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Sample records for jewellery

  1. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  2. Byzantine gold coins and jewellery

    Oddy, A.; La Niece, S.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the dating of Byzantine gold coinage. The results of such a study are of fundamental importance for the study of the economic history of the later Byzantine Empire and they are also of importance for the historian of technology when studying the composition of the contemporary Byzantine jewellery. Although Carbon-14 dating cannot be used as a method af dating, historians can still benefit from the analysis of the alloy of which the antiquity is made, as this is sometimes characteristic of the period in which it was used. A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. A table is given on the results of this analysis

  3. Jewellery

    Hamann, Dathan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Hamann, Carsten R

    2015-01-01

    and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. RESULTS: Eighteen elements were detected. The 10 most frequently occurring were, in order of frequency, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, silver, chromium, tin, manganese, lead, and cobalt. Release of nickel...

  4. Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery ...

    Exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery in some prominent areas in Ghana is a means to exposing the area for metal and ceramic artists and other related fields of discipline such as aesthetics and criticism to complement their form of ... Keywords: livelihood, vitreous, glass bottles, furnace, threading ...

  5. Application of the Fundamental Parameter Method for X-ray fluorescence analysis of gold jewellery alloys

    Le Hong Khiem

    2004-01-01

    The Fundamental Parameter Method has been used for the correction of the matrix effects for determination of the fineness of gold in the ternary Au-Ag-Cu yellow jewellery alloys. A computer code GOLDANA based on this algorithm has been developed for both data taking and on-line determining the fineness of gold jewellery. Only one ternary Au-Ag-Cu standard sample is required. The analysis performance has been tested by measurements conducted on certified gold reference materials, with the use of the fundamental method, could be used for quickly determining the gold concentration in gold jewellery alloys with an acceptable accuracy for the gold jewellery producers. (author)

  6. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Tzintzi Vaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  7. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  8. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G.

    1999-01-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  9. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  10. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Peggy Ama Fening

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  11. Understanding the Online : Jewellery Retail Market : an integrated model to conduct SEM

    Wu, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Research into e-commerce is becoming more and more popular; however the jewellery industry is somewhat special. There are very few studies having adapted a strategic marketing perspective on the online jewellery retail market. This study suggested an integrated online marketing strategy which focuses on the search engine marketing (SEM) approach. A detailed procedure of conducting search engine marketing (SEM) is introduced. Through the method of online questionnaires, with the help of soc...

  12. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Demortier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.)

  13. Ion beam studies of archaeological gold jewellery items

    Demortier, G [Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur (Belgium). Lab. d` Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires

    1996-06-01

    Analytical work on material of archaeological interest performed at LARN mainly concerns gold jewellery, with an emphasis to solders on the artefacts and to gold plating or copper depletion gilding. PIXE, RBS but also PIGE and NRA have been applied to a large variety of items. On the basis of elemental analysis, we have identified typical workmanship of ancient goldsmiths in various regions of the world: finely decorated Mesopotamian items, Hellenistic and Byzantine craftsmanship, cloisonne of the Merovingian period, depletion gilding on Pre-Colombian tumbaga. This paper is some shortening of the work performed at LARN during the last ten years. Criteria to properly use PIXE for quantitative analysis of non-homogeneous ancient artefacts presented at the 12th IBA conference in 1995 are also shortly discussed. (orig.).

  14. Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India.

    Panchadhyayee, Prabodh; Saha, Kaushik; Saha, Indranil; Ta, Rupam Kumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Saha, Arnab; Barma, Pratik; Mitra, Mrinmoy

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a slowly progressive chronic occupational lung disease, developed after a prolong period of exposure to high concentration of silica dust. In this longitudinal study, we enrolled old and new silicosis patients (n=19; 8 jewellery polishers, 11 from other occupations) seen at our Pulmonary Medicine Department from June 2009 to December 2012 to document the course of illness as per their occupational exposure. Six of the eight jewellery polishing workers had developed silicosis within five years of exposure, while six of the 11 other workers with other occupational exposure had developed silicosis after exposure of 10 years or more. Mean duration of exposure was significantly less among jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers (3.4 +/- 1.7 versus 9.3 +/- 4.1; p=0.001). Mean duration of illness (months) (14.9 +/- 5.8 versus 28.5 +/- 16.5; p=0.040) were significantly less among the jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers. At the end of the study period, all eight jewellery polishing workers with silicosis had died while four of the 11 patients with other occupational exposure had died. Silicosis among jewellery polishing workers was found to be more severe and progressive compared to silicosis due to other occupational exposures, in our study.

  15. Nickel and cobalt release from jewellery and metal clothing items in Korea.

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Choi, Hae Young; Byun, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    In Korea, the prevalence of nickel allergy has shown a sharply increasing trend. Cobalt contact allergy is often associated with concomitant reactions to nickel, and is more common in Korea than in western countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of items that release nickel and cobalt on the Korean market. A total of 471 items that included 193 branded jewellery, 202 non-branded jewellery and 76 metal clothing items were sampled and studied with a dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test and a cobalt spot test to detect nickel and cobalt release, respectively. Nickel release was detected in 47.8% of the tested items. The positive rates in the DMG test were 12.4% for the branded jewellery, 70.8% for the non-branded jewellery, and 76.3% for the metal clothing items. Cobalt release was found in 6.2% of items. Among the types of jewellery, belts and hair pins showed higher positive rates in both the DMG test and the cobalt spot test. Our study shows that the prevalence of items that release nickel or cobalt among jewellery and metal clothing items is high in Korea. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gold Finger: Metal Jewellery as a Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Therapy!

    T. Hlaing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyarticular psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, progressive and disabling auto-immune disease often affecting the small joints of the hands in a symmetrical fashion. The disease can progress rapidly causing joint swelling and damaging cartilage and bone around the joints resulting in severe deformities. We report a very unusual case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with polyarticular psoriatic arthritis affecting all proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints of both hands except the left ring finger PIP joint. On clinical examination there was no evidence of arthritis in the left ring finger PIP joint. We confirmed the paucity of joint damage in the PIP joint of the left ring finger using more modern imaging modalities such as musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI scan of the small joints of the hands. All other PIP joints in both hands demonstrated advanced degrees of joint damage secondary to chronic psoriatic inflammatory arthritis. We postulated that wearing a gold wedding ring has helped protecting the PIP joint of the left ring finger from the damaging effect of inflammatory arthritis. The possible mechanisms by which metal jewellery (gold ring confer protection to adjacent joints was discussed.

  17. Entering Chinese market for Finnish fashion jewellery company : case: Ninja Finland Oy

    Wang, Yujue

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, China is expected to become the largest fashion market in the world in a few years. As a result, more and more foreign companies have entered the Chinese market and the market has been more competitive than ever. This requires any fashion company to adopt a strategic development plan when entering the Chinese market. Ninja Finland Oy is a fashion jewellery company which offers a wide range of fashion jewellery and accessories. The comp...

  18. Philosophies and Space and Place connected - A piece of Jewellery and a War Monument

    Christiansen, Elias Melvin; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    to as: Deep Structure; through which he attempts to explore the notion of visual syntax. It is from within this Space that we reconsider another architectural form; Eisenman’s jewellery. What is behind, what are the language of his jewellery, which Eisenman refers to as archetypal symbols...... of the decentered man and his unconsciousness? Do these objects propose a new relationship with the one who wear them? They are not emulating human body or proportions, neither decorative nor figurative. They have their own life, but are they part of a continuum? We follow Eisenman through an elaboration...

  19. THE “TREE OF LIFE” SYMBOL IN JEWELLERY

    TEODOR-STANCIU Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available History and tradition play a very important role in the development of a society. Designed objects were and are adorned with signs and symbols holding various messages and aesthetic particularities. These objects have the ability of spreading emotions through their shape, material, finishing or graphic and are made using different materials, techniques and technologies. By particularising a sign one must take into account its orientation towards certain objects regarding the significance, the culture and the historical period. The sacred geometry, a sum of shapes with religious and cultural values, can be analysed from a scientific, philosophical, aesthetic and mystic point of view. The origin, the nature and the relationship between these shapes are considered to be determined by the surrounding universe. The symbol is an intermediary which favours the communication from the visible reality to the invisible, non-figurative one. One of the shapes with a symbol value, frequently used, is the tree of life. The tree of life is a symbol dating from the Neolithic, but still applied nowadays. Bearing information and witness of the history of a civilisation, the “Tree of life” symbol inspired the artisans and artists from different cultures, being graphically readapted, both due to the technology development, as well as to the society’s maturation. The present paper presents the evolution of the “tree of life” sign, the manner in which it followed the history and civilisation flow, the diversity of objects adorned with it through various working techniques, as well as its evolution through new interpretations in the jewellery design applications. The paper presents the experiment of making a silver pendant with the “Tree of life” symbol, reinterpreted and made using a 3D program.

  20. Study of silver removal from scrap jewellery by way of the flotation process

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a discussion on the proposed solution of using the fl otation process to separate metals from non-metallic components present in the scrap generated while jewellery goods are being ground. For the sake of the studies analysed, a dedicated laboratory station was established.

  1. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli; Møller, Per; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-08-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure. The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items. Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these. This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future. Industries may not be fully aware of the potential cobalt allergy problem.

  2. Interactive jewellery as memory cue : designing a sound locket for individual reminiscence

    Niemantsverdriet, K.; Versteeg, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of Memento: an interactive sound locket for individual reminiscence that triggers a similar sense of intimacy and values as its non-technological predecessor. Jewellery often forms a cue for autobiographical memory. In this work we investigate the role that

  3. Vision-related problems among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing.

    Salve, Urmi Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    American Optometric Association defines Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) as "complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experienced during or related to computer use." This happens when visual demand of the tasks exceeds the visual ability of the users. Even though problems were initially attributed to computer-related activities subsequently similar problems are also reported while carrying any near point task. Jewellery manufacturing activities involves precision designs, setting the tiny metals and stones which requires high visual attention and mental concentration and are often near point task. It is therefore expected that the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing may also experience symptoms like CVS. Keeping the above in mind, this study was taken up (1) To identify the prevalence of symptoms like CVS among the workers of the jewellery manufacturing and compare the same with the workers working at computer workstation and (2) To ascertain whether such symptoms have any permanent vision-related problems. Case control study. The study was carried out in Zaveri Bazaar region and at an IT-enabled organization in Mumbai. The study involved the identification of symptoms of CVS using a questionnaire of Eye Strain Journal, opthalmological check-ups and measurement of Spontaneous Eye Blink rate. The data obtained from the jewellery manufacturing was compared with the data of the subjects engaged in computer work and with the data available in the literature. A comparative inferential statistics was used. Results showed that visual demands of the task carried out in jewellery manufacturing were much higher than that of carried out in computer-related work.

  4. Adverse respiratory effects associated with cadmium exposure in small-scale jewellery workshops in India.

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Blanc, Paul D; Sahu, Subhashis

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important metal with both common occupational and environmental sources of exposure. Although it is likely to cause adverse respiratory effects, relevant human data are relatively sparse. A cross-sectional study of 133 workers in jewellery workshops using Cd under poor hygienic conditions and 54 referent jewellery sales staffs was performed. We assessed symptoms, performed spirometry, measured urinary Cd levels in all study subjects and quantified airborne total oxidant contents for 35 job areas in which the studied workforce was employed. We tested the association of symptoms with exposure relative to the unexposed referents using logistic regression analysis, and tested the association between urinary Cd levels and lung function using multiple regression analysis, adjusting for demographics, smoking and area-level airborne oxidants. Exposed workers had 10 times higher urinary Cd values than referents (geometric mean 5.8 vs 0.41 µg/dl; p600 ml decrement for each, pdecrement in FVC and a 39 ml decrement in FEV1 (p<0.01), taking into account other covariates including workplace airborne oxidant concentrations. This cohort of heavily exposed jewellery workers experienced frequent respiratory symptoms and manifested a marked deficit in lung function, demonstrating a strong response to Cd exposure.

  5. X-ray fluorescence analysis of medieval gold coins and jewellery

    Sandor, Zs.; Gresits, I.

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation method was elaborated to determine the gold, silver and copper concentration of high gold content objects in a non-destructive way. The spectrum evaluation method rules out the effect of the differences in size, shape and surface. A long measuring time allows qualitative analysis of the trace elements: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cd, In and Zn. Using this method, about 200 golden coins and jewellery from the 10th-15th century Hungary and Byzantium were analyzed. Some of the results are presented here. (author)

  6. A study of Relationship Marketing in business-to-business markets focusing on the Indian Jewellery sector

    Godha, Kartika

    2007-01-01

    Relationship marketing today is one the most talked about contemporary marketing strategies and a new paradigm in marketing over a last few decades. However, the operational aspects of this paradigm are still vague and need more investigation. The purpose of this research is to understand the effect of relationship marketing in business-to-business sector emphasizing on Indian gems and jewellery Industry and how different factors add to the creation and development of relationships. ...

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIC INNOVATION MODEL FOR ATTAINING PREMIUM VALUE FOR THE SRI LANKAN GEM AND JEWELLERY INDUSTRY

    Shyamalie Ekanayake

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial innovative action is a four-pronged strategic integration; it mitigates financial risk in knowledge transfer and technology transfer, it integrates manufacturing and business strategy, and it provides policy remedy to transform the assets and capabilities of the value system. The innovation process utilises market innovations to establish a competitive advantage, gathers intellectual assets, attains proprietary rights and fosters the ability to implement appropriate strategies and sustain a competitive advantage, thus generating premium value. The entrepreneur's commitment uncovers market opportunities and exploits the inventiveness of value-system technologies to result in market innovation. The integration of the above-mentioned four forces with changing market needs transforms the capabilities of the value system to allow it to sustain business value regeneration and thus generate premium value. The failure of either one or all four forces of entrepreneurs' innovative strategies will lead to a reduction in the market value of the products and disintegrate the industry value system. This phenomena was observed in the gem and jewellery industry in Sri Lanka, where the industry has been capable enough to develop a competitive product base but has been positioned to experience a reduction in market value. This reduction has resulted in the disintegration of the industry value system, forcing firms to work in isolation.

  8. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    We recently evaluated and validated a diphenylcarbazide(DPC)-based screening spot test that can detect the release of chromium(VI) ions (≥0.5 ppm) from various metallic items and leather goods (1). We then screened a selection of metal screws, leather shoes, and gloves, as well as 50 earrings......, and identified chromium(VI) release from one earring. In the present study, we used the DPC spot test to assess chromium(VI) release in a much larger sample of jewellery items (n=848), 160 (19%) of which had previously be shown to contain chromium when analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (2)....

  9. A Study of Resin as Master Jewellery Material, Surface Quality and Machining Time Improvement by Implementing Appropriate Cutting Strategy

    Puspaputra Paryana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a research about art and jewellery product machining that focused in the selection of appropriate material for jewellery master which is machined by CNC. CNC is used for better surface finish for no undercut design and more complex ornament. The need of production speed requires minimum process without reducing the quality of detail ornament significantly. Problems occur when high surface quality is required. In that condition high speed spindle is used with low feeding speed, as a result is high temperature in cutter-material area will melt the resin and build the build-up edge (BUE. Due to the existence of BUE, the cutting tool will no longer cut the resin, as a result the resin will then melt due to friction and the melt resin will then stuck on the relief and surface finish become worst and rework should be done. When required surface is achieved problem also occur in next going process, that is silicon mould making. Due to galvanization process for silicon at about 170°C, resin material may be broken or cracked. Research is then conducted to select appropriate resin type suitable for all production steps.

  10. On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies

    Whittow, W G; Panagamuwa, C J; Edwards, R M; Vardaxoglou, J C [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Department of Loughborough University, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.g.whittow@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: c.j.panagamuwa@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: r.m.edwards@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: j.c.vardaxoglou@lboro.ac.uk

    2008-03-07

    This paper presents simulated and measured phantom results for the possible effects that head worn jewellery may have on the relative levels of energy absorbed in the human head with cellular enabled mobile communication devices. The FDTD electromagnetic code used with simple and complex anatomical mathematical phantoms was used to consider the interactions of metallic jewellery, heads and representative sources at 900 and 1800 MHz. Illuminated metallic pins of different lengths were positioned in front of the face. Initially, a homogenous phantom was used to understand the relative enhancement mechanisms. This geometry allowed the results to be validated with the industry standard DASY4 robot SAR measurement system related to the CENELEC head. Jewellery pins were then added to an anatomically realistic head. The relative increase in the 1 g and 10 g SAR, due to a pin with a length 0.4{lambda} near the eyebrows of a complex, anatomically realistic head was approximately three times at 1800 MHz. Such pins increased the SAR averaged over a 1 g or 10 g mass by redistributing the energy absorbed inside the head and focusing this energy towards the area of the head nearest to the centre of the pin. Although, the pins increased the SAR, the SAR standards were not breached and the jewellery produced lower values than those of previous studies when the source was positioned close to the ear.

