 operating systems
Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds
Jorgensen, Leland H.
1958-01-01
To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.
EDDIX--a database of ionisation double differential cross sections.
MacGibbon, J H; Emerson, S; Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H
2011-02-01
The use of Monte Carlo track structure is a choice method in biophysical modelling and calculations. To precisely model 3D and 4D tracks, the cross section for the ionisation by an incoming ion, double differential in the outgoing electron energy and angle, is required. However, the double differential cross section cannot be theoretically modelled over the full range of parameters. To address this issue, a database of all available experimental data has been constructed. Currently, the database of Experimental Double Differential Ionisation Cross sections (EDDIX) contains over 1200 digitalised experimentally measured datasets from the 1960s to present date, covering all available ion species (hydrogen to uranium) and all available target species. Double differential cross sections are also presented with the aid of an eight parameter functions fitted to the cross sections. The parameters include projectile species and charge, target nuclear charge and atomic mass, projectile atomic mass and energy, electron energy and deflection angle. It is planned to freely distribute EDDIX and make it available to the radiation research community for use in the analytical and numerical modelling of track structure.
Penning ionization cross sections of excited rare gas atoms
Ukai, Masatoshi; Hatano, Yoshihiko.
1988-01-01
Electronic energy transfer processes involving excited rare gas atoms play one of the most important roles in ionized gas phenomena. Penning ionization is one of the well known electronic energy transfer processes and has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. The present paper reports the deexcitation (Penning ionization) cross sections of metastable state helium He(2 3 S) and radiative He(2 1 P) atoms in collision with atoms and molecules, which have recently been obtained by the authors' group by using a pulse radiolysis method. Investigation is made of the selected deexcitation cross sections of He(2 3 S) by atoms and molecules in the thermal collisional energy region. Results indicate that the cross sections are strongly dependent on the target molecule. The deexcitation probability of He(2 3 S) per collision increases with the excess electronic energy of He(2 3 S) above the ionization potential of the target atom or molecule. Another investigation, made on the deexcitation of He(2 1 P), suggests that the deexcitation cross section for He(2 1 P) by Ar is determined mainly by the Penning ionization cross section due to a dipole-dipole interaction. Penning ionization due to the dipole-dipole interaction is also important for deexcitation of He(2 1 P) by the target molecules examined. (N.K.)
Transport cross section for small-angle scattering
D'yakonov, M.I.; Khaetskii, A.V.
1991-01-01
Classical mechanics is valid for describing potential scattering under the conditions (1) λ much-lt α and (2) U much-gt ℎυ/α, where λ is the de Broglie wavelength, α is the characteristic size of the scatterer, U is the characteristic value of the potential energy, and υ is the velocity of the scattered particle. The second of these conditions means that the typical value of the classical scattering angle is far larger than the diffraction angle λ/α. In this paper the authors show that this second condition need not hold in a derivation of the transport cross section. In other words, provided that the condition λ much-lt α holds, it is always possible to calculate the transport cross section from the expressions of classical mechanics, even in the region U approx-lt ℎυ/α, where the scattering is diffractive,and the differential cross section is greatly different from the classical cross section. The transport cross section is found from the classical expression even in the anticlassical case U much-lt ℎυ/α, where the Born approximation can be used
Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability
Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-26
An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γ_{γ}), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.
Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions
Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.
2002-01-01
When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)
Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance
E. D. Sofen
2015-12-01
et al. (2015 as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961 used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.
Electron-collision excitation cross section of the silver atom
Krasavin, A.Y.; Kuchenev, A.N.; Smirnov, Y.M.
1983-01-01
The cross sections for direct excitation by electron collision were measured for fifteen transitions of the silver atom. For thirteen of these transitions the optical excitation functions were recorded, varying the energy of the exciting electrons from the threshold energy to 250 eV. The operating region of the spectrum was 2000--5500 A. The excitation cross sections of the two principal lines exceeded the excitation cross sections of all the remaining lines by more than an order of magnitude. Reabsorption of the resonance lines was detected from the change in the ratio of intensities of the lines at 3280.68 and 3382.89 A, and so their intensity has been corrected relative to the intensities of the nonreabsorbed lines. All radiative transitions, with the exception of resonance transitions, participate in cascade population of the lowest resonance levels, making it possible to determine the resulting direct excitation cross sections of the 5p 2 P/sub 1/2/ and 5p 2 P/sub 3/2/ levels from the ground state of the silver atom. The part played by cascade population of the resonance levels is not large and is 2 P/sub 3/2/ level, and 10% for the 5p 2 P/sub 1/2/ level, of the excitation cross sections of the corresponding resonance transitions
(n, Xn) cross sections measurements at 96 MeV
Sagrado Garcia, Inmaculada C.
2006-01-01
Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n, Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross sections measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL laboratory, in Uppsala (Sweden). The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 deg.-98 deg.). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100 MeV). The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparisons between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its original treatment of nucleon-nucleus reactions. (author) [fr
Electron-impact ionization cross section of rubidium
Kim, Y.; Migdalek, J.; Siegel, W.; Bieron, J.
1998-01-01
A theoretical model for electron-impact ionization cross section has been applied to Rb and the theoretical cross section (from the threshold to 1 keV in incident energy) is in good agreement with the recent experimental data obtained using Rb atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap. The theoretical model, called the binary-encounter endash dipole (BED) model, combines a modified Mott cross section with the high-energy behavior of Born cross sections. To obtain the continuum dipole oscillator strength df/dE of the 5s electron required in the BED model, we used Dirac-Fock continuum wave functions with a core polarization potential that reproduced the known position of the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section. For inner-shell ionization, we used a simpler version of df/dE, which retained the hydrogenic shape. The contributions of the 4p→4d, 5s, and 5p autoionizing excitations were estimated using the plane-wave Born approximation. As a by-product, we also present the dipole oscillator strengths for the 5s→np 1/2 and 5s→np 3/2 transitions for high principal quantum numbers n near the ionization threshold obtained from the Dirac-Fock wave functions with the same core polarization potential as that used for the continuum wave functions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Simulation of multistatic and backscattering cross sections for airborne radar
Biggs, Albert W.
1986-07-01
In order to determine susceptibilities of airborne radar to electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasures simulations of multistatic and backscattering cross sections were developed as digital modules in the form of algorithms. Cross section algorithms are described for prolate (cigar shape) and oblate (disk shape) spheroids. Backscattering cross section algorithms are also described for different categories of terrain. Backscattering cross section computer programs were written for terrain categorized as vegetation, sea ice, glacial ice, geological (rocks, sand, hills, etc.), oceans, man-made structures, and water bodies. PROGRAM SIGTERRA is a file for backscattering cross section modules of terrain (TERRA) such as vegetation (AGCROP), oceans (OCEAN), Arctic sea ice (SEAICE), glacial snow (GLASNO), geological structures (GEOL), man-made structures (MAMMAD), or water bodies (WATER). AGCROP describes agricultural crops, trees or forests, prairies or grassland, and shrubs or bush cover. OCEAN has the SLAR or SAR looking downwind, upwind, and crosswind at the ocean surface. SEAICE looks at winter ice and old or polar ice. GLASNO is divided into a glacial ice and snow or snowfields. MANMAD includes buildings, houses, roads, railroad tracks, airfields and hangars, telephone and power lines, barges, trucks, trains, and automobiles. WATER has lakes, rivers, canals, and swamps. PROGRAM SIGAIR is a similar file for airborne targets such as prolate and oblate spheroids.
Can cross sections be accurately known for priori?
Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.
2008-01-01
Distinct maxima and minima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in our large scale covariance calculations using a spherical optical potential. In this contribution we investigate the physical origin of this oscillating structure. Specifically, we analyze the case of neutron reactions on 56 Fe, for which total cross section uncertainties are characterized by the presence of five distinct minima at 0.1, 1.1, 5, 25, and 70 MeV. To investigate their origin, we calculated total cross sections by perturbing the real volume depth V v by its expected uncertainty ±ΔV v . Inspecting the effect of this perturbation on the partial wave cross sections we found that the first minimum (at 0.1 MeV) is exclusively due to the contribution of the s-wave. On the other hand, the same analysis at 1.1 MeV showed that the minimum is the result of the interplay between s-, p-, and d-waves; namely the change in the s-wave happens to be counterbalanced by changes in the p- and d-waves. Similar considerations can be extended for the third minimum, although it can be also explained in terms of the Ramsauer effect as well as the other ones (at 25 and 70 MeV). We discuss the potential importance of these minima for practical applications as well as the implications of this work for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections
Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections
Ulrich Ralf
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.
Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-07-01
Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V.
Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP
Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2001-01-01
The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.
Double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections
Miller, T. M.; Townsend, L. W.
2004-01-01
Current computational tools used for space or accelerator shielding studies transport energetic heavy ions either using a one-dimensional straight-ahead approximation or by dissociating the nuclei into protons and neutrons and then performing neutron and proton transport using Monte Carlo techniques. Although the heavy secondary particles generally travel close to the beam direction, a proper treatment of the light ions produced in these reactions requires that double-differential cross sections should be utilised. Unfortunately, no fundamental nuclear model capable of serving as an event generator to provide these cross sections for all ions and energies of interest exists currently. Herein, we present a model for producing double-differential heavy-ion production cross sections that uses heavy-ion fragmentation yields produced by the NUCFRG2 fragmentation code coupled with a model of energy degradation in nucleus-nucleus collisions and systematics of momentum distributions to provide energy and angular dependences of the heavy-ion production. (authors)
Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons
Fridman, A.