  11. On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies

    Whittow, W G; Panagamuwa, C J; Edwards, R M; Vardaxoglou, J C

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simulated and measured phantom results for the possible effects that head worn jewellery may have on the relative levels of energy absorbed in the human head with cellular enabled mobile communication devices. The FDTD electromagnetic code used with simple and complex anatomical mathematical phantoms was used to consider the interactions of metallic jewellery, heads and representative sources at 900 and 1800 MHz. Illuminated metallic pins of different lengths were positioned in front of the face. Initially, a homogenous phantom was used to understand the relative enhancement mechanisms. This geometry allowed the results to be validated with the industry standard DASY4 robot SAR measurement system related to the CENELEC head. Jewellery pins were then added to an anatomically realistic head. The relative increase in the 1 g and 10 g SAR, due to a pin with a length 0.4λ near the eyebrows of a complex, anatomically realistic head was approximately three times at 1800 MHz. Such pins increased the SAR averaged over a 1 g or 10 g mass by redistributing the energy absorbed inside the head and focusing this energy towards the area of the head nearest to the centre of the pin. Although, the pins increased the SAR, the SAR standards were not breached and the jewellery produced lower values than those of previous studies when the source was positioned close to the ear

  12. Jewellery from Burials Located in the Southern Part of Bolgar Fortifi ed Settlement (Excavations CLXXIV and CCXIV of 2012 and 2015

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents jewellery from three burials discovered in the course of archaeological works in the southern part of Bolgar fortified settlement (excavations CLXXIV and CCXIV. The major part of the area studied in 2012 and 2015 is occupied by a 14th century cemetery encircling a stone mausoleum. Of particular interest is a complex of silver jewellery discovered inside a silk pouch (? in the filling materials of the pit of burial No. 52/2012 near the eastern pylon of the mausoleum. The complex includes seven plate bracelets decorated with lion's faces, three pins, two pendants in the form of boxes with eyelets for hanging decorated with grains and filigree, and inlays composed of glazed ceramic fragments. In addition, the complex features a pendant made of a silver coin minted by khan Janibek (1341–1357. A unique headdress decorated with round gold rings was discovered in burial No. 89/2012 inside the mausoleum. Two pendant rings made of gold wire were discovered in a child burial No. 16/2015 located west of the mausoleum. The authors conclude that the jewellery was generally produced locally and used by the population of Bolgar town in 14th century.

  13. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Gomez-Tubio, B.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Luisa de la Bandera, M.; Ovejero Zappino, G.; Bouzas, A.; Gomez-Moron, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations

  14. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: ontalba@unex.es; Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Luisa de la Bandera, M. [Departamento de Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ovejero Zappino, G. [Cobre Las Cruces SA, Gerena, Sevilla (Spain); Bouzas, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Moron, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  15. Bronze Jewellery from the Early Iron Age urn-field in Mała Kępa. An approach to casting technology

    Garbacz-Klempka A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland. Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores.

  16. "Hidden" tongue jewellery.

    McNamara, C M

    2001-06-01

    Tongue piercing has many associated risks. This is a case report of a patient who, to avoid parental disapproval, hid the dorsal aspect of a lingual stud device. Subsequently, the dorsum repaired. The device could no longer be removed manually and warranted surgical removal. Despite being in situ for over two years, no further complications arose, but all efforts to obtain patient agreement for removal of the device failed.

  17. CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN THE SMALL MEDIUM SIZED RETAIL JEWELLERY FIRMS WHAT EXTENT DOES LOYALTY SCHEMES HAVE AN IMPACT ON REPEAT PATRONAGE? WHAT OTHER FACTORS CAUSE REPEAT PATRONAGE?: A DYADIC EXPLORATION

    DALAL, AVANI

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study looks at the post-purchase evaluation stage of consumers and what causes loyalty. The industry under investigation is Small Medium Sized Jewellery Retailers. The purpose of this study is to develop a deeper understanding of how customer loyalty is developed. To reach this aim the study focuses on the impact of loyalty schemes on repeat patronage. This paper aims to contribute to the existing literature on repeat patronage and factors that lead to customer loyalty. A wi...

  18. TRENDS FORECASTING: STRATEGIC ORIENTATION IN JEWELLERY DESIGN

    MARIA APARECIDA DE MORAES S CAMPOS

    2007-01-01

    O mundo dos produtos, como as jóias, perfumes, alimentos ou automóveis, não escapa da necessidade de uma contínua renovação e antecipação. A pesquisa de tendências, enquanto observadora da sociedade e seu contexto econômico-político-cultural, torna-se essencial para o design no desenvolvimento de produtos. Esta dissertação propõe a construção de uma fundamentação teórica para a conceituação das tendências de moda e design, a atuação do pesquisador, a ...

  19. Optical characteristics of jewellery gold alloys

    Wan Mahmood bin Mat Yunus; Zainal Abidin bin Talib; Maarof bin Moksin; Abdul Fatah bin Awang Mat

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the reflection of various sample of gold alloys were made over the wavelength range 400-800 nm. Samples were measured using a single beam spectrophotometer at 45 deg. angle of incidence. In this measurement no attempt was made to obtain the optical constants of the samples. The results showed that there were significant differences between bulk and thick samples, with sufficient spectra difference between different composition of the alloys

  20. Miss Lora juveelikauplus = Miss Lora jewellery store

    2009-01-01

    Narvas Fama kaubanduskeskuses (Tallinna mnt. 19c) asuva juveelikaupluse Miss Lora sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Annes Arro ja Hanna Karits. Poe sisu - vitriinkapid, vaip, valgustid - on valmistatud eritellimusel. Sisearhitektide tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Copper Impurity in Silver Jewellery by Laser-Ablation Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy%银饰品中铜杂质含量的激光剥离-激光诱导击穿光谱定量分析

    陈钰琦; 磨俊宇; 周奇; 楼洋; 李润华

    2015-01-01

    High spectral analysis sensitivity can be achieved with orthogonal dual-wavelength dual-pulse laser-ablation laser-in-duced breakdown spectroscopy under minimal sample ablation.Therefore,the contradiction between spatial resolution and ana-lytical sensitivity existed in single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy can be resolved fundamentally in this technique. In order to eliminate the influence of different experimental parameters to the signal intensities and final results of quantitative analysis,the correlation between copper atomic emission and silver atomic emission was studied experimentally in this technique for silver jewellery samples.It was demonstrated that the intensity of atomic emission of copper at 324.75 nm and that of silver at 328.07 nm was linearly correlated with high correlation coefficient.Therefore,it was possible to eliminate the influence of different experimental parameters,such as geometrical arrangement and pulse energy of the ablation laser to the signal of copper atomic emission by selecting 328.07 nm line of silver as internal standard.A quantitative analysis of copper impurity in silver jewellery can be realized by using orthogonal dual-wavelength dual-pulse laser-ablation laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.A calibration curve of copper was successfully built based on internal standard method while selecting 328.07 nm line of silver as in-ternal standard.The limit of detection of copper in silver matrix was determined to be 44 ppm in this technique when the crater’ s diameter was about 17 μm under current experimental condition.%正交双波长双脉冲的激光剥离—激光诱导击穿光谱技术能够在较少样品烧蚀的前提下获得高的光谱分析灵敏度,因此该技术可以从根本上解决在单脉冲激光诱导击穿光谱技术中空间分辨本领与光谱分析灵敏度之间的矛盾。为了消除在该光谱技术中的实验参数对光谱信号强度及其定量分析结果的影响,

  2. Determination of Commercial Karats on Gold Alloys for Jewellery

    Morales, S.E.A.

    1986-12-01

    An XRF method for the gold content determination in gold alloys was proposed and tested. Gold coins and ingot samples were analyzed. Monoelemental standards and two pint regression curves calculated with the NBSGSC program, Cd-109 annular source, Si-Li detector, 4096 channels analyzer and AXIL deconvolution software were employed. Good precision better than 1.5% and accuracy better than 2% were obtained. (author)

  3. Objects of Status, Power & Adornment, studio jewellery movement 1950 - 2011

    Cross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the opening of the jewelry gallery at the MFA Boston in 2011, Mobilia Gallery is planning on an upcoming exhibition “Objects of Status, Power and Adornment: The Studio Jewelry Movement 1950-2011”. We are inviting internationally known masters in the field of metalsmithing, as well as emerging talents, all of whom work with a myriad of diverse materials and techniques to creatively explore their vision and interpretation of jewelry. I was invited to participate in this internatio...

  4. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  5. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    User

    Glass bead making techniques and their mass production will help the individual ... communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which ..... Surface of most of the new beads were rough ... tourism potential to be developed further to.

  6. Analysis of gold in jewellery articles by energy dispersive XRF

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Latifah Amin

    2001-01-01

    The value of a precious metal article is much related to its fineness. For gold assay, conventional fire assay technique has been used as the standard technique for more than 500 years. Alternative modern techniques like energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence can also be used in the determination of gold purity. Advantages of this technique compared to the conventional method including non-destructive analysis, does not use any toxic or hazardous chemicals, automatic computer control and is user friendly, requires minimum number of personnel, shorter analysis time and able to determine associated elements in the metal. Analysis was performed on different sizes and purity of gold. Comparison results for the analysis using different reference standards show small differences between technique and its certified value. The technique also gives small standard deviation value in its repeatability test. (Author)

  7. Milliprobe and microprobe analysis of gold items of ancient jewellery

    Demortier, G.; Hackens, T.

    It has long been accepted that the presence of cadmium implies a condemnation of the authenticity of an ancient gold object, or at least, of the part of the object where the cadmium is detected. An analysis in Paris of a recently excavated object from Roman times has shown cadmium. Meanwhile, systematic observations were made at L.A.R.N. on objects dating from Hellenistic to Byzantine times with different given origins (objects from a museum and from private collections). By using PIXE with a 3 MeV proton milliprobe (700 μm beam diameter) in a non vacuum geometry, relative amounts of copper, silver, cadmium and gold at the surface of more than 30 gold objects expected to be ancient have been determined. Traces or significant concentrations of cadmium have been detected at several points on or in the neighbourhood of solders on many objects which seem to be from Roman to early Byzantine times. Cadmium concentrations range between 2 to 100 parts per thousand. This range of variations and the relative concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu and Cd at the surface of the objects studied are often different from the figures obtained during analyses of modern soldering alloys. Experiments with the L.A.R.N. proton microprobe (5 μm x 10 μm area) allow a still better topographical resolution and more significative comparison of the relative amounts of the elements of interest in modern soldering alloys and supposedly old solders. The usefulness of the microprobe is demonstrated. (author)

  8. Exploring Limbo: The experience of job-loss and unemployment in a jewellery city in Italy

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the experience of job-loss and the following unemployment. Based on the ethnographic research conducted in Valenza, Italy, between 2008 and 2012, the article challenges an interpretation of unemployment as a liminal phase. I argue former workers experience unemployment as a “Limbo” – an existential condition underpinned by the ambiguity of being and at the same time not-being a worker. The exploration of this “Limbo” sheds light on the emotional, physical and symbolic labour that laid-off workers undertake facing their new condition. This research offers elements to read the loss of a job as an exit from a community of practices and to investigate the ways in which individual negotiate this departure.

  9. Nano-jewellery: C5Au12--a gold-plated diamond at molecular level.

    Naumkin, F

    2006-06-07

    A mixed carbon-metal cluster is designed by combining the tetrahedral C(5) radical (with a central atom-the skeleton of the C(5)H(12) molecule) and the spherical Au(12) layer (the external atomic shell of the Au(13) cluster). The C(5)Au(12) cluster and its negative and positive ionic derivatives, C(5)Au(12)(+/-), are investigated ab initio (DFT) in terms of optimized structures and relative energies of a few spin-states, for the icosahedral-like and octahedral-like isomers. The cluster is predicted to be generally more stable in its octahedral shape (similar to C(5)H(12)) which prevails for the negative ion and may compete with the icosahedral shape for the neutral system and positive ion. Adiabatic ionization energies (AIE) and electron affinities (AEA) of C(5)Au(12), vertical electron-detachment (VDE) energies of C(5)Au(12)(-), and vertical ionization and electron-attachment energies (VIE, VEA) of C(5)Au(12) are calculated as well, and compared with those for the corresponding isomers of the Au(13) cluster. The AIE and VIE values are found to be close for the two systems, while the AEA and VDE values are significantly reduced for the radical-based species. A simple fragment-based model is proposed for the decomposition of the total interaction into carbon-gold and gold-gold components.

  10. Combined external-beam PIXE and {mu}-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of 'cloisonne' style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, ...), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ('rhodolite'). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the 'rhodolite' garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, {mu}-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  11. Oblikovanje in izdelava embalaže za nakit Katja Koselj Jewellery

    Gregorka, Nika

    2017-01-01

    Dandanes je vloga videza embalaže vedno pomembnejša in je zato eden izmed bistvenih elementov pri darilni embalaži. Ker embalaža s svojo podobo izraža tudi kakovost izdelka, je le-ta včasih še pomembnejša kot izdelek, ki ga predstavlja. Potemtakem je pomembno, da je kakovostna, preprosta, koristna in okolju prijazna. V diplomskem delu smo predstavili izdelavo in načrtovanje embalaže za slovenski ročno izdelani nakit oblikovalke Katje Koselj. V pregledu literature smo opisali pojem embalaže, n...

  12. Study and characterization of ceramic materials from natural origin for application in jewellery design using laser texturing as innovation

    Elesbao, T.R.; Carus, L.A.; Tabarelli, A.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Takimi, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Technological development has been largely responsible for changes in the jewelry market. Seeking to contribute to the development of new products, this study analyzed the technique of laser texturing, aiming to add commercial and aesthetic values to the mother of pearl, material used in the jewelry field. The methodology was divided into physico-chemical characterization of the mother-of-pearl and of the resulting residue of laser texturing and analysis of the interaction of laser with the surface of the mother-of-pearl. The characterizations carried out were: Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the studied material is composed mainly by the aragonite crystal phase, different from that resulting residue from texturing process. Although the process remove some of the gem material, the effect water characteristic of the mother-of-pearl is maintained, suggesting that technology combined with research and design can increase the value of this material. (author)

  13. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    Erenel, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to indium in jewellery: diagnosis made possible through the use of the Contact Allergen Bank Australia.

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Simmons, Ivan; Palmer, Amanda; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old woman from Adelaide who developed allergic contact dermatitis to the rare allergen indium in her ring. The allergen was sourced for patch testing using the Contact Allergen Bank Australia (CABA), based at the Skin and Cancer Foundation in Melbourne, and posted to Adelaide. This case illustrates the usefulness of CABA in facilitating patch testing throughout Australia, especially when rare allergens are involved. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. A compositional study of a museum jewellery collection (7th-1st BC) by means of a portable XRF spectrometer

    Karydas, A.G.; Kotzamani, D.; Bernard, R.; Barrandon, J.N.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the project 'Jewelmed' (ICA3-1999-10020), the chemical composition of 34 gold and four silver jewels was examined. These jewels belong to the Benaki museum's collection in Athens, Greece and are dating from the 7th to the 1st century BC. The compositional analysis of the jewels was performed by means of a 'home-made' portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. The XRF results have shown that the gold jewels can be categorized in two groups, which include artifacts made by native and by high purity gold, respectively. For the silver jewels the results have provided interesting information regarding the manufacturing technology, the authenticity of the jewels and the raw materials used. The potential and the limitations of the XRF technique, applied in the chemical analysis of archaeological metal artifacts, are also discussed

  16. Understanding the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies of a high involvement service (investment advisory services) and a high involvement product (precious jewellery) on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

    Gupta, Gauri

    2009-01-01

    While marketing literature has largely focused on high and low involvement purchases and the positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty; the differentiating impacts of communication strategies for a high involvement service and a high involvement product on customer satisfaction and loyalty has received little academic attention. Consequently, this study examines the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies for investment advisory services and precious jewe...

  17. The necklace from the Strážnice site in the Hodonín district (Czech Republic. A contribution on the subject of Spondylus jewellery in the Neolithic

    Anna Gardelková-Vrtelová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study refers to the issue of shell artefacts in the Early Neolithic and highlights the importance of identifying the correct genus and species of the raw material used. The subject of the study is an older find of a necklace, which had not been subjected to any analysis of species identi- fication in the past. The shell material of the necklace was examined by ‘microstructural analysis’. This article also questions the age of the necklace and the possibilities of it having been reconstructed.

  18. Tzv. karantánské náušnice ve středním Podunají

    Ungerman, Šimon

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 107, prosinec (2016), s. 181-236 ISSN 0031-0506 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * jewellery * earrings * chronology * Middle Danube region * Eastern Alps region * Balkans Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. Nickel reactivity and filaggrin null mutations--evaluation of the filaggrin bypass theory in a general population

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that filaggrin null mutation carrier status was associated with nickel allergy and self-reported intolerance to costume jewellery. Because of the biochemical characteristics of filaggrin, it may show nickel barrier properties in the stratum corneum....

  20. Study and characterization of ceramic materials from natural origin for application in jewellery design using laser texturing as innovation; Estudo e caracterizacao de materiais ceramicos de origem natural para aplicacao no design de joias utilizando a texturizacao a laser como diferencial de inovacao

    Elesbao, T.R.; Carus, L.A.; Tabarelli, A.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Takimi, A.S., E-mail: taianeelesbao@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Technological development has been largely responsible for changes in the jewelry market. Seeking to contribute to the development of new products, this study analyzed the technique of laser texturing, aiming to add commercial and aesthetic values to the mother of pearl, material used in the jewelry field. The methodology was divided into physico-chemical characterization of the mother-of-pearl and of the resulting residue of laser texturing and analysis of the interaction of laser with the surface of the mother-of-pearl. The characterizations carried out were: Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the studied material is composed mainly by the aragonite crystal phase, different from that resulting residue from texturing process. Although the process remove some of the gem material, the effect water characteristic of the mother-of-pearl is maintained, suggesting that technology combined with research and design can increase the value of this material. (author)

  1. New strategies for measuring and sorting shaped glass stones using image processing

    Michal Kelnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to propose progressive methods for objectively evaluating significant mechanical and geometrical characteristics of gemstones used for making fashion jewellery. These characteristics significantly affect the overall visual aesthetic look of the respective jewellery stones. Different image processing methods are used in industrial microscopy to design new products. The key aspects for having a successful design is thoroughly analysing the material for possible gem-stone defects and properly defining their behaviour when using different optical systems. Using a high-tech experimental laboratory, the authors carried out a control measurement. The main contribution of this paper is the design, implementation and verification of the functionality of new methods for evaluating the quality of machine cut jewellery stones. These progressive methods have the potential to succeed in industrial microscopy or defectoscopy.

  2. The Spectacles of the Crisis: Local Perception of Economic and Social Change in Valenza

    Michele F. Fontefrancesco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the case of the economic crisis of Valenza (Italy and its jewellery industry is presented. The crisis has occurred since 2008 as an effect of the plunge of international jewellery market. Drawing from ethnographic materials collected during my fieldwork in the city (2008-2010, I intend to point out that an the most recent economic downturn had strong cultural effects on local population (goldsmiths and others. Following Kant’s concept of category of reason, I will show that the crisis itself had become a category of reason for local population that uses it to make decisions and plan their future.

  3. Studies of some alloys using x-ray fluorescence

    Elmahi, Elamin Musaid

    1997-01-01

    In this project an attempt has been made for the study of alloys commonly used using x-ray fluorescence ( XRF ) technique. The alloys selected for the study included gold jewellery, steels, brasses and coins. The XRF method proved to be simple, fast, non-destructive and reliable as compared to chemical methods. The results showed that most of the gold jewellery used in this country have carat value of 18 and 21. Also most coins used in different countries are alloys of Cu and Ni. A simple spark method was used for the determination of C in steels, since C is not possible to analyze by XRF. ( Author )

  4. Performing Shell : The relationship between surface and substance

    Cho, Young geum

    2012-01-01

    Through my study and observation of American jewelry house Tiffany, I could notice how the iconic little blue box contains not only jewellery but also the brand’s myth. The function of the Tiffany box, goes beyond what we normally associate with packaging as wrapping of a product. Therefore, I question what is the function of packaging in commercial culture. Tiffany’s little blue box not only is the container of jewellery but also of the whole Tiffany brand identity and myth. This brand’s myt...

  5. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  6. Electrodeposition and corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline white bronze (CuSn) coatings

    Hovestad, A.; Lekka, M.; Willemsen, R.M.R.; Tacken, R.A.; Bonora, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    For jewellery applications electroplated white bronze (CuSn) was investigated as undercoating for noble metal finishes as alternative to nickel. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. An electrochemical study

  7. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent

    2016-01-01

    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  8. First records of illegal harvesting and trading of black corals ...

    Black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) have been used all around the world for a long time, whether as money or for medicinal purposes and jewellery manufacturing. Except in Hawaii where these fisheries are well known, black coral harvests are usually made without any control or any management. This is the case in many ...

  9. Karolinské importy a jejich napodobování v Čechách, případně na Moravě (konec 8. - 10. století)

    Profantová, Naďa

    Suppl. 4, - (2011), s. 71-104 ISSN 1336-6637. [Karolínska doba a Slovensko. Bratislava, 23.02.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Carolingian imports * Bohemia * Early Middle Ages * military equipment * weapons * luxurious jewellery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Small and micro enterprises – aspects of knowledge, attitudes and ...

    food poisoning (77.5%), period of keeping prepared food safe (50.9%), correct way of cooling food (63.1%) or reheating food (84.9%), reason for ... food handling practices, facility and equipment design, processing, control measures, ..... Jewellery should not be worn in the kitchen because…. Q9. When is it necessary to ...

  11. Fabergé monument

    2015-01-01

    Pärnust pärit eduka juveliiri ja maailmakuulsa juveelifirma Fabergé asutanud Gustav Fabergé monumendi avamisest Pärnu Kontserdimaja ees, monumendi kinkis Pärnu linnale Peterburi juveelimaja Tenzo Jewellery House omanik, Eesti juurtega Alexander Tenzo, 3. jaanuaril kontserdimajas toimuvast ballist

  12. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 174-183 ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.578, year: 2016

  13. Metal allergen of the 21st century--a review on exposure, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of palladium allergy

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are mainly exposed to palladium from jewellery and dental restorations. Palladium contact allergy is nearly always seen together with nickel allergy, as palladium and nickel tend to cross-react. We aimed to analyse the available palladium patch test data and case reports to determine...

  14. Trading diamonds for guns | IDRC - International Development ...

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... ... from war zones to Belgian brokers to jewellery stores wasn't easy. ... The UN Security Council began to take a major interest in Sierra Leone and its ... and industry and government to play in the regulatory body for diamonds ...

  15. A class apart: symbolic capital, consumption and identity among the ...

    Two broad aspects of the cultural lives of wealthy alcohol traders are addressed. Firstly, the article discusses their consumption patterns and the use of material culture in showcasing their wealth such as choice of address, the use of slaves and carriages, and the display of jewellery, paintings and curtains. Secondly ...

  16. It Makes You Think

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of…

  17. Electrodeposited nanocrystalline bronze alloys as replacement for Ni

    Hovestad, A.; Tacken, R.A.; Mannetje, H.H.'t

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline white-bronze, CuSn, electroplating was investigated as alternative to Ni plating as undercoat for noble metals in jewellery applications. A strongly acidic plating bath was developed with an organic additive to suppress hydrogen evolution and obtain bright coatings. Polarization

  18. Denmark's neighbours are even worse when it comes to refugees

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    According to recent reports, Denmark’s notorious “jewellery bill” – which allows immigration authorities to confiscate valuables from refugees in order to cover the cost of their accommodation – has yet to actually bring in any cash and the exercise is looking more and more like an expensive PR d...... disaster for the Danish government...

  19. 78 FR 12135 - List of Participating Countries and Entities (Hereinafter Known as “Participants”) Under the...

    2013-02-21

    ...--Department of Finance. Botswana--Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources. Brazil--Ministry of Mines... and Mining. China--General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine...--Singapore Customs. South Africa--South African Diamond Board. Sri Lanka--National Gem and Jewellery...

  20. Just Must : honoring black in all its complex glory / Liesbeth den Besten

    Besten, Liesbeth den

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Just must : international jewellery art exhibition = Just must : rahvusvaheline ehtekunstinäitus / koostanud Kadri Mälk. [Tallinn : Kadri Mälk ; Stuttgart : Arnoldsche Art Publishers, 2008]. Näitus "Just Must" Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Suurgildi hoones, kuraator Kadri Mälk. Lühidalt Eesti ajaloost, ehtekunstist

  1. [Hygiene and care, when the wedding ring becomes nosocomial!

    Martin, Agnès

    In the care setting, hand washing constitutes an essential measure for preventing hand-transmitted infections. Best practices also recommend the principle of zero jewellery. Not so easy to implement, especially when it comes to the removal of wedding rings. A nurse shares her thoughts on this sensitive issue regarding the safety of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Õhuloss ehk tuletorni juurde / Tiina Käesel ; kommenteerinud Tamara Luuk

    Käesel, Tiina, 1943-

    2011-01-01

    Ehtekunstinäitus "Õhuloss" Tallinna Põhjatuletornis 25. septembrini 2011. Näitusega kaasneb raamat "Castle in the Air - Jewellery from Estonia - Õhuloss", koostajad Kadri Mälk ja Tanel Veenre. Rühmitusse "õhuLoss" kuuluvad Kadri Mälk, Piret Hirv, Eve Margus-Villems, Kristiina Laurits, Villu Plink, Tanel Veenre, Katrin Sipelgas

  3. Adenanthera pavonina L. (Coral tree) of Lequminosae is a medium ...

    and fodder. A decoction of leaves is used to treat gout and rheumatism. The attractive seeds are used as beads in jewellery, leis and rosaries. The ground seeds produce an oil that is used as industrial lubricant. Raw seeds are toxic and may cause intoxication. The hard reddish wood is used in carpentry for making cabinets ...

  4. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  5. Los torques de plata de Monasterio de Rodilla

    Castillo, Belén

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The silver torques coming from Monasterio de Rodilla (Burgos are an excepcional ensemble of the jewellery before Roman times in the northern Meseta. These pieces, wrought of rolled up braiding wires, belong to a fully-developed process in which the Iberian and Mediterranean influences become transformed by the local style and give rise to special and typical models of the Celtiberic jewellery.Los torques de plata procedentes de Monasterio de Rodilla (Burgos constituyen un conjunto excepcional de la orfebrería prerromana de la Meseta Norte. Estas piezas, elaboradas con alambres trenzados y enrollados, responden a un proceso evolucionado en el que las influencias ibéricas y mediterráneas, transformadas por el gusto local, dan lugar a modelos propios y característicos de la orfebrería celtibérica.

  6. The obtained of concentrates containing precious metals for pyrometallurgical processing

    B. Oleksiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the flotation process has been proposed as a method of enrichment of silver-bearing jewellery waste. This method, traditionally used for the enrichment of non-ferrous metal ores, is based on differences in wettability between individual minerals. Flotation concentrate, enriched with Ag, was subjected to further processing by the pyrometallurgical method in order to produce silver from these wastes.

  7. The obtained of concentrates containing precious metals for pyrometallurgical processing

    Oleksiak, B.; Siwiec, G.; Blacha-Grzechnik, A.; Wieczorek, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the presented study the flotation process has been proposed as a method of enrichment of silver-bearing jewellery waste. This method, traditionally used for the enrichment of non-ferrous metal ores, is based on differences in wettability between individual minerals. Flotation concentrate, enriched with Ag, was subjected to further processing by the pyrometallurgical method in order to produce silver from these wastes.

  8. "Karantánsko-köttlašský" šperk na jihozápadním Slovensku a v dalších částech Karpatské kotliny

    Ungerman, Šimon

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2016), s. 11-48 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * jewellery * "Köttlach culture" * Carpathian Basin * Eastern Alps region Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV-57_2_studie-1.pdf

  9. Prachtfingerringe im frühmittelalterlichen Mähren (9.–10. Jahrhundert). Bemerkungen zur Chronologie und Provenienz des großmährischen Luxusschmucks

    Ungerman, Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2017), s. 19-95 ISSN 1211-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01878S Keywords : jewellery * Early Middle Ages * Great Moravia * Balkan * Mediterranean Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV-58-2_Ungerman.pdf

  10. Ehtekunsti kõrgmäestik Münchenis / Kadri Mälk, Piret Hirv, Tanel Veenre

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Ehtekunsti suurüritusest "Schmuckszene" ("Ehtepaik"). Arnoldsche Art Publishers esitles viit aasta paremaks ehtekunstiraamatuks tituleeritut, nende seas Eestis trükikojas Pakett trükitud raamatut "Just must" (kujundaja Aadam Kaarma, fotod: Tanel Veenre). Darling Publications'i poolt esitletud raamatust "The Compendium Finale of Contemporary Jewellery Makes", kus tutvustatakse kümmet eesti ehtekunstnikku, tekstide autorid on Kadri Mälk, Harry Liivrand ja Tamara Luuk

  11. Runes, magic and religion : a sourcebook.

    McKinnell, J.; Simek, R.; Düwel, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present source book offers a survey of all types of runic inscriptions with religious or magical connotations from the earliest periods to the late Middle Ages, from Rune on weapons and jewellery to runic gravestones and Christian runic amulets. It is intended as a scholarly answer against the common misconception of the supposedly dominant use of runes in magic. The present volume is structured in 15 units which enable its use as an aid to teaching without being excessively comprehensive.

  12. Laser colouring on titanium alloys: characterisation and potential applications

    Franceschini, Federica; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Dowding, Colin; Previtali, Barbara; Griffiths, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01

    Oxides of titanium exhibit vivid colours that can be generated naturally or manipulated through controlled oxidation processes. The application of a laser beam for colouring titanium permits flexible manipulation of the oxidized geometry with high spatial resolution. The laser-based procedure can be applied in an ambient atmosphere to generate long-lasting coloured marks. Today, these properties are largely exploited in artistic applications such as jewellery, eyewear frames, watch components...

  13. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    シニゲル, フレデリック; OCANA, Oscar; BACO, Amy; SINNIGER, Frederic; OCANA, Oscar; BACO, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, gl...

  14. Hallmarking as an essential need of gold industry

    Mahmood, K.; Alam, S.; Ahmed, T.

    2006-01-01

    As gold is a soft metal, for Jewellery making it is alloyed with Silver or Copper so that its strength may increase. Other main alloying elements include; Zinc, Cadmium and Nickel. These alloying elements help to reduce cost, improve appearance and to improve chemical properties of gold. The percentage of alloying elements determines the caratages of gold. The gold Jewellery sold in local market is often under-carated. In order to improve the quality of product sold, complete quality assessment of gold should be done. A complete quality assessment includes both Assaying and Hallmarking. Assaying is the analysis of an individual sample of gold from a customer to find out it's composition and Hallmarking refers to physically marking: a piece of Jewellery according to specific laws to certify the purity of metal. In this paper we have assessed and compared the quality of locally manufactured gold ornaments and its alloying components with international market as well as standards of gold and its alloys. And as Hallmarking is one of the main strategic initiatives to improve the quality of product sold for domestic and export consumption, this paper discusses the necessary steps leading to Hallmarking. We have used micro-XRF spectrometer for assaying and Laser Engraving machine for the purpose of Hallmarking. (author)

  15. Evaluation of possibilities of the plastic stone masonry of carbonate rocks in Slovakia

    Peter Ružička

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available At plastic processing of rocks, the size of mine blocks,is not decisive but aesthetically interesting textural and coloured parts of raw materials. Technologically are compact positions of travertine with a stripe texture, originating from the Hradišťa pod Vrátnom. An attractive raw material for the production of artificial jewelleries are onyx marbles from the Levice surrouting. In Spišské Podhradie honey-yellow stripy aragonite fills travertine rifts, suitable for the production of jewelleries. A small ornamental ware can also be produced from the compact travertine in Vyšné Ružbachy. A contrast textural arain of crinoid limestones from Krivoklát represents a quality raw material for the production of decorative plastics and jewelleries. The locality Prihradzany-Skalka provides guttenstein limestones, appropriate for the production of bigger plastics and utility articles. Aesthetically stand out articles from hallstatt limestones from Silická Brezová. For the figural treatment and the production of utility articles are suitable čorštynske limestones from the depositg Marmont - Stará Ľubovňa. The most widely used decorative stones are marbles from Tuhár. The interesting are pseudobreccias textures of the recrystallize wetterstein limestones from Tisovec. Marbles from Rákoš have variable colours. For the production of plastics are suitable streaked marbles from Lubeník. Positive results from the technological standpoint have locaties of carbonate rocks.

  16. Strategic and tactical determinants for South Africa PGM supply

    McGill, JE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available to be sustained ? underpinned by auto catalyst and jewellery sector demand growth (especially from China) ? The world needs PGM?s ? Can South Africa remain the number one global supplier? Strategic 2 ? Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act No. 28... An eastern limb supply pipeline, comprising all phases of the mineral resource value chain is currently present PGM pipeline per development phase Phase Total (2006)* Total (2010)* West (2010) East (2010) Initial Expl. 18 20 6 9 Adv Expl. 13 17 6 7...

  17. Gold Enamel Choumps – A Case report

    Sargam D. Kotecha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth jewellery has been practiced since time immemorial and has become an increasingly popular trend. This case report provides a brief insight into a kind of tooth adornment/a tooth tattoo on the enamel prevalent in parts of western Uttar Pradesh, India locally known as a ‘Choump’. A tooth tattooed with ‘Choumps’ has extremely low incidence and could be used as an identification trait. Tooth adornment with ‘Choumps’ has been reported in adults however, this is the first reported case of ‘Choumps’ in children.

  18. Process for altering the colour of hard stones

    Samoilovich, M.I.; Shaposhniko, A.A.; Turinge, A.P.; Vakhidov, S.A.; Nurullaev, Ergash.

    1981-01-01

    Process for altering the colour of hard stones and articles made with such stones, used in the jewellery trade, consisting in treating the hard stones in a neutron reactor and gamma particles accompanying them, whereby the treatment is performed with fast neutrons of at least 0.5 MeV, at integral doses of 5x10 15 to 1x10 18 neutrons/cm 2 , and gamma radiations, at integral doses of 5x10 6 to 1x10 9 R, at temperatures under 300 0 C [fr

  19. The Price Volatility of Precious Metals in Times of Economic and Geopolitical Crisis

    Viorel Mionel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available People perceive gold, silver and platinum as jewellery and massive ingots, but their rarity and physicochemical properties recommend them as being suitable for a wide range of uses. The value of gold has led many states to diversify their economic portfolio by creating sovereign reserves. By buying massive amounts of gold, countries like China, Russia, India, Brazil and Turkey suggest that the purchase of precious metals is the best investment during the crisis. Research results show that the value of precious metals greatly increases at times of crisis because buying precious metals indemnifies states against international currency devaluation.

  20. [Piercings--what the physician needs to know?].

    Kluger, Nicolas; Koljonen, Virve

    2012-01-01

    Body piercing (BP) is defined as penetration of jewellery through the skin. Along with tattooing BPs are the most common body modifications. Complications related to piercing are numerous. They can be acute or chronic, infectious or non infectious and local or systemic complications. Acute infections constitute the most important complications and occur independently of the piercing site. Special attention should be brought on oral piercings, as they are frequent and responsible for numerous complications. A non-judgmental approach is recommended, when a pierced patient seeks medical help for a piercing complication or any other health issue.

  1. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  2. Sandberg : Key Strategic Decisions in Regards to Entry on the Japanese Market -

    Nilsson, Anna; Wennberg, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Problem: What key strategic decisions are required when choosing the right entry mode for a small Swedish firm, with a high-end jewellery brand, on the complex Japanese market? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate different strategic choices in regards to the entry mode and the introduction of an exclusive brand on the Japanese market. The research will be supported by analysing the current situation of Sandberg and its aim to enter new markets. The authors of this thesis a...