1991-06-01
Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections σ(B±p), σB d,s 0 , σ(bar B d,s 0 P), σ(D d,s ± P), σ(D 0 p), σ(bar D 0 p) from known total K p cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that σ(Q bar q)p > σ(bar Qq)p
Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer
Sjoegren, Johan [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
2015-02-27
The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π^{0}-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV^{2} and 4.82-10.92 GeV^{2} respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π^{0}-photoproduction cross section.
Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?
Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-03-15
Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.
Evaluation of fission product neutron cross sections for JENDL
1984-01-01
The recent activities on the evaluation of fission product (FP) neutron cross sections for JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) are presented briefly. The integral test of JENDL-1 FP cross section file was performed using the CFRMF sample activation data and the STEK sample reactivity data, and the ratio of experiment to calculation was nearly constant for all the samples in the STEK measurement. Therefore, a tentative analysis was performed by applying the correction to the calculated scattering reactivity component. Better agreement with the experiment was obtained after applying this correction in most cases. The evaluation work on the JENDL-2 FP neutron cross sections is now in progress. The improvement of the data evaluation is presented in an itemized form. The JENDL-2 FP file will contain the evaluated data for 100 nuclides from Kr to Tb. The improvement and the future scope of the integral test for JENDL-2 FP data are summarized. (Asami, T.)
High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section
Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2002-05-01
New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees
Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements
Tel, Eyyup; Kavun, Yusuf; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki
2017-09-01
Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.
Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples
Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K.; Dailey, J.M.
1981-01-01
A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were 241 Am and 244 Cm in the forms of Am 2 O 3 , Cm 2 O 3 , and Am 6 Cm(RE) 7 O 21 , where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program
Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements
Tel Eyyup
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.
Charge transfer cross sections for dysprosium and cerium
Adachi, Hajime; Tamura, Koji; Okazaki, Tetsuji; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-06-01
Symmetric resonant charge transfer cross sections between singly ionized ions and the parent atoms were measured for dysprosium and cerium in the impact energy of 200-2000eV. The cross sections were determined from the ratio between the number of ions produced by charge transfer and those in primary ion beam. The primary ion beam was produced by a laser ion source in which their atoms were ionized by laser resonant photo-ionization. The slow ions produced by charge transfer and fast primary ions were detected with Faraday cups. The obtained cross sections were (1.82{+-}0.14) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} for dysprosium and (0.88{+-}0.12) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} for cerium in the above energy range. The difference of these values can mostly be explained by considering the electron configurations of these atoms and ions. (author)
Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?
Rolbiecki, Krzysztof
2013-03-01
Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2σ, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m t 1 ∝200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies
Braun, M.A.
1988-01-01
Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions
Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.
1982-07-01
Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V
Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell
Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard
2015-06-14
Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.
Fission-neutron displacement cross sections in metals
Takamura, Saburo; Aruga, Takeo; Nakata, Kiyotomo
1985-01-01
The sensitivity damage rates for 22 metals were measured after fission-spectrum neutron irradiation at low temperature and the experimental damage rates were compared with the theoretical calculation. The relation between the theoretical displacement cross section and the atomic weight of metals can be written by two curves; one is for fcc and hcp metals, and another is for bcc metals. On the other hand, the experimental displacement cross section versus atomic weight is shown approximately by a curve for both fcc and bcc metals, and the cross section for hcp metals deviates from the curve. The defect production efficiency is 0.3-0.4 for fcc metals and 0.6-0.8 for bcc metals. (orig.)
Absolute cross-section measurements of inner-shell ionization
Schneider, Hans; Tobehn, Ingo; Ebel, Frank; Hippler, Rainer
1994-12-01
Cross section ratios for K- and L-shell ionization of thin silver and gold targets by positron and electron impact have been determined at projectile energies of 30 70 keV. The experimental results are confirmed by calculations in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) which include an electron exchange term and account for the deceleration or acceleration of the incident projectile in the nuclear field of the target atom. We report first absolute cross sections for K- and L-shell ionization of silver and gold targets by lepton impact in the threshold region. We have measured the corresponding cross sections for electron (e-) impact with an electron gun and the same experimental set-up.
Charge transfer cross sections for dysprosium and cerium
Adachi, Hajime; Tamura, Koji; Okazaki, Tetsuji; Shibata, Takemasa
1998-06-01
Symmetric resonant charge transfer cross sections between singly ionized ions and the parent atoms were measured for dysprosium and cerium in the impact energy of 200-2000eV. The cross sections were determined from the ratio between the number of ions produced by charge transfer and those in primary ion beam. The primary ion beam was produced by a laser ion source in which their atoms were ionized by laser resonant photo-ionization. The slow ions produced by charge transfer and fast primary ions were detected with Faraday cups. The obtained cross sections were (1.82±0.14) x 10 -14 cm 2 for dysprosium and (0.88±0.12) x 10 -14 cm 2 for cerium in the above energy range. The difference of these values can mostly be explained by considering the electron configurations of these atoms and ions. (author)
Asymptotic behaviour of pion-pion total cross-sections
Greynat, David [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli “Federico II”,Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rafael, Eduardo de [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Université de Toulon, CNRS,CPT, UMR 7332, 83957 La Garde (France); Vulvert, Grégory [Departament de Física Teórica, IFIC,CSIC - Universitat de València, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain)
2014-03-24
We derive a sum rule which shows that the Froissart-Martin bound for the asymptotic behaviour of the ππ total cross sections at high energies, if modulated by the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the leading log{sup 2} s behaviour, cannot be an optimal bound in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for π{sup +}π{sup −}, π{sup ±}π{sup 0} and π{sup 0}π{sup 0} scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (CχQM) in the limit of a large number of colours N{sub c} and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same ππ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-N{sub c} QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin I=1 and I=0 spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-N{sub c} counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the σ{sub π{sup ±}π{sup 0total}}(s) cross section predicted by the CχQM with the high energy behaviour predicted by the Large-N{sub c} Ansatz. The magnitude of these cross sections at very high energies is of the order of those observed for the pp and pp-bar scattering total cross sections.
Neutrino-nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments
Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco
2018-01-01
Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors, beams
Cross sections for fast-neutron interaction with ytterbium isotopes
Luo, Junhua; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li; Ge, Suhong; Liu, Zhenlai; Sun, Guihua
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The cross sections for the (n,x) reactions on ytterbium isotopes have been measured. ► Mono-energetic neutron beams using the D + T reaction; Energies: 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. ► Neutron cross-section measurements by means of the activation technique. ► Reference reactions 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb and 27 (n,α) 24 Na. ► Data for 172 Yb(n,p) 172 Tm and 176 Yb(n,d * ) 175 Tm are reported for the first time. - Abstract: Measurements of (n,2n), (n,p), and (n,d * ) (The expression (n,d * ) cross section used in this work includes a sum of (n,d), (n,np) and (n,pn) cross sections.) reaction cross-sections on ytterbium isotopes have been carried out in the range of 13.5–14.8 MeV using the activation technique. The monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 3 H(d,n) 3 He reaction. The neutron energies of different directions were determined using the Nb/Zr method. Samples were activated along with along with Nb and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron flux. Data are reported for the following reactions: 168 Yb(n,2n) 167 Yb, 170 Yb(n,2n) 169m+g Yb, 176 Yb(n,2n) 175m+g Yb, 172 Yb(n,p) 172 Tm, 173 Yb(n,p) 173 Tm, 176 Yb(n,d * ) 175 Tm, 174 Yb(n,p) 174 Tm, and 176 Yb(n,p) 176 Tm. The experimentally deduced cross-sections are compared with the existing experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical statistical model, based on the Hauser–Feshbach formalism, have been carried out using the HFTT
Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies
Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.
1985-01-01
The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data
Update to the R33 cross section file format
Vickridge, I.C.
2003-01-01
In September 1991, in response to the workshop on cross sections for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) held in Namur (July 1991, Nuclear Instruments and Methods B66(1992)), a simple ascii format was proposed to facilitate transfer and collation of nuclear reaction cross section data for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and especially for Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Although intended only as a discussion document, the ascii format - referred to as the R33 (Report 33) format - has become a de facto standard. In the decade since this first proposal there have been spectacular advances in computing power and in software usability, however the cross-platform compatibility of the ascii character set has ensured that the need for an ascii format remains. Nuclear reaction cross section data for Nuclear Reaction analysis has been collected and archived on internet web sites over the last decade. This data has largely been entered in the R33 format, although there is a series of elastic cross sections that are expressed as the ratio to the corresponding Rutherford cross sections that have been entered in a format referred to as RTR (ratio to Rutherford). During this time the R33 format has been modified and added to - firstly to take into account angular distributions, which were not catered for in the first proposal, and more recently to cater for elastic cross sections expressed as the ratio-to- Rutherford, which it is useful to have for some elastic scattering programs. It is thus timely to formally update the R33 format. There also exists the large nuclear cross section data collections of the Nuclear Data Network - of which the core centres are the OECD NEA Nuclear Data Bank, the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, the Brookhaven National Laboratory National Nuclear Data Centre and CJD IPPE Obninsk, Russia. The R33 format is now proposed to become a legal computational format for the NDN. It is thus also necessary to provide an updated formal definition of the R33 format in order to provide
PCS a code system for generating production cross section libraries
Cox, L.J.
1997-01-01
This document outlines the use of the PCS Code System. It summarizes the execution process for generating FORMAT2000 production cross section files from FORMAT2000 reaction cross section files. It also describes the process of assembling the ASCII versions of the high energy production files made from ENDL and Mark Chadwick's calculations. Descriptions of the function of each code along with its input and output and use are given. This document is under construction. Please submit entries, suggestions, questions, and corrections to (ljc at sign llnl.gov) 3 tabs
On analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections
Godunov, A.L.; Ivanov, P.B.
1999-01-01
The problem of providing accurate recommended analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections is discussed, and a number of approaches are considered on the sample case of neon and its ions. The previously known fits are being reassessed using complete experimental and theoretical data, with the preference for experiment, to avoid systematic shifts introduced by the present calculation methods. The feasibility of the standard BELI formula is investigated in detail, and a number of other analytical expressions is suggested, approximating single-ionization cross sections in the whole range of energies. The factors influencing the accuracy of the fits and the physical meaning of the parameters obtained are discussed. (orig.)
Heavy flavour hadro-production cross-sections
Wöhri, H K
2003-01-01
Hadro-production data on charm and beauty absolute cross-sections, collected by experiments at CERN, DESY and Fermilab, are reviewed. The measurements, corrected for the 'time evolution' of the branching ratios, are compared to calculations done with Pythia, as a function of the collision energy, using the latest parametrizations of the parton densities. We then estimate some charm and beauty production cross-sections relevant for future measurements, including nuclear effectes in the PDFs. We finish by briefly addressing the relevance, in heavy-ion collisions, of beauty production as feed-down for J/psi production.
Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production
Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F
1989-01-01
A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...
Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2012-11-01
We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.
The 53Cr(γ,p)52V cross section
Baciu, G.; Catana, D.; Galateanu, V.; Niculescu, R.I.V.
1979-01-01
The cross section of the photonuclear reaction 53 Cr(γ,p) 52 V between 14.4 MeV and 27 MeV was determined by the activation method. Chromium with natural isotopic abundance was irradiated in the bremsstrahlung beam of a betatron and γ rays were measured with a Ge(Li) spectrometer. Interfering reactions 52 Cr(n,p) 52 V and 54 Cr(γ,np) 52 V were evaluated. The stucture of the cross section curve is interpreted in terms of isospin splitting. (author)
A benchmarking procedure for PIGE related differential cross-sections
Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Fazinić, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Provatas, G.
2018-05-01
The application of standard-less PIGE requires the a priori knowledge of the differential cross section of the reaction used for the quantification of each detected light element. Towards this end, a lot of datasets have been published the last few years from several laboratories around the world. The discrepancies often found between different measured cross sections can be resolved by applying a rigorous benchmarking procedure through the measurement of thick target yields. Such a procedure is proposed in the present paper and is applied in the case of the 19F(p,p‧ γ)19F reaction.
Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2012-11-15
We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.
The γ* p total cross section at low x
Schildknecht, D.
2001-01-01
We have shown that the HERA data on DIS in the low-x diffraction region, including Q 2 = 0 photoproduction, find a natural interpretation in the GVD/CDP that rests on the generic structure of two-gluon exchange from QCD. The gluon density that in the appropriate limit corresponds to the color-dipole cross section is consistent with the results from QCD fits. The cross sections for real and virtual photons on protons become identical in the limit of infinite energy
Geodesic acoustic modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks
Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com; Lakhin, V. P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
The influence of the shape of the plasma cross section on the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak is analyzed in the framework of the MHD model. An expression for the frequency of a local GAM for a model noncircular cross section plasma equilibrium is derived. Amendments to the oscillation frequency due to the plasma elongation and triangularity and finite tokamak aspect ratio are calculated. It is shown that the main factor affecting the GAM spectrum is the plasma elongation, resulting in a significant decrease in the mode frequency.
High transfer cross sections from reactions with 254Es
Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Bruegger, M.; Gaeggeler, H.; Moody, J.; Schardt, D.; Suemmerer, K.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, A.D.; Dougan, R.J.; Landrum, J.H.; Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; O'Kelly, G.D.
1985-08-01
We report radiochemically determined cross sections for the heaviest known actinides produced in transfer reactions of 101 MeV 16 O, 98 MeV 18 O and 127 MeV 22 Ne with 254 Es as a target. A comparison with data for similar transfers from 248 Cm targets is made. Transfer cross sections are extrapolated for the production of unknown, neutron-rich isotopes of elements 101 through 105, and the unique potential of 254 Es as a target to make these exotic nuclei accessible is demonstrated. (orig.)
Activities of the JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center
Gallagher, J.W.
1983-01-01
The JILA Atomic Collisions Cross Sections Data Center compiles, critically evaluates, and reviews cross sections and rates for low energy (<100 keV) collisions of electrons, photons, and heavy particles with atoms, ions, and simple molecules. Reports are prepared which provide easily accessible recommended data with error limits, list the fundamental literature related to specific topics, identify regions where data are missing, and point out inconsistencies in existing data. The general methodology used in producing evaluated compilations is described. Recently completed projects and work in progress are reported
Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library
Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin
2008-01-01
Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)
Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections
Muscato Orazio
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.
Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing
Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)
1978-10-01
These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)
Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization
Nassif, S.
1982-07-01
The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181 Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated
Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF
Gerdes, D.
1994-09-01
Using data collected during the 1992--93 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross section where one b is detected from a muon from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions
Intubation simulation with a cross-sectional visual guidance.
Rhee, Chi-Hyoung; Kang, Chul Won; Lee, Chang Ha
2013-01-01
We present an intubation simulation with deformable objects and a cross-sectional visual guidance using a general haptic device. Our method deforms the tube model when it collides with the human model. Mass-Spring model with the Euler integration is used for the tube deformation. For the trainee's more effective understanding of the intubation process, we provide a cross-sectional view of the oral cavity and the tube. Our system also applies a stereoscopic rendering to improve the depth perception and the reality of the simulation.
Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.
1982-12-01
Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V
Evaluation of the 238U neutron total cross section
Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.
1982-12-01
Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of 238 U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V
New SCALE-4 features related to cross-section processing
Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Greene, N.M.; Parks, C.V.
1991-01-01
The SCALE code system has a standardized scheme for processing problem-dependent cross section from problem-independent waste libraries. Some improvements and new capabilities in the processing scheme have been incorporated into the new Version 4 release of the SCALE system. The new features include the capability to consider annular cylindrical and spherical unit cells, and improved Dancoff factor formulation, and changes to the NITAWL-II module to perform resonance self-shielding with reference to infinite dilute values. A review of these major changes in the cross-section processing scheme for SCALE-4 is presented in this paper
Thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples
Nghiep, T.D.; Vinh, T.T.; Son, N.N.; Vuong, T.V.; Hung, N.T.
1989-01-01
A modified steady method for determining the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples 500 cm 3 in volume is described. The method uses a moderating block of paraffin, Pu-Be neutron source emitting 1.1x10 6 n.s. -1 , SNM-14 counter and ordinary counting equipment. The interval of cross section from 2.6 to 1.3x10 4 (10 -3 cm 2 g -1 ) was measured. The experimental data are described by calculation formulae. 7 refs.; 4 figs
Rosenbluth separation of the $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross section
Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.
2016-01-01
We present deeply virtual $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross-section measurements at $x_B$=0.36 and three different $Q^2$--values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV$^2$, obtained from experiment E07-007 that ran in the Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The Rosenbluth technique was used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component, and thus is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics....
Inclusive jet cross sections and jet shapes at CDF
Wainer, N.
1991-09-01
The inclusive jet cross section and jet shapes at √s = 1.8 TeV have been measured by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. results are compared to recent next-to-leading order QCD calculations, which predict variation of the cross section with cone size, as well as variation of the jet shape with energy. A lower limit on the parameter Λ c , which characterize a contact interaction associated with quark sub-structure is determined to be 1400 GeV at the 95% confidence level. 3 refs., 4 figs
Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod
V. L. Danilov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai
Resonances in photoionization. Cross section for vibrationally excited H2
Mezei, J.Zs.; Jungen, Ch.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Diatomic molecular Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in interstellar molecular clouds. The modeling of these environments relies on accurate cross sections for the various relevant processes. Among them, the photoionization plays a major role in the kinetics and in the energy exchanges involving H 2 . The recent discovery of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in extragalactic environments revealed the need for accurate evaluation of the corresponding photoionization cross sections. In the present work we report theoretical photoionization cross sections for excitation from excited vibrational levels of the ground state, dealing with the Q(N = 1) (ΔN = 0, where N is the total angular momentum of the molecule) transitions which account for roughly one third of the total photoabsorption cross section. We will focus on the v' = 1 excited level of the ground electronic state. Our calculations are based on Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), which allows us to take into account of the full manifold of Rydberg states and their interactions with the electronic continuum. We have carried out two types of MQDT calculations. First, we omitted all open channels and calculated energy levels, wave functions and spontaneous emission Einstein coefficients, making use of the theoretical method presented in [2]. In a second set of calculations we included the open ionization channels in the computations getting the continuum phase shifts, channel mixing coefficients and channel dipole moments and finally the photoabsorption/ photoionization cross section. The cross section is dominated by the presence of resonance structures corresponding to excitation of various vibrational levels of bound electronic states which lie above the ionization threshold. In order to assess the importance of the resonances we have calculated for each vibrational interval (the energy interval between two consecutive ionization thresholds) the
Radar Cross Section (RCS) Simulation for Wind Turbines
2013-06-01
wind turbines are unsafe to operate. Also, helical wind turbines generally have less environmental concerns such as killing birds , especially in...SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES by Cuong Ton June 2013 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader: Ric Romero THIS PAGE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Cuong Ton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
Hinshaw, W.S.; Andrew, E.R.; Bottomley, P.A.; Holland, G.N.; Moore, W.S.; Worthington, B.S.