  3. Human ear recognition by computer

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  4. Evidence-based first aid advice for paediatric burns in the United Kingdom.

    Varley, Alice; Sarginson, Julia; Young, Amber

    2016-05-01

    Burn and scald injuries are common in children. First aid advice for paediatric burns is offered by a range of health organisations and charities in the UK. Despite this, children still present to emergency departments and burn services having received little or inadequate first aid. A survey was undertaken regarding the content and consistency of the advice given by a cross-section of UK health organisations involved in first aid prevention and education. The advice was subsequently examined to determine if it was evidence-based. Our study has demonstrated inconsistencies in the content of the first aid advice provided by the 21 organisations included in the study. Seventy-one percent of the information was only available online. The temperature, method and duration of cooling varied substantially, as did the advice recommended for the removal of clothing and jewellery and methods for covering the burn immediately after injury. Results from the literature review concluded the following based on available evidence; cool the burn with running tap water for 20min, remove clothing and jewellery and cover the burn with cling film or a clean non-adhesive dressing. This study highlights the lack of consistency between first aid guidance provided by health organisations and charities in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  6. The origin of emeralds embedded in archaeological artefacts in Slovenia

    Albina Kržič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roman gold jewellery, which was excavated in Ptuj (Poetovio and consists of a necklace, earrings and a braceletwith embedded emeralds, is part of the Slovenian archaeological artefacts collections. Crystallographic characteristics,inclusions, luminous phenomena and geological characteristics were determined in order to establish theorigin of the emeralds. Chemical composition of the emeralds was determined non-destructively using the methodsof proton-induced X-rays and gamma rays (PIXE/PIGE. The results were compared with reference emeraldsfrom Habachtal in Austria and with green beryls from the Ural Mts. Literature data for emeralds from Egypt andmodern-day Afghanistan area were used to interpret the results. Specifically, these sites were known for emeraldsbeing mined for jewellery in Roman times. It was assumed that emeralds from archaeological artefacts originatedfrom Habachtal in Austria, given that this site was the nearest to the place where found. But the emeralds fromthe necklace and earrings in fact came from Egyptian deposits. The origin of emeralds from the bracelet could nothave been determined absolutely reliably due to the lack of comparative materials; they may originate from a site inmodern-day Afghanistan or from Egypt, but certainly not from the same site as the previously mentioned emeraldsin the necklace and earrings.

  7. Metal allergens of growing significance: epidemiology, immunotoxicology, strategies for testing and prevention.

    Forte, Giovanni; Petrucci, Francesco; Bocca, Beatrice

    2008-09-01

    Metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is expressed in a wide range of cutaneous reactions following dermal and systemic exposure to products such as cosmetics and tattoos, detergents, jewellery and piercing, leather tanning, articular prostheses and dental implants. Apart from the well known significance of nickel in developing ACD, other metals such as aluminium, beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, mercury, palladium, platinum, rhodium and titanium represented emerging causes of skin hypersensitivity. Despite the European Union directives that limit the total nickel content in jewellery alloys, the water soluble chromium (VI) in cement, and metals banned in cosmetics, the diffusion of metal-induced ACD remained quite high. On this basis, a review on the epidemiology of metal allergens, the types of exposure, the skin penetration, the immune response, and the protein interaction is motivated. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro tests for the identification and potency of skin-sensitizing metals are here reviewed in a risk assessment framework for the protection of consumer's health. Avenues for ACD prevention and therapy such as observance of maximum allowable metal levels, optimization of metallurgic characteristics, efficacy of chelating agents and personal protection are also discussed.

  8. A re-assessment of the safety of silver in household water treatment: rapid systematic review of mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies.

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Majuru, Batsirai; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-06-20

    Despite poor evidence of their effectiveness, colloidal silver and silver nanoparticles are increasingly being promoted for treating potentially contaminated drinking water in low income countries. Recently, however, concerns have been raised about the possible genotoxicity of particulate silver. The goal of this paper was to review the published mammalian in vivo genotoxicity studies using silver micro and nanoparticles. SCOPUS and Medline were searched using the following search string: ("DNA damage" OR genotox* OR Cytotox* OR Embryotox*) AND (silver OR AgNP). Included papers were any mammalian in vivo experimental studies investigating genotoxicity of silver particles. Studies were quality assessed using the ToxRTool. 16 relevant papers were identified. There were substantial variations in study design including the size of silver particles, animal species, target organs, silver dose, route of administration and the method used to detect genotoxicity. Thus, it was not possible to produce a definitive pooled result. Nevertheless, most studies showed evidence of genotoxicity unless using very low doses. We also identified one human study reporting evidence of "severe DNA damage" in silver jewellery workers occupationally exposed to silver particles. With the available evidence it is not possible to be definitive about risks to human health from oral exposure to silver particulates. However, the balance of evidence suggests that there should be concerns especially when considering the evidence from jewellery workers. There is an urgent need to determine whether people exposed to particulate silver as part of drinking water treatment have evidence of DNA damage.

  9. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  10. Gold--a controversial sensitizer

    Bruze, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate were published at the beginning of the 1990s, the allergic nature of the reported positive patch test reactions to gold was questioned. The major argument for such questioning was the lack of demonstrable clinical relevance in most positive reactors. A major reason......Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact...... for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment...

  11. Perforated coins from graves at the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja

    Vojvoda Mirjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common problem that occurs when interpreting finds of perforated Roman coins is whether they had been perforated in Roman times or later. Hence, the specimens that originate from an undisturbed archaeological context, as is the case with finds from the Viminacium necropolis of Više Grobalja, are indispensable. A total of 47 perforated coins were discovered: 31 with a single and 16 with three perforations. The analysis of the context of the finds, in some specimens, allows the confident assertion that they had constituted a part of jewellery. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47018: IRS - Viminacium, Roman city and military legion camp - research of the material and non-material culture of inhabitants using the latest technologies of remote detection, geophysics, GIS, digitalisation and 3D visualisation

  12. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  13. Laser excision of a mucocele: A case report

    Rajashree Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucous cyst (mucocele, mucous retention cyst, ranula, and epulis is usually a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. It is painless but can be bothersome. The cyst is thought to be caused due to sucking of the lip membranes between the teeth. A mucous cyst is common and harmless. However, if left untreated, it can organize and form a permanent bump on the inner surface of the lip. A mucous cyst is called ranula when it occurs on the floor of the mouth and epulis when it occurs on the gums. The sac may also be formed around the jewellery (piercings that has been inserted into the lips or the tongue. This article highlights the use of lasers in the treatment of the excision of mucocele.

  14. La joyería popular leonesa

    Casado Lobato, Concha

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a research on inventories from the 18th and the 19th centuries, the author discusses the folk jewellery of León province, in Spain; particularly necklaces, amulets, and earrings. In her discussion, the study of the written material appears enriched by, and in contrast to, the analysis of pieces owned by families living in the several areas of the province, or exhibited in museums and collections of other institutions.A través de los inventarios de bienes de los siglos XVIII y XIX, principalmente, se estudia la joyería popular leonesa, atendiendo de manera particular a los collares, los amuletos y los pendientes. El estudio documental se contrasta y enriquece con el análisis de los ejemplares que se conservan entre las familias, en las diversas comarcas, o exponen en museos y colecciones.

  15. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  16. Code of practice for food handler activities.

    Smith, T A; Kanas, R P; McCoubrey, I A; Belton, M E

    2005-08-01

    The food industry regulates various aspects of food handler activities, according to legislation and customer expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a code of practice which delineates a set of working standards for food handler hygiene, handwashing, use of protective equipment, wearing of jewellery and body piercing. The code was developed by a working group of occupational physicians with expertise in both food manufacturing and retail, using a risk assessment approach. Views were also obtained from other occupational physicians working within the food industry and the relevant regulatory bodies. The final version of the code (available in full as Supplementary data in Occupational Medicine Online) therefore represents a broad consensus of opinion. The code of practice represents a set of minimum standards for food handler suitability and activities, based on a practical assessment of risk, for application in food businesses. It aims to provide useful working advice to food businesses of all sizes.

  17. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Murao, S.; Sera, K.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Cartier, L.; Nakashima, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  18. Status of radiation processing: Indian scenario

    Niyogi, U.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation processing is a technique to process different types of materials by way of providing radiations of different energies for various applications. Depending upon the changes, one needs to select the radiations of appropriate energy. The well established mechanism behind the changes occurring in the material is the excitation of electrons in the molecules and atoms. It is a proven technology for more than five decades which results in the modification in materials, both at the bulk and surface levels. While radiations such as IR and UV have low energy and hence affect the surface of the material only, highly energetic radiations such as gamma and e-beam are useful to modify the material at the bulk level. Radiation processing is the most efficient technique for polymerization, sterilization, disinfestations, etc. which are applied in industries such as wires and cables, healthcare, food processing, pet/animal feed, herbal and ayurvedic, artificial jewellery, etc.

  19. Woman’s Downfall [‘Istrijatir Abanati’

    Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay, ‘Strijatir Abanati,’ which has been translated into English, was first published in 1903, as ‘Alankar na Badge of Slavery’ [Jewellery, or Badge of Slavery], in Mahila, a monthly magazine edited by Girish Chandra Sen, the first translator of the Qur’an into Bengali. It was later included in the first volume of Motichur. The essay is written in a serious yet playful tone, in which Rokeya takes a swipe at the men for their oppression of women and for perpetuating women’s cycle of subjugation and ignorance; but she is equally critical of the women for colluding in their victimisation, through blind submission to tradition and excessive love for ignorance and indolence.

  20. Laser welding by dental Nd:YAG device

    Fornaini, Carlo; Bertrand, Caroline; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

    2009-06-01

    Welding laser was introduced in jewellery during years 70 and, just after, was successfully used also by dental technicians. Welding laser gives a great number of advantages, versus traditional welding and, for this reason, this procedure had a great diffusion in the technician laboratories and stimulated the companies to put in the market more and more evolutes appliances. Some aspects, such great dimensions, high costs and delivery system today still characterize these machines by fixed lenses, which have strictly limited its use only to technician laboratories. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility, by using a fibber-delivered laser normally utilized in the dental office, to make, by dentist himself in his office, welding on different metals and to evaluate advantages and possibilities of this new technique.

  1. Environmental income as a pathway out of poverty?

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    environmental resources on average contribute 16 per cent of the total household income, the contribution to asset accumulation is limited. Hence, environmental income does not constitute a pathway out of poverty in Nepal under the current set of regulations and tenure regimes. Asset accumulation was instead......Using unique, environmentally augmented household panel data reflecting households’ annual cash and subsistence income portfolios, we model change over time in the value of four assets – livestock, implements, savings, and jewellery. A seemingly unrelated regression model reveals that although...... associated (both negatively and positively) with agricultural income (particularly as subsistence income), wage and business income. Most environmental income was obtained as subsistence income indicating that the environmental resources that households have access to present little opportunity for cash...

  2. Study Of Clinical Profile of Allergic Contact Dermatitis In Pune

    Sayal S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty five cases of clinically diagnosed allergic contact dermatitis were studied. All patients were subjected to patch test with standard test allergens and also with suspected test allergens based on history and clinical profile. Allergic contact dermatitis due to Parthenium hysterophorus was commonest and found in 64% cases, followed by wearing apparel and jewellery in 16.8%, topical medicaments in 8% and cosmetics and occupational contactants in 5.6% cases each. The common individual allergens other than parthenium, were nickel in 8.8%, leather, hair dye and cement in 3.2% each, nitrofurazone and petrol, oil, lubricant (POL in 2.4% each. Patch test with suspected allergens was positive in 72% of cases.

  3. Ancient Egypt and radiology, a future for the past!

    Tiggelen, R. van

    2004-01-01

    X-rays, discovered by W.K. Roentgen was a scientific bombshell and was received with extraordinary interest by scientist in all disciplines, including Egyptology: the first radiological essay was already made in Germany 3 months after Roentgens discovery. Since then, radiological examinations of mummies are used to detect frauds, to appreciate sex and age, and possible cause of death. As non-destructive tool it can reveal the nature of materials, presence of jewellery and amulets. The paper gives a brief history of major milestones in Belgium and abroad. More modern technology such as axial computed tomography and image colouring will allow better representations and reveal up to now undiscovered funerary artefacts

  4. The Exotic Other: Representations of Latina tropicalism in U.S. popular culture

    Martynuska Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Latina/o identity is a complex and panethnic construction. One of the most enduring tropes surrounding Latina women in US culture is that of tropicalism, which by erasing ethnic specificity helps construct homogenous stereotypes such as bright colours, rhythmic music, and brown skin that are represented in visual texts. Tropicalization helps position the Latina body as oversexed as well as sexually available; all that is identified with seductive clothing, curvaceous hips and breasts, long brunette hair or extravagant jewellery. The article concerns Latina images in US media and popular culture and focuses on such stars as Jennifer Lopez and Salma Hayek in order to explore the gendered signifiers surrounding Latinidad and Latina iconicity. The female ethnicity is depicted as other through its categorization and marginalization in relation to dominant constructions of Whiteness and femininity. The article bridges the approaches of gender studies and Latina/o studies with recent research on hybridity and transnational identities.

  5. Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods, but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.

  6. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  7. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    Tissot, I., E-mail: isabeltissot@gmail.com [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1649-004 Lisbon (Portugal); Troalen, L.G. [National Museums Scotland, Collections Services Department, 242 West Granton Road, Edinburgh EH5 1JA (United Kingdom); Manso, M. [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Faculdade de Belas-Artes da Universidade de Lisboa, Largo da Academia Nacional de Belas-Artes, 1249-058 Lisbon (Portugal); Ponting, M. [Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, 12-14 Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 7WZ (United Kingdom); Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Barreiros, M.A. [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Shaw, I. [Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, 12-14 Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 7WZ (United Kingdom); Carvalho, M.L. [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Guerra, M.F. [ArchAm, UMR 8096 CNRS - Université Paris Sorbonne, MAE, 21 allée de l' Université, 92023 Nanterre (France)

    2015-06-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (µPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D{sup 2}XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products. - Highlights: • Multi-analytical protocol based on techniques with different MDLs and spatial resolution • Application of D{sup 2}XRF developed at synchrotron BESSY II for determination of Pt in Au with a MDL of 1 ppm • Egyptian gold alloys have nanoporous corrosion layers where distinct corrosion phases could be identified. • Egyptian gold foils are made with different gold base alloys, but all containing alluvial gold.

  8. Türk Takılarında Umay İnancının İzleri ve Avrasya Kökleri

    Lale Avsar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is understood that Goddess Umay, whose name is mentioned in Orhun Epigraphs, is thought to be equal to the Sky God and Ground-Water God, to establish the relations between the sky and ground, to provide all living beings with happiness, to carry souls into the sky after death, to render the eternal life and transformation possible and to be the protector of all living beings on the earth. This goddess leaving deep traces in Turkish culture and art has been preserved as a female spirit, and it has been known as the protector of women and babies.Though the iconography of Goddess Umay in Turkish art was determined during the Gokturk era, the roots of this iconography can be traced back to Eurasian geography and Goddess culture of antiquity. Therefore, especially the cultures in the first millennium BC, known as the Scythian era, provide us with plentiful materials; the descriptions of Tabiti, the ultimate Mother Goddess of Scythians, are viewed as the pioneer of Umay iconography. The traces of Umay belief in current Turkish cultures, in connection with its meaning that has been limited over time, are commonly seen on the goods and objects used by women. Preserving and protecting ability of Umay can be seen particularly in jewellery. In this study, Mother Goddess descriptions that we encounter in the cultures of Scythian era of Eurasia and the descriptions and symbols of Umay in women's jewellery that belong to current Turkic peoples were researched, and the common and similar aspects of these descriptions were pointed out. Moreover, the researcher attempted to prove that many motifs and details, the meanings of which have been forgotten, can be traced back to Umay.