1978-01-01
High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique. (author)
Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.
Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S
1978-04-01
High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.
Radar cross sections for mesospheric echoes at Jicamarca
G. A. Lehmacher
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Radar cross sections (RCS of mesospheric layers at 50 MHz observed at Jicamarca, Peru, range from 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, three orders of magnitudes smaller than cross sections reported for polar mesospheric winter echoes during solar proton events and six orders of magnitude smaller than polar mesospheric summer echoes. Large RCS are found in thick layers around 70 km that also show wide radar spectra, which is interpreted as turbulent broadening. For typical atmospheric and ionospheric conditions, volume scattering RCS for stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence at 3 m are also in the range 10−18 to 10−16 m−1, in reasonable agreement with measurements. Moreover, theory predicts maximum cross sections around 70 km, also in agreement with observations. Theoretical values are still a matter of order-of-magnitude estimation, since the Bragg scale of 3 m is near or inside the viscous subrange, where the form of the turbulence spectrum is not well known. In addition, steep electron density gradients can increase cross-sections significantly. For thin layers with large RCS and narrow spectra, isotropic turbulence theory fails and scattering or reflection from anisotropic irregularities may gain relevance.
Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine
Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2016-10-01
Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.
Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria ...
Musculoskeletal injuries: A cross-sectional study in Irrua, Nigeria. ... Its economic impact on victims and family is tremendous. ... Road traffic collision was the leading cause of injury (121 patients; 80%), and 67.8% of these injuries were ...
Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...
Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions
Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.
2018-02-01
Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.
Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections
Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.
2018-03-01
The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.
Cross-sectional dependence in panel data analysis
Sarafidis, V.; Wansbeek, T.J.
2012-01-01
This article provides an overview of the existing literature on panel data models with error cross-sectional dependence (CSD). We distinguish between weak and strong CSD and link these concepts to the spatial and factor structure approaches. We consider estimation under strong and weak exogeneity of
Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions
Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.
2018-01-01
Roč. 148, SI (2018), s. 338-382 ISSN 0090-3752 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron induced reactions * proton induced reactions * cross sections Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.146, year: 2016
Classical pooling of cross-section and time series data
Nuamah, N.N.N.N.
2000-04-01
This paper discusses the classical pooling of cross-section and time series data. The re-expressions of the normal equations of this model are given to indicate the source of the paradox that arises in the estimation of the regression coefficient. (author)
Event history analysis and the cross-section
Keiding, Niels
2006-01-01
Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....
C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics
Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.
2015-01-01
Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work
Alternating series fit to the total cross sections
Il'in, Yu.; Lendel, A.
1993-01-01
It is show by a simple Regge-type fit suggested recently by Donnachie and Landshoff that the universal pomeron contribution to various total cross sections may be represented by an alternating series a - b log s + c (log s) 2 corresponding to a series of Regge multipoles. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs
XCOM: Photon cross sections on a personal computer
Berger, M.J.; Hubbell, J.H.
1987-07-01
A computer program and data base are presented which can be used to calculate, with a personal computer, photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV
Topological cross section in the perturbative Reggeon calculus
Pajares, C.; Pascual, R.
1977-01-01
The topological cross section sigma/sub n/ and the multiplicities are computed in perturbative Reggeon calculus with a pomeron with α (0) > 1. It is found that the data from p-p scattering can be explain with the same set of parameters obtained from fits to other exclusive and inclusive data
Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data
Shrout, Patrick E.
2011-01-01
Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…
ANALYTIC FITS FOR PARTIAL PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS-SECTIONS
VERNER, DA; YAKOVLEV, DG
We present a compact, uniform and complete set of analytic fits to the partial Hartree-Dirac-Slater photoionization cross sections for the ground state shells of all atoms and ions of elements from H to Zn (Z less-than-or-equal-to 30). Comparison with experiment and theory demonstrates generally
Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section
Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.
The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of
Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes
Cartwright, D.C.
1985-01-01
The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
Evaluation of the D(γ,n) reaction cross section
Murata, T.
1994-01-01
Evaluation was performed for the cross section of photo-disintegration of Deuteron in the photon energy range between the threshold energy of the reaction (2.224 MeV) and pion production threshold (140 MeV). Angular distributions of the emitted neutrons were also evaluated. (author)
Cross sectional evaluation of awareness of prevention of dental ...
Cross sectional evaluation of awareness of prevention of dental caries among general paediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. ... Pre‑tested, structured and self administered questionnaire was used in the survey and data analysis was done by using 'SPSS' software version 16.0 (IBM, United States). Results: Our study ...
Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production cross-sections
Kocherov, N.P.
1990-11-01
The meeting proceedings were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: Experimental measurement and techniques (3 papers), calculation of photon cross-sections (9 papers), and evaluation (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs
Kinetic description of the total photoabsorption cross section: correlation effects
Ferreira Filho, L.G.; Nemes, M.C.
1986-02-01
It is shown that the inclusion of correlation effects in describing the nuclear photoabsorption cross section leads to a Breit-Wigner type curve with energy dependent width. It is also shown that a very slow energy dependence is enough to reproduce the data up to ∼ 139 MeV. (Author) [pt
K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects
Weiss, Ruth.
1992-11-01
The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,
Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...
Coupled-channels optical model code OPTMAN is used as an alternative to experimental approach to evaluate the total reaction cross section for four different isotopes of Plutonium as an example of heavy rotational nuclei of the transuranium elements over an energy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The selected isotopes are the ...
Scattering chamber facility for double-differential cross-section
inducedcharged-particle productions is very important for estimating the nuclear heating and radiation damage of a fusion reactor. Only a few experimental data are available even though the nuclear reaction cross-section data of structural materials are ...
A Detector for (n,gamma) Cross Section Measurements
Hellstroem, J; Beshai, S
1971-09-15
A new detector to be used for determining total (n,gamma) cross sections has been developed in this laboratory. The detector is a large liquid scintillator of approximately 4pi geometry. When used in an experiment the overall time resolution was found to be 10 ns
Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications
Doran, D.G.; Graves, N.J.
1976-12-01
Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included
Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis
Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.
1982-09-01
Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr
Cross section for inelastic neutron acceleration by 178Hfm2
Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.
2009-01-01
The scattering of thermal neutrons from isomeric nuclei may include events in which the outgoing neutrons have increased kinetic energy. This process has been called Inelastic Neutron Acceleration (INNA) and occurs when the final nucleus after emission of the neutron is left in a state with lower energy than that of the isomer. The result, therefore, is an induced depletion of the isomeric population to the ground state. A cascade of several gammas must accompany the neutron emission to release the high angular momentum of the initial isomeric state. INNA was previously observed in a few cases and the associated cross sections were only in modest agreement with theoretical estimates. The most recent measurement of an INNA cross section was σ INNA = (258 ± 58) b for neutron scattering by 177 Lu m . In the present work, an INNA cross section of σ INNA = 152 -36 +51 b was deduced from measurements of the total burn-up of the high-spin, four-quasiparticle isomer 178 Hf m2 during irradiation by thermal neutrons. Statistical estimates for the probability of different reaction channels past neutron absorption were used in the analysis, and the deduced σ INNA is compared to the theoretically predicted cross section
Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240
Weston, L.W.; Arthur, E.D.
1987-04-01
The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for 240 Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs
Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical
Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)
2012-04-07
Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.
Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron oxides
Huber, Stefan E.; Mauracher, Andreas; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael
2017-12-01
We report electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron oxide molecules, FexOx and FexOx+1 with x = 1, 2, 3, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV, obtained with the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) methods. The maxima of the EICSs range from 3.10 to 9 . 96 × 10-16 cm2 located at 59-72 eV and 5.06 to 14.32 × 10-16 cm2 located at 85-108 eV for the DM and BEB approaches, respectively. The orbital and kinetic energies required for the BEB method are obtained by employing effective core potentials for the inner core electrons in the quantum chemical calculations. The BEB cross sections are 1.4-1.7 times larger than the DM cross sections which can be related to the decreasing population of the Fe 4s orbitals upon addition of oxygen atoms, together with the different methodological foundations of the two methods. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted excellently to a simple analytical expression used in modelling and simulation codes employed in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80308-2.
Phase shifts as functions of the cross section
Atkinson, D.; Kaekebeke, M.; de Roo, M.
1975-01-01
We show that an elastic scattering amplitute may be defined as an implicit function of the differential cross section. A practical method is given for a numerical investigation of this dependence, both in the elastic and in the inelastic regions. In particular, we consider the case of a polynomial
Hadronic total cross sections: which pomeron do they prefer
Kobylinsky, N.A.; Kosenko, A.I.; Martynov, E.S.; Timokhin, V.V.
1985-01-01
All data on nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon total cross sections are analyzed in a scheme with varying pomeron shape and standard form of secondary reggeons. Two solutions are found which result in essentially different asymptotic behaviour, but describe equally well the data at energies attained. Two theoretical possibilities for the pomeron are discussed: the dipole and the froissaron
Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions
Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.
1985-01-01
The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions
Capture cross section and resonance parameters of thulium-169
Arbo, J.C.; Felvinci, J.P.; Melkonian, E.; Havens, W.W. Jr.
1975-01-01
The previously analyzed energy range for thulium capture resonance parameters is extended from 1 keV to 2 keV. In addition, point and group averaged thulium cross section curves are extended to above 2 keV and 181 Ta impurity levels are discussed. (SDF)
A cross-sectional survey on the lifestyle and healthseeking ...
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of practice of a healthy lifestyle, to assess the health education provided to patients with diabetes and to determine the prevalence of obesity among Basotho patients with diabetes. Design: A cross-sectional study enrolled 192 patients between November ...
Inclusive cross sections in ME+PS merging
Plaetzer, Simon
2013-07-01
We discuss an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at leading and next-to-leading order. The algorithm does preserve inclusive cross sections at the respective input order. This constraint avoids potentially large logarithmic contributions, which would require approximate (N)NLO contributions to cancel against.
TOTEM Results on Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section
Kašpar, Jan
2015-01-01
TOTEM is an LHC experiment dedicated to forward hadronic physics. In this contribution, two main parts of its physics programme - proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross-section - are discussed. The analysis procedures are outlined and their status is reviewed.
Tabular cross section file generation and utilization techniques
Cullen, D.E.; Ozer, O.; Weisbin, C.R.
1975-03-01
Criteria of importance to the generation of linear cross section tabulations are presented. Algorithms for reducing or thinning such tables within a desired accuracy criterion and the implementation of paging techniques for efficient utilization of large data tables are reviewed. (1 figure, 3 tables) (U.S.)
Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections
Thompson, W.J.
1976-01-01
By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)
Experimental determination of vibrational cross sections for diatomic molecules
Noqueira, J.C.; Iga, I.; Lee Mu Tao; Lopes, M.C.A.; Almeida, D.P. de
1988-01-01
To obtain inelastic differential cross sections from electronic and vibrational molecular excitations by electron impact, it was constructed a new spectrometer to operate in the energy range from 100 to 500 eV. The deceleration lenses as well as the analyser were tested for nitrogen molecule and 350 eV electrons. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections
Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2006-07-01
A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)
RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections
Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.
2006-01-01
A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)
Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns
Chang, B.; Christoffersen, P.; Jacobs, K.
2013-01-01
The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high
Photon - axion conversion cross sections in an electromagnetic field
Dang Van Soa; Ha Huy Bang
1999-12-01
Photon - axion conversions in static magnetic fields and in a periodic field with frequency equal to the axion mass are reconsidered in detail by Feynman methods. The differential cross sections are presented and numerical evaluations are given. It is shown that there is a resonant conversion for the considered process. Some estimates for experiments are given from our results. (author)
Nuclear structure effects on calculated fast neutron reaction cross sections
Avrigeanu, V.
1992-01-01
The importance of accurate low-lying level schemes for reaction cross section calculation and need for microscopically calculated levels are proved with reference to fast neutron induced reactions in the A = 50 atomic mass range. The uses of the discrete levels both for normalization of phenomenological level density approaches and within Hauser-Feshbach calculations are discussed in this respect. (Author)
Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA
Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.
2003-01-01
Inclusive jet cross sections are measured in photoproduction at HERA using the H1 detector. The data sample of e+ p -> e+ + jet + X events in the kinematic range of photon virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 and photon-proton centre-of-mass energies 95 < W_gammap < 285 GeV represents an integrated luminosity of 24.1 pb^-1. Jets are defined using the inclusive k_T algorithm. Single- and multi-differential cross sections are measured as functions of jet transverse energy E_T^jet and pseudorapidity \\eta^jet in the domain 5 < E_T^jet < 75 GeV and -1 < \\eta^jet < 2.5. The cross sections are found to be in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for fragmentation and underlying event effects. The cross section differential in E_T^jet, which varies by six orders of magnitude over the measured range, is compared with similar distributions from p pbar colliders at equal and higher energies.
Electron scattering cross sections pertinent to electron microscopy
Inokuti, M.
1978-01-01
Some elements of the physics that determine cross sections are discussed, and various sources of data are indicated that should be useful for analytical microscopy. Atoms, molecules, and to some extent, solids are considered. Inelastic and elastic scattering of electrons and some solid-state effects are treated. 30 references
Evaluation of cross sections of Th-232 and U-233
Dias, A.M.
1978-01-01
The cross sections in multigroups of Th-232 and U-233 are evaluated by comparison of theoretical results and experimental data obtained through experiments on the fast reactors IBR-I, EBR-II, BR-I and AETR. The deviation between calculated values and experimental results is about 10%. They are therefore satisfatory for neutronic calculations [pt
Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double ...
The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent ﬁnal photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin ...
Generation of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon dioxide
Ramos, R; Marquez Damian, J.I; Granada, J.R.; Cantargi, F
2009-01-01
A set of neutron scattering cross sections for silicon and oxygen bound in silicon dioxide were generated and validated. The cross sections were generated in the ACE format for MCNP using the nuclear data processing system NJOY, and the validation was done with published experimental data. This cross section library was applied to the calculation of five critical configurations published in the benchmark Critical Experiments with Heterogeneous Compositions of Highly Enriched Uranium, Silicon Dioxide and Polyethylene. The original calculations did not use the thermal scattering libraries generated in this work and presented significant differences with the experimental results. For this reason, the newly generated library was added to the input and the multiplication factor for each configuration was recomputed. The utilization of the thermal scattering libraries did not result in an improvement of the computational results. Based on this we conclude that integral experiments to validate this type of thermal cross sections need to be designed with a higher influence of thermal scattering in the measured result, and the experiments have to be performed under more controlled conditions. [es
Double differential cross sections for methane molecules at intermediate energies
Yavuz, Murat; Ozer, Zehra Nur; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut; Okumus, Nimet; Sahlaoui, Mohammed; Benmansour, Houda; Bouamoud, Mammar
2014-01-01
Double differential cross sections (DDCS) can be obtained by the measurements of energy and angular distributions of one of the two outgoing electrons by a detector. In this pespective, we used methane molecule as a target that is reasonable to expect to understand ionization mechanisms of polyatomic molecular systems.
Measured and evaluated fast neutron cross sections of elemental nickel
Guenther, P.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Whalen, J.; Howerton, R.
1975-07-01
Fast neutron total and scattering cross sections of elemental nickel are measured. Differential elastic scattering cross sections are determined from incident energies of 0.3 to 4.0 MeV. The cross sections for the inelastic neutron excitation of states at: 1.156 +- 0.015, 1.324 +- 0.015, 1.443 +- 0.015, 2.136 +- 0.013, 2.255 +- 0.030, 2.449 +- 0.030, 2.614 +- 0.020 and 2.791 +- 0.025 MeV are measured to incident neutron energies of 4.0 MeV. The total neutron cross sections are determined from 0.25 to 5.0 MeV. The experimental results are discussed in the context of optical and statistical models. It is shown that resonance width-fluctuation and correlation effects are significant. The present experimental and theoretical results, together with previously reported values, are used to construct a comprehensive evaluated elemental data file in the ENDF format. Some comparisons are made with previously reported evaluated files. In addition, some selected reactions which are widely used in dosimetry and other applications are presented as supplemental evaluated isotopic-data files. The numerical quantities are presented in tabular form. (3 tables, 29 figures)
A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...
Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...
Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI
Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
1998-03-01
Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)
C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics
Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.
2015-06-01
Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.
Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions
Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)
2013-04-15
We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.
Capital yields assessment trough cross section production function
Kodera, Jan; Pánková, V.
2001-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 79-87 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : yield of capital * cross-section production function * maximisation of profit Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Neutrino-carbon cross section in QRPA models
Samana, Arturo R.; Krmpotic, Francisco; Bertulani, Carlos A.; Paar, Nils
2009-01-01
Full text follows. The ν/ν-bar - 12 C cross sections are calculated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA) [1,2] and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) [3,4]. We compare these cross section as a function of the incident neutrino energy and the number of shells used in the nuclear structure calculation. Additional comparison with other RPA models are performed. A guide to find an upper limit of the incident neutrino energy as a function of the number of shell is implemented. Important consequences on the extrapolation of the cross section to higher neutrino energies is discussed. The formalism obtained in Ref. [1] for the neutrino interaction is extended for antineutrino scattering. This formalism includes the effect of the violation of the Conserved Vector Current by the Coulomb field. It is furthermore simplified by classifying the nuclear matrix elements in natural and unnatural parities. The distribution of cross sections averaged with the Michel spectrum as well as with other estimated fluxes for future experiments are compared for ν e and ν-bar e . Some astrophysical implications are addressed. References [1] F. Krmpotic, A. Mariano and A. Samana, Phys.Lett. B541, 298 (2002). [2] F. Krmpotic, A. Mariano and A. Samana, Phys. Rev. C 71, 044319 (2005). [3] N. Paar, T. Niksic, D. Vretenar, and P. Ring, Phys. Rev. C 69, 054303 (2004). [4] N. Paar, D. Vretenar, T. Marketin and P. Ring, Phys. Rev. C 77, 024608 (2008)
Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms
Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby
2018-01-01
Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.
Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double ...
degraded gamma quanta at the same time as the recoil electron. ... [2–4] are confined to energy, angular distribution, collision differential cross section and ... The positions of the two detectors are adjusted in such a way that they do not ... the energy values weighted in proportion to the probability for occurrence of this ...
Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.
Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T
2008-10-02
The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.
Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions
Fisher, V.I.; Ralchenko, Y.V.; Bernshtam, V.A.; Goldgirsh, A.; Maron, Y.; Vainshtein, L.A.; Bray, I.; Golten, H.