  9. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    Tissot, I.; Troalen, L.G.; Manso, M.; Ponting, M.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Barreiros, M.A.; Shaw, I.; Carvalho, M.L.; Guerra, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (µPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D 2 XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products. - Highlights: • Multi-analytical protocol based on techniques with different MDLs and spatial resolution • Application of D 2 XRF developed at synchrotron BESSY II for determination of Pt in Au with a MDL of 1 ppm • Egyptian gold alloys have nanoporous corrosion layers where distinct corrosion phases could be identified. • Egyptian gold foils are made with different gold base alloys, but all containing alluvial gold

  10. Metals in Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and Days: A short reflection

    Brina Škvor Jernejčič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the perception of metals such as gold, silver, bronze and iron in Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and Days, composed around late 8th or early 7th century BC. An analysis reveals that gold appears exclusively as an attribute of the gods. Only gods wear objects of gold and their works are golden, too; indeed, they are described as golden themselves. Arguably this metal not only serves as a metaphor for the quality of the immortal and unreachable gods, i.e. Aphrodite, Dionysus, Hera, Zeus and Apollo, but also appears in the ‘distant territories of the divine cosmos’ – golden is Triton’s palace, golden are the apples guarded by a horrible snake on the edge of the earth. Hesiod’s golden race, the first mortal race, excellent in all aspects, free of troubles and hard work, is, significantly, also closest to the gods. The silver race, created after the golden one, is inferior to the first just as silver is less precious than gold. Hardly ever mentioned in Hesiod’s poems, this metal is omitted from descriptions of jewellery or weapons. What is described as silver are river whirlpools, the colossal pillars of the underworld, and the feet of the nymph Thetis. A possible interpretation is that all these objects are untamed and unreachable, similar to gold but not divine anymore. After the silver race, the gods create the bronze race. This is a race of violent giants, fierce and strong, who are born from the ash tree. Bronze is therefore even farther from the divine: it is human. Moreover, it is the first alloy, and the manufacture of bronze objects demands much more knowledge and skill in comparison with gold and silver. Hesiod uses bronze as a synonym for all that is hard and strong in both poems – bronze is the material of the anvil, of the high walls, door, and doorstep which hold back the Titans in Tartarus, and of the arms carried by Memnon and Heracles. The only race not associated with metals is the race of heroes

  11. Are parents in the UK equipped to provide adequate burns first aid?

    Graham, Hamish E; Bache, Sarah E; Muthayya, Preetha; Baker, Julie; Ralston, David R

    2012-05-01

    Simple first aid following a burn injury has been shown to improve outcome. With this in mind, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of burns first aid amongst parents in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This information was used to identify which aspects of burn first aid need to be highlighted in an education campaign and who the target audience should be. A simple mnemonic is suggested to assist parental education on the topic. Parents attending outpatient clinics at Sheffield Children's Hospital were interviewed and asked about the first aid they would provide for a child with a large scald. Removal of hot clothes and jewellery; application of cold water for 10-20 min; obtaining medical advice; and covering the burn with a plastic film or clean cloth were all considered to be ideal responses. Variations in responses in relation to the age and ethnicity of the parent were noted. One hundred and eighty eight parents were included in the questionnaire. Of these, 81% (n=152) were white British and 20% (n=36) were from other ethnic groups. Only 10% (n=18) of all respondent would give all the ideal first aid steps. Less than 40% (n=73) of parents questioned would remove hot clothes and jewellery. There was no significant difference in responses between ethnic groups when assessing knowledge of the need to remove hot soaked clothing. Although 73% (n=137) of parents would run the burn under cool water, only 35% (n=66) would cool the burn for an adequate length of time. White British parents were significantly more likely to run cool water over the burn, and to continue this for the recommended 10-20 min. Whilst 88% (n=165) of parents would seek medical attention, this was significantly less in parents under 20 years old. Finally, 92% (n=173) of parents would protect the wound with appropriate dressings, but of note, 26% (n=9) of parents from minority ethnic groups would potentially impair burn healing by using inappropriate dressings and topical

  12. The Challenge of Characterising Large Assemblages of Exotic Materials: a case study of the obsidian from Domuztepe, SE Turkey

    Elizabeth Healey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsidian artefacts from Domuztepe (a large late Neolithic site in the Kahramanmaraş plain in south-east Turkey belonging to the Halaf culture and dated to c. 6000-5500 cal. BC account for about 18%, or some 10,000 artefacts, of the chipped stone assemblage. Obsidian is one of the few non-local materials at Domuztepe and as well as being used to make tools it is also used to make items of jewellery, mirrors, bowls and axe-like objects. We know from the geochemical analysis of a relatively small number of artefacts that the obsidian was imported from eight different and widely separated sources in Central, NE and SE Anatolia. These sources are between 200 and 900km distant from Domuztepe. All these factors suggest that obsidian was valued not only as a raw material for tool manufacture but also as a material from which to make luxury items. As an exotic material it is also likely to have a key role in forging and maintaining social and economic relationships, both within the site and more widely. Understanding of the origins of the obsidians and the form in which they were obtained, worked and used, context by context, is key to this. However, difficulties arise with provenancing such a large assemblage, not least because conventional geo-chemical methods are unfeasibly expensive. This article documents the approaches we have developed to overcome this problem.

  13. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution

    Łukasz Ciupiński

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal artworks are subjected to corrosion and oxidation processes due to reactive agents present in the air, water and in the ground that these objects have been in contact with for hundreds of years. This is the case for archaeological metals that are recovered from excavation sites, as well as artefacts exposed to polluted air. Stabilization of the conservation state of these objects needs precise diagnostics of the accrued surface layers and identification of original, historical materials before further protective treatments, including safe laser cleaning of unwanted layers. This paper presents analyses of the chemical composition and stratigraphy of corrosion products with the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS and Raman spectroscopy. The discussion of the results is supported by material studies (SEM-EDS, XRF, ion-analyses. The tests were performed on several samples taken from original objects, including copper roofing from Wilanów Palace in Warsaw and Karol Poznański Palace in Łódź, bronze decorative figures from the Wilanów Palace gardens, and four archaeological examples of old jewellery (different copper alloys. Work has been performed as a part of the MATLAS project in the frames of EEA and Norway Grants (www.matlas.eu and the results enable the comparison of the methodology and to elaborate the joint diagnostic procedures of the three project partner independent laboratories.

  14. Mobility as a positional good : implications for transport policy and planning

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2007-01-17

    Social position refers to a person's social rank. Many goods have positional value because they increase the status of their consumers. Positional goods include fashionable jewellery and clothing, luxurious homes and vehicles, and extravagant entertainment. Many motorists choose vehicles with greater potential speeds and off-road abilities than actually needed because these features are considered prestigious. This paper examined how positional value affects transportation decisions and investigated the resulting economic impacts. These included impacts on social welfare and external costs. The paper also discussed implications for transport policy and planning. The paper discussed the science of happiness and included an excerpt from a newspaper article on money and happiness. The paper also included an analysis of popular television shows and Internet blogs. Transportation impacts were also examined, with reference to motor vehicle ownership, luxury vehicles, mode choice, long-distance recreation travel, planning practices, and industrial development policy. A table was also presented that summarized the categories of prestige value travel impacts. The paper also presented possible offsetting benefits and implications for planning. 40 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  15. Role of radiation physics in the study and authentication of ancient gold work

    Guerra, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient gold items are important expressions of different aspects of past civilisations. By using non-destructive techniques of analysis and exam it is possible to obtain data kept within the objects morphology and within the materials employed, providing information, among others, on the manufacturing technologies, on the functions attributed to the objects, and on the sources of raw material exploited. This paper aims to give an overview of the questions raised by cultural heritage objects made with gold, and the role of science-based techniques applied to their study and authentication. Two examples serve to illustrate this: one concerns 19th century restorations of Etruscan objects and the other the provenance of Merovingian gold. - Highlights: ► An overview of the application of radiation techniques for the analysis of ancient gold work is given. ► We focused on non-destructive SEM-EDS, IBA techniques, X-radiography, and optical microscopy. ► Exam is illustrated by the authentication of Etruscan gold jewellery kept in museum collections. ► Fingerprinting gold is illustrated by the elemental analysis of Merovingian items from tombs in Gaul

  16. Jewish North African head adornment: Traditions and Transition

    Behrouzi, Nitza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the craftsmanship of head adornment, particularly jewellery and embroidery, made by diáspora Jews in the Maghreb in the late 19th and the 20th centuries. The religious meaning of the iconographic elements involved was part of an artistic tradition that goes back to the work of the Spanish Jews before 1492; nevertheless, the craftsmen had to deal with the Islamic environment of the societies in which they lived. The 20th century has seen a gradual departure from these traditional patterns and a subsequent preference for those of contemporary western culture.La autora analiza la artesanía del tocado, particularmente en joyería y bordado, hecha por judíos de la diáspora residentes en el Magreb a finales del siglo XIX y a lo largo del XX. El sentido religioso de los diversos elementos iconográficos incorporados al trabajo revela una tradición artística que se remonta a los artesanos judíos de la España anterior a 1492, pero que tenía que recibir influencias del contexto islámico de las sociedades en las que ese trabajo tenía lugar. A lo largo del siglo XX, esta tradición ha ido desapareciendo progresivamente, surgiendo en su lugar elementos procedentes de la cultura occidental contemporánea.

  17. Allergy and orthodontics

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  18. Beeswax in Asante Castings: The Then, Now and the Way Forward

    Samuel Baah Kissi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax used for Asante casting by Krofofrom artisans and the Asantehene gild of metalsmiths in the 1700`s are extracted naturally without further chemical treatment to enhance their workability. Although modelling with this wax is very effective, mass production technique now adopted by local artisans and the inflow of machine made artefacts due to globalization has crippled the sale of locally manufactured artefacts. This research dives into various ways of manipulating the natural beeswax using conventional waxes to help achieve complex and competitive designs suitable for the international feed. Qualitative research design approach was used and the descriptive and experimental research methodologies were employed. A comparative analysis was conducted on the production processes employed in the 1700`s and those practiced by various cultures in Africa and experiment was conducted on beeswax to ascertain a suitable wax formulation for the production of complex shapes and sizes using simple Jewellery technique less employed by local metal artisans for casting. It was found that the addition of various additives to the beeswax improved its workability and also the use of Plaster of Paris in wax modelling should be adapted as used in this research for traditional mass production for maximum yield and less stress.

  19. Creating Ambassadors Through Digital Media: reflections from the Sandby borg project

    Ludvig Papmehl-Dufay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, five caches of top quality Migration-period jewellery were found at the Iron Age ring fort of Sandby borg, on the island of Öland, Sweden. When subsequent archaeological investigations revealed evidence of a violent massacre in the late 5th century, which left the victims lying on the spot where they had fallen, media and public interest increased rapidly. Since the local community raised concerns about the fast-growing interest in the project and the sensitive status of the ring fort, digital media was used as an important tool to communicate and work with different stakeholders. In this article, we present some experiences and insights from two separate projects with the aim of involving the public; a public outreach programme, Culture for Children, conducted in 2014-2015 and supported by the Swedish Arts Council, and a crowdfunding project launched at Kickstarter in December 2014, which enabled one season of fieldwork in 2015. The article concludes with a brief reflection on the topic of digital engagement in public archaeology.

  20. With building integrated photovoltaic in a daylight optimized passive house to energy autonomy; Mit gebaeudeintegrierter PV im tageslichtoptimierten Passivhaus zur bilanziellen Energieautarkie

    Miloni, R.P. [Miloni Lichtplanung und Architektur, Hausen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    With the introduction of a cost recovering energy feeding law, new possibilities open up for the building integration of photovoltaics and for the solar power generation at the ''Point of sale ''. Still, the appropriate Swiss market is marginal. Not all legal, technical and financial hurdles are removed. Here the photovoltaics with its building integration is in touch with an emotional factor of revaluation: An integration of photovoltaics adresses the building owner beyond their technical-economic value at a culturally abstract level - a wing of a butterfly oscillating in the sunlight also touches on a completely different level. Exactly the same the integration of photovoltaics makes the building to a unique piece of jewellery. In the pioneer phase of the photovoltaics market, architectonically successful integrations of photovoltaics succeeded in a break-through of the solar power generation. Photovoltaics at building coverings is more than a ''fashion '': it becomes a lever arm, with which the solarization of our society transports significant values. Apart from rational-technical considerations this effect has to be used to favour a broad application of photovoltaics with the building integration more purposefully.

  1. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution

    Ciupiński, Łukasz; Fortuna-Zaleśna, Elżbieta; Garbacz, Halina; Koss, Andrzej; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Marczak, Jan; Mróz, Janusz; Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Rycyk, Antoni; Sarzyński, Antoni; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Strzelec, Marek; Zatorska, Anna; Żukowska, Grażyna Z.

    2010-01-01

    Metal artworks are subjected to corrosion and oxidation processes due to reactive agents present in the air, water and in the ground that these objects have been in contact with for hundreds of years. This is the case for archaeological metals that are recovered from excavation sites, as well as artefacts exposed to polluted air. Stabilization of the conservation state of these objects needs precise diagnostics of the accrued surface layers and identification of original, historical materials before further protective treatments, including safe laser cleaning of unwanted layers. This paper presents analyses of the chemical composition and stratigraphy of corrosion products with the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy. The discussion of the results is supported by material studies (SEM-EDS, XRF, ion-analyses). The tests were performed on several samples taken from original objects, including copper roofing from Wilanów Palace in Warsaw and Karol Poznański Palace in ŁódŸ, bronze decorative figures from the Wilanów Palace gardens, and four archaeological examples of old jewellery (different copper alloys). Work has been performed as a part of the MATLAS project in the frames of EEA and Norway Grants (www.matlas.eu) and the results enable the comparison of the methodology and to elaborate the joint diagnostic procedures of the three project partner independent laboratories. PMID:22399915

  2. Identifying, studying and making good use of macromolecular crystals

    Calero, Guillermo [University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Cohen, Aina E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Luft, Joseph R. [Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); Newman, Janet [CSIRO Collaborative Crystallisation Centre, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Snell, Edward H., E-mail: esnell@hwi.buffalo.edu [Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2014-07-25

    As technology advances, the crystal volume that can be used to collect useful X-ray diffraction data decreases. The technologies available to detect and study growing crystals beyond the optical resolution limit and methods to successfully place the crystal into the X-ray beam are discussed. Structural biology has contributed tremendous knowledge to the understanding of life on the molecular scale. The Protein Data Bank, a depository of this structural knowledge, currently contains over 100 000 protein structures, with the majority stemming from X-ray crystallography. As the name might suggest, crystallography requires crystals. As detectors become more sensitive and X-ray sources more intense, the notion of a crystal is gradually changing from one large enough to embellish expensive jewellery to objects that have external dimensions of the order of the wavelength of visible light. Identifying these crystals is a prerequisite to their study. This paper discusses developments in identifying these crystals during crystallization screening and distinguishing them from other potential outcomes. The practical aspects of ensuring that once a crystal is identified it can then be positioned in the X-ray beam for data collection are also addressed.

  3. Procedural generation of aesthetic patterns from dynamics and iteration processes

    Gdawiec Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic patterns are widely used nowadays, e.g., in jewellery design, carpet design, as textures and patterns on wallpapers, etc. Most of the work during the design stage is carried out by a designer manually. Therefore, it is highly useful to develop methods for aesthetic pattern generation. In this paper, we present methods for generating aesthetic patterns using the dynamics of a discrete dynamical system. The presented methods are based on the use of various iteration processes from fixed point theory (Mann, S, Noor, etc. and the application of an affine combination of these iterations. Moreover, we propose new convergence tests that enrich the obtained patterns. The proposed methods generate patterns in a procedural way and can be easily implemented on the GPU. The presented examples show that using the proposed methods we are able to obtain a variety of interesting patterns. Moreover, the numerical examples show that the use of the GPU implementation with shaders allows the generation of patterns in real time and the speed-up (compared with a CPU implementation ranges from about 1000 to 2500 times.

  4. Neutrons and art

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.

    2004-01-01

    Following modern trends in art objects connoisseurship, through examination of the structure of art objects supports traditional studies conducted by art historians based on composition, iconographic and stylistic comparisons. It must be emphasized that complete technological examinations are carried out by means of comprehensive physical and chemical studies. Among various methods used for the examination of art objects, methods which apply neutrons such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and neutron-induced autoradiography are crucial due to their high sensitivity, reproducibility and capability of simultaneous determination of several tens of elements. Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. It was possible to accumulate a number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, silver denarius, jewellery made of copper alloys, as well as in the clay fillings of Egyptian mummies. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the appropriate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  5. Nickel quantification in serum by a validated sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method: Assessment of tentative reference values for an Italian population.

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Ronchi, Anna; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Alimonti, Alessandro; Minoia, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The daily exposure to Ni from food, industrial processes, jewellery and coins makes the determination of Ni in human serum an important way to monitor the health status in non-occupationally exposed subjects. To this end, a method based on sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The limits of detection (LoD) and quantification (LoQ), sensitivity, linearity range, trueness, repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility and robustness were the considered issues of the validation process. The uncertainty associated with the measurements was also calculated, according to the Eurachem/Citac Guide. The method LoD and LoQ were 0.03 and 0.09 ng mL(-1), linearity was over two order of magnitude, trueness was -3.57%, and the repeatability and reproducibility showed relative standard deviations equal to 4.56% and 6.52%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty was 21.8% at the Ni levels found in the general population. The tentative reference value for serum Ni was 0.466 +/- 0.160 ng mL(-1) with a related interval between 0.226 and 1.026 ng mL(-1). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identifying, studying and making good use of macromolecular crystals

    Calero, Guillermo; Cohen, Aina E.; Luft, Joseph R.; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    As technology advances, the crystal volume that can be used to collect useful X-ray diffraction data decreases. The technologies available to detect and study growing crystals beyond the optical resolution limit and methods to successfully place the crystal into the X-ray beam are discussed. Structural biology has contributed tremendous knowledge to the understanding of life on the molecular scale. The Protein Data Bank, a depository of this structural knowledge, currently contains over 100 000 protein structures, with the majority stemming from X-ray crystallography. As the name might suggest, crystallography requires crystals. As detectors become more sensitive and X-ray sources more intense, the notion of a crystal is gradually changing from one large enough to embellish expensive jewellery to objects that have external dimensions of the order of the wavelength of visible light. Identifying these crystals is a prerequisite to their study. This paper discusses developments in identifying these crystals during crystallization screening and distinguishing them from other potential outcomes. The practical aspects of ensuring that once a crystal is identified it can then be positioned in the X-ray beam for data collection are also addressed

  7. Oral and perioral piercings in Tshwane.

    Ebrahim, R; Naidoo, S

    2008-06-01

    Oral and perioral piercings have recently become very popular and many patients present at dental clinics and practices with jewellery inserted into the oral and perioral tissues. It is imperative that oral health care professionals become familiar with this practice, become aware of its sequelae, and are able to provide oral health education regarding oral hygiene and care of the piercing. The present study investigated the sites of oral piercings, complications associated with piercings, plaque control procedures practised by piercees, and the attitude and behaviour of piercers towards infection control and prevention of complications after a piercing. A convenience sample was used and 126 piercees and 10 piercers completed a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 126 participants (107 females and 19 males), 88.10% had a tongue piercing, 19.84% had a lip piercing and 7.94% had both. The most common immediate post-procedure sequelae were pain (69.05%), swelling (52.38%) and difficulty eating, speaking and swallowing (70.63%). Long-term complications were reported by 17.56% of the sample, and included chipping of teeth, gingival recession, lesions on the tongue and palate, painful gums, and sensitivity of teeth. Oral health professionals need to be aware of the risk of damage to soft and hard tissue, and their role in informing patients about the potential risks, if consulted before a piercing.

  8. A survey of the determination of the platinum group elements.

    Kallmann, S

    1987-08-01

    The platinum-group metals (PGMs), Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt, are widely used as catalysts in petroleum and chemical processes. They find wide applications in automotive exhaust-gas control converters and are of immense importance to the electronics industry. They are found in many items of jewellery and serve to an increasing extent as a form of investment. The PGMs are extracted in minute quantities from a limited number of ores, found mainly in S. Africa and the USSR. They are concentrated and separated from each other by elaborate chemical processes. Because of their great intrinsic value (Pt $650 per oz; Rh $1400 per oz), the recycling of the PGMs from literally hundreds of different forms of scrap is an essential factor in the overall management of the PGM economy. In this survey emphasis is placed on the need to tailor the analytical method according to (a) the environment in which the PGMs occur, (b) the individual PGM concentrations, and (c) the desired sensitivity and precision. The factors which determine the choice of chemical, physicochemical and/or instrumental approaches are discussed. They are further commented on in extensive presentations of dissolution and separation techniques and methods for the final measurement of individual PGMs. Appendices are provided which present the compositions and sources of the products most frequently encountered in PGM analysis, along with information on methods of decomposition, separations required, type of separation, and final determination.

  9. Time series analysis of gold production in Malaysia

    Muda, Nora; Hoon, Lee Yuen

    2012-05-01

    Gold is a soft, malleable, bright yellow metallic element and unaffected by air or most reagents. It is highly valued as an asset or investment commodity and is extensively used in jewellery, industrial application, dentistry and medical applications. In Malaysia, gold mining is limited in several areas such as Pahang, Kelantan, Terengganu, Johor and Sarawak. The main purpose of this case study is to obtain a suitable model for the production of gold in Malaysia. The model can also be used to predict the data of Malaysia's gold production in the future. Box-Jenkins time series method was used to perform time series analysis with the following steps: identification, estimation, diagnostic checking and forecasting. In addition, the accuracy of prediction is tested using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). From the analysis, the ARIMA (3,1,1) model was found to be the best fitted model with MAPE equals to 3.704%, indicating the prediction is very accurate. Hence, this model can be used for forecasting. This study is expected to help the private and public sectors to understand the gold production scenario and later plan the gold mining activities in Malaysia.

  10. A Study to Assess Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Hand Hygiene amongst Residents and Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Health Care Setting of Bhopal City.

    Maheshwari, Veena; Kaore, Navin Chandra M; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Borle, Amod; Kaushal, Rituja

    2014-08-01

    Infection due to hospital-acquired microbes is an evolving problem worldwide, and horizontal transmission of bacterial organism continues to cause a high nosocomial infection rate in health care settings. Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers.The application of hand hygiene is effective in reducing infection rates. To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding hand hygiene practices amongst the health care professionals and to identify areas of gaps in their knowledge and attitude. A cross-sectional study. A total 160 respondents were studied about their knowledge and attitude towards hand hygiene practices and significant difference with a p-value of 0.0025 was observed regarding most frequent source of germs responsible for health care associated infections among resident and nurses. A significant difference with p-value of 0.0001 & 0.04 was observed in colonization due to jewellery and artificial nail among the study groups. The attitude regarding correct hand hygiene practices to be followed at all times was found to be better among nurses (62.5%) as compared to residents (21.3%) which was found to be highly significant with p-value hand hygiene practices among the health care workers to provide the current knowledge in the area with a behavioral change in attitudes and practices leading to reduction of nosocomial infections.

  11. Coal: a human history

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  12. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral.

    Garrabou, J; Sala, E; Linares, C; Ledoux, J B; Montero-Serra, I; Dominici, J M; Kipson, S; Teixidó, N; Cebrian, E; Kersting, D K; Harmelin, J G

    2017-02-15

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  13. The woman in Minoic Crete.

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis Emm

    2011-07-01

    Minoan Civilization (3000-1150 BC) was the first European civilization on the GREEK island of Crete. Fabulous architectonical constructions like great palaces, wonderful frescoes, and pottery as well as jewellery characterize this amazing civilization. According to all existing descriptions from ancient Greek historians and philosophers like Plato, Thucydides, Strabon but also from all the archaeological findings men and women lived freely and peacefully participating equal in all daily activities, sports, and games. The women were predominating. Minoan women enjoyed a higher social status than other women in later civilizations. Investigation of all the existing data concerning the Minoan culture. Archaeological databases, as well as data from the National University of Athens and other Greek historical institutions were collected and analyzed in order to present the Minoan culture. The Minoic civilization represents a paradigm of a well being society in which the woman played a dominant role. She was the 'mother' but also the 'active woman', who participated in all city activities. Four thousand years later a prototype of a society in which the role of the mother was recognized in an admirably way remains a magnificent paradigm.

  14. Assessing the deposition of radon progeny from a uranium glass necklace

    Hanse, M.F.; Moss, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Could jewellery made from uranium glass beads pose an increased risk to skin cancer? The literature Eatough (Alpha-particle dosimetry for the basal layer of the skin and the radon progeny 218 Po and 214 Po. Phys. Med. Biol. 1997;42:1899-1911.) suggests that the alphas from the short-lived radon daughters, 218 Po and 214 Po, may reach the basal layer of the epidermis, which is believed to be important in the induction of skin cancers. The deposition of the alphas from the 218 Po and 214 Po daughters was investigated using PADC detector material. The expectation would be that no alpha particles would penetrate through the dead skin layer, assuming the average of 70 microns used in radiation protection, but the skin around the collar bone could potentially be thinner than the assumed average. It should be noticed that by inserting a slice of pig skin in between the necklace and the PADC, no great excess of alpha tracks were seen after 1 week of exposure in the freezer. There was, however, a clear signal through the pig skin from beta particles, confirming the potential of a uranium bead necklace posing a health risk. (authors)

  15. Equivocal Objects: The Problem of Women's Property in Daniel Deronda

    Deborah Wynne

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Written between the passing of the first Married Women's Property Act in 1870 and the second Act of 1882, Eliot's final novel, 'Daniel Deronda' (1876, offers a powerful depiction of the social and legal disabilities faced by women. Her representations of objects and objectification centre on the concept of property, not only portable property such as jewellery and clothing, but also the idea of women themselves as property to be exchanged within the Victorian social system. This essay suggests that Eliot's awareness of the anomalies of the law and the equivocal positions held by women in terms of property ownership informs her depictions of the things women possess, and the sorts of meanings generated by objects. The essay argues that in 'Daniel Deronda' Eliot offers a powerful critique of women's exclusion from the patriarchal processes of primogeniture, and that her ironic use of terms such as 'own' and 'self-possession' in relation to her female characters helps to emphasise her need to move beyond the heroine who renounces the things of this world.

  16. Assessment of nickel release from earrings randomly purchased in China and Thailand using the dimethylglyoxime test.

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan J; Hamann, Quinlan J; Hamann, Curtis P; Boonchai, Waranya; Li, Lin-Feng; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-04-01

    China and Thailand produce large amounts of jewellery that are sold domestically and abroad. To identify nickel release and metal content in earrings purchased in China and Thailand. A total of 557 earrings were randomly purchased from vendors in 11 markets located in Beijing, Chengdu, Bangkok, Patong Beach, and Hat Yai. Earrings were subjected to dimethylglyoxime (DMG) tests and 26 of the DMG negative earrings were further evaluated qualitatively for major and minor metal content using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A total of 314 Chinese earrings (31.5%) and 243 Thai earrings (29.2%) were DMG test positive. Three (11.5%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a major component; 7 (26.9%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a minor component. Excessive nickel release was frequent. This may contribute to the high prevalence of nickel allergy in both countries. Increased public education together with the adoption of a regulatory intervention in Thailand may be warranted. In China, enforcement of the 2002 Chinese National Standard GB 11887 may assist in reducing sensitization. These initiatives may eventually result in decreased morbidity among the Chinese and Thai citizens, but can potentially benefit recipient countries of these important earring producing countries.

  17. Excessive nickel release from earrings purchased from independent shops and street markets--a field study from Warsaw and London.

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Lidén, C; White, I R; White, J; Spiewak, R; Johansen, J D

    2011-09-01

    Nickel allergy is frequent and cause morbidity and increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of inexpensive earrings randomly purchased from stores and street markets in two capitals that gave positive dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test reactions and to determine whether the degree of nickel release was related to shop category. Random inexpensive metallic earrings were purchased from stores and vendors in London and Warsaw. A qualitative investigation of nickel release by using the DMG test was performed. DMG testing revealed that respectively 15.1% (n=205) and 18.4% (n=206) of earrings purchased in London and Warsaw released nickel as indicated by positive test outcomes. Stratification by store category showed that DMG test-positive jewellery were mainly purchased from street markets and from stores that were not part of national or international chains. Despite the EU Nickel Directive having resulted in decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy, a large proportion of inexpensive earrings still release nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. Authorities should prioritize information campaigns and random inspections as a legislation that is not followed is of limited value. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. The Perception of the Jesuits in the Portuguese World: between the Trade of and the Taste of «Orientalia» (16th-17th centuries

    Cristina Osswald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jesuits became reputed commissioners of orientalia, during the 16th and the 17th centuries. Their commission of orientalia included exotica, rarita, and naturalia. Due to the fact that they were members of a religious order, a considerable part of orientalia had a religious character. At least, at the beginning, those objects were destined mainly to the liturgy in the missions. Nevertheless, the Jesuits quickly developed an exquisite collectionism taste of those objects and as traders. Among the orientalia that arose the greater interest among the Jesuits, reference shall be made to Japanese silk and silver transported by the Nau do Trato, Indian rarita, such as jewellery and ivory sculpture, and also naturalia and exotica, such as pearls and bezoar stones. The Jesuits moreover joined immediately the interest for Chinese porcelain and lacquerware. The Jesuits were fundamental agents from a technical viewpoint. They are credited with the creation of the Goa stones and the introduction of the Cassius purple. Jesuit authors further wrote important technical treatises. The trade and collectionism of orientalia by the Jesuits were often excessive. However, the repetition of the interdictions by both the General Claudio Acquaviva and the General Everardo Mercuriano clearly illustrates the incapacity of the authorities to put an end to inappropriate practices to religious men of owning luxurious objects and fomenting the taste for luxury, through the offer of orientalia.

  19. 'Die koren onthoudt, wordt gevloekt onder het volk...'. De zwarte markt in voedingswaren 1940-1948

    H.A.M. Klemann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Black Market in Food Stuffs (1940-1948In this article on the black market during the German occupation of the Netherlands and the first few years following it, it becomes clear that market production only started in 1941 and accounted for approximately 20% of annual agrarian production from 1942 until 1948. The big exception was 1944 and 1945, when famine swept over the area of the country that was still occupied. During this time, black market production was not only up to 40% but the nature of the production also changed. Until 1943, luxury products had been sold. In 1944 and 1945 this changed to potatoes, corn and even sugar beet. When one reconstructs the series of tables on the cost of living at the time, including black market prices and the real wages that resulted from these, it becomes apparent that up to 1943 the real income of wage earners dropped dramatically by 40% compared to 1939, however in 1944 and 1945 the index number (1939 = 100 dropped even further to as little as 32 and 24. It was only by exchanging shoes, clothing, jewellery and furniture that the starving population of the urbanised western part of the country was able to survive. Farmers, on the other hand, earned a lot from it.

  20. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  1. Women Factor in Urban Economy of Eyup in Tulip Era (LALE DEVRİ EYÜP KENT EKONOMİSİNDE KADIN FAKTÖRÜ

    Yasemin Keskin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osmanlı toplumunda kadınların ekonomik alanda aktif olmadıkları kanaati yaygındır. Hâlbuki son zamanlarda yapılan bazı araştırmalar ve kaynaklardaki veriler bunun doğru olmadığını göstermiştir. Kadınların da İslam hukukunun bir gereği olarak babalarından ve kocalarından bağımsız bir şekilde mal, mülk ve servet sahibi oldukları görülmüştür. Onların servetleri menkul (ev eşyası, giyim-kuşam, ziynet, takı eşyaları, ziraat aletleri vs. ve gayrimenkul mallar (ev, arsa, tarla, bağ, bahçe, değirmen, dükkân, çiftlik, nakit para, köle ve cariyelerden oluşmaktadır. Bu servetlerini iki yoldan elde etmişlerdir. Ticaret ve emekleriyle elde ettikleri kazançlar, kira gelirleri ve vakıf görevleri sebebiyle aldıkları ücretler onların doğrudan gelirlerini oluştururken, miras, çeyiz, mihr (mihr-i muaccel, mihr-i müeccel, nafaka (evlilik, iddet, hidane ve çocuk hibe ve tazminatlar (öldürme veya yaralama ise onların dolaylı gelirlerini oluşturmuştur. Erkekler kadar yoğun bir çalışma hayatında olmasalar da ev ve ziraat işleri ile aile ekonomisine katkıda bulunan kadınlar, daha ziyade satarak veya tüketerek kent ekonomisinin pasif aktörü olmuşlardır. Abstract: It is a common idea that women did not take an active role in Ottoman society. However, collected data from sources and recent research show that this is not accurate. As a requirement of the Islamic Law, women are found to have property, domain and fortune separately from their husband and father. Their fortune consists of personal (furniture, tureng, jewellery, jewellery items, agricultural tools etc and immovable properties (house, buildingland, field, vineyard, garden, mill, shop, farm, cash, slave and odalisque. They generate this income in two ways. Whereas rental income, commercial and charitable foundation earning constitute women’s direct income; inheritance, dowery, bridewealth (mihr-i muaccel, mihr-i m

  2. Analysis of Western Australian zebra rock

    Clark, M.J.; Cashion, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Zebra rock is a striking rock from the Ord River area of Western Australia which contains regularly spaced white and red-brown bands or rods. Its ease of working has made it popular for use in ornaments and costume jewellery. However, the mechanism for its formation has been a source of controversy for 75 years and is still not settled. Possible mechanisms proposed include slow sedimentation with regular addition of hydrated iron oxides, leaching of a reddish mudstone, post-depositional mobilisation and subsequent rhythmic precipitation of iron oxides from groundwaters, and accumulation of iron-containing minerals in ripple troughs. Loughnan and Roberts suggested a more detailed explanation and from a detailed mineralogical examination, including XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM, they concluded that the only major difference between the two coloured bands was the presence of hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 . In an attempt to throw more light on the problem, we have taken 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of samples from the two different coloured regions. As expected, the white coloured material contained little iron, giving a weak, broad single line spectrum at room temperature. At 78 K, the spectrum has split into a magnetic sextet which has not yet been positively identified. As expected from the XRD, the spectrum of the red part principally consists of a strong sextet due to hematite, although there is also a weak component from the phase in the white material. It is hoped that further analysis will help us to eliminate at least some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of zebra rock

  3. Dentalium beads - shells of fosillised sea molluscs at the Vinča-Belo brdo site

    Dimitrijević Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During excavation of the Vinča-Belo Brdo site a significant number of decorated items made from clay, stone, bone, and seashells or snail shells have been collected over the years. Amongst the decorated objects which could be classified as jewellery the majority are bracelets, pendants, and beads made from Spondylus and Glycymeris shells, as well as beads made from Dentalium shells. The appearance of these beads and the question of their origin have not yet been specifically considered within studies of prehistoric cultures in the central Balkans. Furthermore, they have rarely been illustrated and mentioned in archaeological site inventories, which we presume has not been because of their poor representation, but rather because of their being unfamiliar. The aim of this work is therefore to: a systematize data about Dentalium beads from all phases of excavation of the Belo Brdo site in Vinča; b to show the importance of this kind of jewellery in the study of resources around the Vinča settlement; and c to indicate the wider chronological perspective and the significance of studying Dentalium beads within the prehistory of the central Balkans. Dentalium is a carnivorous Scaphopoda sea mollusc, uncommon and insufficiently studied. Representatives of this class of Scaphopoda have been found on Serbian territory in the Badenian sediments, deposited fifteen million years ago. Badenian sediments were discovered around Loznica, Belgrade, Aranđelovac, Golubac, Zaječar, and Negotin. The region of Belgrade and the surrounding area had been covered by a warm, shallow sea of normal salination. On the territory of Belgrade, offsprings of the Badenian sediments, rich in fossils, have been discovered in the city centre (Tašmajdan, Kalemegdan, as well as in many surrounding places (Rakovica, Kaluđerica, Leštani, and Jajinci (fig. 2. Scaphopod shells found at the Vinča-Belo Brdo archaeological site are usually transversally broken. Judging by the basic

  4. Comparison of Neural Networks and Regression Time Series in Estimating the Development of the Afternoon Price of Palladium on the New York Stock Exchange

    Marek Vochozka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Palladium is presently used for producing electronics, industrial products or jewellery, as well as products in the medical field. Its value is raised especially by its unique physical and chemical characteristics. Predicting the value of such a metal is not an easy matter (with regard to the fact that prices may change significantly in time. Methodology/methods: To carry out the analysis, London Fix Price PM data was used, i.e. amounts reported in the afternoon for a period longer than 10 years. To process the data, Statistica software is used. Linear regression is carried out using a whole range of functions, and subsequently regression via neural structures is performed, where several distributional functions are used again. Subsequently, 1000 neural networks are generated, out of which 5 proving the best characteristics are chosen. Scientific aim: The aim of the paper is to perform a regression analysis of the development of the palladium price on the New York Stock Exchange using neural structures and linear regression, then to compare the two methods and determine the more suitable one for a possible prediction of the future development of the palladium price on the New York Stock Exchange. Findings: Results are compared on the level of an expert perspective and the evaluator’s – economist’s experience. Within regression time lines, the curve obtained by the least squares methods via negative-exponential smoothing gets closest to Palladium price line development. Out of the neural networks, all 5 chosen networks prove to be the most practically useful. Conclusions: Because it is not possible to predict extraordinary situations and their impact on the palladium price (at most in the short term, but certainly not over a long period of time, simplification and the creation of a relatively simple model is appropriate and the result is useful.