1997-01-01
Convergent close-coupling (CCC) and Coulomb-Born with exchange and normalization (CBE) methods are used to study electron-impact excitation of hydrogenlike ions. The nl→n ' l ' cross sections demonstrate (i) good agreement between the CCC and CBE results, (ii) a scaling over ion nuclear charge z, (iii) a domination of the dipole (l ' =l±1) contributions in total n→n ' cross sections, and (iv) significant effect of electron exchange in the energy range x n,n ' ). For ions with z>5 the n→n ' cross sections obtained in the CCC and CBE approximations agree with each other to better than 10% for any x. An accuracy of the cross sections scaling over z 4 depends on z: for z=6 endash 18 the scaling is accurate to better than 10% (quantitative analysis is done for n ' 4 scaling more significantly (at x about unity). The n→n ' cross sections are presented by a formula which fits our CCC and CBE results with an accuracy to better than 10% (for transitions with n ' 5). The new Gaunt factor G(x) suggested for the widely used Van Regemorter formula [Astrophys. J. 136, 906 (1962)] makes this formula accurate to better than 50% in the x>3 range and to better than 20% in the x>100 range. It is shown that the semiempirical formula by Vainshtein, Sobelman, and Yukov provides an accuracy to better than 50% for any incident electron energy. For x<2 this formula is accurate to better than 30%. These accuracy assessments are based on a comparison with our CCC and CBE results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Recent progress in fast neutron activation cross section data
Michaelis, W.
A brief review is given of some significant investigations performed during the past few years in the area of fast neutron activation cross sections that may be relevant for the use of nuclear techniques in the exploration of mineral resources, in process and quality control in industry as well as for general analytical purposes. Differential capture cross sections are considered for the natural elements or isotopes of Fe, Cu, Se, Y, Nb, Cd, In, Gd, W, Os and Au. Some of the data are compared with statistical model calculations. Experimental and evaluated average cross sections for capture and threshold reactions in the spontaneous fission neutron field of 252 Cf are reviewed taking into account the elements or isotopes of Mg, Al, Si, S, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cd, In, Ba, Ta and Au. A summary of recent studies of differential cross sections for threshold reactions comprises data on Al, Si, S, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Ta, W and Au. Besides experimental investigations, evaluations and theoretical model calculations are considered. Cross sections at 14 MeV and in the region around this energy are reviewed for Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Zr, Nb, In, Er, Yb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, Au and Pb. Particular emphasis is laid on (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions. (n,n') reactions are allowed for if the half-life of the metastable state excited permits elemental analyses by common experimental techniques. (orig.)
Shear strength of reinforced concrete circular cross-section beams
P. W. G. N. Teixeira
Full Text Available A proposed adequation of NBR 6118, Item 7.4, related to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams is presented with aims to application on circular cross-section. The actual expressions are most suitable to rectangular cross-section and some misleading occurs when applied to circular sections at determination of VRd2, Vc and Vsw, as consequence of bw (beam width and d (effective depth definitions as well as the real effectiveness of circular stirrups. The proposed adequation is based on extensive bibliographic review and practical experience with a great number of infrastructure elements, such as anchored retaining pile walls, where the use of circular reinforced concrete members is frequent.
Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections
Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray
2015-04-01
Cross-sections are often constructed from data to create a visual impression of the geologist's interpretation of the sub-surface geology. However as with all interpretations, this vision of the sub-surface geology is uncertain. We have designed and carried out an experiment with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty in geological cross-sections created by experts interpreting borehole data. By analysing different attributes of the data and interpretations we reflect on the main controls on uncertainty. A group of ten expert modellers at the British Geological Survey were asked to interpret an 11.4 km long cross-section from south-east Glasgow, UK. The data provided consisted of map and borehole data of the superficial deposits and shallow bedrock. Each modeller had a unique set of 11 boreholes removed from their dataset, to which their interpretations of the top of the bedrock were compared. This methodology allowed quantification of how far from the 'correct answer' each interpretation is at 11 points along each interpreted cross-section line; through comparison of the interpreted and actual bedrock elevations in the boreholes. This resulted in the collection of 110 measurements of the error to use in further analysis. To determine the potential control on uncertainty various attributes relating to the modeller, the interpretation and the data were recorded. Modellers were asked to fill out a questionnaire asking for information; such as how much 3D modelling experience they had, and how long it took them to complete the interpretation. They were also asked to record their confidence in their interpretations graphically, in the form of a confidence level drawn onto the cross-section. Initial analysis showed the majority of the experts' interpreted bedrock elevations within 5 metres of those recorded in the withheld boreholes. Their distribution is peaked and symmetrical about a mean of zero, indicating that there was no tendency for the experts to either under
Fission fragment angular distributions and fission cross section validation
Leong, Lou Sai
2013-01-01
The present knowledge of angular distributions of neutron-induced fission is limited to a maximal energy of 15 MeV, with large discrepancies around 14 MeV. Only 238 U and 232 Th have been investigated up to 100 MeV in a single experiment. The n-TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides ( 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U, 234 U, 237 Np) at the n-TOF facility using an experimental set-up made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC), extending the energy domain of the incident neutron above hundreds of MeV. The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. I will show the methods we used to reconstruct the full angular resolution by the tracking of fission fragments. Below 10 MeV our results are consistent with existing data. For example in the case of 232 Th, below 10 MeV the results show clearly the variation occurring at the first (1 MeV) and second (7 MeV) chance fission, corresponding to transition states of given J and K (total spin and its projection on the fission axis), and a much more accurate energy dependence at the 3. chance threshold (14 MeV) has been obtained. In the spallation domain, above 30 MeV we confirm the high anisotropy revealed in 232 Th by the single existing data set. I'll discuss the implications of this finding, related to the low anisotropy exhibited in proton-induced fission. I also explore the critical experiments which is valuable checks of nuclear data. The 237 Np neutron-induced fission cross section has recently been measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n-TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements, the n-TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7 % beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of n-TOF data, we simulate a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237 Np. This
AXMIX program for cross section mixing and library arrangement
Haynes, G.C.
1976-03-01
AXMIX is a FORTRAN IV computer code written to provide the user a tool for creating cross-section data sets for ANISN and DOT from cross-section sets already available on cards, nuclide-organized libraries, and group-independent data sets. Numerous options, including adjointing, P/sub n/ adjustments, and changing table length, are available to give the user broad flexibility. The number of energy groups which will fit into the core allocated is determined first. If all groups will fit, the solution is straightforward; if not, then the maximum number of groups which will fit is processed repeatedly by using direct access I/O and storage disks. Some flexibility in applying AXMIX is lost when cross sections to be processed contain upscatter. A special section on upscatter is included in the report. AXMIX is written for IBM System 360 computers with at least 150K bytes of memory. Problems of a practical nature require from 2 to 20 seconds of CPU time on a 360/91 computer. Running time is inversely proportional to the number of groups of data which will fit into core memory. I/O time is 50 to 100 times CPU time
Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes
Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Kaeppeler, F.; Reffo, G.
1994-03-01
The neutron capture cross sections of 134 Ba, 135 Ba, 136 Ba, and 137 Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector. Several runs have been performed under different experimental conditions to study the systematic uncertainties, which resulted mainly from the large ratios of total to capture cross sections of up to 400. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ∼3%, an improvement by factors of five to eight compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134 Ba and 136 Ba the N s ratio was determined to 0.875±0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134 Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T 8 =2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the N s systematics in the mass range A=120 to 150 is achieved. This allows for a more reliable separation of s- and r-process yields, resulting in an improved assignment of the respective contributions to elemental barium that is required for comparison with stellar observations. (orig.) [de
Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons
Alrefae, Majed Abdullah
2013-05-01
Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength
Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects
Sekizawa, Kazuyuki
2017-07-01
Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing
Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections
Hannula, K. A.
2012-12-01
Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the
Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions
Bosetti, P.C.; Deden, H.; Deutschmann, M.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Hasert, F.J.; Morfin, J.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Seyfert, H.; Banerjee, S.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Beuselinck, R.; Butterworth, I.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Powell, K.J.; Davis, C.L.; Grossman, P.; McGow, R.; Mulvey, J.H.; Myatt, G.; Perkins, D.H.; Pons, R.; Radojicic, O.; Renton, P.; Saitta, B.; Stenger, V.
1978-01-01
The cross sections for γ and anti γ neutral current interactions for which the hadron energy is > 15 GeV have been measured. These results, and the ratios of neutral current to charged current sections, are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. Values of sin 2 thetasub(w) have been obtained both with and without the use of a parametrisation for the hadronic part of the interaction; the values are in good agreement with each other and the preferred result, that obtained by the method independent of hadronic models, is sin 2 thetasub(w) = 0.22 +- 0.05. (Auth.)
Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking
Mitri, F. G.
2017-10-01
Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility.
Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking
Mitri, F G
2017-01-01
Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility. (letter)
A dissociative electron attachment cross-section estimator
Munro, James J; Harrison, Stephen; Fujimoto, Milton M; Tennyson, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) is the major process where molecules are destroyed in low-energy plasmas. DEA cross sections are therefore important for a whole variety of applications but are both hard to measure or compute accurately. A method for estimating DEA cross sections based a simple resonance plus survival model is presented. Test results are presented for DEA of molecular oxygen and molecular chlorine, for which experimental measurements are available for comparison, and SiBr and SiBr 2 , for which no previous data is available. The estimator has been implemented as part of Quantemol-N expert system which uses the R-matrix method to predict resonance positions and widths.
Fusion cross sections measurement for 6Li + 159Tb
Pradhan, M.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Ray, M.; Parkar, V.; Santra, S.; Kailas, S.; Palit, R.