  5. Un retrato desconocido de Isabel la Católica

    Flor, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of the National Gallery, London, house a painting identified as Mary Magdalene, by an unknown master most likely of Franco-Flemish origin. The iconographical identification of the subject derives from the small jar that she holds. A more thorough study of the piece, however, leads us to raise the hypothesis that it is actually a portrait of Isabella the Catholic, based on comparisons with other representations of this queen, as well as on the jewellery she wears. In spite of the stylistic comparisons made with contemporary works, it is difficult to establish the artist with precision. Nevertheless, we propose Michel Sittow –or someone from his artistic circle– whose activity at the service of the Spanish crown is documented precisely towards the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th century.Las reservas de la National Gallery de Londres albergan una pintura identificada como María Magdalena atribuida a un maestro desconocido de posible origen franco-flamenco. La identificación iconográfica del personaje se basa en el pequeño frasco que sujeta. Sin embargo, un análisis más detallado de la obra nos permite plantear la hipótesis de que se trate antes de un retrato de Isabel la Católica, no sólo por comparación con otros ejemplares iconográficos de la Reina, sino también por las joyas que ostenta. Partiendo de la comparación estilística con obras coevas resulta problemático determinar con precisión el autor de la pintura, pero es posible que se trate de Michel Sittow o alguien de su círculo de influencia, cuya actividad se conoce precisamente a finales del siglo XV y principios del XVI al servicio de la corona española.

  6. Examination, characterisation and analysis techniques for the knowledge and the conservation / restoration of cultural heritage - importance of ionising radiation techniques

    Boutaine; J. L.

    2004-01-01

    For the examination, characterisation and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts or art objects and their component materials, the conservation scientist needs a palette of non destructive and non invasive techniques, in order to improve our knowledge concerning their elaboration, their evolution and/or degradation during time, and to give rational basis for their restoration and conservation. A general survey and illustrations showing the usefulness of these techniques will be presented. Among these methods, many are based on the use of ionising radiation. 1. Radiography (using X-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, secondary electrons, neutrons), electron emission radiography, tomodensimetry, 2. Scanning electron microscope associated with X-ray spectrometry, 3. X-ray diffraction, 4. Synchrotron radiation characterisation, 5. X-ray fluorescence analysis, 6. Activation analysis, 7. Ion beam analysis (PIXE, PIGE, RBS, secondary X-ray fluorescence), 8. Thermoluminescence dating, 9. Carbon-14 dating. These methods are used alone or in connection with other analytical methods. Any kind of materials can be encountered, for instance: i. stones, gems, ceramics, terracotta, enamels, glasses, i i. wood, paper, textile, bone, ivory, i i i. metals, jewellery, i v. paint layers, canvas and wooden backings, pigments, dyers, oils, binding media, varnishes, glues. Some examples will be taken, among recent work done at the Centre of Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), from various geographical origins, various ages and different art disciplines. This will illustrate the kind of assistance that science and technology can provide to a better knowledge of mankind's cultural heritage and also to the establishment of rational basis for its better conservation for the future generations. (Author)

  7. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Switzerland: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies - Paul Scherrer Institut

    Mannes, David

    2012-01-01

    Historical bronze objects play an important rule in cultural heritage research as this material was used for a broad variety of different purposes (tools, weapons, jewellery, cult objects,…) since more than 5000 years in most parts of the world (Africa, Asia, Europe). Furthermore this group of copper alloys shows high durability and has low susceptibility for corrosion, which explains the large number of objects, which have stand the test of time and wait to be studied. For the study of cultural heritage objects non-destructive testing methods are in many cases required and generally preferred. Neutron imaging provides a unique opportunity to thoroughly characterize bronze objects and to provide information on the inner structure also from larger objects while other conventional methods such as X-ray methods are restricted to surface regions of such metal objects. In the scope of this CRP we propose an interdisciplinary platform for non-destructive investigations of historical bronze objects using neutrons. The platform will provide a forum and link users from the cultural heritage area with partners from the neutron imaging community. As outcome we anticipate a document listing the possibilities and limitations of neutron imaging (such as neutron-radiography, -tomography, energy selective imaging,…) and other neutron based techniques (e.g. diffraction, PGAA,...) to investigate certain questions and problems from the cultural heritage area regarding bronze objects. The document should also contain possible methodical approaches (i.e. how to perform certain investigations) and list partners from the neutron imaging community, which could help in the planning and realization of investigations. The platform will intensify the collaboration and strengthen the connections between the involved research institutes from both areas neutron physics and cultural heritage and result in a long-lasting synergetic effect

  9. Black plastics: Linear and circular economies, hazardous additives and marine pollution.

    Turner, Andrew

    2018-05-17

    Black products constitute about 15% of the domestic plastic waste stream, of which the majority is single-use packaging and trays for food. This material is not, however, readily recycled owing to the low sensitivity of black pigments to near infrared radiation used in conventional plastic sorting facilities. Accordingly, there is mounting evidence that the demand for black plastics in consumer products is partly met by sourcing material from the plastic housings of end-of-life waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE). Inefficiently sorted WEEE plastic has the potential to introduce restricted and hazardous substances into the recyclate, including brominated flame retardants (BFRs), Sb, a flame retardant synergist, and the heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. The current paper examines the life cycles of single-use black food packaging and black plastic WEEE in the context of current international regulations and directives and best practices for sorting, disposal and recycling. The discussion is supported by published and unpublished measurements of restricted substances (including Br as a proxy for BFRs) in food packaging, EEE plastic goods and non-EEE plastic products. Specifically, measurements confirm the linear economy of plastic food packaging and demonstrate a complex quasi-circular economy for WEEE plastic that results in significant and widespread contamination of black consumer goods ranging from thermos cups and cutlery to tool handles and grips, and from toys and games to spectacle frames and jewellery. The environmental impacts and human exposure routes arising from WEEE plastic recycling and contamination of consumer goods are described, including those associated with marine pollution. Regarding the latter, a compilation of elemental data on black plastic litter collected from beaches of southwest England reveals a similar chemical signature to that of contaminated consumer goods and blended plastic WEEE recyclate, exemplifying the pervasiveness

  10. SEM-EDS analysis of ancient gold leaf glass mosaic tesserae. A contribution to the dating of the materials

    Conventi, A; Verità, M; Neri, E

    2012-01-01

    Metal leaf (gold, silver or their alloys) glass tesserae began to be used in wall mosaics in the first century AD (the first examples are in Rome) and their use has been uninterrupted up to day. The metal leaf could be obtained from circulating coins, jewellery or refining. According to various techniques that have changed over the centuries, the leaf was hot fixed between two glass layers. From an archaeological point of view, it is interesting to know when and where these tesserae were made, if they were new made or if they were reused tesserae recovered from earlier dismantled mosaics. The determination of the glass composition of the tesserae is not of great help in this connection, for the same kind of glass was used over long periods. Available information is still scanter for glasses produced between the 1st to 8th centuries when the batch of raw materials (a natural soda called natron and a silica-lime sand) was melted in large tank furnaces and chunks of raw glass were transported all over the Mediterranean to be remelted and shaped into manufacts in small pot furnaces. The SEM-EDS analysis is proposed in this study as a useful tool to investigate the composition of both the glass and the gold alloy in leaf tesserae from mosaics of the 1st - 9th centuries. The comparison of the composition of the gold leaf of the tesserae with that of circulating gold coins (for which an important analytical data base is available), adds further information to the glass analysis, allowing us to improve the dating of the tesserae and increase the knowledge that may result from scientific analyses. The results demonstrate that good quantitative analyses of the metal leaf can be performed and that metal leaves made of pure gold or gold-silver alloys were used.

  11. Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study.

    Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2018-04-10

    Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Commercial glass beads as TLDs in radiotherapy produced by different manufacturers

    Jafari, S. M.; Bates, N. M.; Jupp, T.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    While commercial jewellery glass beads offer the basis of novel radiotherapy TL dosimetry (Jafari et al. 2014a,b,c, 2015a,b), detailed study of TL variation is required for the products from various manufacturers. Investigation is made for glass beads from four manufacturers from four countries: China (Rocaille), Japan (Mill Hill), Indonesia (TOHO™) and Czech Republic (Czech). Sample composition was determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray unit coupled to a scanning electron microscope. Values of mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, as a function of photon energy were then calculated for photons of energy 1 keV to 10 MeV, using the National Institute of Standards and Technology XCOM program. Radiation and energy response were determined using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 80 kVp to 6 MV (TPR20/10=0.670). All bead types showed TL to be linear with dose (R2>0.999). Glow curve dosimetric peaks reached a maximum value at 300 °C for the Toho and 290 °C for the Czech and Mill Hill products but was between 200-250 °C for the Rocaille product. Radiation sensitivity following mass normalisation varied within an order of magnitude; Toho samples showed the greatest and Rocaille the least sensitivity. For the Toho, Czech, Rocaille and Mill Hill samples the energy responses at 80 kVp were 5.0, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.3 times that obtained at 6 MV. All four glass bead types offer potential use as TL dosimeters over doses commonly applied in radiotherapy. Energy response variation was <1% at 6 MV but significant variation was found for photon beam energies covering the kV range; careful characterisation is required if use at this range is intended.

  13. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Ensoli Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3 showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing.

  14. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Bordignon, Valentina; Palamara, Francesca; Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Vento, Antonella; Aiello, Arianna; Picardo, Mauro; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO)2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3) showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing. PMID:18482439

  15. Foreign object detection and removal to improve automated analysis of chest radiographs

    Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Melendez, Jaime; Maduskar, Pragnya; Ginneken, Bram van; Story, Alistair; Hayward, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Chest radiographs commonly contain projections of foreign objects, such as buttons, brassier clips, jewellery, or pacemakers and wires. The presence of these structures can substantially affect the output of computer analysis of these images. An automated method is presented to detect, segment, and remove foreign objects from chest radiographs.Methods: Detection is performed using supervised pixel classification with a kNN classifier, resulting in a probability estimate per pixel to belong to a projected foreign object. Segmentation is performed by grouping and post-processing pixels with a probability above a certain threshold. Next, the objects are replaced by texture inpainting.Results: The method is evaluated in experiments on 257 chest radiographs. The detection at pixel level is evaluated with receiver operating characteristic analysis on pixels within the unobscured lung fields and an A z value of 0.949 is achieved. Free response operator characteristic analysis is performed at the object level, and 95.6% of objects are detected with on average 0.25 false positive detections per image. To investigate the effect of removing the detected objects through inpainting, a texture analysis system for tuberculosis detection is applied to images with and without pathology and with and without foreign object removal. Unprocessed, the texture analysis abnormality score of normal images with foreign objects is comparable to those with pathology. After removing foreign objects, the texture score of normal images with and without foreign objects is similar, while abnormal images, whether they contain foreign objects or not, achieve on average higher scores.Conclusions: The authors conclude that removal of foreign objects from chest radiographs is feasible and beneficial for automated image analysis

  16. Introduction: Victorian Fiction and the Material Imagination

    Victoria Mills

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available How should we deal with the ‘stuff' in books? This is the question addressed in the lead articles of the Spring 2008 issue of 19, all of which focus on some aspect of the material in relation to Victorian fiction. Gas, rocks, jewellery, automata and the entire contents of houses are examined in essays that explore the material imagination of Dickens, Hardy, George Eliot and Thackeray, among others. Moving forward from the previous edition, which different types of collected object, here contributors examine how the material is brought into collision with literature. The phrase 'material imagination' can be traced to the work of Gaston Bachelard who identifies two types of imagination, the formal and the material. Whereas the former focuses on surfaces and the visual perception of images, the latter consists of '…this amazing need for penetration which, going beyond the attractions of the imagination of forms, thinks matter, dreams in it, lives in it, or, in other words, materializes the imaginary'. As Bachelard suggests, the material imagination involves more than just a focus on the representation of objects and the contributions to this edition explore such wide ranging subjects as the gender politics of ownership, dispossession, the body as object, the politics of collecting and display and the dichotomy between the material and immaterial. In addition, this edition features a forum on digitisation and materiality. We are particularly pleased to be able to make use of 19's digital publishing format to further debates about digital media. In the forum, five contributors respond to a series of questions about the nature of the virtual object. All five have worked or are working on nineteenth-century digitisation projects so they are uniquely placed to consider issues surrounding representation and the nature of digital space.

  17. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  18. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Frederic Sinniger

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844 but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  19. In vitro permeation of palladium powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Bovenzi, Massimo; Adami, Gianpiero; Baracchini, Elena; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    The use of palladium (Pd) has grown in the last decades, commonly used in automotive catalytic converters, jewellery and dental restorations sectors. Both general and working population can be exposed to this metal, which may act as skin sensitizer. This study investigated in vitro palladium powders permeation through excised intact and damaged human skin using the Franz diffusion cell method and the effect of rapid skin decontamination using sodium laureth-sulphate. 1 mL of a 10 min sonicated suspension made of 2.5 g of Pd powder in 50 mL synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and room temperature was applied to the outer surface of the skin membranes for 24 h. Pd permeation, assessed by ICP-MS, was higher when damaged skin was used (p = 0.03). Final flux permeation values and lag times were 0.02 ± 0.01 μg cm -2  h -1 and 6.00 ± 3.95 h for intact, and 0.10 ± 0.02 μg cm -2  h -1 and 2.05 ± 1.49 h for damaged skin samples, respectively. Damaged skin protocol enhances Pd skin penetration inside dermal layer (p = 0.04), thus making the metal available for systemic uptake. Pd penetration (p = 0.02) and permeation (p = 0.012) through intact skin decreased significantly when a cleaning procedure was applied. This study demonstrates that after skin exposure to Pd powders a small permeation of the metal happen both through intact and damaged skin and that an early decontamination with a common cleanser can significantly decrease the final amount of metal available forsystemic uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Μεταξύ Αττίλα και Βαϊανού. Το Βυζάντιο και οι νομαδικοί λαοί από το 453 έως το 558

    Γεώργιος ΚΑΡΔΑΡΑΣ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 152 870 獫票楧栮捯洀鉭曮㞱Û뜰⠲쎔딁烊皭〼፥ᙼ䕸忤઱ 7 1 1068 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}  Between Attila and Bajan. Byzantium and the nomads from 453 to 558 The paper highlights the relations of Byzantium with the nomads in the period between the collapse of the Hunnic hegemony in Central Europe and the coming of the Avars to the northern frontiers of the Empire. Taking into account the written testimonies, as well as the archaeological finds, the geographical area of the nomadic settlements, the conflicts and treaties with Byzantium, the role of the nomads in the Byzantine-Persian relations, the nomad mercenaries in the Byzantine army and certain Byzantine finds, as jewellery, swords, pendant capsule or other decorative motifs are considered. These relations are distinguished in two periods, before and after 491. During the first one, the Empire was able to control the activity of the nomads offering them settlement permit on Byzantine soil, while for the second is noted, beside the strong conflicts, the cultural influence of Byzantium through Christianity and, on the other hand, the nomadic influences on the Byzantine army.   