2009-01-01
In order to investigate the effect of projectile breakup threshold energy on fusion in mass region around A∼170, we have carried out a systematic investigation of the fusion (both CF and ICF) cross sections for the systems 11 B, 10 B + 159 Tb and 7 Li + 159 Tb at energies near and close to the barrier where 11 B was considered to be a strongly bound nucleus. The nucleus 10 B has a α-separation energy of 4.5 MeV. The measurements show that the extent of suppression of CF cross sections is correlated with the α-separation energies of the projectiles. As a further continuation of this work, we have recently carried out fusion excitation function measurement for the system 6 Li + 159 Tb (Coulomb barrier 27 MeV) at energies near and close to the barrier
Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS
Wilk, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Measurements of inclusive and differential top-quark production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. An inclusive measurements of top quark pair production as well as measurement of the cross section for single top production in association with a Z boson is is presented and both are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Two differential measurement of the kinematic properties of top quark events are presented: one involving a single top produced in association with a W boson and one with top-antitop pair events which decay to an allhadronic final state.
Tearing instability in a tokamak with a noncircular cross section
Arsenin, V. V., E-mail: arsenin-vv@nrcki.ru; Skovoroda, A. A., E-mail: skovoroda-aa@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Using a straight-column model to describe tokamak plasma with a noncircular cross section, it is shown how to (i) find the boundary of tearing instability from the condition of existence of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibrium different from that of a straight cylinder by solving a two-dimensional linear boundary-value problem with a second-order equation with respect to the flux coordinate and (ii) find the spatial structure of the tearing mode and the corresponding effective Δ' when there is only one resonance magnetic surface in the plasma for a given axial wavenumber by solving some kind of a boundary-value problem for the perturbation. The proposed approach is illustrated by numerical calculations for the case of an elliptical cross section as an example.
Formulating analytic expressions for atomic collision cross sections
Tabata, Tatsuo; Kubo, Hirotaka; Sataka, Masao
2003-08-01
Methods to formulate analytic expression for atomic collision cross sections as a function of projectile energy are described on the basis of the experiences of the data compilation work for more than 20 years. Topics considered are the choice of appropriate functional forms for the expressions and optimization of adjustable parameters. To make extrapolation possible, functions to be used should have the form with reasonable asymptotic behavior. In this respect, modified Green-McNeal formulas have been found useful for various atomic collision cross sections. For ionization processes, a modified Lotz formula has often given a good fit. The ALESQ code for least-squares fits has been convenient to optimize adjustable parameters in analytic expressions. (author)
Improved activation cross sections for vanadium and titanium
Muir, D.W.; Arthur, E.D.
1983-01-01
Vanadium alloys such as V-20Ti and V-Cr-Ti are attractive candidates for use as structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets. The virtual absence of long-lived activation products in these alloys suggest the possibility of reprocessing on an intermediate time scale. We have employed the modern Hauser-Feshbach nuclear-model code GNASH to calculate cross sections for neutron-activation reactions in 50 V and 51 V, to allow a more accurate assessment of induced radioactivity in vanadium alloys. In addition, cross sections are calculated for the reactions 46 Ti(n,2n) and 45 Ti(n,2n) in order to estimate the production of 44 Ti, a 1.2-MeV gamma-ray source with a half-life of 47 years
Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section
Sanja Grubeša
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.
Experimental validation of lead cross sections for scale and MCNP
Henrikson, D.J.
1995-01-01
Moving spent nuclear fuel between facilities often requires the use of lead-shielded casks. Criticality safety that is based upon calculations requires experimental validation of the fuel matrix and lead cross section libraries. A series of critical experiments using a high-enriched uranium-aluminum fuel element with a variety of reflectors, including lead, has been identified. Twenty-one configurations were evaluated in this study. The fuel element was modelled for KENO V.a and MCNP 4a using various cross section sets. The experiments addressed in this report can be used to validate lead-reflected calculations. Factors influencing calculated k eff which require further study include diameters of styrofoam inserts and homogenization
Inclusive charged particle cross sections in photoproduction at HERA
Abt, I.
1994-03-01
Cross sections are presented for the inclusive production of charged particles measured in electron-proton collisions at low Q 2 with the H1 detector at HERA. The transverse momentum distribution extends up to 8 GeV/c. Its shape is found to be harder than that observed in anti pp collisions at comparable centre-of-mass energies √s γp ∼√s anti pp∼200 GeV, and also harder than in γp collisions at lower energies √s γp ∼18 GeV. Results from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations agree with the measured transverse momentum and pseudorapidity cross sections. (orig.)
Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector
Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration
2011-01-01
The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.
Inclusive quasifree electrofission cross section for 238U
Likhachev, V.P.; Carvalho, W.R. Jr.; Deppman, A.; Hussein, M.S.; Macedo, L.F.R.; Mesa, J.; Vaudeluci, M.S.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Evseev, I.G.; Pashchuk, S.A.; Schelin, H.R.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Margaryan, A.; Nesterenko, V.O.
2003-01-01
We present results from a joint theoretical and experimental study of inclusive quasifree electrofission of 238 U. The off-shell cross sections for the quasifree reaction stage have been calculated within the plane wave impulse approximation with distortion corrections included in the effective momentum approximation. Proton and neutron single-particle momentum distributions were calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic approach. The fissility for proton and neutron single hole excited states of the residual nuclei 237 Pa and 237,238 U was calculated within the compound nucleus model. Final state interaction corrections to residual nucleus excitation energy were calculated using the imaginary part of the optical potential. The total inclusive electrofission cross section was measured with high absolute precision, and all principal partial contributions are analyzed, in particular, the quasifree one
Radar Cross Section measurements on the stealth metamaterial objects
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, Kim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.
have been realized in the form of thin, flexible metallized films of polyimide [1]. Here we apply a near-unity absorbing MM as a way to reduce the radar cross section of an object, and consider the real-life situation where the probe beam is significantly larger than the MM film and the object under...... investigation. We use a terahertz radar cross section (RCS) setup [2] for the characterization of the RCS of a real object covered with an absorbing MM film designed for high absorption in the THz frequency range, specifically at 0.8 THz. The results are in a form of 2D maps (sinograms), from which the RCS...
Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6
Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.
2000-01-01
Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation
Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections
Naumov, I. V.; Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A.
2015-01-01
The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results
Jet cross sections in polarized photon-hadron collisions
de Florian, Daniel
1999-01-01
We present a computation of one- and two-jet cross sections in polarized photon-hadron collisions, which is accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD. Our results can be used to compute photoproduction cross sections in electron-proton scattering. To this purpose, we investigate the structure of the polarized Weizsaecker-Williams function, where we include a universal, non-logarithmic term, neglected in the literature. We construct a Monte Carlo code, within the framework of the subtraction method, and we use it to study the phenomenology of jet production in the energy range relevant to HERA. In particular, we investigate the perturbative stability of our results, and we discuss the possibility of constraining polarized parton densities of the proton and the photon using jet data.
Optimization of negative central shear discharges in shaped cross sections
Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S., Taylor, T.S., Casper, T.A., Rice, B.W.; Greene, J.M., Greenfield, C.M., La Haye, R.J., Lao, L.L., Lee, B.J.; Miller, R.L., Ren, C., Strait, E.J., Tritz, K.; Rettig, C.L., Rhodes, T.L.; Sauter, O.
1996-10-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analyses of Negative Central Shear (NCS) equilibria have revealed a new understanding of the limiting MHD instabilities in NCS experiments. Ideal stability calculations show a synergistic effect between cross section shape and pressure profile optimization; strong shaping and broader pressure independently lead to moderately higher Β limits, but broadening of the pressure profile in a strongly dee-shaped cross- section leads to a dramatic increase in the ideal Β limit. Localized resistive interchange (RI) modes can be unstable in the negative shear region and are most restrictive for peaked pressure profiles. Resistive global modes can also be destabilized significantly below the ideal P limit. Experiments largely confirm the general trends, and diagnostic measurements and numerical stability calculations are found to be in good qualitative agreement. Observed disruptions in NCS discharges with L-mode edge and strongly peaked pressure, appear to be initiated by interactions between the RI, and the global ideal and resistive modes
Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties
Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2016-01-01
Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....
Integral bounds for N-body total cross sections
Osborn, T.A.; Bolle, D.
1979-01-01
We study the behavior of the total cross sections in the three- and N-body scattering problem. Working within the framework of the time-dependent two-Hilbert space scattering theory, we give a simple derivation of integral bounds for the total cross section for all processes initiated by the collision of two clusters. By combining the optical theorem with a trace identity derived by Jauch, Sinha, and Misra, we find, roughly speaking, that if the local pairwise interaction falls off faster than r -3 , then sigma/sub tot/(E) must decrease faster than E/sup -1/2/ at high energy. This conclusion is unchanged if one introduces a class of well-behaved three-body interactions
Inclusive photon cross section at 13 TeV
Cueto , Ana; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of prompt photon production in proton-proton collisions provide a testing ground for perturbative QCD with a hard colourless probe. This kind of measurements were recently used to investigate novel approaches to the description of parton radiation, showcasing the importance of resummation of threshold logarithms in QCD and of electroweak corrections, further they are also sensitive at leading order to the gluon density in the proton. ATLAS has made public very recently the first measurements of inclusive photon production in the new kinematic regime opened by the 13 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive photo-production cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125 GeV in different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the measured cross section and provide an adequate description of the data.
Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver
Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.
1982-05-01
Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 0 . Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V
Differential cross sections for e-bar CO elastic scattering
Raj, Deo; Meetu
2005-01-01
In a recent investigation, Raj and Kumar modified the absorption potential of Staszewska el at al in such a way that it yielded the best agreement between theory and experiment for elastic cross sections when applied to e-bar - O 2 scattering over a wide incident energy range. In the present investigation, the same modified absorption potential of Raj and Kumar has been employed to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (EDCS) for electron scattering by CO molecules at intermediate energies (100-800 eV). The independent atom model alongwith partial waves has been used for these calculations.The present results of EDCS are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. (author)
PIA and REWIND: Two New Methodologies for Cross Section Adjustment
Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.
2017-02-01
This paper presents two new cross section adjustment methodologies intended for coping with the problem of compensations. The first one PIA, Progressive Incremental Adjustment, gives priority to the utilization of experiments of elemental type (those sensitive to a specific cross section), following a definite hierarchy on which type of experiment to use. Once the adjustment is performed, both the new adjusted data and the new covariance matrix are kept. The second methodology is called REWIND (Ranking Experiments by Weighting for Improved Nuclear Data). This new proposed approach tries to establish a methodology for ranking experiments by looking at the potential gain they can produce in an adjustment. Practical applications for different adjustments illustrate the results of the two methodologies against the current one and show the potential improvement for reducing uncertainties in target reactors.
Neutron cross sections for the interpretation of a spallation experiment
Bortignon, P.F.; Mariani, F.; Perini, A.; Sangiust, V.
1994-01-01
An irradiation was carried out in a spallation neutron spectrum at the beam stop of LAMPF (Los Alamos); many activation detectors were used in order to obtain a fluence mapping inside the capsule volume. The cross sections were derived from ENDF B/V Dosimetry File up to 20 MeV and were based on calculations with the code ALICE up to 200 MeV. From 200 to 800 MeV an empirical extrapolation was employed since no data, calculated or measured, were available at the moment. An attempt has been made in this paper to revisit the interpretation of the experiment reconsidering the cross sections in the energy range from 200 to 800 MeV as given by the semiempirical models of Rudstam, Silberger and Tsao and Hufner
Neutron total cross section measurements on 249Cf
Carlton, R.F.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Benjamin, R.W.
1979-01-01
Neutron total cross section measurements were performed on a sample of 249 Cf (5.65 mg total weight) with the ORELA as a source of pulsed neutrons. The sample, the inverse thickness of which was 1542 barns/atom, consisted of 85.3% 249 Cf and 14.4% 249 Bk, and was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Analyses were also made of data from a thin sample (l/n = 17430) of 65% 249 Cf in the region of the large fission resonance at 0.7 eV. Fifty-five resonances in 249 Cf were observed and analyzed over the energy range 0.1 eV to 90 eV by use of an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained were used to determine the level spacing and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Thermal total cross section measurements were also performed. 5 figures, 3 tables
Neutron capture cross section measurements: case of lutetium isotopes
Roig, O.; Meot, V.; Belier, G.
2011-01-01
The neutron radiative capture is a nuclear reaction that occurs in the presence of neutrons on all isotopes and on a wide energy range. The neutron capture range on Lutetium isotopes, presented here, illustrates the variety of measurements leading to the determination of cross sections. These measurements provide valuable fundamental data needed for the stockpile stewardship program, as well as for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. Measurements, made in France or in United-States, involving complex detectors associated with very rare targets have significantly improved the international databases and validated models of nuclear reactions. We present results concerning the measurement of neutron radiative capture on Lu 173 , Lu 175 , Lu 176 and Lu 177m , the measurement of the probability of gamma emission in the substitution reaction Yb 174 (He 3 ,pγ)Lu 176 . The measurement of neutron cross sections on Lu 177m have permitted to highlight the process of super-elastic scattering
Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy
Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.
1988-01-01
Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)
On higher order corrections to three-jet cross sections
Schierholz, G.
1981-07-01
In this talk I report a calculation of the Sterman-Weinberg type 3-jet cross section to order a 2 sub(s). We have chosen a Sterman-Weinberg type angle and energy cut off for a variety of reasons. In particular, an acceptable 3-jet measure must be insensitive to the emission of soft and/or collinear radiation and to the process of hadronization which, in contrast to many popular 3-jet measures, is uniquely met by the Sterman-Weinberg definition of 3-jet events. The talk is divided into three parts. In the first part I present the results. The second part discusses an independent (algebraic) test of the cross section formula. Finally, in the third part I comment on the contrasting results pioneered by the CALTECH group. (orig.)
The determination of thermal neutron cross section of 81Br
Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Dalaqua Junior, Leonardo
2009-01-01
In this investigation several standard materials were used to determine the thermal neutron cross section of 81 Br. This nuclear parameter is an important data to perform several quantitative investigations, mainly in medical area. In other to confirm and to reduce the uncertainty, a new measurement was preformed using thermal neutron at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP. The result obtained is compatible with the tabulated value and present small uncertainly. (author)
Status of GRACE system - automatic computation of cross sections
Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.; Tanaka, H.
1995-01-01
Automated system is an essential tool for high-energy physics and GRACE system for tree processes makes it possible to calculate cross sections for complicated processes exactly. To check the output of the automatic system we make comparison between Hooft-t-Feynman gauge and unitary gauge, the exchange of external particles, and we check the independence of UV divergence parameter and that of IR divergence parameter
Thermal neutron scattering cross sections of beryllium and magnesium oxides
Al-Qasir, Iyad; Jisrawi, Najeh; Gillette, Victor; Qteish, Abdallah
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Neutron thermalization in BeO and MgO was studied using Ab initio lattice dynamics. • The BeO phonon density of states used to generate the current ENDF library has issues. • The BeO cross sections can provide a more accurate ENDF library than the current one. • For MgO an ENDF library is lacking: a new accurate one can be built from our results. • BeO is a better filter than MgO, especially when cooled down to 77 K. - Abstract: Alkaline-earth beryllium and magnesium oxides are fundamental materials in nuclear industry and thermal neutron scattering applications. The calculation of the thermal neutron scattering cross sections requires a detailed knowledge of the lattice dynamics of the scattering medium. The vibrational properties of BeO and MgO are studied using first-principles calculations within the frame work of the density functional perturbation theory. Excellent agreement between the calculated phonon dispersion relations and the experimental data have been obtained. The phonon densities of states are utilized to calculate the scattering laws using the incoherent approximation. For BeO, there are concerns about the accuracy of the phonon density of states used to generate the current ENDF/B-VII.1 libraries. These concerns are identified, and their influences on the scattering law and inelastic scattering cross section are analyzed. For MgO, no up to date thermal neutron scattering cross section ENDF library is available, and our results represent a potential one for use in different applications. Moreover, the BeO and MgO efficiencies as neutron filters at different temperatures are investigated. BeO is found to be a better filter than MgO, especially when cooled down, and cooling MgO below 77 K does not significantly improve the filter’s efficiency.
Updated Higgs cross section at approximate N3LO
Bonvini, Marco; Ball, Richard D; Forte, Stefano; Marzani, Simone; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2014-01-01
We update our estimate of the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in α s in view of the recent full computation of the result in the soft limit for infinite top mass, which determines a previously unknown constant. We briefly discuss the phenomenological implications. Results are available through the updated version of the ggHiggs code. (paper)
Fast neutron capture cross section facility at Cadarache
Le Rigoleur, C.; Arnaud, A.
1975-01-01
The total energy weighting technique has been applied to measure absolute fast neutron capture cross section at Cadarache. We use a non hydrogeneous liquid scintillator to detect the gamma from the cascade. The neutron flux is measured with a B 10 INa(Tl) detector or Li 6 glass scintillator of well known efficiency. Time of flight technique is used with on line digital computer data processing. (orig.) [de
Removal cross section for 14 mev neutrons in constructional materials
Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.
1985-01-01
Using flight time difference the direct and scattered neutrons and gammas produced in the target head and samples were separated. With this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head has been studied. Thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete was also measured. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections
Cross sections for collisions of subexcitation electrons with molecules
Itikawa, Y.
1983-01-01
A short review is given on the present knowledge about the collision processes of subexcitation electrons (i.e., electrons whose energy is below the threshold of the first electronically excited state) with molecules. The processes considered are: vibrational and rotational excitations and elastic scattering. As an example, stopping cross sections for those processes (and electronic excitation and ionization, for comparison) are shown graphically for N 2 and H 2 O. 21 references, 2 figures
The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns.
Fama, Eugene F; French, Kenneth R
1992-01-01
Two easily measured variables, size and book-to-market equity, combine to capture the cross-sectional variation in average stock returns associated with market "beta", size, leverage, book-to-market equity, and earnings-price ratios. Moreover, when the tests allow for variation in "beta" that is unrelated to size, t he relation between market "beta" and average return is flat, even when "beta" is the only explanatory variable. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.
Spatial interpolation of point velocities in stream cross-section
Hasníková Eliška
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The most frequently used instrument for measuring velocity distribution in the cross-section of small rivers is the propeller-type current meter. Output of measuring using this instrument is point data of a tiny bulk. Spatial interpolation of measured data should produce a dense velocity profile, which is not available from the measuring itself. This paper describes the preparation of interpolation models.
Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb
Frosini, M
2010-01-01
The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.
Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA
Winters, R. R.
2000-08-25
This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + {sup 88}Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model.
Differential cross sections in a thick brane world scenario
Pedraza, Omar; Arceo, R.; López, L. A.; Cerón, V. E.
2018-04-01
The elastic differential cross section is calculated at low energies for the elements He and Ne using an effective 4D electromagnetic potential coming from the contribution of the massive Kaluza-Klein modes of the 5D vector field in a thick brane scenario. The length scale is adjusted in the potential to compare with known experimental data and to set bounds for the parameter of the model.
GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey
Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke
2010-01-01
Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potentia...