  1. Buena moneda y mala moneda en los hogares de Burgos en el siglo XVIII = Good coin and bat coin in the household of Burgos in the eighteenth century

    Francisco José Sanz de la Higuera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Merced a los inventarios de bienes de la ciudad de Burgos a lo largo del Setecientos, se accede a las disponibilidades de dinero en efectivo y a los tipos de monedas que los hogares atesoraban en el interior de sus viviendas. No en todos ellos hallamos liquidez monetaria. A la postre, la tipología del numerario diferenciaba, de manera notoria, a quienes, ya fuera al hilo de su óbito o en sus existencias cotidianas, eran poseedores de “buena” moneda –en plata y en oro– de aquellos que únicamente disponían de vellón, la “mala” moneda. Empero, los hogares acaparaban los metales “nobles” no sólo a través del numerario sino también en las cuberterías, en los relojes, en las alhajas y adornos personales, en algunos pertrechos religiosos, etcétera. La ley de Gresham, “La moneda buena expulsa a la mala”, se traducía en la práctica no sólo en la circulación habitual de la moneda de peor calidad cuanto en que los hogares menos afortunados disponían, cuando les era posible, de la moneda más modesta. La buena moneda era propiedad de los aristócratas y los privilegiados. Abstract With probate inventories in the city of Burgos during the eighteenth century, we gain access to the available cash and the types of coins hoarded in households. Not in all of them we find liquidity. Ultimately, type of cash made a noticeable difference between those who, close to their deaths or in their daily lives, had “good money –silver or gold– and those who only possessed fleece –the bad money. However, households hoarded “noble” metals not only through cash but also in cutlery, clocks, jewellery and personal ornaments, some religious supplies, and so on. Gresham’s law, “The good money drives out the bad”, was put into practice not only in the normal movement of poorer quality coin as but also in the fact that the less fortunate households when they could, possessed more modest currency. The coin was owned by

  2. Buena moneda y mala moneda en los hogares de Burgos en el siglo XVIII = Good coin and bat coin in the household of Burgos in the eighteenth century

    Francisco José Sanz de la Higuera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Merced a los inventarios de bienes de la ciudad de Burgos a lo largo del Setecientos, se accede a las disponibilidades de dinero en efectivo y a los tipos de monedas que los hogares atesoraban en el interior de sus viviendas. No en todos ellos hallamos liquidez monetaria. A la postre, la tipología del numerario diferenciaba, de manera notoria, a quienes, ya fuera al hilo de su óbito o en sus existencias cotidianas, eran poseedores de “buena” moneda –en plata y en oro– de aquellos que únicamente disponían de vellón, la “mala” moneda. Empero, los hogares acaparaban los metales “nobles” no sólo a través del numerario sino también en las cuberterías, en los relojes, en las alhajas y adornos personales, en algunos pertrechos religiosos, etcétera. La ley de Gresham, “La moneda buena expulsa a la mala”, se traducía en la práctica no sólo en la circulación habitual de la moneda de peor calidad cuanto en que los hogares menos afortunados disponían, cuando les era posible, de la moneda más modesta. La buena moneda era propiedad de los aristócratas y los privilegiados.With probate inventories in the city of Burgos during the eighteenth century, we gain access to the available cash and the types of coins hoarded in households. Not in all of them we find liquidity. Ultimately, type of cash made a noticeable difference between those who, close to their deaths or in their daily lives, had “good money –silver or gold– and those who only possessed fleece –the bad money. However, households hoarded “noble” metals not only through cash but also in cutlery, clocks, jewellery and personal ornaments, some religious supplies, and so on. Gresham’s law, “The good money drives out the bad”, was put into practice not only in the normal movement of poorer quality coin as but also in the fact that the less fortunate households when they could, possessed more modest currency. The coin was owned by aristocrats and

  3. A serial killer of elderly women: analysis of a multi-victim homicide investigation.

    Campobasso, Carlo P; Colonna, Massimo F; Carabellese, Felice; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Candelli, Chiara; Morton, Robert J; Catanesi, Roberto

    2009-03-10

    Between 1995 and 1997, in the territories of Southern Italy, there were fifteen murders of elderly women over the age of 70 years old. Initially, however, not all the murders were attributed to a single serial killer. The majority of the victims were stabbed multiple times in the neck, except for three cases in which the cause of death was manual strangulation. There was evidence of sexual assault in only one of the cases. All the victims were discovered in their own apartments, which were located on the ground level, with no signs of forced entry. In most of the cases, the offender stole money and/or jewellery. A multi-disciplinary team reviewed the cases during the investigation and created a profile of the killer. The team determined that the method of operation was completely unusual for the local criminal element. They suggested that the perpetrator could be an immigrant, who committed the murders for sexual motivation and who may have been arrested previously for sex-related incidents. On 15th September 1997, a suspect was arrested. He was identified as Ben Mohamed Ezzedine Sebai, a 35-year-old white male, originally from Tunisia. He was charged and convicted of four of the murders and was given a life sentence. In 2005, Sebai confessed to the murders of four additional elderly women, for which nine other people had already been previously tried and convicted, among them, a man who committed suicide in jail. In 2007, Sebai finally confessed to committing fifteen murders that occurred between 1995 and 1997. Sebai also admitted to experiencing sexual gratification at every homicide scene, even though there was no physical proof at most of the crime scenes. The goal of this article is to illustrate a little-known but noteworthy case concerning a serial sexual killer of elderly women that occurred in Southern Italy, highlighting the method of operation, the victim selection process, and the injuries inflicted. The article will also discuss his motivation, the

  4. Malaria control under the Taliban regime: insecticide-treated net purchasing, coverage, and usage among men and women in eastern Afghanistan

    2010-01-01

    Background Scaling up insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) coverage is a key malaria control strategy even in conflict-affected countries [1,2]. Socio-economic factors influence access to ITNs whether subsidized or provided free to users. This study examines reported ITN purchasing, coverage, and usage in eastern Afghanistan and explores women's access to health information during the Taliban regime (1996-2001). This strengthens the knowledge base on household-level health choices in complex-emergency settings. Methods Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with men and women from ITN-owning and non-owning households. FGDs included rank ordering, pile sorting and focused discussion of malaria knowledge and ITN purchasing. Interviews explored general health issues, prevention and treatment practices, and women's malaria knowledge and concerns. Seven key informant interviews with health-related workers and a concurrent survey of 200 ITN-owning and 214 non-owning households were used to clarify or quantify findings. Results Malaria knowledge was similar among men and women and ITN owners and non-owners. Women reported obtaining health information through a variety of sources including clinic staff, their husbands who had easier access to information, and particularly female peers. Most participants considered ITNs very desirable, though not usually household necessities. ITN owners reported more household assets than non-owners. Male ITN owners and non-owners ranked rugs and ITNs as most desired, while women ranked personal assets such as jewellery highest. While men were primarily responsible for household decision-making and purchasing, older women exerted considerable influence. Widow-led and landless households reported most difficulties purchasing ITNs. Most participants wanted to buy ITNs only if they could cover all household members. When not possible, preferential usage was given to women and children

  5. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  6. Notes on Glasinac: The Autariatae

    Vasić Rastko P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek Geographer Strabo says the Autariatae used to be the largest and the strongest of Illyrian tribes. The historical context in which they are mentioned is dated to the second half of the fourth century BC, but the tribe is described as neither strong nor large. After that date, there is no further record of them. Therefore the inference seems reasonable that their acme should be dated to a period prior to the fourth century BC. According to archaeologists and modern historians, the Autariatae lived in south-eastern Bosnia, south-western Serbia and northern Montenegro, i.e. in the territory where a powerful Early Iron Age group has been identified and named the Glasinac group after the Glasinac plateau east of Sarajevo. It was at the peak of its power between the mid seventh and mid fth centuries BC as dated by settlements and graves as well as a large number of small finds weapons, pottery, jewellery, imported bronze vessels etc. On the strength of these chronological and chorological parallels, numerous instances of correspondence that cannot be coincidental, the author presumes a possible link between the Glasinac group and the Autariatae. And yet, despite many arguments for the identification of the Autariatae with the Glasinac group it remains a hypothesis, more or less plausible. Identifications of the kind are always tentative. But if there is in the central Balkans an archaeologically attested group that may be identified with a tribe referred to in classical sources, then it certainly is the case of the Glasinac culture and the Illyrian tribe of Autariatae. The issue should be viewed from a different angle too. Namely, despite the relatively clear chronology of the Iron Age in the Balkans, with precisely delineated developmental stages and with classes of material typical of each stage, regional groups are difficult to differentiate. The only one that stands out as a distinctive cultural whole in all of its developmental phases

  7. Evaluation of the Knowledge and Attitude Changes of Mothers in Neonatal Care

    Şahin Hamilçıkan

    2017-06-01

    attitude change was determined in uneducated and primary school graduate mothers (r2=0.35. Conclusion: The frequency and duration of the breastfeeding, infant umbilical care, swaddling, bathing, sensitivity to pinning jewellery on the infants, and whether or not mothers receive information about infant care from a healthcare organisation have changed positively after the education.

  8. Barents Tour for Geotourists

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Barents Tour for Geotourists is a guidebook for a circular route locating in northern Finland, northern Norway and north-western Russia. The targets along the route are all connected with different aspects of geology: there are localities presenting rare rock types and minerals, potholes, gorges, eskers, raised beaches and palsa mires. Total number of sites along the route is 26, 14 of them are locating in Finland, 4 in Norway and 8 in the Kola Peninsula, Russia. In addition to geological information on the sites, the guidebook features directions and information on local tourism services in four languages: English, Finnish, Russian and Norwegian. Good examples of the geological sites in northern Finland are the potholes at Aholanvaara, Salla. The largest pothole is called the "Drinking pot". With a diameter of 15.5 m and a depth of 9.5 m it is the largest known pothole in Finland. One famous target in northern Finland is also the Gold Prospector Museum and geological nature trail at Tankavaara, Sodankylä. The museum has an impressive mineral and jewellery stone collection and it is the only international museum in the world displaying past and present items of gold panning and prospecting. The Khibiny Tundra is the largest mountain massif on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. These mountains are best known for their unique landscapes, geology and mineralogy. With an experienced guide, minerals like apatite, nepheline, titanite, eudialyte and lamprophyllite can be found there. In north-eastern Norway, the palsas at Øvre Neiden and Færdesmyra are examples of a specific mire type in the cold climate area. The palsa mires are characterized by the presence of 2-5 m high peat mounds that consist of interleaved peat and ice layers. The route was planned and implemented in the ABCGheritage project (Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage) partly funded by the Kolarctic ENPI CBC program of the European Union. The guidebook was written by researchers of the

  9. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  10. Discussion of risks of platinum resources based on a function orientated criticality assessment. Shown by cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters; Diskussion der Risiken der Ressource Platin auf Basis eines um funktionale Faktoren erweiterten Kritikalitaetsassessments. Dargestellt am Beispiel platinhaltiger Zytostatika und Autoabgaskatalysatoren

    Thorenz, Andrea; Reller, Armin [University of Augsburg, Chair of Resource Strategy, Environment Science Center, Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of the study is the enhancement of criticality assessments for resources in order to address function specific factors like dissipation, recycling, bio-activity and toxicity. The developed methodology is applied to platinum-containing cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters. Methods: The study is methodically based on an analysis of resource specific factors like exploration rates, reserves-to-production ratio and regional distribution of exploration areas as well as on the investigation of product/functional depending factors like recycling rates, dissipation rates, bio-diversity and toxicity. Taking into account that economic and ecological risks may occur at any stage of the supply, consumption and dissipation processes, the whole life cycles of the two analyzed products (cytostatic drugs and automotive catalytic converters) are considered. As an approach to reduce potential economic and ecological risks the study is especially focused on recycling strategies. In order to get a better understanding of platinum as an essential resource for the development of our society the history and the cultural impact of the term ''resource'' are introduced. The availability of platinum is crucial for several products of our modern society. Areas of application are e.g. jewellery, automotive catalytic converters, investments (coins, bars), computers, mobile devices, fertilizers and cytostatic drugs. Economic risks are caused by limited sources and dynamic demand of new application areas like fuel cells and drugs. Platinum-containing drugs are used for the treatment of several kinds of cancer such as testicular, breast, colon and prostate. Currently the pharmaceutical industry requires 6,9 tons per year (3 percent of the total demand of platinum). Due to the improvement of medical standards and the ageing society, especially in developing countries, the demand of platinum-containing drugs will rise significantly. The dissipation of

  11. Rise and course of an elusive technology: metal gilding

    Perea, Alicia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on mercury or fire gilding technology during Prehistory and Antiquity is at its beginnings due to the fact that its identification and characterization is completely dependent on analytical techniques, mainly non destructive Archaeometry techniques allowing an easy characterization of the archaeological objects. Actually we rely on a small number of analytical data, much more limited if we place ourselves within the Iberian peninsula or if we are concerned with the early stages of the use of this technology because... nobody finds what it is not looked for.
    We submit a summary of data anlyisis by XRF and PIXE in order to characterize two groups of items: on the one hand a special type of iberian brooch with animals and hunting scenes, made up of gilded silver, and on the other the visigothic treasure of Torredonjimeno, Jaén. From the debate on these results the hypothesis of a local origin for fire gilding technology during the iberian period, about 4th century B.C., has come out regardless other centers of possible inception in Europe or the Mediterranean. A final stage would be represented by visigothic jewellery that closes the late Antiquity technological domain system up.

    La investigación sobre la técnica del dorado al fuego con amalgama de mercurio durante la Prehistoria y Antigüedad no ha hecho más que comenzar debido a que su identificación y caracterización es totalmente dependiente de las técnicas analíticas, fundamentalmente las no destructivas, puestas a punto desde la Arqueometría para facilitar el estudio del material arqueológico. Actualmente contamos con escasos datos analíticos, que se reducen drásticamente si nos situamos en la Península ibérica y concentramos nuestro interés en las primeras etapas de su utilización, porque... nadie encuentra lo que no se busca.
    Presentamos una recopilación de este tipo de datos mediante las técnicas analíticas XRF y PIXE para caracterizar dos grupos

  12. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    , shells, mother of pearl, on palm trees, cups, ostrich eggs, musical instruments (e.g. the Queen's lyre) and other items, such as rings, jewellery and games, have been excavated from the Royal tombs in Ur. They are on view in the British Museum. With a special enigmatic material, commonly referred to as 'bitumen mastic', the inhabitants of Susa sculpted masterpieces of art which are today exhibited in the Louvre Museum in Paris. This unique collection is presented in a book by Connan and Deschesne (1996). Last, bitumen was also considered as a powerful remedy in medical practice, especially as a disinfectant and insecticide, and was used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare mixtures to embalm the corpses of their dead. Modern analytical techniques, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, have been adapted to the study of numerous archaeological bituminous mixtures found in excavations. More than 700 bituminous samples have been analysed during the last decade, using gas chromatography alone and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotopic chemistry (carbon and hydrogen mainly). These powerful tools, focused on the detailed analysis of biomarkers in hydrocarbon fractions, were calibrated on various well-known natural sources of bitumen in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Bahrain and Kuwait. These reference studies have made it possible to establish the origins of bitumen from numerous archaeological sites and to document the bitumen trade routes in the Middle East and the Arabo-Persian Gulf. Using a well-documented case history, Tell el 'Oueili (5800 to 3500 BC) in South Mesopotamia, we will illustrate in this paper how these new molecular and isotopic tools can help us to recognize different sources of bitumen and to trace the ancient trade routes through time. These import routes were found to vary with major cultural and political changes in the area under study. A second example, referring to the prehistoric period, describes bitumen traces on

  13. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  14. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  15. Minimum standard guidelines of care on requirements for setting up a laser room

    Dhepe Niteen

    2009-08-01

    low humidity and dust free environment for longer life of machines. Patient chair: A dental/cosmetic chair with adjustable task light is a suitable option for patient positioning. The chair should have the option to tilt head down or ′syncope position′ to facilitate resuscitation of a patient in vaso-vagal shock. Maintenance: Annual maintenance contract (AMC is essential after warranty period is over and is essential for insurance purposes. Mobile Laser Unit: Mobile laser units are of relevance in the Indian context to render laser facility available in smaller towns. A laser with fiber optic delivery system can be made mobile after consultation with supplier. However a laser with an articulated arm delivery cannot be made mobile. Proper packing with shock absorbing material is necessary during transportation. The area where lasers are to be moved to and operated should have appropriate facilities as mentioned above. Records: Patient′s health declaration questionnaires, laser register are essential records. Digital photography before and at regular intervals after procedure is an essential record. Detailed informed consent in patients language for each procedure explaining nature of procedure, anesthesia used, and machine used, post operative down time should be signed by patient. Drugs, anesthesia and sterilization: An electrocautery machine to control bleeding, equipments for airway maintenance, other instruments for emergency resuscitation and an emergency drug tray are essential. Standard sterilization practices are adopted. For most of laser procedures topical anesthesia is sufficient. Safe laser use: Protocols of safe laser use to avoid burns or eye damage to patients or operator are adopted. Reflective surfaces like mirrors, reflective jewelleries are not allowed in laser room. Machine should always be on standby mode when not in direct use. It should be used by authorized operator only. Eye protection: Goggles of sufficient optical density (OD intended

  16. Mystery Of The Funerary Reliefs Of Palmyra (Tadmor In The Desert Of Syria Suriye Çölünde Palmyra’daki (Tedmür Mezar Rölyeflerinin Gizemi

    Hatice PALAZ ERDEMİR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, people were delighted to express their sense and availibities on various types of arts by using different materials. Art was also the way in which people could reveal their possesions in both materially and morally. The tower tomb reliefs of Palmyra reflect the wealth, power and the eclectic taste of people of the city although the area looks unnatural for these possesions.Extraordinary tower tombs with their unique architectural structure were mainly made of lime stone by looking austere from outside but quite surprisingly eclectically elegant with their marble and limestone reliefs inside. It can be derived from the reliefs that the religious art of Palmyra was woven out of many strands. In many superficial ways it is Greco-Roman but in detail and from pictorial subjects is ‘oriental’. The compositions of the family and the individual men and women on the reliefs with their dress, jewellery, ornaments and household utensils reflects overwhelmingly Parthian and Mesopotamian, Anatolian effects.The country of Syria is under political disorder nowadays and its cultural heritage is also endangered. The aim of this article (before any vanishment of these important cultural heritage, is to reveal how and to what extend the people of ancient Palmyra developed themselves in the middle of the Syrian desert and how much they reflected their own culture and wealth on the tower tomb reliefs of Palmyra. Tarih boyunca, insanlar farklı malzemeler kullanarak sanat eserleri üzerinde duygularını yansıtmaktan memnuniyet duymuşlardır. Sanat, aynı zamanda insanların sahip oldukları maddi ve manevi zenginlikleri ortaya koyma yoludur. Çevre tabii görünmese de, Palmyra kule mezar rölyefleri, bir zamanlar şehirde yaşayan halkın zenginlik, güç ve seçkin sanat zevkini ortaya koyması bakımından önemlidir.Özellikle dışarıdan bakıldığında oldukça sade görünen ve kireç taşından yapılmış olan kule mezarlar

  17. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with